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invertebrate carcasses as a resource for competing aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).terrestrial invertebrate carcasses are an important resource for insects developing in pitcher plants. however, little is known of the role of these carcasses in other containers, which also receive leaf fall and stemflow inputs. this experiment investigated effects of accumulated invertebrate carcasses as a resource for two competing mosquitoes, aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (l.), whether either species differentially benefited from accumulated carcasses, and if such a benefit affe ...015535579
arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies, and analysis.effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium "advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis" presented at the 58th annual meeting of the entomological society of america in san diego, ca. interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring f ...026543242
an insight into the sialotranscriptome of simulium nigrimanum, a black fly associated with fogo selvagem in south america.pemphigus foliaceus is a life threatening skin disease that is associated with autoimmunity to desmoglein, a skin protein involved in the adhesion of keratinocytes. this disease is endemic in certain areas of south america, suggesting the mediation of environmental factors triggering autoimmunity. among the possible environmental factors, exposure to bites of black flies, in particular simulium nigrimanum has been suggested. in this work, we describe the sialotranscriptome of adult female s. nig ...020519601
ontology patterns for tabular representations of biomedical knowledge on neglected tropical diseases.ontology-like domain knowledge is frequently published in a tabular format embedded in scientific publications. we explore the re-use of such tabular content in the process of building ntdo, an ontology of neglected tropical diseases (ntds), where the representation of the interdependencies between hosts, pathogens and vectors plays a crucial role.021685092
is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - a review.distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. to evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently ...025185008
differential survivorship of invasive mosquito species in south florida cemeteries: do site-specific microclimates explain patterns of coexistence and exclusion?within 2 yr of the arrival of the invasive container mosquito aedes albopictus (skuse), the previously dominant invasive mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) disappeared from many florida cemeteries. at some cemeteries, however, ae. aegypti populations seem stable despite ae. albopictus invasion. we sought to understand this variation in the outcome (exclusion, coexistence) of this invasion, given that previous experiments show that ae. albopictus is the superior larval competitor. we tested experimental ...020852732
dry season production of filariasis and dengue vectors in american samoa and comparison with wet season production.aedes polynesiensis and ae. aegypti breeding site productivity in two american samoa villages were analyzed during a dry season survey and compared with a wet season survey. both surveys identified similar container types producing greater numbers of pupae, with buckets, drums, and tires responsible for > 50% of aedes pupae during the dry season. the prevalence of containers with ae. polynesiensis and the density of ae. polynesiensis in discarded appliances, drums, and discarded plastic ice crea ...019996430
mosquito vitellogenin genes: comparative sequence analysis, gene duplication, and the role of rare synonymous codon usage in regulating expression.comparative sequence analysis of mosquito vitellogenin (vg) genes was carried out to gain a better understanding of their evolution. the genomic clones of vitellogenin genes were isolated and sequenced from all three subfamilies of the family culicidae including culicinae (aedes aegypti, ochlerotatus atropalpus, ae. polynesiensis, ae. albopictus, ochlerotatus triseriatus and culex quinquefasciatus), toxorhynchitinae (toxorhynchites amboinensis), and anophelinae (anopheles albimanus). genomic clo ...020337554
competitive reduction by satyrization? evidence for interspecific mating in nature and asymmetric reproductive competition between invasive mosquito vectors.abstract. upon mating, male mosquitoes transfer accessory gland proteins (acps) that induce refractoriness to further mating in females. this can also occur because of cross-insemination by males of related species, a process known as mating interference (satyrization). this mechanism could explain the competitive displacement of resident aedes aegypti by the invasive aedes albopictus where they co-occur. we tested this hypothesis in mosquito populations in florida. a new polymerase chain reacti ...021813845
heterochromatin, histone modifications, and nuclear architecture in disease vectors.interactions between a pathogen and a vector are plastic and dynamic. such interactions can be more rapidly accommodated by epigenetic changes than by genetic mutations. gene expression can be affected by the proximity to the heterochromatin, by local histone modifications, and by the three-dimensional position within the nucleus. recent studies of disease vectors indicate that gene regulation by these factors can be important for susceptibility to pathogens, reproduction, immunity, development, ...026097808
