measuring the host-seeking ability of aedes aegypti destined for field seeking is an essential process in mosquito reproduction. field releases of modified mosquitoes for population replacement rely on successful host seeking by female mosquitoes, but host-seeking ability is rarely tested in a realistic context. we tested the host-seeking ability of female aedes aegypti mosquitoes using a semi-field system. females with different wolbachia infection types (wmel-, walbb-infected, and uninfected) or from different origins (laboratory and field) were released at ...202031769394
corrigendum: supersensitive odorant receptor underscores pleiotropic roles of indoles in mosquito ecology.[this corrects the article doi: 10.3389/fncel.2018.00533.].201931762737
semi-field assessment of spinosad in combination with altosid briquet and dudim dt tablets against aedes aegypti mosquito larvae reared in pond water.this study aims at evaluating the larvicidal efficacy of slow-release formulations of bacterial insecticide spinosad blended with two insect growth regulators (igrs), altosid xr-briquets and dudim dt tablets against mosquito larvae of aedes aegypti. this insect is the cause of dengue arthropod-borne viral disease. treatment based on vector control using chemicals poses risks to human and environment, while the strategy based on the use of natural products poses lower risks. the results of the pr ...201931762652
establishment of wolbachia strain walbb in malaysian populations of aedes aegypti for dengue control.dengue has enormous health impacts globally. a novel approach to decrease dengue incidence involves the introduction of wolbachia endosymbionts that block dengue virus transmission into populations of the primary vector mosquito, aedes aegypti. the wmel wolbachia strain has previously been trialed in open releases of ae. aegypti; however, the walbb strain has been shown to maintain higher density than wmel at high larval rearing temperatures. releases of ae. aegypti mosquitoes carrying walbb wer ...201931761702
co2 per se activates carbon dioxide receptors.carbon dioxide has been used in traps for more than six decades to monitor mosquito populations and help make informed vector management decisions. co2 is sensed by gustatory receptors (grs) housed in neurons in the maxillary palps. co2-sensitive grs have been identified from the vinegar fly and mosquitoes, but it remains to be resolved whether these receptors respond to co2 or bicarbonate. as opposed to the vinegar fly, mosquitoes have three gr subunits, but it is assumed that subunits gr1 and ...201931760135
glycolytic profile shift and antioxidant triggering in symbiont-free and h2o2-resistant strigomonas culicis.during their life cycle, trypanosomatids are exposed to stress conditions and adapt their energy and antioxidant metabolism to colonize their hosts. strigomonas culicis is a monoxenous protist found in invertebrates with an endosymbiotic bacterium that completes essential biosynthetic pathways for the trypanosomatid. our research group previously generated a wild-type h2o2-resistant (wtr) strain that showed improved mitochondrial metabolism and antioxidant defenses, which led to higher rates of ...202031760093
assessments of influences of a prolific gut fungus (zancudomyces culisetae) on larval and adult mosquito (aedes aegypti) - associated mosquitoes inherit a bacterial community from larvae via transstadial transmission, an understudied process that may influence host-microbe interactions. microbes contribute to important host life history traits, and analyzing transmitted microbial communities, the interrelationship between larval and adult-associated microbiota, and factors influencing host-microbe relationships are targets for research. during its larval stage, the yellow fever mosquito (aedes aegypti) hosts the trichomy ...201931757825
infected mosquitoes have altered behavior to repellents: a systematic review and we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to reach a consensus on whether infected and uninfected mosquitoes respond differently to repellents. after screening 2,316 published studies, theses, and conference abstracts, we identified 18 studies that tested whether infection status modulated the effectiveness of repellents. thirteen of these studies had outcomes available for meta-analysis, and overall, seven repellents were tested (typically deet with 62% of outcomes), six mosquito ...201931755530
arbovirus emergence in the temperate city of córdoba, argentina, 2009-2018.the distribution of arbovirus disease transmission is expanding from the tropics and subtropics into temperate regions worldwide. the temperate city of córdoba, argentina has been experiencing the emergence of dengue virus, transmitted by the mosquito aedes aegypti, since 2009, when autochthonous transmission of the virus was first recorded in the city. the aim of this work is to characterize the emergence of dengue and related arboviruses (zika and chikungunya) in córdoba since 2009. herein, we ...201931754110
stable isotope marking of laboratory-reared aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the use of stable isotope enrichment to mark mosquitoes has provided a tool to study the biology of vector species. in this study, we evaluated isotopic marking of aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in a laboratory setting. we determined the optimal dosage for marking adult ae. aegypti mosquitoes with 13c and 15n. additionally, ae. aegypti mosquitoes were single and dually marked with 13c and 15n for up to 60 d postemergence without changes to adult body size or transgenerational marking. t ...201931751467
chikungunya virus populations experience diversity- dependent attenuation and purifying intra-vector selection in californian aedes aegypti mosquitoes.chikungunya virus (togaviridae, alphavirus; chikv) is a mosquito-borne global health threat that has been transmitted transiently in the southeastern united states. a primary chikv mosquito vector, aedes aegypti, was recently established in the populous state of california, but the vector competence of californian mosquitoes is unknown. explosive chikv epidemics since 2004 have been associated with the acquisition of mosquito-adaptive mutations that enhance transmission by ae. aegypti or ae. alb ...201931751338
a lamp assay for the rapid and robust assessment of wolbachia infection in aedes aegypti under field and laboratory conditions.with wolbachia-based arbovirus control programs being scaled and operationalised around the world, cost effective and reliable detection of wolbachia in field samples and laboratory stocks is essential for quality control. here we validate a modified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for routine scoring of wolbachia in mosquitoes from laboratory cultures and the field, applicable to any setting. we show that this assay is a rapid and robust method for highly sensitive and speci ...201931747432
vector distribution and transmission risk of the zika virus in south and central america.zika is of great medical relevance due to its rapid geographical spread in 2015 and 2016 in south america and its serious implications, for example, certain birth defects. recent epidemics urgently require a better understanding of geographic patterns of the zika virus transmission risk. this study aims to map the zika virus transmission risk in south and central america. we applied the maximum entropy approach, which is common for species distribution modelling, but is now also widely in use fo ...201931745446
