hepatitis b surface antigen (australia antigen) in mosquitoes collected in senegal, west africa.during july and august of 1973, 9,198 mosquitoes were collected in the republic of senegal. eight species of mosquitoes were found in the collections: culex thalassius, culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, culex trigripes, culex phillipi, aedes irritans, aedes aegypti, anopheles gambiae, and mansonia sp. specimens were sorted by biological condition; those obviously engorged were designated as (e), females with swollen abdomens not conspicuously blooded were considered gravid (g), and those with norm ...19763983
infective larvae of brugia: escape from mosquitoes into water and subsequent oral infectivity in jirds.published work showed that third-stage larvae (l-3s) escape into water from dead or dying, brugia pahangi-infected, aedes aegypti. the present study revealed the same escape phenomenon among b. pahangi-infected armigeres subalbatus, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and aedes togoi, and among brugia malayi-infected ae. aegypti and ae. togoi. l-3s maintained in water or in lum's solution for 3 hours retained infectivity when tested in orally or subcutaneously exposed jirds; furthermore, l-3s recovered f ...19768999
experimental studies on the transmission of hepatitis b by mosquitoes.culex tarsalis and aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on chimpanzees carrying hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag) of known infectivity and pools were tested by radioimmunoassay daily for the presence of hbs ag. hbs ag continued to be detected at low levels in mosquito tissue after digestion of the blood meal. inoculation of susceptible chimpanzees with macerated pools of a. aegypti mosquitoes at two intervals after digestion of the blood meal did not produce hepatitis or serologic evidence of he ...19769000
flight muscle ultrastructure of susceptible and refractory mosquitoes parasitized by larval brugia pahangi.on parasitization with larval brugia pahangi the infected flight muscle fibres of "resistant" anopheles labranchiae atroparvus undergo the following ultrastructural changes. the fibres become almost totally devoid of glycogen, their sarcoplasmic reticulum becomes elongate and closely associated with muscle fibrils. these fibrils degenerate and vesicles appear both within the degenerate fibril and within elements of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. vesicles accumulate around the worm and degenerate to ...197714324
influences of blood digestion on the development of plasmodium gallinaceum (brumpt) in the midgut of aedes aegypti (l.).blood digestion of aedes aegypti and development of plasmodium gallinaceum were shifted against each other by giving the mosquitoes two consecutive blood meals. in this way the parasites were exposed to an environment where blood digestion was more advanced than in single blood meals. this procedure had an inhibiting effect on oocyst production when the two blood meals overlapped; an enhancing effect when they were well separated. the results are explained by the action of trypsin-like proteases ...197719955
tree-hole breeding of aedes aegypti in poona city--a short note. 197721847
experimental brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti infections in certain species of mosquitoes.laboratory reared aedes aegypti (black eye and jakarta strains), aedes togoi, (taiwan), aedes albopictus, (jakarta), wild caught anopheles barbirostris, (java) and mansonia uniformis, (jakarta) were fed on a carrier with mixed infection of brugia timori and wuchereria bancrofti. b. timori and w. bancrofti were able to develop in a. aegypti (black eye) and a. togoi, with development proceeding more rapidly for of b. timori than w. bancrofti. both species of parasites were readily distinguishable ...197724275
rates of infection in, and transmission of, african horse-sickness virus by aedes aegypti mosquitoes.very low infection rates (less than 3%) were obtained when aedes aegypti mosquitoes ingested blood contained 5.8--6.5 log10 mld50/0.02 ml african horse sickness virus (ahsv). when a. aegypti mosquitoes were inoculated intrathoracically with virus, however, high infection rates were achieved. mosquitoes infected by inoculum failed to transmit virus to embryonated hens eggs by bite, and virus could not be detected in membrane or blood when inoculated mosquitoes were allowed to engorge on uninfecte ...197829475
the lethal effects of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures of mosquitoes on microfilariae.microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti and brugia pahangi were killed by the chewing action of the cibarial and pharyngeal armatures and other papillae and spines in the fore-gut of mosquitoes. the proportion of ingested microfilariae that were killed was largely dependent on the presence and shape of the cibarial armature. anopheles farauti no. 1 and anopheles gambiae species a and b have well developed cibarial armatures and killed 36 to 96% of the ingested microfilariae. culex pipiens fatigans ...197830190
failure to propagate equine infectious anemia virus in mosquitoes and culicoides variipennis.laboratory-colonized mosquitoes, culex tarsalis, aedes aegypti, culiseta inornata, and anopheles free-borni, and the biting gnat, culicoides variipennis, were exposed to equine infectious anemia virus. exposure to the virus was by intrathoracic inoculation for mosquitoes and by oral ingestion of an infective blood meal through a membrane for c variipennis. after various intervals, groups of 15 to 20 insects were homogenized and inoculated into susceptible ponies. positive immunodiffusion test r ...197831831
