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revolutionary fever: disease and war in the lower south, 1776-1783. 018528506
photoirradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with uva light - a pathway leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and dna damage.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. we have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which pahs induce genotoxicity. although the metabolic activation of pahs leading to biological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation pathway has seldom reported. in this paper, we review the study of photoirradiation of pahs with uva irradiation results in (i) cytotoxicity and dna damage (ii) dna single strand cleavag ...017159277
community based vector control in malindi, kenya.community involvement has become an important component of the national malaria control strategy in kenya, resulting in the organization of groups charged with addressing mosquito and malaria-related concerns within the community.017604514
rnai knockdown of a salivary transcript leading to lethality in the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum.abstract injection of sirna (small interfering rna) into parthenogenetic adult pea aphids (acyrthosiphon pisum) is shown here to lead to depletion of a target salivary gland transcript. the sirna was generated from double stranded rna that covered most of the open reading frame of the transcript, which we have called coo2. the coo2 transcript level decreases dramatically over a 3-day period after injection of sirna. with a lag of 1 to 2 days, the sicoo2-rna injected insects died, on average 8 da ...020233093
genomic organization and developmental expression of glutathione s-transferase genes of the diamondback moth, plutella xylostella.in the present study, we cloned and sequenced the entire coding regions of two glutathione s-transferase (gst) genes encoding pxgsts and pxgste from the diamondback moth, plutella xylostella l. (lepidoptera: yponomeutidae), along with their respective 5' and 3' flanking regions. the pxgsts gene was composed of four exons and three introns. based on amino acid identity with gst genes from other insects, this gene was classified as a member of the sigma class. the gene encoding pxgste had an intro ...020233073
acetylcholinesterase genes within the diptera: takeover and loss in true flies.it has recently been reported that the synaptic acetylcholinesterase (ache) in mosquitoes is encoded by the ace-1 gene, distinct and divergent from the ace-2 gene, which performs this function in drosophila. this is an unprecedented situation within the diptera order because both ace genes derive from an old duplication and are present in most insects and arthropods. nevertheless, drosophila possesses only the ace-2 gene. thus, a secondary loss occurred during the evolution of diptera, implying ...017002944
infectious disease management: lessons from cuba. 018382630
a transcriptome analysis of the aedes aegypti vitellogenic fat body.aedes (stegomyia) aegypti is an important dengue vector in tropical and subtropical zones throughout the world. a transcriptome of ae. aegypti vitellogenic fat bodies is described here. the fat body is a dynamic tissue that participates in multiple biochemical functions of intermediate metabolism. a total of 589 randomly selected cdnas were assembled into 262 clusters based on their primary sequence similarities. the putative translated proteins were classified into categories based on their fun ...019537968
immune pathways and defence mechanisms in honey bees apis mellifera.social insects are able to mount both group-level and individual defences against pathogens. here we focus on individual defences, by presenting a genome-wide analysis of immunity in a social insect, the honey bee apis mellifera. we present honey bee models for each of four signalling pathways associated with immunity, identifying plausible orthologues for nearly all predicted pathway members. when compared to the sequenced drosophila and anopheles genomes, honey bees possess roughly one-third a ...017069638
expression of insulin pathway genes during the period of caste determination in the honey bee, apis mellifera.female honeybees have two castes, queens and workers. developmental fate is determined by larval diet. coding sequences made available through the honey bee genome sequencing consortium allow for a pathway-based approach to understanding caste determination. we examined the expression of several genes of the insulin signalling pathway, which is central to regulation of growth based on nutrition. we found one insulin-like peptide expressed at very high levels in queen but not worker larvae. also, ...017069635
a 3-synapse positive feedback loop regulates the excitability of an interneuron critical for sensitization in the leech.sensitization of reflexive shortening in the leech has been linked to serotonin (5-ht)-induced changes in the excitability of a single interneuron, the s cell. this neuron is necessary for sensitization and complete dishabituation of reflexive shortening, during which it contributes to the sensory-motor reflex. the s cell does not contain 5-ht, which is released primarily from the retzius (r) cells, whose firing enhances s-cell excitability. here, we show that the s cell excites the r cells, mai ...016571760
functional expression and characterization of aedes aegypti dopachrome conversion enzyme.a full-length mosquito dopachrome conversion enzyme (dce) and its truncated form lacking the last 54 carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues are expressed using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system. the full-length recombinant dce displayed multiple bands during native page with substrate staining, but only one active band was detected when the truncated recombinant dce was analyzed under identical analysis conditions. our data suggest that the last 50 some carboxyl-terminal residues are in ...011779167
