chikungunya virus: role of vectors in emergence from enzootic cycles.chikungunya virus (chikv), a re-emerging mosquito-borne arbovirus, has caused millions of cases of severe, often chronic arthralgia during recent outbreaks. in africa, circulation in sylvatic, enzootic cycles involves several species of arboreal mosquito vectors that transmit among diverse nonhuman primates and possibly other amplifying hosts. most disease occurs when chikv emerges into a human-amplified cycle involving aedes aegypti and sometimes aedes albopictus transmission and extensive spre ...202031594410
the difference of sve-cadherin levels between dengue hemorrhagic fever patients with shock and without shock.dengue virus infection is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito. dengue virus (den-v) consists of 4 serotypes, namely den-1, den-2, den-3, and den-4. the most feared result of dhf is death. death in children is caused by hypovolemic shock due to plasma leakage from intravascular to extravascular space due to endothelial dysfunction.201931592274
a peridomestic aedes malayensis population in singapore can transmit yellow fever virus.the case-fatality rate of yellow fever virus (yfv) is one of the highest among arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). although historically, the asia-pacific region has remained free of yfv, the risk of introduction has never been higher due to the increasing influx of people from endemic regions and the recent outbreaks in africa and south america. singapore is a global hub for trade and tourism and therefore at high risk for yfv introduction. effective control of the main domestic mosquito vec ...201931589616
detection of fluorescent powders and their effect on survival and recapture of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the use of insect markers, such as fluorescent powders, is a useful tool for studying ecological and epidemiological questions. evaluating their effect on vectors of human disease agents, such as the invasive mosquito vector aedes aegypti (linnaeus), is crucial for their practical and reliable use, especially in parameters linked to the risk of disease transmission such as adult survival, dispersal, and host-seeking. seven fluorescent powders (hercules radiant, dayglo (dg), risk reactor (rr), an ...202031587060
endemic disease control agents' perception on the fight against aedes aegypti and the prevention of arbovirus infections in brazil.arboviruses pose a serious and constant threat to public health, and have demanded surveillance efforts worldwide. the prevention of arbovirus transmission depends on effective measures to control vectors and promote health. the objective of this study was to examine the factors that enhance and impair the endemic disease control agents' field work, based on their own perspective.201931584945
vectors of arboviruses in the state of são paulo: 30 years of aedes aegypti and aedes describe the infestation of the municipalities of são paulo by the vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, characterize seasonality and analyze average temperatures and larval densities.201931576944
knockout of juvenile hormone receptor, methoprene-tolerant, induces black larval phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, vectors human pathogens. juvenile hormones (jh) control almost every aspect of an insect's life, and jh analogs are currently used to control mosquito larvae. since rna interference does not work efficiently during the larval stages of this insect, jh regulation of larval development and mode of action of jh analogs are not well studied. to overcome this limitation, we used a multiple single guide rna-based crispr/cas9 genome-editing method to knockout t ...201931570611
discovery of an aedes (stegomyia) albopictus population and first records of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti in canada.a population of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae), a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and zika and west nile viruses, has been detected in windsor, ontario, canada from 2016 onwards. here, we describe its seasonal distribution, as well as the various aquatic habitats from which this species was collected and its larval co-habitation. we collected immatures from tires, treeholes, extruded polystyrene foam containers, discarded plastic cups, old recycling bins a ...201931566765
cluster containment strategy: addressing zika virus outbreak in rajasthan, india.india is at risk of zika virus transmission due to high prevalence of its vector aedes aegypti. rajasthan, a state in the north-west region of india, has also high prevalence of aedes mosquito. first laboratory confirmed case of zika virus disease in rajasthan was reported on 21 september 2018 in jaipur. the government of rajasthan quickly implemented a containment strategy to contain the outbreak and prevent further spread of this disease. strategy included active human and mosquito surveillanc ...201931565402
action of metarhizium brunneum (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) against organophosphate- and pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and the synergistic effects of phenylthiourea.dengue, yellow fever, zika, and chikungunya arboviruses are endemic in tropical countries and are transmitted by aedes aegypti. resistant populations of this mosquito against chemical insecticides are spreading worldwide. this study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure of pesticide-sensitive ae. aegypti larvae (rockefeller) to conidia of the entomopathogen, metarhizium brunneum, laboratory strains arsef 4556 and v275, and any synergistic activity of phenylthiourea (ptu). in addit ...201931559435
evidence-based process for prioritizing positive behaviors for promotion: zika prevention in latin america and the caribbean and applicability to future health emergency responses.since the 2015 zika outbreak in latin america and the caribbean, a plethora of behavior change messages have been promoted to reduce zika transmission. one year after the united states agency for international development (usaid) initiated its zika response, more than 30 variants of preventive behaviors were being promoted. this situation challenged social and behavior change (sbc) programming efforts that require a coordinated response and agreed upon set of focus behaviors to be effective. to ...201931558597
de novo genome sequencing and comparative stage-specific transcriptomic analysis of dirofilaria repens.the zoonotic mosquito-borne filarial nematode dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous and ocular infections in dogs, cats and humans. from infected vertebrate hosts, microfilariae are taken up by mosquitoes and develop into infective l3. these are transmitted to new vertebrate hosts and develop over two further moults to adult worms. the aims of the project were (i) the de novo sequencing and annotation of the d. repens genome and (ii) comparative transcriptomic analyses of the two developmental ...201931557466
globe-trotting aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus: risk factors for arbovirus pandemics.introduction: two species of aedes (ae.) mosquitoes (ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus) are primary vectors for emerging arboviruses that are a significant threat to public health and economic burden worldwide. distribution of these vectors and the associated arboviruses, such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever virus, and zika virus, was for a long time restricted by geographical, ecological, and biological factors. presently, arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geog ...201931556813