distribution and density of mosquitoes in two endemic areas for bancroftian filariasis in sorsogon, philippines.mosquito density in rangas where abaca is in abundance is much higher, almost twice, than that of putiao where abaca is absent. the adult density of aedes poecilus over aedes ananae in the two areas combined is 3 to 4 times whereas the larval density of the former is much lower than aedes ananae. the banana axils is a favorite breeding place for aedes poecilus but may also utilize the abaca axils. this finding is very favorable in the transmission of bancroftian filariasis because this species o ...197834889
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in experimentally infected bats.colonial bats (myotis supp. and eptesicus sp.) were infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus by subcutaneous inoculation or by the bite of infected mosquitoes. bats were maintained in an environment simulating conditions encountered in hibernacula or in summer maternal colonies. virus was detected in the blood of hibernating bats at irregular intervals over a 42-day observation period; viremia perhaps was influenced by the amount of disturbance (arousal) involved in the blood samplin ...197941109
quantitative studies of the vector competence of aedes aegypti, culex annulirostris and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) with murray valley encephalitis and other queensland arboviruses. 197942801
in vitro damage of cultured ookinetes of plasmodium gallinaceum by digestive proteinases from susceptible aedes aegypti.after exposure to extracts from blood fed a. aegupti cultured ookinetes of p. gallinaceum were damaged to various, defined extents. immature ookinetes were found to be more sensitive to damage than mature ones. the damage was dependent on the digestion time after which the aedes extracts had been prepared and could be correlated with the proteolytic activity in the extracts. control experiments demonstrated that the factors responsible for damage were neither present in unfed mosquitoes nor in b ...197943087
[scanning microscopical observations on the foregut structures o mosquitoes and their role for the ingestion of microfilariae (author's transl)].experiments on the transmission of brugia malayi by various mosquitoes had shown that microfilariae ingested by some species were badly damaged when they reached the stomach, but were much less hurt in others. the structures of the foregut likely to cause these injuries, were investigated and documented by scanning microscope techniques. in anopheles albimanus, a. arabiensis, a. stephensi and a. pharoensis which have well developed armatures the microfilariae showed a high rate of destruction. i ...197944040
the ultrastructure of cultured plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes: a comparison of intact stages with forms damaged by extracts from blood fed, susceptible aedes aegypti.the ultrastructure of intact, mature and immature ookinetes of plasmodium gallinaceum is compared with corresponding stages which have been damaged by aedes aegypti extracts prepared during blood digestion. the study reveals some new details of ookinete ultrastructure. in particular the composition, development and mode of formation of the pellicle of plasmodial ookinetes is shown to be similar to that of other sporozoans. the pellicle is composed of three membranes, develops in the growing prot ...197944096
toxicity of parasporal crystals of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to mosquitoes.toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (onr-60a/who 1897) parasporal crystals to three medically important mosquito larvae is described. the numbers of larvae killed are in relation to crystal dry weight. the crystals are lethally toxic to aedes aegypti linnaeus (mean 50% lethal concentration [lc50] = 1.9 x 10(-4) micrograms/ml), culex pipiens var. quinquefasciatus say (lc50 = 3.7 x 10(-4) micrograms/ml), and anopheles albimanus wiedemann (lc50 = 8.0 x 10(-3) micrograms/ml). purfi ...197944177
relative abundance of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and aedes albopictus (skuse) in different habitats. 197944342
bunyavirus development in arctic and aedes aegypti mosquitoes as revealed by glucose oxidase staining and immunofluorescence.northway virus replication has been detected in salivary glands of wild-caught culiseta inornata and aedes communis mosquitoes from the western canadian arctic after incubation at 4 degrees c for 9 to 11 months, and after incubation at 13 degrees c for 3 to 4 months after they received virus by oral ingestion or intrathoracic injection. aedes hexodontus supported northway virus replication after incubation at 13 degrees c for one month after intrathoracic injection. aedes aegypti supported north ...197944464
studies with brugia pahangi 10. an attempt to demonstrate the sharing of antigenic determinants between the worm and its hosts.infective stage brugia pahangi that were reared in aedes aegypti survived equally well in cats that had previously been immunized against mosquito tissue and in a normal cat. the survival of third, fourth, juvenile, adult and microfilarial stages of b. pahangi that were recovered from cats was similar in jirds that had been immunized against cat antigens and in normal jirds. host antigenic determinants were not detected on the surface of larvae in substantial amounts using fluorescent antibody t ...197550339
field trials for the control of aedes aegypti with abate in poona city and suburbs. 197771265