testing for context-dependence in a processing chain interaction among detritus-feeding aquatic insects.scirtid beetles may benefit mosquitoes ochlerotatus triseriatus (say) by consuming whole leaves and leaving behind fine particles required by mosquito larvae. such interactions based on the sequential use of a resource that occurs in multiple forms are known as processing chains.models of processing chains predict that interactions can vary from commensal (0, +) to amensal (0, -), depending on how quickly resource is processed in the absence of consumers.the scirtid-o. triseriatus system was use ...019060960
comparative characterization of aedes 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase/alanine glyoxylate transaminase and drosophila serine pyruvate aminotransferase.this study describes the comparative analysis of two insect recombinant aminotransferases, aedes aegypti 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-hk) transaminase/alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase (ae-hkt/agt) and drosophila melanogaster serine pyruvate aminotransferase (dm-spat), which share 52% identity in their amino acid sequences. both enzymes showed agt activity. in addition, ae-hkt/agt is also able to catalyze the transamination of 3-hk or kynurenine with glyoxylate, pyruvate or oxaloacetate as the amino ...012220660
venezuela launches new campaign against dengue fever. 012219753
the impact of genomics on global health.ensuring that advances in genomics are applied to the health improvement of people living in developing countries is an important contemporary challenge. in the near term, such advances are likely to alleviate infectious diseases, with longer-term benefits envisaged for chronic disorders. to ensure that benefits are shared by developing countries, attention must be paid to complex ethical, legal, social, and economic issues, as well as to public education and engagement. creative and equitable i ...012084683
light-mediated control of rhodopsin movement in mosquito photoreceptors.multiple mechanisms contribute to a photoreceptor's ability to adapt to ambient light conditions. the mosquito aedes aegypti expresses the long-wavelength rhodopsin aaop1 in all r1-r6 photoreceptors and most r8 photoreceptors. these photoreceptors alter the cellular location of aaop1 and reorganize their photosensitive rhabdomeric membranes on a daily basis. during daylight periods, aaop1 is excluded from the light-sensitive rhabdomeres and localized to multivesicular bodies (mvbs) within the ph ...023035078
the history of dengue outbreaks in the americas.dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. dengue outbreaks in the americas reported in medical literature and to the pan american health organization are described. the outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: introduction of dengue in the americas (1600-1946); continental plan for the eradication of the ae. aegypti (1947-1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; ae. aegypti reinfesta ...023042846
acute and subacute oral toxicity of litsea elliptica blume essential oil in rats.litsea elliptica blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. the acute and subacute toxicities of l. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female sprague-dawley rats. for the acute toxicity study, l. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecutive ...023024045
study of the fragmentation of arginine isobutyl ester applied to arginine quantification in aedes aegypti mosquito excreta.it has been demonstrated that argininolysis and uricolysis are involved in the synthesis and excretion of urea in aedes aegypti female mosquitoes. to further investigate the metabolic regulation of urea in female mosquitoes, it is desirable to have a rapid and efficient method to monitor arginine (arg) concentration in mosquito excreta. thus, a procedure currently used for the identification of arg in urea cycle disorders in newborn babies was adapted to analyze arg in a. aegypti excreta. the fr ...023019169
biochemical identification and crystal structure of kynurenine formamidase from drosophila melanogaster.kfase (kynurenine formamidase), also known as arylformamidase and formylkynurenine formamidase, efficiently catalyses the hydrolysis of nfk (n-formyl-l-kynurenine) to kynurenine. kfase is the second enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. a number of intermediates formed in the kynurenine pathway are biologically active and implicated in an assortment of medical conditions, including cancer, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases. consequently, enzymes involved in the ky ...022690733
dengue fever in south korea, 2006-2010. 022931747
two drosophila deg/enac channel subunits have distinct functions in gustatory neurons that activate male courtship.trimeric sodium channels of the deg/enac family have important roles in neurons, but the specific functions of different subunits present in heteromeric channels are poorly understood. we previously reported that the drosophila deg/enac subunit ppk25 is essential in a small subset of gustatory neurons for activation of male courtship behavior, likely through detection of female pheromones. here we show that, like mutations in ppk25, mutations in another drosophila deg/enac subunit gene, nope, sp ...022915128
silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, cihr3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, chilo infuscatellus.rna interference (rnai) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded rna (dsrna) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. in this study, chilo infuscatellus snellen (crambidae: lepidoptera) was fed with cihr3 dsrna expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. the dsrna ingested by c. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing o ...023427912
100 years of the pan american health organization. 012453801