dose-dependent behavioral response of the mosquito aedes albopictus to floral odorous compounds.the value of using plant volatiles as attractants for trapping and spatial repellents to protect hosts against mosquitoes has been widely recognized. the current study characterized behavioral responses of aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) to different concentrations, ranging from 6 to 96%, of several common floral odorous compounds, including linalool, geraniol, citronellal, eugenol, anisaldehyde, and citral, using a wind tunnel olfactometer system. the results indicated that female ...024779928
oviposition habitat selection of dengue vectors, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in response to fish predator.to understand the effects of fish predator's kairomones on aedes mosquitoes' oviposition, we established an experiment using gravid aedes females. kairomones concentrations were established using hampala macrolepidota. one individual fish was placed inside containers with varying water levels (1 l, 5 l, and 10 l of water). the fish were kept in the containers for 24 hours and were removed immediately at the start of each trial in order to have the kairomones remnants. twenty gravid adult females ...027965749
laboratory tests on mosquito tolerance to insecticides and the development of resistance by aedes aegypti.three strains of aëdes aegypti and a strain of culex molestus were used in tests to determine the relative susceptibility levels of the larvae to various insecticides and to investigate the development of resistance in the laboratory through selection by larval treatment only. the procedures and test methods used are described and the results discussed and set out in tabular and graphic form.it was found, inter alia, that selection of fourth-stage larvae of a laboratory strain of aëdes and culex ...013500157
changing clinical scenario in chandipura virus infection.chandipura virus (chpv) (vesiculovirus: rhabdoviridae) garnered global attention as an emerging neurotropic pathogen inflicting high mortality in children within 24 h of commencement of symptoms. the 2003-2004 outbreaks in central india witnessed case fatality rates ranging from 56-75 per cent in andhra pradesh and gujarat with typical encephalitic symptoms. due to the acute sickness and rapid deterioration, the precise mechanism of action of the virus is still unknown. recent studies have shown ...027748295
effect of mouse antisera targeting the phlebotomus papatasi midgut chitinase ppchit1 on sandfly physiology and fitness.in sandflies, the absence of the peritrophic matrix (pm) affects the rate of blood digestion. also, the kinetics of pm secretion varies according to species. we previously characterised ppchit1, a midgut-specific chitinase secreted in phlebotomus papatasi (ppis) that is involved in the maturation of the pm and showed that antibodies against ppchit1 reduce the chitinolytic activity in the midgut of several sandfly species. here, sandflies were fed on red blood cells reconstituted with naïve or an ...025591111
genome sequence of the tsetse fly (glossina morsitans): vector of african trypanosomiasis.tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human african trypanosomiasis throughout sub-saharan africa. both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase glossina morsitans morsitans genome. analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding ge ...024763584
genomic, rnaseq, and molecular modeling evidence suggests that the major allergen domain in insects evolved from a homodimeric origin.the major allergen domain (ma) is widely distributed in insects. the crystal structure of a single bla g 1 ma revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. this suggested that the evolutionary origin of the ma structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better unders ...024253356
kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of phlebotomus papatasi.sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. following studies of the midgut transcriptome of phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of leishmania major, two non-classical kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (ppkzl1 and ppkzl2). analyses of expression profiles indicated that ppkzl1 and ppkzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of p. papatasi and are also exp ...024037187
a review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. the antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different t ...021864156
salivary apyrases of triatoma infestans are assembled into homo-oligomers.apyrase activity is present in the saliva of haematophagous arthropods. it is related to blood-feeding because of the apyrase ability to hydrolyse adp, a key component of platelet aggregation. five apyrases with apparent molecular masses of 88, 82, 79, 68 and 67 kda were identified in the saliva of the vector of chagas disease, triatoma infestans. the large size observed during purification of these enzymes suggested oligomerization. in the present study, we confirmed, using gel-filtration and a ...016542158
molecular characterization and expression of a heat shock protein gene (hsp90) from the carmine spider mite, tetranychus cinnabarinus (boisduval).in this study, the cdna of tetranychus cinnabarinus (boisduval) (acarina: tetranychidae) hsp90 (designated tchsp90) was cloned using a combination of the homology cloning and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) approaches. the full-length cdna of tchsp90 is 2595 bp, including a 5′-untranslated region (utr) of 177 bp, 3′-utr of 249 bp, and an open reading frame (orf) of 2169 bp. the orf encodes a polypeptide of 722 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 83.45 kda and a theoretical i ...020874569