laboratory studies on the transmission of yellow fever virus by aedes (finlaya) notoscriptus (dipt., culicidae).aedes (finlaya) notoscriptus (skuse), a mosquito which occupies a similar ecological niche to aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l), the urban vector of yellow fever virus, was screened as a possible vector of this disease. the results indicate that almost certainly ae. notoscriptus is refractory to the virus and could not act as a vector if yellow fever were introduced to australia.197796783
[toxicity of bacillus thuringienses var. israelensis for larvae of aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi].the comparative study of the larvicidal action of b. thuringiensis var. israelensis on a. aegypti and a. stephensi shows the greater sensitivity of a. aegypti, with 100% of mortality in 30 to 40 min. at high doses. but, for both species of mosquito, the toxicity of these bacteria is very high, as shown by the mortality regression curves and by the lc50. this toxicity is associated with the crystals and can be extracted from them by dilute alkali solution, like the general case of the other serot ...197896979
[cytological study of the action of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on mosquito larvae].a comparison is made between the cytopathological effects of b. thuringiensis var. israelensis on aedes aegypti larvae and the cytopathological effects of the other varieties of b. thuringiensis on lepidoptera larvae. the same primary action is observed, with the loss of integrity of the gut epithelium, the cells of which appear swollen, distorted and finally burst.197897020
inhibition of dirofilaria immitis in gregarine-infected aedes aegypti: preliminary observations. 1979115926
[toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for simulium larvae, vectors of onchocerciasis].on field trials in infested streams, the primary powder r 153-78 made of b. thuringiensis var. israelensis with a potency of 3,000 i.t.u. aedes aegypti/milligramme is very toxic for blackfly larvae, especially for simulium damnosum s.l. larvae. the lethal concentration 100, in 24 h. is 0.2 x 10(-6) for a 10 min. treatment. this high toxicity, specific for diptera larvae such as mosquitoes and blackflies, is related to the special characteristic of the bacterial crystal protein which has a clear ...1979118818
epidemiological features of dengue and chikungunya infections in burma.a serological survey for antibody to dengue and chikungunya was carried out in all 14 divisions and states and 2 border towns in burma during 1973-74. dengue hi antibody prevalence rate of less than 10% was observed in arakan and shan states, 10 to 30% in the irrawaddy, pegu, mandalay divisions and kachin, mon and karen states, 31 to 60% in sagaing division, and over 60% in rangoon, magwe and tenasserim divisions. similarly, chikungunya hi antibody prevalence rate of less than 10% was observed i ...1975126493
insecticide susceptibility of some vector fleas and mosquitoes in burma.rat fleas and mosquitoes are insect vectors of public health importance in burma. plague is endemic in central burma and ddt has been the principal insecticide used for its control to date. dengue haemorrhagic fever, recently introduced and transmitted by aedes aegypti, has been spreading to major towns since 1971. the rodents, rattus rattus, r. exulans, bandicota bengalensis, mus musculus, as well as shrews were commonly caught during routine trapping in the country. rattus norvegicus, prevalen ...1975131975
isolation of dengue type 3 from mosquitoes in rangoon.a virus was isolated in suckling mice from aedes aegypti collected from rangoon area, during the month of july 1969. the virus was identified as a member of group b arbovirus dengue type 3, by means of its ability to agglutinate goose erythrocyte at ph 6.6, haemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests, and its growth characteristics in aedes albopictus cell cultures. the isolated dengue type 3 virus differs slightly from the indian dengue type 3 virus in its ability to produce haem ...1976140463
[comparison of the effectiveness of different methods of applying insecticides for the control or eradication of aedes aegypti in columbia]. 1978147086
the pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, serotype indiana, in aedes aegypti mosquitoes. i. intrathoracic injection.analysis of infectious virus particles after intrathoracic injection revealed that aedes aegypti mosquito tissues are capable of supporting the growth of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), serotype indiana. although all tissues assayed (salivary gland, midgut, diverticulum, malphigian tubules, and ovary) were capable of supporting vsv growth, the salivary gland was the only organ capable of maintaining an appreciable amount of virus for periods longer than 9 days postinfection. electron microscop ...1976176893
the pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, serotype indiana, in aedes aegypti mosquitoes, after imbibition of a viremic blood meal.this study showed that vesicular stomatitis virus (indiana) in most instances was not capable of replicating in aedes aegypti when imbibed by the mosquitoes on a viremic host. rapid inactivation of the virus was observed in some cases within 24 hours after imbibition. attempts to demonstrate virus inactivation by midgut contents in vitro were not successful.1976187155