dual lipolytic control of body fat storage and mobilization in drosophila.energy homeostasis is a fundamental property of animal life, providing a genetically fixed balance between fat storage and mobilization. the importance of body fat regulation is emphasized by dysfunctions resulting in obesity and lipodystrophy in humans. packaging of storage fat in intracellular lipid droplets, and the various molecules and mechanisms guiding storage-fat mobilization, are conserved between mammals and insects. we generated a drosophila mutant lacking the receptor (akhr) of the a ...017488184
definition of the minimal fragments of sti1 required for dimerization, interaction with hsp70 and hsp90 and in vivo functions.the molecular chaperone hsp (heat-shock protein) 90 is critical for the activity of diverse cellular client proteins. in a current model, client proteins are transferred from hsp70 to hsp90 in a process mediated by the co-chaperone sti1/hop, which may simultaneously interact with hsp70 and hsp90 via separate tpr (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, but the mechanism and in vivo importance of this function is unclear. in the present study, we used truncated forms of sti1 to determine the minimal r ...017300223
vaccinating in disease-free regions: a vaccine model with application to yellow fever.concerns regarding natural or induced emergence of infectious diseases have raised a debate on the pros and cons of pre-emptive vaccination of populations under uncertain risk. in the absence of immediate risk, ethical issues arise because even smaller risks associated with the vaccine are greater than the immediate disease risk (which is zero). the model proposed here seeks to formalize the vaccination decision process looking from the perspective of the susceptible individual, and results are ...017442650
climate change and developing-country cities: implications for environmental health and equity.climate change is an emerging threat to global public health. it is also highly inequitable, as the greatest risks are to the poorest populations, who have contributed least to greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions. the rapid economic development and the concurrent urbanization of poorer countries mean that developing-country cities will be both vulnerable to health hazards from climate change and, simultaneously, an increasing contributor to the problem. we review the specific health vulnerabilities o ...017393341
fever and prominent arthralgia in a traveler who returned from amazonia: differentiating between dengue fever and chikungunya fever. 026157592
biocomputational characterization and evolutionary analysis of bubaline dicer1 enzyme.dicer, an ribonuclease type iii type endonuclease, is the key enzyme involved in biogenesis of micrornas (mirnas) and small interfering rnas (sirnas), and thus plays a critical role in rna interference through post transcriptional regulation of gene expression. this enzyme has not been well studied in the indian water buffalo, an important species known for disease resistance and high milk production. in this study, the primary coding sequence (5,778 bp) of bubaline dicer (genbank: ab969677.1) w ...025925065
mal de mayo. 017479908
biochemical mechanisms leading to tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activation.tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tdo) is the first enzyme in the tryptophan oxidation pathway. it is a hemoprotein and its heme prosthetic group is present as a heme-ferric (heme-fe(3+)) form that is not active. to be able to oxidize tryptophan, the heme-fe(3+) form of the enzyme must be reduced to a heme-ferrous (heme-fe(2+)) form and this study describes conditions that promote tdo activation. tdo is progressively activated upon mixing with tryptophan in a neutral buffer, which leads to an impressi ...017212352
spatial vulnerability to dengue in a brazilian urban area during a 7-year surveillance.this study considers the vulnerability of the urban area of the city of belo horizonte to dengue. a total number of 89,607 cases registered in the surveillance system from 1996 to 2002 were analyzed. seven epidemic waves were identified during this period. cases were grouped into 2,563 census areas, and three risk categories were proposed based on how many times each area reached a threshold established for each epidemic wave. the association between the risk categories and the socioeconomic, de ...017243024
erratum. topically applied aaeiap1 double-stranded rna kills female adults of aedes aegypti. journal of medical entomology 45(3):414–420. 026957585
research on climate and dengue in malaysia: a systematic review.dengue is a climate-sensitive infectious disease. climate-based dengue early warning may be a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing surveillance and control. scientific studies on climate and dengue in local context form the basis for advancing the development of a climate-based early warning system. this study aims to review the current status of scientific studies in climate and dengue and the prospect or challenges of such research on a climate-based dengue early warning system i ...026931438
longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.the world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric co2 concentration in the next decades. rise in atmospheric co2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °c-5.8 °c by that time. a survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric co2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mos ...026981200
hexokinase is a key regulator of energy metabolism and ros activity in insect lifespan extension.developmental arrest (diapause) is a 'non-aging' state that is similar to the caenorhabditis elegans dauer stage and drosophila lifespan extension. diapause results in low metabolic activity and a profound extension of insect lifespan. here, we cloned the helicoverpa armigera hexokinase (hk) gene, a gene that is critical for the developmental arrest of this species. hk expression and activity levels were significantly increased in nondiapause-destined pupae compared with those of diapause-destin ...026852422