computational and experimental insights into the chemosensory navigation of aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.mosquitoes are prolific disease vectors that affect public health around the world. although many studies have investigated search strategies used by host-seeking adult mosquitoes, little is known about larval search behaviour. larval behaviour affects adult body size and fecundity, and thus the capacity of individual mosquitoes to find hosts and transmit disease. understanding vector survival at all life stages is crucial for improving disease control. in this study, we use experimental and com ...201931744443
adulticidal activity of metarhizium anisopliae s.l. (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) native strains from argentina against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the adulticidal activity of six fungal strains of metarhizium anisopliae (metschn.) sorokin s.l. (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) against aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) was assessed. these strains (cep 085, cep 087, cep 120, cep 350, cep 404, and cep 423) were isolated from soil samples or nondipteran hosts collected from areas in argentina where ae. aegypti is distributed. bioassays were performed with four conidial concentrations plus a control of each fungal strain to determine the let ...201931742608
vector competence of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus from the metropolitan area of guadalajara, jalisco, mexico for zika virus.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen discovered in the late 40's in uganda during a surveillance program for yellow fever. by 2014 the virus reached eastern island in the americas, and two years later, the virus spread to almost all countries and territories of the americas. the mosquito aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease, and several researchers have also studied the vector competence of culex quinquefasciatus in virus transmission. the aim of the pres ...201931740702
electrophysiological responses of eighteen species of insects to fire ant alarm pheromone.olfaction plays a dominant role in insect communication. alarm pheromones, which alert other insects of the same species of impending danger, are a major class of releaser pheromones. the major components of alarm pheromones in red imported fire ants, honeybees and aphids have been identified as 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (2e-3,6-dp), isopentyl acetate (ipa), and e-β-farnesene (eβf), respectively. in this study, electroantennography (eag) responses to edp (a mixture of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyra ...201931739452
zika virus dissemination from the midgut of aedes aegypti is facilitated by bloodmeal-mediated structural modification of the midgut basal lamina.the arboviral disease cycle requires that key tissues in the arthropod vector become persistently infected with the virus. the midgut is the first organ in the mosquito that needs to be productively infected with an orally acquired virus. following midgut infection, the virus then disseminates to secondary tissues including the salivary glands. once these are productively infected, the mosquito is able to transmit the virus to a vertebrate host. recently, we described the midgut dissemination pa ...201931739432
zika virus seroprevalence in blood donors from the northeastern region of são paulo state, brazil, between 2015 and 2017.although primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitos, zika virus (zikv) can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, due to the fact that some of the infected donors can establish asymptomatic viremia. zikv seroprevalence in brazilian blood donors is unknown. the main reason for this gap in the knowledge originates from the difficulty in evaluating zikv humoral immunity due to antigenic cross-reactivity between the different brazilian flaviviruses and, in particular, dengue virus (denv). t ...201931738944
pyriproxyfen treated surface exposure exhibits reproductive disruption in dengue vector aedes aegypti.reduced susceptibility of mosquito vectors to currently used insecticides hampers control interventions. recently pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator has been demonstrated to effectively reduce the reproductive potential in vector mosquitoes.201931738760
aedes aegypti immune response and its potential impact on dengue virus transmission.dengue virus (denv) transmission to human populations requires infection of vector mosquitoes as an essential component of the transmission process. denv transmission leads to infections that range from asymptomatic to life-threatening pathologies, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. aedes aegypti is the principal vector of denv, and its vector competence consists of the intrinsic factors, genes, molecules, and pathways that allow infection, replication, and dissemination ...201931738698
winning the tug-of-war between effector gene design and pathogen evolution in vector population replacement strategies.while efforts to control malaria with available tools have stagnated, and arbovirus outbreaks persist around the globe, the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (crispr)-based gene editing has provided exciting new opportunities for genetics-based strategies to control these diseases. in one such strategy, called "population replacement", mosquitoes, and other disease vectors are engineered with effector genes that render them unable to transmit pathogens. these eff ...201931737050
insight into mosquito gnrh-related neuropeptide receptor specificity revealed through analysis of naturally occurring and synthetic analogs of this neuropeptide family.adipokinetic hormone (akh), corazonin (crz), and the akh/crz-related peptide (acp) are neuropeptides considered homologous to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh). all three aedes aegypti gnrh-related neuropeptide receptors have been characterized and functionally deorphanized. individually they exhibit high specificity for their native ligands, prompting us to investigate the contribution of ligand structures in conferring receptor specificity for two of these receptors. here, w ...201931736879
zika virus threshold determines transmission by european aedes albopictus mosquitoes.since its emergence in yap island in 2007, zika virus (zikv) has affected all continents except europe. despite the hundreds of cases imported to european countries from zikv-infested regions, no local cases have been reported in localities where the zikv-competent mosquito aedes albopictus is well established. here we analysed the vector competence of european aedes (aegypti and albopictus) mosquitoes to different genotypes of zikv. we demonstrate that ae. albopictus from france was less suscep ...201931735122
an impressive capacity for cold tolerance plasticity protects against ionoregulatory collapse in the disease vector aedes aegypti.the mosquito aedes aegypti is largely confined to tropical and subtropical regions, but its range has recently been spreading to colder climates. as insect biogeography is tied to environmental temperature, understanding the limits of a. aegypti thermal tolerance and their capacity for phenotypic plasticity is important in predicting the spread of this species. in this study, we report on the chill coma onset (cco) and recovery time (ccrt), as well as low-temperature survival phenotypes of larva ...201931732503