the susceptibility of cell lines of aedes aegypti (linn.), aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes pseudoscutellaris (therobald) to infection with blutongue virus.bluetongue virus multiplied in cell lines derived from aedes albopictus and aedes pseudoscutellaris cells. virus reached a maximum titre in the ae. pseudoscutellaris cells three days post inoculation, and in ae. albopictus cells six days p.i. virus growth was demonstrated in both cell lines at 27 degrees c and 37 degrees c. significant titres of virus were still present in the ae. albopictus cells after five subcultures at 27 degrees c over a period of six weeks. no cytopathic effect was observe ...1979218529
california encephalitis virus development in mosquitoes as revealed by transmission studies, immunoperoxidase staining, and electron microscopy.isolates of the snowshoe hare subtype of california encephalitis (ce) virus from yukon mosquitoes during 1972 and 1973 were transmitted by bites of aedes aegypti mosquitoes after 4 to 5 weeks of extrinsic incubation at 55 degrees f after intrathoracic injection, and the 1973 strain was transmitted after mosquitoes were fed virus and held for 3 to 4 weeks at 75 degrees f. antigen of a 1971 isolate of ce virus (marsh lake 23) was detected in salivary glands of infected mosquitoes by the immunopero ...1975235355
transmission of hog hog cholera virus by mosquitoes.mosquitoes trapped during an epizootic of hog cholera (hc) in maryland in 1969 were prepared into 40 pools which were inoculated in pigs. hog cholera virus was confirmed in pigs inoculated with 8 of 40 pools of mosquitoes. generally, the pigs contracting hc developed chronic infections with persistent viremia that lasted 30 or more days. two pigs seemed healthy when euthatized 62 and 80 days after inoculation, yet viremia of high titer was detected in each. experimental studies were performed wi ...1975237444
pathogen transmission in relation to feeding and digestion by haematophagous arthropods.the blood feeding habit, especially among opportunist feeders such as tabanids and stomoxys is known to result in transmission of diseases for which the vectors are not the obligate or alternate hosts. thus, mechanical transmission of trypanosomes such as t. vivax can occur in cattle herds outside tsetse fly areas where tabanids are actively feeding. in the case of yaws, mechanical transmission of the spirochaetes by eye flies (hippelates pallipes) in the west indies is thought to be most likely ...1975240257
an epidemic of dengue fever in wewak.143 clinical cases of dengue fever were reported in wewak between april and august 1976. 15 patients demonstrated a diagnostic rise in antibody titre for group b arbovirus. tests for complement-fixing antibody to dengue viruses did not indicate what type of dengue virus was responsible for the epidemic. vector species aedes aegypti and aedes scutellaris were found before control measures were adopted but were not found four months later. the epidemiology of dengue fever is discussed and measure ...1978279165
the discovery of the mosquito aedes aegypti on tokelau group. 1979292863
transfer of leprosy bacilli from patients to mouse footpads by aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti mosquitoes which were first allowed to feed on untreated lepromatous leprosy patients, and then to refeed on mouse footpads were found to transfer mycobacterium leprae to the footpads as seen by the subsequent multiplication of the bacilli in the footpads. results presently available are insufficient to come to any conclusion about the actual role of mosquitoes in the transmission of leprosy in the field.1977333183
persistence and distribution of mycobacterium leprae in aedes aegypti and culex fatigans experimentally fed on leprosy patients.laboratory reared aedes aegypti and culex fatigans were experimentally fed on untreated lepromatous leprosy patients and the proboscides, guts and faeces of the mosquitoes were examiend at 12 hour intervals to determine the persistence and distribution of mycobacterium leprae. in a. aegypti, bacilli persisted in proboscis till 156 hours, in gut 96 hours, and in faeces 72 hours after feeding. in c. fatigans--proboscides 144 hours, gut 96 hours and faeces 72 hours after feeding. in a. aegypti soli ...1978349262
partial suppression of malaria parasites in aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi doubly infected with nosema algerae and plasmodium. 1979395108
[a new variety of bacillus thuringinesis very toxic to mosquitoes: b. thuringiensis var. israelensis serotype 14].a new strain of b. thuringiensis is described, the flagllar antigen of which is a new one named h14. this strain produces unusual crystals, with all shapes and sizes, and shows a high toxicity for larvae of aedes aegypti.1978417869
transovarial transmission of yellow fever virus by mosquitoes (aedes aegypti).female aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with yellow fever virus by intrathoracic inoculation transmitted the virus to a small percentage of their f1 progeny. infected offspring were obtained from surface-sterilized as well as from untreated eggs, indicating that the virus was transovarially transmitted. vertical transmission of yellow fever virus in mosquitoes may be an alternative mechanism for biological survival of the virus during adverse periods or in the absence of susceptible vertebrate ...1979434305
the effects of various carbohydrate diets on aedes aegypti infected with dirofilaria immitis. 1979438527
10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1979448608
thymidylate synthetase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1979454454
epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever in rural indonesia. iii. entomological studies.entomological studies were carried out during a dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in central java in december 1976. both aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus were widely distributed in bantul, but the latter species was more abundant. comparative studies on the vector competence of the two species showed that ae. albopictus had a higher susceptibility than ae. aegypti to oral infection with all four dengue serotypes. the two species were equally compentent in transmitting the bantul strain of deng ...1979464193