recent advances in dengue: relevance to puerto rico.dengue represents an increasingly important public health challenge in puerto rico, with recent epidemics in 2007, 2010, and 2012-2013. although recent advances in dengue vaccine development offer hope for primary prevention, the role of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of dengue patients is paramount. case definitions for dengue, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue provide a framework to guide clinical decision-making. furthermore, the differentiation between dengue ...026061055
innovative dengue vector control interventions in latin america: what do they cost?five studies were conducted in fortaleza (brazil), girardot (colombia), machala (ecuador), acapulco (mexico), and salto (uruguay) to assess dengue vector control interventions tailored to the context. the studies involved the community explicitly in the implementation, and focused on the most productive breeding places for aedes aegypti. this article reports the cost analysis of these interventions.026924235
close encounters: contributions of carbon dioxide and human skin odour to finding and landing on a host in aedes aegypti.in a wind-tunnel study, the upwind flight and source location of female aedes aegypti to plumes of carbon dioxide (co2) gas and odour from human feet is tested. both odour sources are presented singly and in combination. flight upwind along the plumes is evident for both co2 and odour from human feet when the odours are presented alone. likewise, both odour sources are located by more than 70% of mosquitoes in less than 3 min. when both co2 and odour from human feet are presented simultaneously ...024839345
sexually dimorphic body size and development time plasticity in aedes mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).sexual size dimorphism (ssd) in insects often accompanies a sexual difference in development time, sexual bimaturism (sbm).025663826
countermeasure development for rift valley fever: deletion, modification or targeting of major virulence factor nss.rift valley fever (rvf) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized by a high rate of abortion in ruminants, and febrile illness, hemorrhagic fever, retinitis and encephalitis in humans. rvf is caused by the rvf virus (rvfv), belonging to the genus phlebovirus of the family bunyaviridae. rvfv encodes a major virulence factor, nss, which is dispensable for viral replication, yet required for evasion of host innate immune responses. rvfv nss inhibits host gene upregulation at the transcript ...024910709
the basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (aedes aegypti).the rearing of aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. the climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. the laboratory of entomology in national institute of malaria research bangalore has cultu ...024754030
phytopharmacological overview of tribulus terrestris.tribulus terrestris (family zygophyllaceae), commonly known as gokshur or gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the indian and chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. it has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypoli ...024600195
risk factors associated with death in brazilian children with severe dengue: a case-control study.the purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors associated with death in children with severe dengue.024473560
larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of pinus sylvestris and syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.to assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced pinus sylvestris (p. sylvestris) and syzygium aromaticum (s. aromaticum) against aedes aegypti (a. aegypti) and culex quinquefasciatus (c. quinquefasciatus).024144127
origin of ecdysosteroid udp-glycosyltransferases of baculoviruses through horizontal gene transfer from lepidoptera.baculoviruses infecting lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) encodes an enzyme known as ecdysosteroid udp-glycosyltransferase (egt), which inactivates insect host ecdysosteroid hormones, thereby preventing molt and pupation and permitting a build-up of the viral population within the host. baculovirus egt shows evidence of homology to insect udp-glycosyltransferases, and a phylogenetic analysis supported the closest relative of baculovirus egt are the ugt33 and ugt34 families of lepidopteran udp- ...024834437
insights into the preservation of the homomorphic sex-determining chromosome of aedes aegypti from the discovery of a male-biased gene tightly linked to the m-locus.the preservation of a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome in some organisms without transformation into a heteromorphic sex chromosome is a long-standing enigma in evolutionary biology. a dominant sex-determining locus (or m-locus) in an undifferentiated homomorphic chromosome confers the male phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti. genetic evidence suggests that the m-locus is in a nonrecombining region. however, the molecular nature of the m-locus has not been characterized. u ...024398378
co-infection and super-infection models in evolutionary epidemiology.multiple infections are intensively studied because of their consequences for the health of the host but also because they can radically alter the selective pressures acting on parasites. i discuss how multiple infections have been modelled in evolutionary epidemiology. first, i briefly mention within-host models, which are at the root of these epidemiological models. then, i present the super-infection framework, with an original focus on how the definition of the super-infection function can l ...024516718
targeting a dual detector of skin and co2 to modify mosquito host seeking.female mosquitoes that transmit deadly diseases locate human hosts by detecting exhaled co2 and skin odor. the identities of olfactory neurons and receptors required for attraction to skin odor remain a mystery. here, we show that the co2-sensitive olfactory neuron is also a sensitive detector of human skin odorants in both aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae. we demonstrate that activity of this neuron is important for attraction to skin odor, establishing it as a key target for intervention. w ...024315103