insecticidal and antifeedant activities of malagasy medicinal plant (cinnamosma sp.) extracts and drimane-type sesquiterpenes against aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the overuse of insecticides with limited modes of action has led to resistance in mosquito vectors. thus, insecticides with novel modes of action are needed. secondary metabolites in madagascan plants of the genus cinnamosma (canellaceae) are commonly used in traditional remedies and known to elicit antifeedant and toxic effects in insect pests. here we test the hypothesis that extracts of cinnamosma sp. enriched in drimane sesquiterpenes are toxic and/or antifeedant to the yellow fever mosquito ...201931731570
sylvatic dengue virus type 4 in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes in an urban setting in peninsular malaysia.dengue fever is endemic in malaysia, contributing to significant economic and health burden in the country. aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are the main vectors of the dengue virus (denv), which circulates in sylvatic and human transmission cycles and has been present in malaysia for decades. the study investigated the presence and distribution of denv in urban localities in the klang valley, peninsular malaysia. a total of 364 ae. aegypti and 1,025 ae. albopictus larvae, and 10 ae. aegypti and ...201931730672
expansion of aedes africanus (diptera: culicidae), a sylvatic vector of arboviruses, into an urban environment of abidjan, côte d' 2008, an outbreak of yellow fever occurred in abidjan. the entomological investigations confirm that abidjan is at risk of yellow fever with a suspicion of the national park of banco (npb) forest as a likely area of re-emergence. this study aims to assess the dispersion of sylvatic vectors of arboviruses from the npb forest to the surrounding areas (andokoi and sagbé). the sampling was done in the rainy season using the who layer-traps technique. among the six species of aedes sampled, aedes ...201931729805
a new approach to improve acoustic trapping effectiveness for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).monitoring mosquito populations is essential to designing and implementing control strategies. recent strategies based on releasing biologically modified mosquitoes have increased the need to effectively monitor mosquito abundance. unfortunately, existing surveillance traps are of limited value due to their high cost and low capture rates. here, we report the results of experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an acoustic trap prototype. stimuli synthesized from recordings of ae. ae ...201931729803
modifying the autocidal gravid ovitrap (ago) with a powered suction fan and additional lures to increase the collections of released aedes aegypti and a natural population of ae. albopictus (diptera: culicidae). 201931729800
the effects of temperature and shading on mortality and development rates of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).urbanization has caused an increase in favorable habitats for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), given their ability to reproduce in small and often non-degradable artificial water-containers. while much work has been done on ae. aegypti biology and ecology in urban landscapes, the role of shading on immature stages as an independent factor from temperature, and any possible interactions between these factors, remains unexamined. we assessed how temperature and shading affected egg hatch-rate, ...201931729799
parity and gonotrophic discordance of females of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in the city of são paulo, sp, brazil.the objective of this study was to assess the parity, presence of blood in the stomach, and the gonotrophic discordance of females of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus captured in two areas of the city of são paulo. the captures were undertaken monthly, by aspiration, in the period from january, 2015 to august, 2017. all the females of the two species had their midguts and ovaries dissected to determine the presence of blood and the parity/stage of maturation. with regard to parity, 27% and 34% ...201931729798
state-wide survey of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in florida.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are invasive mosquito species with geographic ranges that have oscillated within florida since their presence was first documented. local transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses serves as evidence of the public health importance of these two species. it is important to have detailed knowledge of their distribution to aid in mosquito control efforts and understand the risk of arbovirus transmission to humans. through a partnership involving the uni ...201931729793
spatial-temporal distribution of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and locations of recycling units in southeastern brazil.dengue is an arbovirus disease that threatens approximately 200 million people annually worldwide. aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) is anthropophilic mosquito, extremely well adapted to the urban environment and utilizes varied habitats for egg-laying and development. this study analysed the distribution of mosquito larvae and eggs in urban area of santa bárbara d'oeste, são paulo, brazil. the spatial correlation between locations in which people store recyclable materials and the dist ...201931727179
larval exposure to bacteria modulates arbovirus infection and immune gene expression in adult aedes we have investigated whether bacterial challenges to larval stages of aedes aegypti can influence the adults' immune and vector competence for dengue and zika viruses. we show that larval exposure to live bacillus thuringiensis berliner and enterobacter ludwigii can result in the modulation of virus infection at the adult stage in the absence of bacterial carry-over between the two developmental stages. we observed a significant reduction in virus infection intensity in the mosquitoes expos ...202031726064
identification of zika virus in immature phases of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus: a surveillance strategy for outbreak anticipation.a progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. the main objective of this article was to identify the presence of zika (zikv), dengue (denv), and chikungunya (chikv) viruses in immature stages of aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus. household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. a total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation ...201931721902
genomic epidemiology supports multiple introductions and cryptic transmission of zika virus in colombia.colombia was the second most affected country during the american zika virus (zikv) epidemic, with over 109,000 reported cases. despite the scale of the outbreak, limited genomic sequence data were available from colombia. we sought to sequence additional samples and use genomic epidemiology to describe zikv dynamics in colombia.201931718580
the influence of new surveillance data on predictive species distribution modeling of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the united states.the recent emergence or reemergence of various vector-borne diseases makes the knowledge of disease vectors' presence and distribution of paramount concern for protecting national human and animal health. while several studies have modeled aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus distributions in the past five years, studies at a large scale can miss the complexities that contribute to a species' distribution. many localities in the united states have lacked or had sporadic surveillance conducted for t ...201931718099