a comparison of adult and larval house indices for aedes aegypti in towns in southern india. 1979468352
the uptake in vitro of dyes, monosaccharides and amino acids by the filarial worm brugia pahangi.the uptake in vitro of various substances by brugia pahangi was investigated using infective larvae obtained from aedes aegypti and worms removed from meriones unguiculatus at 2, 3, 10, 20 and 90 days post-infection. worms incubated in growth medium 199 containing 1% trypan blue possessed demonstrable dye in the oral orifice, the anterior oesophageal lumen and the external openings of the vulva and the cloaca or anus but the dye was not found in the gut lumen even after incubation for 24 h. no u ...1979481911
quantitative aspects of the development of mosquito transmitted brugia malayi and brugia pahangi and their distribution in jirds, meriones unguiculatus.twenty-two jirds, meriones unguiculatus, were exposed to the bites of 2250 females of aedes aegypti carrying an estimated total of 2464 larvae of brugia malayi, and 13 jirds were offered for blood feeding to 1450 mosquitoes infected with about 4460 larvae of brugia pahangi. on necropsy of the jirds, four months after feeding of the mosquitoes, a total of 88 adult filariae of b. malayi and 143 of b. pahangi were recovered in 20 and 13 jirds respectively. the majority of the adult filariae was obt ...1979483379
toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis toward aedes aegypti larvae. 1979501129
variation in susceptibility to oral infection with dengue viruses among geographic strains of aedes aegypti.the comparative susceptibility of 13 geographic strains of aedes aegypti to oral infection with dengue viruses was studied by feeding the mosquitoes on a virus-erythrocyte-sugar suspension. significant variation in susceptibility to four dengue serotypes was observed among the geographic strains tested. mosquito strains which were more susceptible to one serotype were also more susceptible to the other serotypes, suggesting that the factors controlling susceptibility were the same for all types. ...1979507282
de novo synthesis of methionine in normal and brugia-infected aedes aegypti.crude extracts of normal, adult aedes aegypti were able to form methionine from homocysteine in the presence of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (mefh4) but not betaine. the requirements for the reaction, including a need for vitamin b12, s-adenosylmethionine (sam), and a reducing system, indicated that it was catalyzed by mefh4:homocysteine transmethylase (methionine synthetase). the general properties of a. aegypti methionine synthetase were found to be similar to those of the analogous enzyme from ba ...1979512751
[modeling of chronic togavirus infection in an aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture at different temperatures]. 1979514216
[classical fowl plague virus reproduction in the body of aedes aegypti mosquitoes].the results of the studies on fowl plague virus (fpv, rostok strain) reproduction in aedes aegypti mosquitoes are presented. the virus-containing allantoic fluid was inoculated intrathoracally in volumes of 0.1 and 0.2 microliter. the virus was isolated in chick embryos and could be detected at 5--14 days after inoculation. after inoculation of 0.1 microliter of virus it could be detected in doses of 0.5, 2.0, 1.75 ig2 id50, after inoculation of 0.2 microliter--in doses of 5, 1.5, and 0.5 ig2 id ...1979524861
hybridization and mating behavior in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). 1979537005
[breeding places, larval density and niche segregation in three urban culicidae (culex fatigans wied., c. corniger theo., and aedes aegypti l.) at caracas cemetery (author's transl)]. 1979543386
differential distribution of peridomestic aedes mosquitoes on grand bahama island.aedes aegypti, on grand bahama island, is restricted to certain western towns, whereas a. bahamensis is more generally distributed. during 14 years of observation, the range of a. aegypti has extended 8 km and now includes the major tourist centre. relocation of discarded automobile tires is an important mechanism for such spread. we suggest that the presence of a. bahamensis restrains colonization by a. aegypti, and thereby helps to protect human populations from a. aegypti-borne disease.1979555063
comparative activity and properties of lactate dehydrogenase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and dihydrofolate reductase in normal and brugia pagangi-infected aedes aegypti.the amount of xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh), dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) in crude extracts of 4- to 5-day-old adult aedes aegypti was determined, and the properties of these enzymes were partially characterized. it was then found that the amount and other selected characteristics of xdh and ldh in extracts of female ae. aegypti processed 5 to 7 days and 12 to 14 days after they had fed upon either normal or brugia pahangi-infected jirds were indistinguishable f ...1977559068