circadian clock of aedes aegypti: effects of blood-feeding, insemination and rna interference.mosquitoes are the culprits of some of the most important vector borne diseases. a species' potential as a vector is directly dependent on their pattern of behaviour, which is known to change according to the female's physiological status such as whether the female is virgin/mated and unfed/blood-fed. however, the molecular mechanism triggered by and/or responsible for such modulations in behaviour is poorly understood. clock genes are known to be responsible for the control of circadian behavio ...024473806
genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes.triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. in recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. this, together w ...024473804
circadian rhythms in insect disease vectors.organisms from bacteria to humans have evolved under predictable daily environmental cycles owing to the earth's rotation. this strong selection pressure has generated endogenous circadian clocks that regulate many aspects of behaviour, physiology and metabolism, anticipating and synchronising internal time-keeping to changes in the cyclical environment. in haematophagous insect vectors the circadian clock coordinates feeding activity, which is important for the dynamics of pathogen transmission ...024473802
aedes aegypti on madeira island (portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector.the increasing population of aedes aegypti mosquitoes on madeira island (portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in october 2012. our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) and nadh dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nd4)] and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. we included mosquito po ...024473797
cell biological analysis of mosquito midgut invasion: the defensive role of the actin-based ookinete hood.successful completion of the plasmodium lifecycle in the mosquito vector is critical for malaria transmission. it has been documented that the fate of plasmodium in the mosquito ultimately depends on a fine interplay of molecular mosquito factors that act as parasite agonists and antagonists. here we investigate whether the cellular responses of the invaded midgut epithelium can also determine the parasite fate and development. we show that the parasite hood, an actin-rich structure formed aroun ...024428832
vector and vector-borne disease research: need for coherence, vision and strategic planning. 024428825
climate change & infectious diseases in india: implications for health care providers.climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. this article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in india, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive health c ...024521625
a comparison of larval, ovitrap and mosquitrap surveillance for aedes (stegomyia) aegypti.in brazil, the entomological surveillance of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti is performed by government-mandated larval surveys. in this study, the sensitivities of an adult sticky trap and traditional surveillance methodologies were compared. the study was performed over a 12-week period in a residential neighbourhood of the municipality of pedro leopoldo, state of minas gerais, brazil. an ovitrap and a mosquitrap were placed at opposite ends of each neighbourhood block (60 traps in total) and inspec ...024402144
genomic evolution of the pathogenic wolbachia strain, wmelpop.most strains of the widespread endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia pipientis are benign or behave as reproductive parasites. the pathogenic strain wmelpop is a striking exception, however: it overreplicates in its insect hosts and causes severe life shortening. the mechanism of this pathogenesis is currently unknown. we have sequenced the genomes of three variants of wmelpop and of the closely related nonpathogenic strain wmelcs. we show that the genomes of wmelcs and wmelpop appear to be identica ...024190075
a phylogenetic study of drosophila splicing assembly chaperone rnp-4f associated u4-/u6-snrna secondary structure.the rnp-4f gene in drosophila melanogaster encodes nuclear protein rnp-4f. this encoded protein is represented by homologs in other eukaryotic species, where it has been shown to function as an intron splicing assembly factor. here, rnp-4f is believed to initially bind to a recognition sequence on u6-snrna, serving as a chaperone to facilitate its association with u4-snrna by intermolecular hydrogen bonding. rna conformations are a key factor in spliceosome function, so that elucidation of chang ...025419488
interaction of lipophorin with rhodnius prolixus oocytes: biochemical properties and the importance of blood feeding.lipophorin (lp) is the main haemolymphatic lipoprotein in insects and transports lipids between different organs. in adult females, lipophorin delivers lipids to growing oocytes. in this study, the interaction of this lipoprotein with the ovaries of rhodnius prolixus was characterised using an oocyte membrane preparation and purified radiolabelled lp (125i-lp). lp-specific binding to the oocyte membrane reached equilibrium after 40-60 min and when 125i-lp was incubated with increasing amounts of ...024037104
the genome of mesobuthus martensii reveals a unique adaptation model of arthropods.representing a basal branch of arachnids, scorpions are known as 'living fossils' that maintain an ancient anatomy and are adapted to have survived extreme climate changes. here we report the genome sequence of mesobuthus martensii, containing 32,016 protein-coding genes, the most among sequenced arthropods. although m. martensii appears to evolve conservatively, it has a greater gene family turnover than the insects that have undergone diverse morphological and physiological changes, suggesting ...024129506