reducing the cost and assessing the performance of a novel adult mass-rearing cage for the dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and zika vector, aedes aegypti (linnaeus).the widespread emergence of resistance to insecticides used to control adult aedes mosquitoes has made traditional control strategies inadequate for the reduction of various vector populations. therefore, complementary vector control methods, such as the sterile insect technique, are needed to enhance existing efforts. the technique relies on the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile males, and the development of efficient and standardized mass-rearing procedures and tools is essential ...201931553724
liaisons dangereuses: cross-border gene flow and dispersal of insecticide resistance-associated genes in the mosquito aedes aegypti from brazil and french recent years, south america has suffered the burden of continuous high impact outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika. aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of these arboviruses and its control is the only solution to reduce transmission.201931553370
aedes spp. and their microbiota: a review.aedes spp. are a major public health concern due to their ability to be efficient vectors of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and other arboviruses. with limited vaccines available and no effective therapeutic treatments against arboviruses, the control of aedes spp. populations is currently the only strategy to prevent disease transmission. host-associated microbes (i.e., microbiota) recently emerged as a promising field to be explored for novel environmentally friendly vector control strategies. in ...201931551973
non-canonical transcriptional regulation of heme oxygenase in aedes aegypti.heme oxygenase (ho) is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for heme breakdown, which yields carbon monoxide (co), biliverdin (bv) and ferrous ion. here we show that the aedes aegypti heme oxygenase gene (aeho - aael008136) is expressed in different developmental stages and tissues. aeho expression increases after a blood meal in the midgut, and its maximal transcription levels overlaps with the maximal rate of the further modified a. aegypti biglutaminyl-biliverdin (aebv) pigment production. ho is a ...201931551499
conspecific and allospecific larval extracts entice mosquitoes to lay eggs and may be used in attract-and-kill control of the strategies of integrated vector management is to lure gravid mosquitoes for surveillance purposes or to entice them to lay eggs in water containing toxins that kill the offspring (attract-and-kill or trap-and-kill). typically, the major challenge of this approach is the development of a lure that stimulates oviposition plus a toxin with no deterrent effect. bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti) satisfies the latter criterion, but lures for these autocidal gravid traps are sore ...201931551447
serine hydroxymethyltransferase controls blood-meal digestion in the midgut of aedes aegypti mosquitoes.female aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that cause diverse diseases of public health significance. blood protein digestion by midgut proteases provides anautogenous mosquitoes with the nutrients essential for oocyte maturation and egg production. midgut-specific mir-1174 affects the functions of the midgut through its target gene serine hydroxymethyltransferase (shmt). however, less is known about shmt-regulated processes in blood digestion by mosquitoes.201931551071
excito-repellency activity of andrographis paniculata (lamiales: acanthaceae) against colonized mosquitoes.excito-repellency activity of plant extracts have been increasingly studied as mosquito repellents. in this study, the crude extract of andrographis paniculata was evaluated for its noncontact repellency, contact excitation (irritancy + repellency), and knockdown/toxicity response against five colonized mosquitoes; aedes aegypti (l.), aedes albopictus (skuse), anopheles dirus peyton & harrison, anopheles epiroticus linton & harbach, and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) using an ex ...202031550361
phylogeography and invasion history of aedes aegypti, the dengue and zika mosquito vector in cape verde islands (west africa).aedes-borne arboviruses have spread globally with outbreaks of vast impact on human populations and health systems. the west african archipelago of cape verde had its first outbreak of dengue in 2009, at the time the largest recorded in africa, and was one of the few african countries affected by the zika virus epidemic. aedes aegypti was the mosquito vector involved in both outbreaks. we performed a phylogeographic and population genetics study of a. aegypti in cape verde in order to infer the ...201931548858
panophthalmitis associated with scleral necrosis in dengue hemorrhagic fever.dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease affecting humans. the aedes aegypti mosquito spreads it. ophthalmic manifestations of dengue range from subconjunctival hemorrhage to optic neuropathy. panophthalmitis in dengue fever is a rare finding. we report a case of a 22-year-old male having dengue fever, who presented with pain, redness, swelling and loss of vision in his right eye. he was diagnosed as panophthalmitis with subretinal hemorrhage and required right eye evisceration.201931546563
scaled deployment of wolbachia to protect the community from dengue and other  aedes transmitted arboviruses.background: a number of new technologies are under development for the control of mosquito transmitted viruses, such as dengue, chikungunya and zika that all require the release of modified mosquitoes into the environment. none of these technologies has been able to demonstrate evidence that they can be implemented at a scale beyond small pilots. here we report the first successful citywide scaled deployment of wolbachia in the northern australian city of townsville. methods: the wmel strain of ...201830596205
towards the optimization of botanical insecticides research: aedes aegypti larvicidal natural products in french guiana.natural products have proven to be an immeasurable source of bioactive compounds. the exceptional biodiversity encountered in amazonia, alongside a rich entomofauna and frequent interactions with various herbivores is the crucible of a promising chemodiversity. this prompted us to search for novel botanical insecticides in french guiana. as this french overseas department faces severe issues linked to insects, notably the strong incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases, we decided to focus ...202031539525
rapid screening of aedes aegypti mosquitoes for susceptibility to insecticides as part of zika emergency response, puerto response to the 2016 zika outbreak, aedes aegypti mosquitoes from 38 locations across puerto rico were screened using centers for disease control and prevention bottle bioassays for sensitivity to insecticides used for mosquito control. all populations were resistant to pyrethroids. naled, an organophosphate, was the most effective insecticide, killing all mosquitoes tested.201931538919
black soldier fly (hermetia illucens) larvae powder as a larval diet ingredient for mass-rearing aedes mosquitoes.the mass production of mosquitoes is becoming more wide-spread due to the increased application of the sterile insect technique (sit) and other genetic control programmes. due to the variable availability and high cost of the bovine liver powder (blp) constituent of many current larval diets, there is an urgent demand for new ingredients in order to support sustainable and efficient mosquito production while reducing rearing cost, without affecting the quality of the insects produced. two black ...201931535969
pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, damages midgut cells and interferes with behaviors of aedes aegypti larvae.juvenile hormone analogs (jha) are known to interfere with growth and biosynthesis of insects with potential for insecticide action. however, there has been comparatively few data on morphological effects of jha on insect organs. to determine pyriproxyfen effects on aedes aegypti larvae, we conducted toxicity, behavioral bioassays and assessed ultrastructural effects of pyriproxyfen on midgut cells. a. aegypti larvae were exposed in aqueous solution of pyriproxyfen lc50 concentrations and evalua ...201931534837
oviposition site attraction of aedes albopictus to sites with conspecific and heterospecific larvae during an ongoing invasion in medellín, colombia.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are two globally invasive vectors with similar ecological niches. encounters between them can result in either competitive exclusion or stable co-existence, but it is unclear what drives these variable outcomes. larval competition in favor of ae. albopictus is a main hypothesis for the competitive exclusion of ae. aegypti observed in some regions. however, the role of oviposition preference in determining the degree of competitive larval interactions in the fie ...201931533784
vector competence: what has zika virus taught us?the unprecedented outbreak of zika virus (zikv) infection in the americas from 2015 to 2017 prompted the publication of a large body of vector competence data in a relatively short period of time. although differences in vector competence as a result of disparities in mosquito populations and viral strains are to be expected, the limited competence of many populations of the urban mosquito vector, aedes aegypti, from the americas (when its susceptibility is viewed relative to other circulating/r ...201931533267
the genetic structure of aedes aegypti populations is driven by boat traffic in the peruvian the americas, as in much of the rest of the world, the dengue virus vector aedes aegypti is found in close association with human habitations, often leading to high population densities of mosquitoes in urban settings. in the peruvian amazon, this vector has been expanding to rural communities over the last 10-15 years, but to date, the population genetic structure of ae. aegypti in this region has not been characterized. to investigate the relationship between ae. aegypti gene flow and human ...201931532762
update on the distribution of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in misiones, argentina.the asian tiger mosquito ( aedes albopictus, diptera: culicidae) has spread rapidly in the last 30 years from its native region in southeast asia. in argentina, studies on its potential distribution suggest that this species could be found in temperate zones of the province of buenos aires. however, since its initial detection in 1998 ae. albopictus is bounded to the subtropical province of misiones. to evaluate the presence and abundance of ae. albopictus in the northeast of argentina, we preli ...201931531624
a rare presentation of coinfection: dengue virus and hepatitis a virus.dengue fever caused by dengue virus is a common tropical infection transmitted by the mosquitos aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. four strains of the genus flavivirus is responsible for the epidemics of varying severity. hepatitis a caused by hepatitis a virus is spread by faecal-oral route. the culprit virus is a hepatovirus. coinfection with dengue virus and hepatitis a virus is rare and is a diagnostic as well as management challenge to the medical professional. we report a patient who pres ...201931531251
environmental suitability for aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus and the spatial distribution of major arboviral infections in mexico.this paper discusses a comparative geographic distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes in mexico, using environmental suitability modeling and reported cases of arboviral infections.201931528740
host serum iron modulates dengue virus acquisition by mosquitoes.a blood meal is the primary route through which mosquitoes acquire an arbovirus infection. blood components or their metabolites may regulate the susceptibility of mosquitoes to arboviruses. here we report that serum iron in human blood influences dengue virus acquisition by mosquitoes. dengue virus acquisition by aedes aegypti was inversely correlated with the iron concentration in serum from human donors. in a mouse-mosquito acquisition model, iron supplementation reduced dengue virus prevalen ...201931527795
human odour coding in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.insects use their olfactory systems to obtain chemical information on mating partners, oviposition sites and food. the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti, an important vector of human infectious diseases, shows strong preference for human blood meals. this study investigated the chemical basis of host detection by characterizing the neuronal responses of antennal olfactory sensilla of female ae. aegypti to 103 compounds from human skin emanations. the effect of blood feeding on the responses of ...201931527631
use of maldi-tof ms to identify the culturable midgut microbiota of laboratory and wild mosquitoes.mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting many pathogens to humans and aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus are important vectors in the world. the microbiota plays an important role in developmental studies that involve impacts on the biological cycle of mosquitoes and vector control strategies. in this study, the aim was to understand the environment plays in the microbiota culturable diversity of aedes aegytpi, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus. midgut of stu ...201931525322
toxic effect of essential oil and its compounds isolated from sphaeranthus amaranthoides burm. f. against dengue mosquito vector aedes aegypti linn.aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector that can transfer many deadly diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses. due to the developing resistance among the vector populations by the application of chemical insecticides, alternative eco-friendly vector management strategies are being focused. in this aspect, the present study was carried out to evaluate the mosquitocidal potentials of essential oil of sphaeranthus amaranthoides (eo-sa). eo-sa was found to be effective ...201931519251
cyp-mediated resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates in aedes aegypti in the presence and absence of kdr.aedes aegypti thrives in urban environments and transmits several debilitating human viral diseases. thus, our ability to control this mosquito species in endemic areas is of utmost importance. the use of insecticides, mostly pyrethroids and organophosphates (ops), has long been the primary means of controlling a. aegypti, but widespread insecticide resistance has emerged. the two main mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in a. aegypti are cyp-mediated detoxification and mutations in the target s ...201931519246