studies on naturally occurring filarial infections in dogs in lebanon. i. dipetalonema reconditum.a survey for filarial parasites was carried out on dogs in lebanon. the peripheral blood was examined for microfilariae and the skins and carcasses for adult worms. three methods were used for blood examination: (a) thick blood films stained with giemsa; (b) a modified knott's technique (methylene blue stained); (c) sodium citrate technique. two species of filarial worm were found, dipetalonema reconditum and another species of dipetalonema which will be described in a later paper. the morpholog ...1978566087
a comparative study of ovitrap and single larva survey methods for the surveillance of aedes aegypti in pune city. 1979570958
the influence of the gene sb in culex pipiens on the development of sub-periodic brugia malayi and wuchereria bancrofti.the gene sb (filarial susceptibility, brugia pahangi) in culex pipiens controls the development also of sub-periodic b. malayi, but has no influence on the development of periodic wuchereria bancrofti (ceylon strain). c.p. fatigans (kuala lumpur), c.p. molestus (london) and aedes aegypti (re fm strain) were all susceptible to the ceylon strain of w. bancrofti, with susceptibility rate of 90.3%, 92.9% and 52.6% respectively. however, a low proportion of the larvae in a. aegypti developed to matur ...1977596959
hematophagous insects as vectors for frog trypanosomes.experimental infections of three hematophagous arthropods (rhodnius prolixus, aedes aegypti, and culex pipiens) with a trypanosome of the trypanosoma rotatorium complex found in the frogs hyla crepitans and leptodactylus insularum revealed that a. aegypti is a good host for the flagellate; the course of development in the intestinal tract of the mosquito is described from 15 minutes to 168 hours. c. pipiens showed only low intestinal infections and r. prolixus did not permit development of the p ...1977615322
an epidemic of yellow fever in central brazil. 1972-1973. i. epidemiological epidemic of jungle yellow fever occurred in goiás state, brazil, between december 1972 and march 1973. laboratory confirmed cases were observed in 36 counties located in the central and southern parts of the state. seventy-one cases were proved, of which 44 were fatal. the diagnosis was made on the basis of pathology, serology, and virus isolation. besides yellow fever, malaria and viral hepatitis were present, and in two fatal cases there was malarial pigment in the liver in addition to the ...1978626268
adaptation of an aedes aegypti mosquito cell line to growth at 15 degrees c and its response to infection by sindbis virus.aedes aegypti mosquito cells, usually cultured at 28 to 30 degrees c, were adapted to grow at 15 degrees c. they were designated a. aegypti (c) cells, and had an estimated doubling time of 10 days. sindbis virus (sv) replicated in these cells to peak titres of over 1.0 x 10(9) p.f.u./ml 8 to 10 days after inoculation. these, or about 10-fold lower titres, continued to be produced over a 130 day test period without causing visible cell damage. continuous virus proliferation and the yield of unifo ...1978627872
dirofilaria immitis: experimental infections in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).the ferret, mustela putorius furo, was found to be susceptible to dirofilaria immitis infection when exposed to low (14) or high (280-420) numbers of infective larvae harvested from aedes aegypti. eight ferrets (half of them cortisonized) were inoculated subcutaneously with 14 larvae each. all of them were subsequently found to harbor d. immitis in the heart, and all but one of them had worms of both sexes. six of these ferrets were examined for microfilaremia at 31 to 35 weeks after inoculation ...1978627949
diurnal periodicity of attraction to human bait of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in jakarta, indonesia. 1978633287
orungo virus: transmission studies with aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). 1978633290
evidence that sulfisoxazole, an antibacterial sulfonamide, can adversely affect the development of brugia pahangi in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the average number of infective larvae recovered from brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti was approximately one-half that recovered from the controls after the former group of infected mosquitoes had ingested a 1.0% solution of sulfisoxazole diolamine (sxz) in 10% sucrose-water for 4 consecutive days, beginning 4 days after infection. most of the filarial larvae from the sxz-treated mosquitoes were small and sluggish compared with those from the controls. there was no increased mortality of mo ...1978641660
the ultrastructural basis of abnormal development of brugia pahangi in refractory aedes aegypti.cuticular abnormalities in larval brugia pahangi at c. 12 hours post blood meal are the first signs of abnormal worm development in refractory aedes aegypti. normally developing b. pahangi undertakes large scale cuticular reorganization during the first larval stage, screting new cuticle to nearly six times the original volume. the inability of the first stage larva to carry out this cuticular reorganization in refractory a. aegypti is the basis of developmental abnormality. it is concluded that ...1978666399
aedes aegypti (l.) in maharashtra state--distribution and larval habitats. 1978680896
methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and reductase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1978682069
blood meal size as a factor affecting continued host-seeking by aedes aegypti (l.).the effect of ingested blood on the host-seeking response of two strains of aedes aegypti was examined. using an olfactometer, females fed partial blood meals were scored for host-seeking behavior within 1 h, and their blood meal sizes were measured chemically immediately afterwards. the suppression of host-seeking within 1 h after a blood meal appears to be caused by abdominal distention from ingested blood. mosquitoes of either strain were attracted to a host when the blood meal size was less ...1978686250