the origin and evolution of six miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in bombyx mori and rhodnius prolixus.miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (mites) are a specific group of nonautonomous dna transposons, and they are distributed in a wide range of hosts. however, the origin and evolutionary history of mites in eukaryotic genomes remain unclear. in this study, six mites were identified in the silkworm (bombyx mori). five elements are grouped into four known superfamilies of dna transposons, and one represents a novel class of mites. unexpectedly, six similar mites are also present in the ...024115603
accuracy of dengue reporting by national surveillance system, brazil. 026812472
methods for talen evaluation, use, and mutation detection in the mosquito aedes aegypti.the generation and study of transgenic aedes aegypti mosquitoes provides an essential tool for elucidating the complex molecular biology of this important vector. within the field, genetic manipulation has surpassed the proof of principle stage and is now utilized in both applied and theoretical vector control strategies. the application of new instruments, technologies and techniques allows ever more controlled experiments to be conducted. in this text we describe microinjection of ae. aegypti ...026443221
the fielding h. garrison lecture: "break-bone" fever in philadelphia, 1780: reflections on the history of disease.in the autumn of 1780 an epidemic hit the city of philadelphia. the symptoms of the disease resembled those of present day dengue fever, and subsequent observers argued that the disease was in fact dengue. but was it? the question forces us to confront the challenges of retrospective epidemiology and how we examine the history of a disease. this paper examines the 1780 epidemic from two perspectives. first, it looks at evidence that the disease was dengue and examines what this tells us about th ...027374846
evaluation of mosquito repellent activity of isolated oleic acid, eicosyl ester from thalictrum javanicum.to evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by pass software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. the c ...027168688
pupal productivity & nutrient reserves of aedes mosquitoes breeding in sewage drains & other habitats of kolkata, india: implications for habitat expansion & vector management.the quality of breeding sites is reflected through the pupal productivity and the life history traits of aedes mosquitoes. using nutrient reserves and pupal productivity of aedes as indicators, the larval habitats including sewage drains were characterized to highlight the habitat expansion and vector management.026905248
spatial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of aedes aegypti in & around kolkata, west bengal, india.dengue infection is endemic in several areas and the dengue virus is transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. thus, it becomes important to understand the breeding ecology of dengue vector and characterize the physicochemical parameters of its breeding habitat. the objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of the breeding habitat of the dengue vector and to find out the nutrient composition of the habitat in and around kolkata, west bengal. in addition, a geographic informati ...026905247
chikungunya outbreak in atmakur village, medak district, telangana state, india. 026905235
assessment of blood collection from the lateral saphenous vein for microfilaria counts in mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) infected with brugia pahangi.the nih guidelines for survival bleeding of mice and rats note that using the retroorbital plexus has a greater potential for complications than do other methods of blood collection and that this procedure should be performed on anesthetized animals. lateral saphenous vein puncture has a low potential for complications and can be performed without anesthesia. mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) are the preferred rodent model for filarial parasite research. to monitor microfilaria counts in ...026678366
primary dengue haemorrhagic fever in patients from northeast of brazil is associated with high levels of interferon-β during acute phase.dengue is an acute febrile disease caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (denv) that according to clinical manifestations can be classified as asymptomatic, mild or severe dengue. severe dengue cases have been associated with an unbalanced immune response characterised by an over secretion of inflammatory cytokines. in the present study we measured type i interferon (ifn-i) transcript and circulating levels in primary and secondary denv infected patients. we observed that dengue fever (df) a ...027223651
global distribution and environmental suitability for chikungunya virus, 1952 to 2015.chikungunya fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the chikungunya virus (chikv), which is transmitted to humans by aedes mosquitoes. although chikungunya fever is rarely fatal, patients can experience debilitating symptoms that last from months to years. here we comprehensively assess the global distribution of chikungunya and produce high-resolution maps, using an established modelling framework that combines a comprehensive occurrence database with bespoke environmental correlates, inclu ...027239817
quantification of ortholog losses in insects and vertebrates.the increasing number of sequenced insect and vertebrate genomes of variable divergence enables refined comparative analyses to quantify the major modes of animal genome evolution and allows tracing of gene genealogy (orthology) and pinpointing of gene extinctions (losses), which can reveal lineage-specific traits.018021399