chemical composition of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of stachys tmolea subsp. tmolea boiss., an endemic species of turkey, and their mosquitocidal activity against dengue vector aesdes aegypti.stachys tmolea subsp. tmolea boiss. is endemic to turkey and is a species of the genus stachys l. which is one of the largest genera of the family lamiaceae with about 300 species. the aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil and n-hexane extract of s. tmolea subsp. tmolea as natural sources of insecticidal activity against the dengue vector, aedes aegypti. analysis of the essential oil by gc-fid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) systems ide ...201931516330
temporal pattern of mutations in the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene of aedes aegypti mosquitoes sampled from southern taiwan.aedes mosquitoes are the principal dengue vector in taiwan, where the use of insecticides is a key element in the national control strategy. however, control efforts are constrained by the development of resistance to most insecticides, including pyrethroids. in this study, mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene resulting in knockdown resistance (kdr) were examined in aedes aegypti. fragments of the vgsc gene were polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified followed by restricti ...201931516108
transgenic aedes aegypti mosquitoes transfer genes into a natural an attempt to control the mosquito-borne diseases yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and zika fevers, a strain of transgenically modified aedes aegypti mosquitoes containing a dominant lethal gene has been developed by a commercial company, oxitec ltd. if lethality is complete, releasing this strain should only reduce population size and not affect the genetics of the target populations. approximately 450 thousand males of this strain were released each week for 27 months in jacobina, bahia, ...201931506595
distribution and frequency of the kdr mutation v410l in natural populations of aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) from eastern and southern mexico.aedes aegypti (l.) is the primary vector of the viruses that cause dengue, zika, and chikungunya, for which effective vaccines and drugs are still lacking. current strategies for suppressing arbovirus outbreaks based on insecticide use pose a challenge because of the rapid increase in resistance. the widespread and excessive use of pyrethroid-based insecticides has created a large selection pressure for a kdr-type resistance, caused by mutations in the para gene of the voltage-gated sodium chann ...202031504686
differences in the transmission of dengue fever by different serotypes of dengue virus.dengue fever is the most common arbovirus in the world, and all four serotypes are infectious and pathogenic, but dengue virus (denv)-1 and denv-2 are the most prevalent in guangdong province. to investigate the differences in serotypes, we evaluated the replication, pathogenicity, and ns1 expression of denv-2 and denv-3 in cells, and further investigated the effects of ns1 on viral replication and transmission. the results of this study indicated that denv-2 replicated faster and was more patho ...201931503521
identification of critical factors that significantly affect the dose-response in mosquitoes irradiated as pupae.the sterile insect technique (sit) for use against mosquitoes consists of several steps including the production of the target species in large numbers, the separation of males and females, the sterilization of the males, and the packing, transport and release of the sterile males at the target site. the sterility of the males is the basis of the technique; for this, efficient and standardized irradiation methods are needed to ensure that the required level of sterility is reliably and reproduci ...201931500662
bioengineering of piper longum l. extract mediated silver nanoparticles and their potential biomedical applications.the present investigation highlights the strong antioxidant, anticancer and larvicidal potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (agnps) using aqueous leaf extract of piper longum l. for their diverse therapeutic applications. the optimum conditions for the synthesis of agnps were recorded as 1 mm agno3, 60 ± 2 °c at ph 6 for 120 min. synthesized agnps proved to be highly stable and monodispersed as characterized through various techniques. uv-vis spectrum of biosynthesized agnps showe ...201931500006
implication of sexual transmission of zika on dengue and zika outbreaks.dengue and zika viruses belong to the same flavivirus family and usually cocirculate within the same area. both the viruses can be transmitted by a common mosquito species aedes aegypti. however, non-vector-borne transmission of zika virus, such as sexual transmission and vertical transmission, has been reported in recent studies. in this study, we develop a dengue-zika coinfection model with a particular focus on the impact of zika sexual transmission to the transmission dynamics of both dengue ...201931499705
differential susceptibility & replication potential of vero e6, bhk-21, rd, a-549, c6/36 cells & aedes aegypti mosquitoes to three strains of chikungunya virus.chikungunya virus (chikv), a mosquito-borne arthritogenic virus causes infections ranging from febrile illness to debilitating polyarthralgia in humans. re-emergence of the virus has affected millions of people in africa and asia since 2004. during the outbreak, a new lineage of the virus has evolved as an adaptation for enhanced replication and transmission by aedes albopictus mosquito. a study was designed to compare the susceptibility of four vertebrate cell lines, namely vero e6 (african gre ...201931496530
morphological study of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) eggs by x-ray computed microtomography.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are vectors of several arboviruses responsible for causing dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses and microcephaly, resulting in a public health problem in several countries worldwide. even in this scenario, studies on the morphology of mosquito eggs are still lacking. in this paper, x-ray microtomography was used to study mosquito egg morphology. several parameters such as length, surface area, volume, area-by-volume ratio, eccentricity and center ...201931494346
differential response to plant- and human-derived odorants in field surveillance of the dengue vector, aedes aegypti.linalool oxide (lo) and hexanoic acid (ha) represent plant- and human-derived odorants, respectively, previously found as attractants for the dengue vector aedes aegypti. here, we investigated if a blend of both compounds can improve captures of this mosquito species in field trials in two dengue endemic sites, kilifi and busia counties in kenya. ae. aegypti captures were significantly higher in kilifi than busia (χ21,142 = 170.63, p < 0.0001) and varied by treatments (χ25,137 = 151.19, p = 0.00 ...201931494122
genetic stability of live-attenuated zika vaccine candidates.zika virus (zikv) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of zika congenital syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. to prevent future zikv outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (lav) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3'utr of the viral genome (δ10 and δ20). after a single-dose immunization, both δ10 and δ20 lavs protected mice and non-human primates against zikv infection. here, we chara ...201931493417
subgenomic flavivirus rna binds the mosquito dead/h-box helicase me31b and determines zika virus transmission by aedes aegypti.zika virus (zikv) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus predominantly transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes and poses a global human health threat. all flaviviruses, including those that exclusively replicate in mosquitoes, produce a highly abundant, noncoding subgenomic flavivirus rna (sfrna) in infected cells, which implies an important function of sfrna during mosquito infection. currently, the role of sfrna in flavivirus transmission by mosquitoes is not well understood. here, we demonstrate th ...201931488709