molecular cloning and characterization of an acetylcholinesterase cdna in the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens.a full cdna encoding an acetylcholinesterase (ache, ec 3.1.1.7) was cloned and characterized from the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens stål (hemiptera: delphacidae). the complete cdna (2467 bp) contains a 1938-bp open reading frame encoding 646 amino acid residues. the amino acid sequence of the ache deduced from the cdna consists of 30 residues for a putative signal peptide and 616 residues for the mature protein with a predicted molecular weight of 69,418. the three residues (ser242, glu3 ...020874389
bioefficacy of mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito aedes aegypti l.to assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, mentha piperita (m. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of aedes aegypti (ae. aegypti).023569733
larvicidal and repellent potential of moringa oleifera against malarial vector, anopheles stephensi liston (insecta: diptera: culicidae).to evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from moringa oleifera (m. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector anopheles stephensi (a. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm).023569741
phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of dalbergia sissoo (roxb.) bark.the antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of dalbergia sissoo (roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on wistar rats. three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (cmc) were administered by p.o. route. the antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (p < 0.01). at the above doses, the ...022470239
insect fat body: energy, metabolism, and regulation.the fat body plays major roles in the life of insects. it is a dynamic tissue involved in multiple metabolic functions. one of these functions is to store and release energy in response to the energy demands of the insect. insects store energy reserves in the form of glycogen and triglycerides in the adipocytes, the main fat body cell. insect adipocytes can store a great amount of lipid reserves as cytoplasmic lipid droplets. lipid metabolism is essential for growth and reproduction and provides ...019725772
evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos. 3. properties of some n-methylthiolcarbamates.n-methylcarbamates derived from thiophenols possess negligible insecticidal activity against the mosquitos anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti. the probable basic reason for the inactivity is that these compounds are much less efficient inhibitors of cholinesterase than the oxygen analogues.04392937
evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos. 5. toxicity to adult mosquitos and residual properties of some pyrethroids.new pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin i to female anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti. residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity.04392939
plagues and peoples revisited. basic and strategic research for ingectious disease control at the intergace in the life, health and social sciences. 012789403
high frequencies of minos transposon mobilization are obtained in insects by using in vitro synthesized mrna as a source of transposase.one of the most frequently encountered problems in transposon-mediated transgenesis is low transformation frequency, often resulting from difficulty in expressing from injected plasmid dna constructs adequate levels of transposase in embryos. capped rna corresponding to the spliced transcript of the minos transposable element has been synthesized in vitro and shown to be an effective source of transposase protein for minos transposon mobilization. transposase produced by this mrna is shown to ca ...012140317
genetic manipulation of vectors: a potential novel approach for control of vector-borne diseases. 010984525
male accessory gland substances from aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of aedes aegypti females.dengue is one of the world's most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus . these two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. the objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between ae. aegypti females and ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of ae. aegypti virgin fem ...024473799
infravec: research capacity for the implementation of genetic control of mosquitoes.mosquitoes represent a major and global cause of human suffering due to the diseases they transmit. these include parasitic diseases, i.e. malaria and filariasis, and viral infections such as dengue, encephalitis, and yellow fever. the threat of mosquito-borne diseases is not limited to tropical and subtropical regions of the world. trade and climate changes have opened new niches to tropical vectors in temperate areas of the world, thus putting previously unaffected regions at risk of disease t ...024428829
development of the bg-malaria trap as an alternative to human-landing catches for the capture of anopheles darlingi.although the human-landing catch (hlc) method is the most effective for collecting anthropophilic anophelines, it has been increasingly abandoned, primarily for ethical considerations. the objective of the present study was to develop a new trap for the collection of anopheles darlingi . the initial trials were conducted using the bg-sentinel trap as a standard for further trap development based on colour, airflow direction and illumination. the performance of the trap was then compared with tho ...024037199