chemical compositions and mosquito larvicidal activities of essential oils from piper species growing wild in central vietnam.mosquitoes are the deadliest animals on earth and are the vectors of several neglected tropical diseases. recently, essential oils have emerged as potential renewable, cost-effective, and environmentally benign alternatives to synthetic pesticides for control of mosquitoes. in this work, thirteen species of piper were collected from different areas of central vietnam. the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the essential oils we ...201931717867
the role of lulopat amino acid/proton symporters in midgut alkalinization in the sandfly lutzomyia longipalpis (diptera - psychodidae).in lutzomyia longipalpis females, which are the main vectors of leishmania infantum in the americas, hematophagy is crucial for ovary development. the control of ph in the midgut during blood digestion is important to the functioning of the digestive enzymes, which release amino acids in the luminal compartment that are then transported through the enterocytes to the hemolymph for delivery to the ovary and other organs. in the present work, we investigated transport systems known as lulopats tha ...202031715141
dna damage response and repair in perspective: aedes aegypti, drosophila melanogaster and homo sapiens.the maintenance of genomic integrity is the responsibility of a complex network, denominated the dna damage response (ddr), which controls the lesion detection and dna repair. the main repair pathways are base excision repair (ber), nucleotide excision repair (ner), mismatch repair (mmr), homologous recombination repair (hr) and non-homologous end joining repair (nhej). they correct double-strand breaks (dsb), single-strand breaks, mismatches and others, or when the damage is quite extensive and ...201931711518
potential of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to transmit yellow fever virus in urban areas in central africa.yellow fever (yf) remains a major public health issue in sub-saharan africa and south america, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. in africa, most yf outbreaks are reported in west africa. however, urban outbreaks occurred in 2016 in both angola and the democratic republic of congo (drc), and imported cases were reported in chinese workers coming back from africa. in central africa, cameroon and the republic of congo host a high proportion of non-vaccinated populations increasing t ...201931711378
properties, toxicity and current applications of the biolarvicide spinosad.characterized as a highly valuable bioactive natural product, spinosad is a pesticide with a complex chemical structure, composed of spinosyn a and d, molecules synthesized by the actinomycete saccharopolyspora spinosa. the larvicidal activity of spinosad was postulated to be a promising approach to combat crop pests and control species responsible to transmit mosquito-borne illness, including aedes aegypti. although initially deemed as relatively safe for non-target organisms and highly effecti ...201931709913
model to design insecticides against aedes aegypti using in silico and in vivo analysis of different pharmacological targets.compounds having insecticidal activity can be used to control aedes aegypti mosquitoes, a major worldwide vector, and several plants have a source of such molecules. a principal component analysis (pca) was carried out to determine the criterion to select larvicidal metabolites. the insecticidal activity of seven selected metabolites by pca was validated by determining its lethal concentrations 50 (lc50) by probit analysis. six of the seven evaluated molecules presented lc50 values <100 ppm. the ...201931707089
modeling temperature effects on population density of the dengue mosquito aedes aegypti.mosquito density plays an important role in the spread of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and zika. while it remains very challenging to estimate the density of mosquitoes, modelers have tried different methods to represent it in mathematical models. the goal of this paper is to investigate the various ways mosquito density has been quantified, as well as to propose a dynamical system model that includes the details of mosquito life stages leading to the adult population. we first discuss ...201931703421
aedes aegypti ir8a mutant female mosquitoes show increased attraction to standing water.the detection of water sources is crucial for insects such as mosquitoes to avoid desiccation and survive. in addition, mosquitoes use humidity cues to successfully navigate the environment to find a suitable oviposition site. previous studies have implicated some members of the ionotropic receptor family in humidity sensing by drosophila. here, we investigate if ir8a co-receptor mediates water detection in aedes aegypti mosquitoes. using a simple behavioral assay, we examined the attraction of ...201931700566
microbiota potentialized larvicidal action of imidazolium salts against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens due to their blood feeding behavior. aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) transmits arboviruses, such as dengue, zika, and chikungunya. this species carries several bacteria that may be beneficial for its biological and physiological development. therefore, studying the response of its microbiota to chemical products could result in vector control. recently, imidazolium salts (is) were identified as effective ae. aegypti larvicides. considering the imp ...201931700056
estimation of the expected number of cases of microcephaly in brazil as a result of this paper we have adapted a delayed dengue model to zika. by assuming that the epidemic starts by a single infected individual entering a disease-free population at some initial time t0 we have used the least squares parameter estimation technique in r to estimate the initial time t0 using observed zika data from brazil as well as the transmission probabilities of zika in brazil between humans and mosquitoes and vice-versa. different values of aedes aegypti (a. aegypti) biting rate are used ...201931698665
molecular detection of dengue virus in mosquitoes as an early indicator to aid in the prevention of human infection in endemic areas.human cases of dengue virus based on the national dengue control plan were compared with the molecular detection of the dengue virus in trapped mosquitoes, verifying the prediction and efficacy potentials of vector control between the two methodologies in a city with three endemic frontiers. molecular detection of dengue virus in trapped mosquitoes was significantly higher than in human cases (p = 0.0435). thus, molecular detection could be used as an early indicator to help prevent more human c ...202031697613
does membrane feeding compromise the quality of aedes aegypti mosquitoes?modified aedes aegypti mosquitoes are being mass-reared for release in disease control programs around the world. releases involving female mosquitoes rely on them being able to seek and feed on human hosts. to facilitate the mass-production of mosquitoes for releases, females are often provided blood through artificial membrane feeders. when reared across generations there is a risk that mosquitoes will adapt to feeding on membranes and lose their ability to feed on human hosts. to test adaptat ...201931693672
aedes aegypti (aag2)-derived clonal mosquito cell lines reveal the effects of pre-existing persistent infection with the insect-specific bunyavirus phasi charoen-like virus on arbovirus replication.aedes aegypti is a vector mosquito of major public health importance, transmitting arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses. wild mosquito populations are persistently infected at high prevalence with insect-specific viruses that do not replicate in vertebrate hosts. in experimental settings, acute infections with insect-specific viruses have been shown to modulate arbovirus infection and transmission in ae. aegypti and other vector mosquit ...201931693659