applying fuzzy logic to assess the biogeographical risk of dengue in south america.over the last decade, reports about dengue cases have increase worldwide, which is particularly worrisome in south america due to the historic record of dengue outbreaks from the seventeenth century until the first half of the twentieth century. dengue is a viral disease that involves insect vectors, namely aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus, which implies that, to prevent and combat outbreaks, it is necessary to understand the set of ecological and biogeographical factors affecting both the vecto ...201931488198
waterproof, low-cost, long-battery-life sound trap for surveillance of male aedes aegypti for rear-and-release mosquito control programmes.sterile male rear-and-release programmes are of growing interest for controlling aedes aegypti, including use an "incompatible insect technique" (iit) to suppress transmission of dengue, zika, and other viruses. under iit, males infected with wolbachia are released into the suppression area to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in uninfected populations. these and similar mosquito-release programmes require cost-effective field surveys of both sexes to optimize the locations, timing, and quantit ...201931488182
a graph-based approach for finding the dengue infection pathways in humans using protein-protein interactions.dengue virus (denv) is one of the deadly arboviruses, which is primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti, and causes dengue infection to the humans. according to who, every year around 390 million humans are affected by denv, of which around 50 million deaths are reported. knowledge of the various diseases caused by the denv would greatly encourage to understand the infection mechanism and help to design new antiviral drug discovery. we propose a quasi-clique and quasi-biclique algorithm to classif ...201931486690
vertical transmission of dengue virus in aedes aegypti and its role in the epidemiological persistence of dengue in central and southern mexico.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are the main mosquito species responsible for dengue virus (denv) transmission to humans in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the role of vertical transmission in the epidemiology of dengue and the maintenance of this arbovirus in nature during interepidemic periods remain poorly understood, and denv vertical transmission could sustain the existence of virus reservoirs within aedes populations.201931483936
engineered action at a distance: blood-meal-inducible paralysis in aedes aegypti.population suppression through mass-release of aedes aegypti males carrying dominant-lethal transgenes has been demonstrated in the field. where population dynamics show negative density-dependence, suppression can be enhanced if lethality occurs after the density-dependent (i.e. larval) stage. existing molecular tools have limited current examples of such genetic pest management (gpm) systems to achieving this through engineering 'cell-autonomous effectors' i.e. where the expressed deleterious ...201931479450
travelling arboviruses: a historical perspective.chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses share many attributes. all are complex and widespread zoonoses of subhuman primates that have made successful transitions to the urban aedes aegypti transmission cycle. more important, they have an established record of travelling, having moved from their place of origin hundreds of years ago, sometimes repeatedly. understanding their epidemiology requires a knowledge of past behaviors including unexplained restraints to their travel. this is a ...201931472285
identification of human skin bacteria attractive to the asian tiger mosquito.aedes albopictus is a vector of arboviruses and filarial nematodes. originating from asia, this mosquito has rapidly expanded its geographical distribution and colonized areas across both temperate and tropical regions. due to the increase in insecticide resistance, the use of environmentally friendly vector control methods is encouraged worldwide. using methods based on semiochemicals in baited traps are promising for management of mosquito populations. interestingly, human skin microbiota was ...201931464044
quantifying the efficacy of genetic shifting in control of mosquito-borne diseases.many of the world's most prevalent diseases are transmitted by animal vectors such as dengue transmitted by mosquitoes. to reduce these vector-borne diseases, a promising approach is "genetic shifting": selective breeding of the vectors to be more resistant to pathogens and releasing them to the target populations to reduce their ability to transmit pathogens, that is, lower their vector competence. the efficacy of genetic shifting will depend on possible counterforces such as natural selection ...201931462914
stable distinct core eukaryotic viromes in different mosquito species from guadeloupe, using single mosquito viral metagenomics.mosquitoes are the most important invertebrate viral vectors in humans and harbor a high diversity of understudied viruses, which has been shown in many mosquito virome studies in recent years. these studies generally performed metagenomics sequencing on pools of mosquitoes, without assessment of the viral diversity in individual mosquitoes. to address this issue, we applied our optimized viral metagenomics protocol (netovir) to compare the virome of single and pooled aedes aegypti and culex qui ...201931462331
climate drives spatial variation in zika epidemics in latin america.between 2015 and 2017, zika virus spread rapidly through populations in the americas with no prior exposure to the disease. although climate is a known determinant of many aedes-transmitted diseases, it is currently unclear whether climate was a major driver of the zika epidemic and how climate might have differentially impacted outbreak intensity across locations within latin america. here, we estimated force of infection for zika over time and across provinces in latin america using a time-var ...201931455188
breteau index as a promising early warning signal for dengue fever outbreaks in the colombo district, sri lanka.despite the efforts in reducing vector densities, outbreaks of dengue fever have become a frequent event in sri lanka. as explained by dengue transmission dynamics, vector control activities intensified at peak or near peak outbreak situations would not be successful in controlling the outbreaks. a reliable method of outbreak prediction is always warranted for early preparedness. relationships between the monthly breteau indices of the two vector species (aedes aegypti l. and ae. albopictus skus ...201931454507
investigating the impact of chilling temperature on male aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus genetic control programmes, including the sterile insect technique (sit), it is crucial to release insects of the highest quality with maximum survival. it is likely that male mosquitoes will follow the trend of other insects in sit programmes and be stored, transported and eventually released under chilled conditions. the aim of our study was to investigate the impact of different chilling temperatures on male aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus survival by exposing them to a range of temperatu ...201931454400