comparison of metabolic capacities and inference of gene content evolution in mosquito-associated spiroplasma diminutum and s. taiwanense.mosquitoes are hosts of several spiroplasma species that belong to different serogroups. to investigate the genetic mechanisms that may be involved in the utilization of similar hosts in these phylogenetically distinct bacteria, we determined the complete genome sequences of spiroplasma diminutum and s. taiwanense for comparative analysis. the genome alignment indicates that their chromosomal organization is highly conserved, which is in sharp contrast to the elevated genome instabilities observ ...023873917
dsred2 transient expression in culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. we have developed a transient gene expression method, in culex, that delivers plasmid dna directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. we were able to express dsred2 fluorescent protein in adult cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. the expression of dsred2 in adu ...023828005
colour cues: effects of ipomoea plant extract on culex quinquefasciatus say gravid females in choosing oviposition site.the interaction between plants and insects is dynamic, and may favour either the plant or the insect. plant chemicals are deeply implicated in this relationship and influence insect behaviour. here, we investigated the oviposition behaviour response of culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes based on the colour cues produced by ipomoea cairica leaves extract. in this study, two sets of oviposition choice experiments were conducted: (1) single solution in a cage; and (2) multiple concentration solution ...027688853
advances and perspectives in the application of crispr/cas9 in insects.insects compose more than half of all living organisms on earth, playing essential roles in global ecosystems and forming complex relationships with humans. insect research has significant biological and practical importance. however, the application of genetic manipulation technology has long been restricted to several model insects only, such as gene knockout in drosophila, which has severely restrained the development of insect biology research. recently, with the increase in the release of i ...027469253
developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in daphnia magna.to yield cholinesterase (che) from prokaryotic expression, the che gene that belongs to daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using forward primer 5'-cccyggngcsat gatgtg-3' and reverse primer 5'-gyaagttrgcccaatatct-3'. to express the gene, one sequence of the amplified dna, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector pet-29a(+). the recombinant v ...026834012
adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains.due to ever growing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in many parts of the globe, there is always a need for introduction of new insecticides for the control of resistant vector mosquitoes. in this study, larvicidal and adulticidal efficacies of three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) were tested against resistant and susceptible populations of anopheles stephensi liston 1901, aedes (stegomyia) aegypti linnaeus, and culex quinquefasciatu ...026905244
human igf1 extends lifespan and enhances resistance to plasmodium falciparum infection in the malaria vector anopheles stephensi.the highly conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor (igf) signaling (iis) pathway regulates metabolism, development, lifespan and immunity across a wide range of organisms. previous studies have shown that human insulin ingested in the blood meal can activate mosquito iis, resulting in attenuated lifespan and increased malaria parasite infection. because human igf1 is present at higher concentrations in blood than insulin and is functionally linked with lifespan and immune processes, we pred ...023255191
improvised microinjection technique for mosquito vectors.bio-manipulation technique is of primary importance during the development of transgenic mosquitoes. the study describes the variable factors that influence the viability of medically important mosquito vectors during microinjection.023391792
draft genome sequences of enterobacter sp. isolate ag1 from the midgut of the malaria mosquito anopheles gambiae.an isolate of enterobacter sp. was obtained from the microbial community within the gut of the anopheles gambiae mosquito, a major malaria vector in africa. this genome was sequenced and annotated. the genome sequences will facilitate subsequent efforts to characterize the mosquito gut microbiome.022965099
the role of male harassment on female fitness for the dengue vector mosquito aedes aegypti.sexual harassment studies in insects suggest that females can incur several kinds of costs from male harassment and mating. here, we examined direct and indirect costs of male harassment on components of female fitness in the predominantly monandrous mosquito aedes aegypti. to disentangle the costs of harassment versus the costs of mating, we held females at a low or high density with males whose claspers were modified to prevent insemination, and compared these to females held with normal males ...025544799