urban landscape features influence the movement and distribution of the australian container-inhabiting mosquito vectors aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and aedes notoscriptus (diptera: culicidae).urban landscape features play an important role in the distribution and population spread of mosquito vectors. furthermore, current insecticide and novel rear-and-release strategies for urban mosquito management rarely consider the spatial structure of the landscape when applying control practices. here, we undertake a mark-recapture experiment to examine how urban features influence the movement and distribution of australian container-inhabiting aedes vectors. we pay attention to the role of s ...201931693154
comparison of two dna extraction methods from larvae, pupae, and adults of aedes aegypti.mosquitoes are the most important arthropods from the point of view of public health, due to the fact that they can transmit a large number of pathogens which can cause diseases to humans and animals. aedes aegypti (l.) is one of the most important vector species in the world, since it can transmit numerous pathogens such as dengue, zika, and chikungunya. therefore, studies involving the molecular aspects of this and other mosquitoes species are currently increasing. in this report, we describe ...201931692696
soil presence reduces the control effectiveness of a slow-release formulation of pyriproxyfen on aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) assess the influence of soil on the effectiveness of two new slow-release formulations (floating and non-floating) of pyriproxyfen coextruded with low-density polyethylene.201931691403
aedes vector-host olfactory interactions in sylvatic and domestic dengue transmission environments.interactions between aedes (stegomyia) species and non-human primate (nhp) and human hosts govern the transmission of the pathogens, dengue, zika, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. little is known about aedes mosquito olfactory interactions with these hosts in the domestic and sylvatic cycles where these viruses circulate. here, we explore how the different host-derived skin odours influence aedes mosquito responses in these two environments. in field assays, we show that the cyclic ketone c ...201931690238
a popular indian clove-based mosquito repellent is less effective against culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti than deet.insect repellents are widely used as the first line of defense against mosquito bites and transmission of disease-causing agents. however, the cost of daily applications of even the most affordable and the gold standard of insect repellents, deet, is still high for low-income populations where repellents are needed the most. an indian clove-based homemade recipe has been presented as a panacea. we analyzed this homemade repellent and confirmed by behavioral measurements and odorant receptor resp ...201931689339
an alternative model to explain the vectorial capacity using as example aedes aegypti case in dengue transmission.vectorial capacity (vc), as a concept that describes the potential of a vector to transmit a pathogen, has had historical problems related to lacks in dimensional significance and high error propagation from parameters that take part in the model to output. hence, values estimated with those equations are not sufficiently reliable to consider in control strategies or vector population study. in this paper, we propose a new vc model consistent at dimensional level, i.e., the definition and the eq ...201931687486
effect of larval nutritional regimes on morphometry and vectorial capacity of aedes aegypti for dengue transmission.nutritional level in larval diet of mosquito vectors influence on life history traits and vectorial capacity (vc). therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of larval diet concentration on vector bionomic and vc of aedes aegypti in sri lanka.201931687387
insecticidal activities of citrus aurantifolia essential oil against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).in the recent time, global attention for the control of vectors has shifted from chemical insecticides to botanicals. in the present investigation, authors attempted to evaluate the efficacy of peel and leaf essential oil (eo) of citrus aurantifolia against aedes aegypti.201931687359
bacteria-mediated modification of insecticide toxicity in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.the incidence of mosquito-borne disease poses a significant threat to human and animal health throughout the world, with effective chemical control interventions limited by widespread insecticide resistance. recent evidence suggests that gut bacteria of mosquitoes, known to be essential in nutritional homeostasis and pathogen defense, may also play a significant role in facilitating insecticide resistance. this study investigated the extent to which bacteria contribute to the general esterase an ...201931685200
insecticidal and repellent properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides iii.the adulticidal, larvicidal, and repellent activity of 18 trifluoromethylphenyl amides (tfmpas) was determined against aedes aegypti mosquitoes. the compounds studied are the third generation designed from active structures of the previous two generations. n-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-chloroacetamide (8f) and n-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanamide (8h) were most active against 1st stage ae. aegypti larvae with lc50 values of 125 and 2.53 μm; for comparative p ...201931685196
entomological surveillance to assess potential outbreak of aedes-borne arboviruses and insecticide resistance status of aedes aegypti from cape coast, ghana.this study was conducted in cape coast, a major tourist destination in ghana to assess the risk of an outbreak of aedes-borne arboviruses based on entomological indicators and determine their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. a larval survey was conducted in 414 houses between april and july 2017. larvae collected were reared to adult for who susceptibility bioassay against four pyrethroid insecticides (deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, cyfluthrin 0.15%, etofenprox 0.5%) and three d ...201931682813
three dimensional secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging (3d-sims) of aedes aegypti ovarian follicles.the mobilization of nutrient reserves into the ovaries of aedes aegypti mosquitoes after sugar-feeding plays a vital role in the female's reproductive maturation. in the present work, three-dimensional secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging (3d-sims) was used to generate ultrahigh spatial resolution (~1 μm) chemical maps and study the composition and spatial distribution of lipids at the single ovarian follicle level (~100 μm in size). 3d-mass spectrometry imaging (3d-msi) allowed the identific ...201931680712
mosquitocidal activity of the pale brittle stem mushroom, psathyrella candolleana (agaricomycetes), against three vector mosquitoes.the aim of the present study was to screen for mosquito larvicidal activity of methanol extract of a wild mushroom psathyrella candolleana against culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti, and anopheles stephensi. larvae and eggs were exposed to four different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 ppm) and mortality was assessed 24 and 120 h after treatment. the lc50 and lc90 values of the extract were calculated. methanol crude extract of p. candolleana showed good larvicidal activity against th ...201931679306