selection on aedes aegypti alters wolbachia-mediated dengue virus blocking and fitness.the dengue, zika and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by the mosquito aedes aegypti and pose a substantial threat to global public health. current vaccines and mosquito control strategies have limited efficacy, so novel interventions are needed1,2. wolbachia are bacteria that inhabit insect cells and have been found to reduce viral infection-a phenotype that is referred to as viral 'blocking'3. although not naturally found in a. aegypti4, wolbachia were stably introduced into this mosquito in ...201931451771
mosquito bite prevention through graphene barrier layers.graphene-based materials are being developed for a variety of wearable technologies to provide advanced functions that include sensing; temperature regulation; chemical, mechanical, or radiative protection; or energy storage. we hypothesized that graphene films may also offer an additional unanticipated function: mosquito bite protection for light, fiber-based fabrics. here, we investigate the fundamental interactions between graphene-based films and the globally important mosquito species, aede ...201931451645
host and viral mechanisms of congenital zika 2015-2016, in the americas, and especially in northeast brazil, a significant number of cases of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities were linked with an outbreak of zika virus (zikv) infection in pregnant women. while maternal symptoms of zikv are generally mild and self-limiting, clinical presentation in fetuses and newborns infected is extensive and includes microcephaly, decreased cortical development, atrophy and hypoplasia of the cerebellum and cerebellar vermis, arthro ...201931451049
life history traits and predatory performance of belostoma anurum (hemiptera: belostomatidae), a biological control agent of disease vector mosquitoes.understanding the life cycle and dietary requirements of laboratory-reared insects is critical for optimizing resources (including time) and can provide more reliable ecological basis for using such biological control agents in realistic programs. here, we evaluated the complete development and the predatory abilities of belostoma anurum (herrich-schäffer, 1848) (hemiptera: belostomatidae), an aquatic predator widely distributed in neotropical region, when reared at different diets. we firstly i ...201931446550
exposure of mosquito (aedes aegypti) larvae to the water extract and lectin-rich fraction of moringa oleifera seeds impairs their development and future fecundity.aedes aegypti control is a key component of the prophylaxis of dengue fever and other diseases. moringa oleifera seeds contain a water-soluble lectin (wsmol) with larvicidal and ovicidal activities against this insect. in this study, a. aegypti individuals were exposed at the third larval instar for 24 h to the water extract (0.1-1.0 mg/ml of protein) or lectin-rich fraction (0.05-0.6 mg/ml of protein) containing wsmol, and then their survival and development were followed for 9 days post-exposu ...201931446169
mitochondrial glycerol phosphate oxidation is modulated by adenylates through allosteric regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity in mosquito flight muscle.the huge energy demand posed by insect flight activity is met by an efficient oxidative phosphorylation process that takes place within flight muscle mitochondria. in the major arbovirus vector aedes aegypti, mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate, proline and glycerol 3-phosphate (g3p) represent the major energy sources of atp to sustain flight muscle energy demand. although adenylates exert critical regulatory effects on several mitochondrial enzyme activities, the potential consequences of alter ...201931446033
deet and other repellents are inhibitors of mosquito odorant receptors for oviposition addition to its primary function as an insect repellent, deet has many "off-label" properties, including a deterrent effect on the attraction of gravid female mosquitoes. deet negatively affects oviposition sites. while deorphanizing odorant receptors (ors) using the xenopus oocyte recording system, we have previously observed that deet generated outward (inhibitory) currents on ors sensitive to oviposition attractants. here, we systematically investigated these inhibitory currents. we record ...201931446031
increased akt signaling in the fat body of anopheles stephensi extends lifespan and increases lifetime fecundity through modulation of insulin-like peptides.insulin-like peptides (ilps) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (iis) cascade regulate numerous physiological functions, including lifespan, reproduction, immunity, and metabolism, in diverse eukaryotes. we previously demonstrated that in female anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti mosquitoes, activation of the iis cascade in the fat body led to a significant increase in lifespan. in this work, we elucidated two putative mechanisms in a. stephensi behind the observed lifespa ...201931445957
heterologous production and functional characterization of ageritin, a novel type of ribotoxin highly expressed during fruiting of the edible mushroom agrocybe aegerita.fungi produce various defense proteins against antagonists, including ribotoxins. these toxins cleave a single phosphodiester bond within the universally conserved sarcin-ricin loop of ribosomes and inhibit protein biosynthesis. here, we report on the structure and function of ageritin, a previously reported ribotoxin from the edible mushroom agrocybe aegerita the amino acid sequence of ageritin was derived from cdna isolated from the dikaryon a. aegerita aae-3 and lacks, according to in silico ...201931444206
investigation of relative development and reproductivity fitness cost in three insecticide-resistant strains of aedes aegypti from thailand.knockdown resistance (kdr) and detoxification enzymes are major resistance mechanisms in insecticide-resistant aedes aegypti throughout the world. persistence of the resistance phenotype is associated with high fitness of resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide pressure. this study determined the relative fitness cost of three insecticide-resistant strains of aedes aegypti-pmd, pmd-r, and upk-r-and a hybrid under similar laboratory conditions in the absence of insecticide. the pmd strai ...201931443487
odorant receptors from culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti sensitive to floral compounds.mosquitoes rely heavily on the olfactory system to find a host for a bloodmeal, plants for a source of energy and suitable sites for oviposition. here, we examined a cluster of eight odorant receptors (ors), which includes one or, cquior1, previously identified to be sensitive to plant-derived compounds. we cloned 5 ors from culex quinquefasciatus and two ors from aedes aegypti, ie, cquior2, cquior4, cquior5, cquior84, cquior85, aaegor14, and aaegor15 and then deorphanized these receptors using ...201931442487
first report on the transmission of zika virus by aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) during the 2018 zika outbreak in a recent outbreak of zika virus (zikv) infection in jaipur city (rajasthan, india), a total of 159 cases were reported in september 2018. in order to identify vector responsible for zika transmission, mosquitoes were collected from houses with reported zika cases and nearby houses. a total of 108 pools containing 522 mosquitoes were tested for presence of zikv using rt-pcr and real time rt-pcr. we detected presence of zikv in three pools of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.), out of a total of 79 ...201931442386