inferring genome-scale rearrangement phylogeny and ancestral gene order: a drosophila case study.a simple, fast, and biologically inspired computational approach for inferring genome-scale rearrangement phylogeny and ancestral gene order has been developed. this has been applied to eight drosophila genomes. existing techniques are either limited to a few hundred markers or a small number of taxa. this analysis uses over 14,000 genomic loci and employs discrete elements consisting of pairs of homologous genetic elements. the results provide insight into evolutionary chromosomal dynamics and ...017996033
the significance of ratios of detritus types and micro-organism productivity to competitive interactions between aquatic insect detritivores.investigations of competitive interactions emphasize non-detrital resources, even though detritus is a major component of most food webs. studies of competing species focus usually on single resource types, although consumers in nature are likely to encounter mixtures of resource types that may affect whether competition results in exclusion or coexistence. the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus is capable of excluding the native mosquito ochlerotatus triseriatus in competition for single detrit ...017922707
surprising complexity of the ancestral apoptosis network.apoptosis, one of the main types of programmed cell death, is regulated and performed by a complex protein network. studies in model organisms, mostly in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans, identified a relatively simple apoptotic network consisting of only a few proteins. however, analysis of several recently sequenced invertebrate genomes, ranging from the cnidarian sea anemone nematostella vectensis, representing one of the morphologically simplest metazoans, to the deuterostomes sea urchin ...017958905
dengue fever seroprevalence and risk factors, texas-mexico border, 2004.reported autochthonous dengue fever transmission in the united states has been limited to 5 south texas border counties since 1980. we conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in brownsville, texas, and matamoros, tamaulipas, mexico (n = 600), in 2004 to assess dengue seroprevalence. recent dengue infection was detected in 2% (95% confidence interval [ci] 0.5%-3.5%) and 7.3% (95% ci 4.3%-10.3%) of residents in brownsville and matamoros, respectively. past infection was detected in 40% (95% ci 34%- ...018257990
defeating dengue: a difficult task ahead. 018038050
genomic mapping of suppressor of hairy-wing binding sites in drosophila.insulator elements are proposed to play a key role in the organization of the regulatory architecture of the genome. in drosophila, one of the best studied is the gypsy retrotransposon insulator, which is bound by the suppressor of hairy-wing (su [hw]) transcriptional regulator. immunolocalization studies suggest that there are several hundred su(hw) sites in the genome, but few of these endogenous su(hw) binding sites have been identified.017705839
drosophila by the dozen. 017634150
biological and molecular properties of dengue 2 strains isolated during the dhf/dss cuban epidemic, 1981.to study some biological and molecular properties of nine denv-2 strains isolated during the 1981 cuban epidemic, temperature sensitivity, viral plaque size, the kinetic of virus replication in newborn mice inoculated by intracerebral route, the influence of ph medium on virus-cell attachment phase and the restriction enzyme pattern were studied. strains were classified in two patterns according to temperature sensitivity, plaque size, and virus replication in mouse brain and cell culture and re ...023675036
using fluorescently labelled m13-tailed primers to isolate 45 novel microsatellite loci from the arboviral vector culex tarsalis.culex tarsalis coquillett (diptera: culicidae) is a highly efficient arbovirus vector. spatial and temporal heterogeneity have been observed in cx tarsalis for phenotypic traits including autogeny, virus susceptibility and host preference. genetic differences between populations may in part explain these observations. using the m13-tailed primer method, we identified 45 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from microsatellite-enriched cx tarsalis genomic libraries. the m13-tailed primer meth ...017550440
dengue: moving from current standard of care to state-of-the-art treatment.treatment of dengue remains supportive in the absence of targeted antiviral therapy or approved vaccines. responsive fluid management is key to preventing progression to shock or other severe manifestations. the dynamic natural history of dengue infection and its influence on hemodynamic homeostasis needs to be carefully considered in the planning of individualized therapy. though largely self-limiting, the sheer burden of dengue disease on the global population will result in atypical manifesta ...025999799
what does not kill them makes them stronger: larval environment and infectious dose alter mosquito potential to transmit filarial worms.for organisms with complex life cycles, larval environments can modify adult phenotypes. for mosquitoes and other vectors, when physiological impacts of stressors acting on larvae carry over into the adult stage they may interact with infectious dose of a vector-borne pathogen, producing a range of phenotypes for vector potential. investigation of impacts of a common source of stress, larval crowding and intraspecific competition, on adult vector interactions with pathogens may increase our unde ...024827444
within-host viral dynamics of dengue serotype 1 infection.dengue, the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans, is endemic across much of the world, including much of tropical asia and is increasing in its geographical range. here, we present a mathematical model of dengue virus dynamics within infected individuals, detailing the interaction between virus and a simple immune response. we fit this model to measurements of plasma viral titre from cases of primary and secondary denv 1 infection in vietnam. we show that variation in model param ...024829280