effects of beauveria bassiana on survival, blood-feeding success, and fecundity of aedes aegypti in laboratory and semi-field conditions.the fungus beauveria bassiana reduces aedes aegypti longevity in laboratory conditions, but effects on survival, blood-feeding behavior, and fecundity in realistic environmental conditions have not been tested. adult, female ae. aegypti infected with b. bassiana (fi-277) were monitored for blood-feeding success and fecundity in the laboratory. fungal infection reduced mosquito-human contact by 30%. fecundity was reduced by (mean ± sd) 29.3 ± 8.6 eggs per female per lifetime in the laboratory; eg ...022492151
larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of citrus sinensis against dengue vector aedes aegypti l.to assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of citrus sinensis (c. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of aedes aegypti (ae. aegypti).023569887
biologically active natural products of the genus callicarpa.about 20 species from callicarpa have reported ethnobotanical and ethnomedical uses, and several members of this genus are well known in the traditional medical systems of china and south asia. ethnomedical reports indicate their use in the treatment of hepatitis, rheumatism, fever, headache, indigestion, and other ailments. several species of callicarpa have been reported to be used against cancer (e.g., callicarpa americana root to treat skin cancer and callicarpa rubella bark to treat tumors ...019830264
light-emitting diode technology improves insect trapping.in a climate of increased funding for vaccines, chemotherapy, and prevention of vector-borne diseases, fewer resources have been directed toward improving disease and vector surveillance. recently developed light-emitting diode (led) technology was applied to standard insect-vector traps to produce a more effective lighting system. this approach improved phlebotomine sand fly capture rates by 50%, and simultaneously reduced the energy consumption by 50-60%. the leds were incorporated into 2 ligh ...018666546
towards the genetic control of insect vectors: an overview.insects are responsible for the transmission of major infectious diseases. recent advances in insect genomics and transformation technology provide new strategies for the control of insect borne pathogen transmission and insect pest management. one such strategy is the genetic modification of insects with genes that block pathogen development. another is to suppress insect populations by releasing either sterile males or males carrying female-specific dominant lethal genes into the environment. ...025530773
prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya significantly associated with mosquito breeding sites.to observe the prevalence of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya and their association with mosquito breeding sites.023610486
strong alkalinization in the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquitoes (aedes aegypti): involvement of luminal na+/k+-atpase.recently, na(+)/k(+)-atpase has been detected in the luminal membrane of the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquitoes (aedes aegypti) with immunohistochemical techniques. in this study, the possible involvement of this atpase in strong alkalinization was investigated on the level of whole larvae, isolated and perfused midgut preparations and on the molecular level of the na(+)/k(+)-atpase protein. ouabain (5 mm) did not inhibit the capability of intact larval mosquitoes to alkalinize th ...019048614
molecular genetic manipulation of vector mosquitoes.genetic strategies for reducing populations of vector mosquitoes or replacing them with those that are not able to transmit pathogens benefit greatly from molecular tools that allow gene manipulation and transgenesis. mosquito genome sequences and associated est (expressed sequence tags) databases enable large-scale investigations to provide new insights into evolutionary, biochemical, genetic, metabolic, and physiological pathways. additionally, comparative genomics reveals the bases for evolut ...018996342
larval anopheline mosquito recta exhibit a dramatic change in localization patterns of ion transport proteins in response to shifting salinity: a comparison between anopheline and culicine larvae.mosquito larvae live in dynamic aqueous environments, which can fluctuate drastically in salinity due to environmental events such as rainfall and evaporation. larval survival depends upon the ability to regulate hemolymph osmolarity by absorbing and excreting ions. a major organ involved in ion regulation is the rectum, the last region for modification of the primary urine before excretion. the ultrastructure and function of culicine larval recta have been studied extensively; however, very lit ...018805805
gene structure and expression of nanos (nos) and oskar (osk) orthologues of the vector mosquito, culex quinquefasciatus.the products of the maternal-effect genes, nanos (nos) and oskar (osk), are important for the development of germ cells in insects. furthermore, these genes have been proposed as candidates for donating functional dna regulatory sequences for use in gene drive systems to control transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. the nos and osk genes of the cosmopolitan vector mosquito, culex quinquefasciatus, encode proteins with domains common to orthologues found in other mosquitoes. expression analys ...018828840
mosquitocidal bacillus amyloliquefaciens: dynamics of growth & production of novel pupicidal biosurfactant.a strain of bacillus amyloliquefaciens (vcrc b483) producing mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal biosurfactant was isolated from mangrove forest soil. the present study was aimed at studying the kinetics of growth and production of the mosquitocidal biosurfactant by this bacterium.025366212