new county records of aedes aegypti and aedes epactius in august and september 2017, we conducted mosquito surveillance in southeastern colorado by using ovitraps and larval sampling. the aim was to determine if there were established populations of aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus in the region. a single female ae. aegypti was reared from eggs collected in la junta, co, but ae. albopictus was not detected. three other species were reared from eggs and/or larvae: ae. epactius, culex restuans, and cx. pipiens. aedes aegypti and ae. epactius were dete ...201931442179
influence of location and distance of biogents sentinel™ traps from human-occupied experimental huts on aedes aegypti recapture and entry into huts.a mark-release-recapture study was conducted to refine the "push-pull" strategy for controlling the dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus vector aedes aegypti in a peridomestic environment by determining optimal locations and distances from human-occupied experimental huts for placement of the "pull" component (biogents sentinel™ [bgs] traps) to maximize the capture of mosquitoes. the bgs traps were placed at portals of entry (windows or doors) or corners of the experimental huts and at varying di ...201831442172
habitat characteristics for immature stages of aedes aegypti in zanzibar city, tanzania.aedesaegypti is the main vector for dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, zika, and other arboviruses of public health importance. the presence of ae. aegypti has never been systematically assessed in zanzibar, including its preferred larval habitats. in 2016 we conducted a cross-sectional entomological survey to describe the preferred larval habitats of ae. aegypti in zanzibar city, the main urban area of the zanzibar archipelago. the surveys for container habitats were conducted for a 17-wk perio ...201831442169
rapid immobilization of adult aedes aegypti caused by plant essential oils at sublethal concentrations.many synthetic insecticides cause immobilization in insect pests after they are exposed. this immobilization or knockdown is an important feature of intoxication that contributes to the abatement of pest insect populations, while preventing vectors of disease from biting and spreading pathogenic organisms to susceptible individuals. we have previously demonstrated that certain plant essential oils rapidly immobilize adult female mosquitoes that have been exposed via topical application. to furth ...201831442168
entomological investigation of aedes aegypti in neighborhoods with confirmed human arbovirus infection in puerto rico.the exotic arboviruses chikungunya (chikv) and zika (zikv) recently caused large outbreaks and continue to circulate in puerto rico, prompting entomological investigations at 9 locations with confirmed chikv- or zikv-infected human cases. adult mosquitoes were collected using the centers for disease control and prevention autocidal gravid ovitraps over a 14-day period at each site. mean female aedes aegypti captured per trap-week ranged from 13.47 per trap-week to 1.27 per trap-week. arbovirus-p ...201831442166
repellent activity of carrot seed essential oil and its pure compound, carotol, against our natural products screening program for mosquitoes, carrot seed essential oil showed high repellency. the gas chromatography (gc)/flame ionization detector and gc/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of 47 compounds. carotol was more than 75% w/w, followed by muurolene (4.86%), (z)-β-farnesene (2.9%), and diepicedrene (1.1%). systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of the essential oil was performed to identify active repellent compounds. in both klun and ...201831442148
origin of aedes aegypti in clark county, nevada.aedesaegypti is the primary vector for serious diseases, including those caused by chikungunya, dengue, and zika viruses. in 2017, the southern nevada health district first detected this invasive species in clark county, nv, including in the city of las vegas. we analyzed ae. aegypti from the city of north las vegas to determine the likely source of the invasion. we genotyped a sample of ae. aegypti at 12 highly variable microsatellites and analyzed the data in reference to published data from 2 ...201831442147
resistance status of aedes aegypti to deltamethrin, malathion, and temephos in ecuador, the status of insecticide resistance for aedes aegypti, the principal arboviral vector in the country, has not been previously evaluated. the aim of this research was to describe the resistance status of ae. aegypti to the principal insecticides used for vector control in provinces with high reports of arboviral clinical cases. this was a descriptive study performed on ae. aegypti collected from 2016 to 2017 in 14 localities of ecuador. the larvae were reared and tested using bioassa ...201931442135
a survey for aedes aegypti in delaware and the virus-positive pool rates of aedes albopictus and aedes triseriatus for west nile and zika viruses.the introduction of zika virus to the usa in 2015 engendered heightened interest in its known vectors. aedes aegypti is the primary vector, with ae. albopictus considered a potential secondary vector, together with several other possible marginal vectors. in delaware, ae. aegypti has been collected rarely, but no breeding populations were detected during past intensive statewide surveillance efforts. however, there is an abundance of ae. albopictus statewide. both species are container breeders ...201931442131
field efficacy trials of aerial ultra-low-volume application of insecticides against caged aedes aegypti in mexico.we evaluated the efficacy of aerial ultra-low-volume (ulv) insecticide spraying in field bioassays with caged aedes aegypti in may 2017 in puerto vallarta, jalisco, mexico. the insecticides tested included an organophosphate (mosquitocida uno ulv) and a neonicotinoid-pyrethroid combination (cielo). two ae. aegypti populations were evaluated: a field pyrethroid-resistant local strain (puerto vallarta) and an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain (new orleans). knockdown after 1 h by both prod ...201931442128
evaluation and comparison of spray equipment for indoor residual spraying.the world health organization (who) has recently recommended indoor residual spraying (irs) as part of a vector control strategy to combat aedes-borne diseases, including dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses. hand compression sprayers have been used in malaria prevention and control programs worldwide since the 1950s and are a standard for irs application. however, there are technological advances that should be considered to improve irs application (e.g., flow-control valves, rechargeable-batt ...201931442127
semi-field evaluation of modified 00zzzero® traps with sticky paper to increase the collection efficacy of gravid aedes aegypti.the 00zzzero® trap (0z) is a small black plastic container with permethrin and pyriproxyfen, designed and marketed to both attract and kill gravid aedes mosquitoes (unmodified trap ([umt] or modified trap [mt]). the 0z trap without the insecticide was modified with addition of a sticky paper, coated with an adhesive glue (mt) and evaluated for collection efficacy of released gravid mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) in outdoor screened enclosures in st. augustine, in northeastern florida. the mean num ...201931442126