blockade of dengue virus transmission from viremic blood to aedes aegypti mosquitoes using human monoclonal antibodies.dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. virus neutralizing antibodies are likely to be critical for clinical immunity after vaccination or natural infection. a number of human monoclonal antibodies (mabs) have previously been characterized as able to neutralize the infectivity of dengue virus (denv) for mammalian cells in cell-culture systems.201931675360
potential inhibitors of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and juvenile hormone with insecticidal activity: study of the binding mode via docking and molecular dynamics simulations.models validation in qsar, pharmacophore, docking and others can ensure the accuracy and reliability of future predictions in design and selection of molecules with biological activity. in this study, pyriproxyfen was used as a pivot/template to search the database of the maybridge database for potential inhibitors of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase and juvenile hormone as well. the initial virtual screening based on the 3d shape resulted in 2000 molecules with tanimoto index ranging from 0.58 ...201931674282
green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using solanum mammosum l. (solanaceae) fruit extract and their larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae).the family of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) contains several species of major public health relevance due to their role as vectors of human disease. one of these species, aedes aegypti, is responsible for the transmission of some of the most important vector-borne viruses affecting humankind, including dengue fever, chikungunya and zika. traditionally, control of ae. aegypti and other arthropod species has relied on the use of a relatively small diversity of chemical insecticides. however, wid ...201931671165
design of a repellent against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) using in silico simulations with aaegobp1 irritation has been reported to be the main adverse effect of excessive use of n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and ethyl 3-acetyl(butyl)amino (ir3535) commercial repellents. therefore, there is an interest in alternatives of natural origin such as essential oils (eos) and major compounds, which have repellent effects but have no contraindications. the main purpose of the present study was to identify the repellent effect of selected terpenes on aedes aegypti linnaeus, 1762 (diptera: culicida ...201931670811
establishment of wmel wolbachia in aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reduction of local dengue transmission in cairns and surrounding locations in northern queensland, australia.background: the wmel strain of wolbachia has been successfully introduced into aedes aegypti mosquitoes and subsequently shown in laboratory studies to reduce transmission of a range of viruses including dengue, zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and mayaro viruses that cause human disease. here we report the entomological and epidemiological outcomes of staged deployment of wolbachia across nearly all significant dengue transmission risk areas in australia. methods: the  wmel strain of  wolbachia ...201931667465
combined effect of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium robertsii and avermectins on the survival and immune response of aedes aegypti larvae.combination of insect pathogenic fungi and microbial metabolites is a prospective method for mosquito control. the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium robertsii j.f. bischoff, s.a. rehner & humber and avermectins on the survival and physiological parameters of aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) larvae (dopamine concentration, glutathione s-transferase (gst), nonspecific esterases (est), acid proteases, lysozyme-like, phenoloxidase (po) activities) was studied. it is shown that the comb ...201931667017
patterns of genetic divergence among populations of aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) in the southeastern usa.the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti is a public health concern in the usa, especially in the wake of emergent diseases such as zika and chikungunya. aedes aegypti populations dwindled after the invasion of aedes albopictus in the 1980s and many populations were extirpated. however, in some areas ae. aegypti persisted in small populations and there are reports of recent resurgences of ae. aegypti in florida, louisiana, nevada and california. we assessed the population genetic structure of ae ...201931666113
gene expression profile of aedes aegypti females in courtship and mating.aedes aegypti is the most synanthropic and anthropophilic mosquito of culicidae. this species always cohabits with humans and is extremely opportunistic. vector dispersal is directly related to the ability of the females on successfully finding a mate in a generally patchy urban scenario. in the present work, we investigate transcriptional changes in ae. aegypti females during the courtship process and after mating. we observe a substantial alteration in gene expression triggered just upon conta ...201931664152
synergistic action of the transcription factors krüppel homolog 1 and hairy in juvenile hormone/methoprene-tolerant-mediated gene-repression in the mosquito aedes aegypti.arthropod-specific juvenile hormones control numerous essential functions in development and reproduction. in the dengue-fever mosquito aedes aegypti, in addition to its role in immature stages, juvenile hormone iii (jh) governs post-eclosion (pe) development in adult females, a phase required for competence acquisition for blood feeding and subsequent egg maturation. during pe, jh through its receptor methoprene-tolerant (met) regulate the expression of many genes, causing either activation or ...201931661489
combined sterile insect technique and incompatible insect technique: the first proof-of-concept to suppress aedes aegypti vector populations in semi-rural settings in thailand.important arboviral diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus infections, are transmitted mainly by the aedes aegypti vector. so far, controlling this vector species with current tools and strategies has not demonstrated sustainable and significant impacts. our main objective was to evaluate whether open field release of sterile males, produced from combining the sterile insect technique using radiation with the insect incompatible technique through wolbachia-induced incompatibility ...201931658265
congenital dengue in a saudi neonate: a case report.dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness with 100 million new cases occurring worldwide. the vectors involved are mainly aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. dengue infection is associated with maternal as well as fetal morbidities, like stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight.201931658068
dengue fever - an update review and implications for nigeria, and similar the last five decades, dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases, following a 30-fold increase in global incidence throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. the actual numbers of dengue cases are under-reported and many cases are misclassified.201931656483