genetic structure of the east african domestic populations of aedes aegypti. 1978692658
development of the calyx and lateral oviduct during oogenesis in aedes aegypti.the lateral oviduct and calyx of nulliparous aedes aegypti on a sucrose diet are both flattened sacs, lacking a well defined lumen. both are formed of an inner epithelial and an outer muscular layer, each one cell thick. the lateral oviduct is surrounded by a circular muscle sheath which is continuous with the ovarian sheath. each ovariolar sheath is continuous with the outer layer of the calyx. the structure of both the lateral oviduct and the calyx is greatly modified after the initial blood m ...1978719709
studies on diel periodicity in the landing of aedes aegypti on man in bangalore city. 1978721185
a year round study of aedes aegypti in barsi town, maharashtra state. 1978721186
serine transhydroxymethylase activity in normal and brugia pahangi-infected aedes aegypti. 1978722452
aedes aegypti in puerto rico: environmental determinants of larval abundance and relation to dengue virus order to understand adquately the dynamics of vector-borne disease, one must understand how and why vector populations change over time. we describe a long-term, cooperative study of seasonal fluctuation in populations of the aedes aegypti mosquito in puerto rico. during each month of the first 3 years of the project, a. aegypti was found breeding in all five communities studied. mosquito density was positively correlated with rainfall, the relationship being more marked in the dry, south-coa ...1978727328
studies with brugia pahangi. 20. an investigation of 23 anthelmintics using different screening techniques.23 anthelmintics were tested against brugia pahangi microfilariae and infective larvae in vitro and in aedes aegypti infected with b. pahagi and jirds (meriones unguiculatus) infected with a b. pahangi/patei hybrid. there was little correlation between the results obtained in vitro and in infected insects and the results obtained in these tests gave no indication of the activity in jirds. three of the compounds were macrofilaricidal in jirds and these were tested in cats infected with b. pahangi ...1978734717
toxicological studies of insecticides on cullex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti (l.).toxicity tests carried out on the larvae of a. aegypti and c. quinquefasciatus showed the former to be more tolerant of all insecticides tested, the order of toxicity being temephos greater than ddt greater than ddvp greater than malathion greater than lindane greater than carbaryl; also the second instar larvae of a. aegypti were more susceptible than fourth instar larvae. enzyme kinetic studies on the total non-specific esterases and cares of adults and larvae of both species showed the km val ...1978749224
[various properties of continuous culture of mosquito cells].the possibility of cultivating a continuous line of aedes aegypti mosquito cells in mitsuhashi and maramorosh medium and medium c-45 was studied. the results of morphological, karyological, and electron microscopic studies of these cells as well as the results of the study of isoenzymes of a. aegypti mosquito cells are presented. replication of sindbis, okhotsky, and baku viruses in these cells was demonstrated.1978749343
comparison of single larva and conventional pool methods for the study of aedes aegypti in tyre dumps. 1978750442
studies on recapture rates of aedes aegypti in relation to age. 1978750443
studies on the susceptibility of a large urban population of aedes aegypti to infection with dengue viruses.a large urban population of aedes aegypti in jakarta, indonesia was studied for one year to determine whether it was homogeneous in terms of susceptibility to dengue viruses and whether seasonal changes in susceptibility to dengue viruses occurred. mosquitoes from several districts in jakarta showed a low but homogeneous susceptibility to dengue 2 virus from november 1975 to april 1976. in june 1976, increased susceptibility to dengue 2 virus was observed among some of the subpopulations of ae. ...1978751215
a field trial of suppression of aedes aegypti population by releasing sterile males into a domestic population.after release of an average of 1260 sterile male each day for a period of sixty two days, the average fertility of aedas aegypti population remained above 50% in ererwani village. it is concluded that the irradiated sterile males may not be suitable as a control measure, despite the fact that irradiation was carried out in nitrogen atmosphere.1977754134
an agent in the aedes aegypti cell line (peleg) which causes fusion of aedes albopictus cells. 1975806166
isolation of chikungunya virus contaminating an aedes albopictus cell aedes albopictus cell line was found contaminated with structures morphologically compatible with an alphavirus. rapid isolation of a cytopathic virus was effected by combining sonication, concentration with aquacide ii-r, rate zonal sedimentation and subsequent plating of fractions on vero cells under agar overlay. the virus caused neithedeath nor disease on inoculation into infant and adult mice. it produced a c.p.e. in vero and bhk 21 cells, and multiplied in singh's aedes aegypti cells. t ...1975806659