influence of sex ratio and density on the comparative repellency of ir3535® against caged aedes, anopheles, and culex mosquitoes.studies on topical repellent efficacy conducted with caged mosquitoes in the laboratory are important to both the development and regulation of insect repellents. guidelines for laboratory studies stipulate specific densities, sex ratios, and biting rates, whereas those for field studies are governmentally required before a promising repellent can be registered for human use. these protocols stipulate minimum biting rates alone. relatively little is known, however, about the influence of mosquit ...201931441773
dynamics and diversity of bacteria associated with the disease vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus develop in the same aquatic sites where they encounter microorganisms that influence their life history and capacity to transmit human arboviruses. some bacteria such as wolbachia are currently being considered for the control of dengue, chikungunya and zika. yet little is known about the dynamics and diversity of aedes-associated bacteria, including larval habitat features that shape their tempo-spatial distribution. we applied large-scale 16s rrna amplicon se ...201931434963
systematic identification and characterization of aedes aegypti long noncoding rnas (lncrnas).long noncoding rnas (lncrnas) play diverse roles in biological processes. aedes aegypti (ae. aegypti), a blood-sucking mosquito, is the principal vector responsible for replication and transmission of arboviruses including dengue, zika, and chikungunya virus. systematic identification and developmental characterisation of ae. aegypti lncrnas are still limited. we performed genome-wide identification of lncrnas, followed by developmental profiling of lncrna in ae. aegypti. we identified a total o ...201931434910
copper(ii)-binding induces a unique polyproline type ii helical structure within the ion-binding segment in the intrinsically disordered f-domain of ecdysteroid receptor from aedes aegypti.reproduction of the dominant vector of zika and dengue diseases, aedes aegypti mosquito, is controlled by an active heterodimer complex composed of the 20-hydroxyecdysone receptor (ecr) and ultraspiracle protein. although a. aegypti ecr shares the structural and functional organization with other nuclear receptors, its c-terminus has an additional long f domain (aafecr). recently, we showed that the full length aafecr is intrinsically disordered with the ability to specifically bind divalent met ...201931433630
identification of anti-flaviviral drugs with mosquitocidal and anti-zika virus activity in aedes aegypti.zika virus (zikv), an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus, is transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. zikv infection can cause microcephaly of newborn babies and guillain-barré syndrome in adults. because no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatment is available for zikv infection, the most commonly used approach to control the spread of zikv is suppression of the mosquito vector population. a novel proposed strategy to block arthropod virus (arbovirus) transmission is based on ...201931430351
detecting wmel wolbachia in field-collected aedes aegypti mosquitoes using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).the world mosquito program uses wolbachia pipientis for the biocontrol of arboviruses transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. diagnostic testing for wolbachia in laboratory colonies and in field-caught mosquito populations has typically employed pcr. new, simpler methods to diagnose wolbachia infection in mosquitoes are required for large-scale operational use.201931416478
the major oligosaccharyl transferase complex genes are not involved in dengue virus replication in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.replication of the dengue virus (denv) genome occurs in a vesicle in the endoplasmic reticulum by a complex of host and viral proteins. two host proteins, stt3a and stt3b, as members of the oligosaccharyl transferase complex, have been implicated in playing structural roles in the vesicle in mammalian cells, and the absence of these proteins has been shown to decrease denv replication. aedes aegypti is the main vector of the virus and has been used previously as a model organism to study mosquit ...201931414286
antibiotic resistant bacteria and commensal fungi are common and conserved in the mosquito microbiome.the emerging and increasing prevalence of bacterial antibiotic resistance is a significant public health challenge. to begin to tackle this problem, it will be critical to not only understand the origins of this resistance but also document environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. in this study we investigated the possibility that both colony and field caught mosquitoes could harbor antibiotic resistant bacteria. specifically, we characterized the antibiotic resistant bacterial populat ...201931412044
midgut barriers prevent the replication and dissemination of the yellow fever vaccine in aedes be transmitted to vertebrate hosts via the saliva of their vectors, arthropod-borne viruses have to cross several barriers in the mosquito body, including the midgut infection and escape barriers. yellow fever virus (yfv) belongs to the genus flavivirus, which includes human viruses transmitted by aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and zika viruses. the live-attenuated yfv-17d vaccine has been used safely and efficiently on a large scale since the end of world war ii. early studies have shown, ...201931412040
nature of complex network of dengue epidemic as a scale-free network.dengue epidemic is a dynamic and complex phenomenon that has gained considerable attention due to its injurious effects. the focus of this study is to statically analyze the nature of the dengue epidemic network in terms of whether it follows the features of a scale-free network or a random network.201931406610
mapping aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus vector mosquito distribution in brownsville, tx.aedes mosquitoes are vectors of several emerging diseases and are spreading worldwide. we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and aedes albopictus (skuse) mosquito trap captures in brownsville, tx, using high-resolution land cover, socioeconomic, and meteorological data. we modeled mosquito trap counts using a bayesian hierarchical mixed-effects model with spatially correlated residuals. the models indicated an inverse relationship between temperature and mosquit ...202031400202
utilization of electrocoagulation for the isolation of alkaloids from the aerial parts of stemona aphylla and their mosquitocidal activities against aedes aegypti.the electrocoagulation (ec) technique is an alternative method of isolating natural products with the advantage of minimizing the amounts of organic solvents required for this process, which are often harmful to the environment. in this research, the ec and the conventional solvent extraction methods were used in the isolation of stemona alkaloids from the aerial parts of stemona aphylla. a comparison was made between the amounts of the isolated alkaloids and the solvents used. the isolated alka ...201931398781
prolonged mosquitocidal activity of siparuna guianensis essential oil encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.the use of synthetic insecticides is one of the most common strategies for controlling disease vectors such as mosquitos. however, their overuse can result in serious risks to human health, to the environment, as well as to the selection of insecticidal resistant insect strains. the development of efficient and eco-friendly insect control is urgent, and essential oils have been presented as potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides. moreover, nanoencapsulation techniques can enhance their ...201931398198
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