phytochemical analysis of rhazya stricta extract and its use in fabrication of silver nanoparticles effective against mosquito vectors and microbial pathogens.worldwide, billions of people are at risk from viruses, parasites and bacteria transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and other vectors. over exploitation of chemical pesticides to overcome the mosquito borne diseases led to detrimental effects on environment and human health. the present research aims to explore bio-fabrication of metal silver nanomaterials using rhazya stricta extract against deadly mosquito vectors and microbial pathogens. the phytochemical profile of the r. stricta extracts ...202031655455
insecticidal and mosquito repellent efficacy of the essential oils from stem bark and wood of hazomalania voyronii.the use of hazomalania voyronii, popularly known as hazomalana, to repel mosquitoes and resist against insect attacks is handed down from generation to generation in madagascar. in the present study, we investigated the ability of the essential oils (eos) obtained from the stem wood, fresh and dry bark of h. voyronii to keep important mosquito vectors (aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus) away, as well as their toxicity on three insect species of agricultural and public health importance (c ...202031654797
urbanization creates diverse aquatic habitats for immature mosquitoes in urban increases in temperatures and urbanization are impacting the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. urbanization processes create suitable habitats for vector mosquitoes in which there are a reduced number of predators, and human hosts are widely available. we hypothesize that mosquito vector species, especially aedes aegypti, are locally concentrated primarily in those specific habitats at the neighborhood levels that provide suitable conditions and environmental resources needed for m ...201931653914
vector mosquito surveillance using centers for disease control and prevention autocidal gravid ovitraps in san antonio, texas.mosquito surveillance in large urban areas of the southern usa that border mexico has become increasingly important due to recent transmission of zika virus and chikungunya virus in the americas as well as the continued threat of dengue and west nile viruses. the vectors of these viruses, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus, co-occur in residential areas, requiring vector control entities to deploy several different trap types, often expensive and labor-intensive, to survei ...201931647715
a milestone in botanical mosquito repellents: novel pmd-based formulation protects more than twice as long as high-concentration deet and other leading products.the use of skin-applied repellents is the primary method recommended by the centers for disease control and prevention for personal protection against biting mosquitoes. historically, the majority of long-efficacy mosquito repellents have been n,n diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet)-based. recently, a variety of new botanical formulations have been marketed, but their protection times generally continue to fall well short of high-concentration deet products. we present a laboratory arm-in-cage stud ...201931647713
from surveillance to control: evaluation of a larvicide intervention against aedes aegypti in brownsville, texas.south texas is recognized as a potential area for the emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne diseases due to recent circulation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. during 2017, high aedes aegypti abundance found in the city of brownsville, tx, in combination with the previous year's local transmission of zika virus, triggered the activation of the texas department of state health services emergency mosquito control contingency contract. a contract with the clarke environmental and mo ...201931647710
new record of aedes albopictus in a suburban area of merida, yucatan, mexico.a survey was carried out in 51 households within a suburban area of merida, yucatan, mexico, for 5 consecutive days. adult collections were performed using prokopack aspirators (indoors) and human-landing mosquito catches (hlc) outdoors, and larval sites (artificial containers) were revised for larvae collection. a total of 259 aedes albopictus were collected, 246 from artificial larval sites, 8 by indoor aspiration, and 5 by hlc. this is the first record of ae. albopictus in merida, yucatan, me ...201931647708
evaluation of the persistence of three larvicides used to control aedes aegypti in arapiraca, northeastern brazil.the chemical control of the mosquito aedes aegypti is a great challenge worldwide, since several populations of this species are already resistant to traditional insecticides, such as temephos. in brazil, alternative larvicides, such as bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (bti) and pyriproxyfen, have been used more recently. in this study we evaluated the persistence of pyriproxyfen (sumilarv 0.5%g), 2 commercial formulations of bti (vectobac wdg and vectobac g), and temephos (fersol 1g) under fi ...201931647707
a novel methodology for recording wing beat frequencies of untethered male and female aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is a vector of many significant arboviruses worldwide, including dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses. with vector control methodology pivoting toward rearing and releasing large numbers of insects for either population suppression or virus-blocking, economical remote (sentinel) surveillance methods for release tracking become increasingly necessary. recent steps in this direction include advances in optical sensors that identify and classify insects based on their w ...201931647706
[recurrence of dengue epidemics in burkina faso: community preference for an intervention to prevent the disease].community-based interventions have proven effective in several latin american countries in controlling dengue vector aedes aegypti and reducing the burden of the disease. however, we did not find any study reporting the assessment or implementation of such interventions in sub-saharan africa. this article presents local communities' preferences for activities as part of the implementation of a community-based intervention for dengue prevention in ouagadougou (burkina faso) where dengue epidemics ...201931645291
susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanisms in three populations of aedes aegypti from peru.epidemics of dengue, chikungunya and zika are a growing threat to areas where aedes aegypti are present. the efficacy of chemical control of ae. aegypti is threatened by the increasing frequency of insecticide resistance. the objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility status as well as the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in three populations of ae. aegypti in high risk areas of dengue, chikungunya, and zika in peru.201931640810
control of the 2018-2019 dengue fever outbreak in oman: a country previously without local december 2018, routine surveillance identified an autochthonous outbreak of dengue fever in muscat governorate, oman, a region previously free of dengue fever.202031639520