adaptation studies with ross river virus: retention of field level virulence.two field strains of ross river virus (rrv) which differed in virulence for laboratory mice were maintained without detectable change in virulence when passaged alternately in aedes aegypti mosquitoes and newborn mice. no biological mechanism or selection pressure was identified to explain this suppression of the usual change to higher virulence observed when rrv is passed serially in infant mice. the maintenance of initial virulence by alternating passages appears to be related to the fact that ...1975808589
multiplication of venezuelan equine encephalitis (mucambo) virus in cultured mosquito cells.venezuelan equine encephalitis (mucambo) virus was able to multiply at 28degree c in cultured mosquito cells (aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus) without inducing any apparent cytopathology. the kinetics of virus multiplication was similar in mosquito and mammalian (vero) cells. twelve to twenty four hours post-infection, a maximum of 10-50 per cent of the cells were engaged in virus production; however, almost immediately this proportion fell abruptly tending to stabilize in the order of 0.01 t ...1975813617
[the mechanism controlling the crossing of the vector's stomach wall by microfilariae (dipetalonema dessetae-aedes aegypti)].in some of the human filariasis, the number of microfiliariae which succeed in crossing the vector's stomach wall is smaller when the number of ingested microfilariae is larger (limitation). in the couple dipetalonema dessetae-aedes aegypti, this phenomenon appears to be due to a specific lysis of the stomach cells invaded by the microfilariae. this reaction is started when the microfilariae are very numberous. there is "information" transmitted to the whole of the vector's stomach.1975813899
marylanders defeat philadelphia: yellow fever updated.those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for baltimore and maryland over philadelphia are: i. based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two marylanders, potter and davidge, were among the first to contest rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. to prove this point, potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. stubbins ffirth, a young university of pennsylvania medical student, ...1976822563
[host range of drosophila melanogaster c virus among diptera and lepidoptera (author's transl)].the host range of the c picornavirus of drosophila melanogaster was studied, using numerous strains of drosophila together with four other genera of diptera and two species of lepidoptera. c virus was injected into the different hosts and serially passaged in them. the extracts from each passage were biologically assayed on virus free d. melanogaster. four different situations were found. 1) a high level of multiplication leading, in 45 strains of drosophilidae, to the early death of the hosts. ...1976823856
[transovarian transmission of a flavivirus, the koutango virus, in aedes aegypti l].the koutango virus dak an d 5443 isolated from rodents of the genus tatera belongs to the genus flavivirus of the faily togaviridae. this virus is very similar to the yellowfever, virus. it is experimentally transmitted from young mouse to young mouse by aedes aegypti. the following observations show on one hand that this virus is found in the eggs of infected a. aegypti and on the other that the females from these eggs transmit the virus to the young mouse by biting them.1976827342
resistance to meiotic drive at the md locus in an indian wild population of aedes aegypti. 1977863247
studies on aedes aegypti in bangalore city. 1977863489
sterility introduced by release of genetically altered males to a domestic population of aedes aegypti at the kenya coast.the release of males heterozygous for one or two sex-linked translocations was effective in introducing a high level of sterility into a domestic population of aedes aegypti at a rabai village. the effect of the releases continued for several weeks after the release period.1977869107
induction of venezuelan equine encephalitis (mucambo) virus by iododeoxyuridine in chronically infected 'cured' cultured mosquito cells.infection of cultured aedes aegypti mosquito cells with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (mucambo subtype) results in the establishment of a chronic non-cytopathic infection. infected cells could be 'cured' when they were grown in the presence of immune serum for 3-4 passages. 'cured' cells could then be subcultured repeatedly, in the absence of immune serum, without showing any indication of infectious virus production. when 'cured' cells were exposed to 50 microgram/ml of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuri ...1977873741
on the development of onchocerca volvulus in an attmept to find an experimental vector for onchocerca volvulus which can be easily be bred under laboratory conditions, the susceptibility of anopheles gambiae and aedes aegypti to infection with o. volvulus was studied. the mosquitoes were fed on a membrane feeding apparatus containing microfilariae of o. volvulus. whereas a. gambiae was refractory to infection. 14.9% of a. aegypti females became infected with developing stages, 11,2% showed young and mature third-stage larvae as well as ...1977888189
type 1 dengue with hemorrhagic disease in fiji: epidemiologic explosive epidemic of dengue occurred in fiji between january and july 1975. all laboratory evidence indicated that type 1 dengue was the only prevalent dengue virus. this type had probably not been in fiji for 30 years and over 70% of the population was susceptible. aedes aegypti appeared to be the major vector in urban areas, but circumstantial evidence indicated that aedes rotumae was a vector in at least one remote area. all forms of the clinical spectrum of dengue were seen and reported ...1977889018
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