essential oils from two eucalyptus from tunisia and their insecticidal action on orgyia trigotephras (lepidotera, lymantriidae).essential oils extracted from aromatic and medicinal plants have many biological properties and are therefore an alternative to the use of synthetic products. the chemical composition of essential oils from two medicinal plants (eucalyptus globulus and e. lehmannii) was determined and, their insecticidal effects on the third and fourth larval stages of orgyia trigotephras were assessed.025204015
[environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the peruvian population].this article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the peruvian population. a major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (pm 2.5). in lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to pm 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adults, ...025418656
temporal correlations between mosquito-based dengue virus surveillance measures or indoor mosquito abundance and dengue case numbers in mérida city, méxico.surveillance of dengue virus (denv) in aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) females is of potential interest because human denv infections are commonly asymptomatic, which decreases the effectiveness of dengue case surveillance to provide early warning of building outbreaks. our primary aim was to examine if mosquito-based virological measures--monthly percentages of examined ae. aegypti females infected with denv or examined homes from which at least one denv-infected ae. aegypti female was collected ...025118425
modified technique of wolbachia removal from malaysian aedes albopictus.to develop an artificial and modified wolbachia removal technique using tetracycline from naturally wolbachia infected aedes albopictus (ae. albopictus) so as to be able to produce generations of wolbachia free offsprings.025183276
chemical composition and biological activity of star anise illicium verum extracts against maize weevil, sitophilus zeamais adults.this study aims to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides. dried fruits of star anise (illicium verum hook.f. (austrobaileyales: schisandraceae)) were extracted with methyl alcohol (ma), ethyl acetate (ea), and petroleum ether (pe) at 25°c. the constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the repellency and contact toxicity of the extracts against sitophilus zeamais motschulsky (coleoptera: curculionidae) adults were tested. forty-four compounds, whose concentrati ...025368036
dengue human infection models supporting drug development.dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. there is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (dhim) for drug development. a dhim could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients w ...024872399
the role of the mosquito in a dengue human infection model.recent efforts to combat the growing global threat of dengue disease, including deployment of phase iib vaccine trials, has continued to be hindered by uncertainty surrounding equitable immune responses of serotypes, relative viral fitness of vaccine vs naturally occurring strains, and the importance of altered immune environments due to natural delivery routes. human infection models can significantly improve our understanding of the importance of certain phenotypic characteristics of viral str ...024872400
origin of the dengue virus outbreak in martin county, florida, usa 2013.after a 75-year absence from florida, substantial local transmission of dengue virus (denv) occurred in key west, monroe county, florida in 2009 and continued in 2010. the outbreak culminated in 85 reported cases. in 2011 and 2012, only isolated cases of local denv transmission were reported in florida, none were reported in key west. in 2013, a new outbreak occurred, but this time in martin county about 275 miles north of key west with 22 reported cases. as the key west and martin county outbre ...025664240
spontaneous splenic rupture: a rare presentation of dengue fever.spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (df). we report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for df. early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a ...024678156
clove (syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice.clove (syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. clove is native of indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including brazil in the state of bahia. this plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. this review in ...025182278
oviposition habitat selection by container-dwelling mosquitoes: responses to cues of larval and detritus abundances in the field.insects' oviposition responses to resource and larval densities can be important factors determining distributions and competitive interactions of larvae. aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) show aggregated distributions of larvae in the field, larval interactions that are affected by detritus resources, and oviposition responses to resource and density cues in the laboratory. we conducted field experiments testing whether these species choose oviposition sites i ...024678139
[the incorporation of activities to control dengue by community health agents].to evaluate the performance of community health agents when dengue control activities were added to their tasks.024789644
the locust genome provides insight into swarm formation and long-distance flight.locusts are one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests and represent a useful model system in entomology. here we present a draft 6.5 gb genome sequence of locusta migratoria, which is the largest animal genome sequenced so far. our findings indicate that the large genome size of l. migratoria is likely to be because of transposable element proliferation combined with slow rates of loss for these elements. methylome and transcriptome analyses reveal complex regulatory mechanisms invo ...024423660
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