temperature and sugar feeding effects on the activity of a laboratory strain of aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is an invasive mosquito species that is expected to expand its global distribution through climate change. as poikilotherms, mosquitoes are greatly affected by the temperature of the environment which can impact host-seeking, blood-feeding, and flight activity as well as survival and ability to transmit pathogens. however, an important aspect of mosquito biology on which the effect of temperature has not been investigated is water and sugar-feeding and how access to a sugar source ...201931623118
control of rna viruses in mosquito cells through the acquisition of vdna and endogenous viral elements.aedes aegypti transmit pathogenic arboviruses while the mosquito itself tolerates the infection. we examine a pirna-based immunity that relies on the acquisition of viral derived cdna (vdna) and how this pathway discriminates between self and non-self. the pirnas derived from these vdnas are essential for virus control and piwi4 has a central role in the pathway. piwi4 binds preferentially to virus-derived pirnas but not to transposon-targeting pirnas. analysis of episomal vdna from infected cel ...201931621580
analysis in a murine model points to igg responses against the 34k2 salivary proteins from aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti as novel promising candidate markers of host exposure to aedes mosquitoes.aedes mosquitoes are vectors of arboviral diseases of great relevance for public health. the recent outbreaks of dengue, zika, chikungunya and the rapid worldwide spreading of aedes albopictus emphasize the need for improvement of vector surveillance and control. host antibody response to mosquito salivary antigens is emerging as a relevant additional tool to directly assess vector-host contact, monitor efficacy of control interventions and evaluate risk of arboviral transmission.201931618201
amylose inclusion complexes as emulsifiers for garlic and asafoetida essential oils for mosquito control.although the insecticidal properties of some plant essential oils are well-documented, their use in integrated pest and vector management is complicated by their high volatility, low thermal stability, high sensitivity to oxidation, and low solubility in water. we investigated the use of bio-based n-1-hexadecylammonium chloride and sodium palmitate amylose inclusion complexes as emulsifiers for two essential oils, garlic and asafoetida, known to be highly toxic to mosquito larvae. four emulsions ...201931614606
efficacy of active ingredients from the epa 25(b) list in reducing attraction of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to humans.mosquitoes of the aedes genus are vectors for dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses. mosquito repellents are an effective way to prevent mosquito bites and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. in the early 90s, the u.s. environmental protection agency (epa) published a list of active ingredients that pose minimum risk to human health that can be used as pesticides or repellents without passing the epa registration process. the present study examined the efficacy of 21 of t ...201931612914
iron and ferritin deposition in the ovarian tissues of the yellow fever mosquito (diptera: culicidae).dengue, yellow fever, and zika are viruses transmitted by yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti [linnaeus (diptera: culicidae)], to thousands of people each year. mosquitoes transmit these viruses while consuming a blood meal that is required for oogenesis. iron, an essential nutrient from the blood meal, is required for egg development. mosquitoes receive a high iron load in the meal; although iron can be toxic, these animals have developed mechanisms for dealing with this load. our previous res ...201931606748
efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets with declining physical and chemical integrity on aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).fitting long-lasting insecticidal nets (llin) as screens on doors/windows has a significant impact on indoor-adult aedes aegypti (l.), with entomological reductions measured in a previous study being significant for up to 2 yr post-installation, even in the presence of pyrethroid-resistant aedes populations. to better understand the mode of llin protection, bioassays were performed to evaluate the effects of field deployment (0, 6, and 12 mo) and damage type (none, central, lateral, and multiple ...201931603517
inhibition of dicer activity in lepidopteran and dipteran cells by baculovirus-mediated expression of flock house virus b2.prior studies have suggested that insect dna viruses are negatively affected by dicer-2-mediated rna interference (rnai). to examine this further, we utilized an in vitro assay to measure dicer activity in lepidopteran and dipteran cells, combined with baculoviruses expressing the rnai suppressor b2 from flock house virus or aedes aegypti dicer-2 (aedicer-2) using a constitutive heat shock promoter. addition of cell lysates containing baculovirus-expressed b2 to lysates from dipteran (s2, aag2) ...201931601846
differential susceptibility and innate immune response of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus to the haitian strain of the mayaro virus.mayaro (mayv) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus belonging to the alphavirus genus of the togaviridae family. although forest-dwelling haemagogus mosquitoes have been considered as its main vector, the virus has also been detected in circulating aedes ssp mosquitoes. here we assess the susceptibility of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus to infection with mayv and their innate immune response at an early stage of infection. aedes albopictus was more susceptible to infection with mayv than ae. ...201931601017
management of insecticide resistance in the major aedes vectors of arboviruses: advances and challenges.the landscape of mosquito-borne disease risk has changed dramatically in recent decades, due to the emergence and reemergence of urban transmission cycles driven by invasive aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus. insecticide resistance is already widespread in the yellow fever mosquito, ae. aegypti; is emerging in the asian tiger mosquito ae. albopictus; and is now threatening the global fight against human arboviral diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika. because the panel of i ...201931600206
consensus and uncertainty in the geographic range of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the contiguous united states: multi-model assessment and synthesis.aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) and ae. (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) mosquitoes can transmit dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika viruses. limited surveillance has led to uncertainty regarding the geographic ranges of these vectors globally, and particularly in regions at the present-day margins of habitat suitability such as the contiguous united states. empirical habitat suitability models based on environmental conditions can augment surveillance gaps to describe the estimated potenti ...201931600194
the global expansion of dengue: how aedes aegypti mosquitoes enabled the first pandemic arbovirus.dengue is an emerging viral disease principally transmitted by the aedes (stegomyia) aegypti mosquito. it is one of the fastest-growing global infectious diseases, with 100-400 million new infections a year, and is now entrenched in a growing number of tropical megacities. behind this rapid rise is the simple adaptation of ae. aegypti to a new entomological niche carved out by human habitation. this review describes the expansion of dengue and explores how key changes in the ecology of ae. aegyp ...202031594415
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