efficacy of insecticide treated nets against mixed population of mosquitoes at dayalbagh-agra. 025905088
aedes aegypti (l.) survival after exposure to ivermectin.ivermectin has been shown in in vitro studies to have insecticidal properties against aedes aegypti adults. this study aimed to assess these properties in vivo. aedes aegypti survival was not affected by acquiring a blood meal from humans both 5 hours and 24 hours after ingestion of a typical dose of ivermectin.023691626
loss of household protection from use of insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes, benin.pyrethroid resistance is becoming widespread in anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, coinciding with expanded use of insecticide-treated nets (itns) throughout africa. to investigate whether nets in use are still protective, we conducted household trials in northern and southern benin, where an. gambiae mosquitoes are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to pyrethroids. rooms were fitted with window traps and monitored for mosquito biting and survival rates before and after the nets were treated wi ...022709930
neuropeptidomics of the mosquito aedes aegypti.neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito ae. aegypti, which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. the data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single specimens, which yielded a largely complete accounting of the putative bioactive neuropeptides; truncated neuropeptides with low abundance were not counted as mature peptides. differential processing with ...020163154
state of the globe: yellow fever is still around and active! 020300379
larval habitats of mosquito fauna in osogbo metropolis, southwestern nigeria.to determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in osogbo metropolis, southwestern, nigeria.023998005
subtle periodicity of pupation in rapidly developing mosquitos: with particular reference to aedes vittatus and aedes aegypti.aedes vittatus and ae. aegypti are important vectors of yellow fever and other arbovirus diseases in africa and they complete many generations, through all developmental stages, in a single year. recent studies on drosophila have offered precise techniques for analysing periodicities in populations of single developmental events in individuals. if the variability of pupation times is low, periodicities may not be recognizable by an obviously polymodal pattern in a single synchronized population. ...05312257
morphological variants of aedes aegypti collected from the leeward island of antigua.nineteen aedes aegypti larvae were collected in rural antigua, west indies, from an 18-liter plastic bucket. the location was in a rural area at the northern end of antigua bordering the coast of dickenson bay and approximately 50 m south of halcyon cove beach (17 degrees 09'42.54"n, 61 degrees 50'44.50"w; elevation 16 m). atypical morphology was noted in larvae and 3 reared adult females. fourth instars showed a reduction in length of the lateral hair on the saddle (seta 1-x) with measurements ...022017096
pathogenicity tests on nine mosquito species and several non-target organisms with strelkovimermis spiculatus (nemata mermithidae).nine species of mosquitoes and several species of non-target aquatic organisms were tested for susceptibility to the mernaithid nematode, strelkovimermis spiculatus. all species of anopheles, aedes, culex, and toxorhynchites exposed to s. spiculatus were susceptible. of the nine mosquito species tested, c. pipiens quinquefasciatus had the greatest tolerance to initial invasion and the highest percent infection of those that survived. high levels of infection were also achieved with aedes taenior ...019274233
quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.this article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. the acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. a time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stat ...027053654
mosquito (aedes aegypti) flight tones: frequency, harmonicity, spherical spreading, and phase relationships.mosquito flight produces a tone as a side effect of wing movement; this tone is also a communication signal that is frequency-modulated during courtship. recordings of tones produced by tethered flying male and female aedes aegypti were undertaken using pairs of pressure-gradient microphones above and below, ahead and behind, and to the left and right over a range of distances. fundamental frequencies were close to those previously reported, although amplitudes were lower. the male fundamental f ...025234901
neural responses to one- and two-tone stimuli in the hearing organ of the dengue vector mosquito.recent studies demonstrate that mosquitoes listen to each other's wing beats just prior to mating in flight. field potentials from sound-transducing neurons in the antennae contain both sustained and oscillatory components to pure and paired tone stimuli. described here is a direct comparison of these two types of response in the dengue vector mosquito, aedes aegypti. across a wide range of frequencies and intensities, sustained responses to one- and two-tone stimuli are about equal in magnitude ...020348350
interfaces between allergen structure and diagnosis: know your epitopes.allergy diagnosis is based on the patient's clinical history and can be strengthened by tests that confirm the origin of sensitization. in the past 25 years, these tests have evolved from the exclusive in vivo or in vitro use of allergen extracts, to complementary molecular-based diagnostics that rely on in vitro measurements of ige reactivity to individual allergens. for this to occur, an increase in our understanding of the molecular structure of allergens, largely due to the development of te ...025750181
an insight into the microbiome of the amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with rickettsia parkeri. pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16s rrna was used to determine the total bacterial population in a. maculatum. pyrosequencing analysis identified rickettsia in a. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. the identity of rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the ric ...024605461
using the dfci gene index databases for biological discovery.the dfci gene index web pages provide access to analyses of ests and gene sequences for nearly 114 species, as well as a number of resources derived from these. each species-specific database is presented using a common format with a home page. a variety of methods exist that allow users to search each species-specific database. methods implemented currently include nucleotide or protein sequence queries using wu-blast, text-based searches using various sequence identifiers, searches by gene, ti ...020205187
a catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome.accidents with the caterpillar lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. in the present study, we have constructed cdna libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. over one thousand cdnas were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library an ...016023793
insect seminal fluid proteins: identification and function.seminal fluid proteins (sfps) produced in reproductive tract tissues of male insects and transferred to females during mating induce numerous physiological and behavioral postmating changes in females. these changes include decreasing receptivity to remating; affecting sperm storage parameters; increasing egg production; and modulating sperm competition, feeding behaviors, and mating plug formation. in addition, sfps also have antimicrobial functions and induce expression of antimicrobial peptid ...020868282
detritus type alters the outcome of interspecific competition between aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).many studies of interspecific competition between aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) larvae show that ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to ae. aegypti. single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of ae. albopictus and ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. we tested whether different detritus type ...018533429
vacant lots: productive sites for aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in mérida city, méxico.we assessed the potential for vacant lots and other nonresidential settings to serve as source environments for aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in mérida city, méxico. mosquito immatures were collected, during november 2011-june 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and nonresidential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets or sidewalks (28). collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. ae. aegypti was the most ...024724299
neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.for many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. the most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. in the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, a major vect ...023897410
cockroach diuretic hormones: characterization of a calcitonin-like peptide in insects.insect diuretic hormones are crucial for control of water balance. we isolated from the cockroach diploptera punctata two diuretic hormones (dh), dippu-dh(31) and dippu-dh(46), which increase camp production and fluid secretion in malpighian tubules of several insect species. dippu-dh(31) and -dh(46) contain 31 and 46 amino acids, respectively. dippu-dh(46) belongs to the corticotropin-releasing factor (crf)-like insect dh family, whereas dippu-dh(31) has little sequence similarity to the crf-li ...010841553
a survival and reproduction trade-off is resolved in accordance with resource availability by virgin female mosquitoes.the first 2-4 days after an anopheles gambiae female mosquito emerges are critical to her survival and reproductive success. yet, the order of behavioural events (mating, sugar feeding, blood feeding) during this time has received little attention. we discovered that among female cohorts sampled from emergence, sugar feeding had a higher probability than blood feeding of occurring first, and mating rarely occurred before a meal was taken. the night after emergence, 48% of females fed on sugar in ...021499504
new baseline environmental assessment of mosquito ecology in northern haiti during increased urbanization.the catastrophic 2010 earthquake in port-au-prince, haiti, led to the large-scale displacement of over 2.3 million people, resulting in rapid and unplanned urbanization in northern haiti. this study evaluated the impact of this unplanned urbanization on mosquito ecology and vector-borne diseases by assessing land use and change patterns. land-use classification and change detection were carried out on remotely sensed images of the area for 2010 and 2013. change detection identified areas that we ...026047183
sequence analysis of the genome of the neodiprion sertifer nucleopolyhedrovirus.the genome of the neodiprion sertifer nucleopolyhedrovirus (nesenpv), which infects the european pine sawfly, n. sertifer (hymenoptera: diprionidae), was sequenced and analyzed. the genome was 86,462 bp in size. the c+g content of 34% was lower than that of the majority of baculoviruses. a total of 90 methionine-initiated open reading frames (orfs) with more than 50 amino acids and minimal overlapping were found. from those, 43 orfs were homologous to other baculovirus orfs, and 29 of these were ...015194780
sterile-insect methods for control of mosquito-borne diseases: an analysis.effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. the sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector control. such an approach, like all others in use and development, is not ...019725763
early origin and adaptive evolution of the gw182 protein family, the key component of rna silencing in animals.the gw182 proteins are a key component of the mirna-dependent post-transcriptional silencing pathway in animals. they function as scaffold proteins to mediate the interaction of argonaute (ago)-containing complexes with cytoplasmic poly(a)-binding proteins (pabp) and pan2-pan3 and ccr4-not deadenylases. the ago-gw182 complexes mediate silencing of the target mrna through induction of translational repression and/or mrna degradation. although the gw182 proteins are a subject of extensive experime ...026106978
cloning of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the stem borer, chilo suppressalis, and analysis of expression characteristics under heat stress.heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. in this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, chilo suppressalis (walker) (lepidoptera: pyralidae), was cloned by rt-pcr and rapid amplification of cdna end (race) reactions. the full length cdna of hsp6 degrees consisted of 2142 bp, with an orf of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'utr of 158 bp and a 3'utr of 265 bp. cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from ...020673188
an empirical test of the aggregation model of coexistence and consequences for competing container-dwelling mosquitoes.we investigated the aggregation model of coexistence as a potential mechanism explaining patterns of coexistence between container mosquitoes aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti in southern florida, usa. aedes aegypti coexists with the invasive a. albopictus in many locations despite being an inferior resource competitor under most conditions. in agreement with aggregation theory we observed significant intraspecific aggregation of a. albopictus in all six field sites sampled in southern florida ...023691666
predator identity and additive effects in a treehole community.multiple predator species can interact as well as strongly affect lower trophic levels, resulting in complex, nonadditive effects on prey populations and community structure. studies of aquatic systems have shown that interactive effects of predators on prey are not necessarily predictable from the direct effects of each species alone. to test for complex interactions, the individual and combined effects of a top and intermediate predator on larvae of native and invasive mosquito prey were exami ...016676542
does differential predation permit invasive and native mosquito larvae to coexist in florida?1. the hypothesis that selective predation on larvae of the invasive aedes albopictus (skuse) could account for its stable coexistence with the native mosquito species and inferior competitor ochlerotatus triseriatus (say) in florida treeholes and container systems was tested experimentally.2. functional responses of the two dipteran predators toxorhynchites rutilus (coquillett) and corethrella appendiculata (grabham) were evaluated separately for a. albopictus and o. triseriatus prey. both pred ...022532705
differential behavioral responses to water-borne cues to predation in two container-dwelling mosquitoes.larvae of the mosquito toxorhynchites rutilus (coquillett) prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of aedes albopictus (skuse), which is native to asia but was introduced into the united states, and on the native tree hole mosquito ochlerotatus triseriatus (say). previous work has established that o. triseriatus adopts low-risk behaviors in the presence of predation risk from t. rutilus. it is unknown whether introduced a. albopictus show a similar response to this predator. ...017710216
the sublethal effects of the entomopathic fungus leptolegnia chapmanii on some biological parameters of the dengue vector aedes aegypti.the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue in the americas. the use of chemical insecticides is recommended during outbreaks of dengue in order to reduce the number of adult mosquitoes; however, because ae. aegypti is highly synanthropic, the use of insecticides in densely populated areas is a dangerous practice. leptolegnia chapmanii seymour (straminipila: peronosporomycetes) is an entomopathogenic microorganism that has demonstrated marked pathogenicit ...023901823
comparative genomics of odorant binding proteins in anopheles gambiae, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus.about 1 million people in the world die each year from diseases spread by mosquitoes, and understanding the mechanism of host identification by the mosquitoes through olfaction is at stake. the role of odorant binding proteins (obps) in the primary molecular events of olfaction in mosquitoes is becoming an important focus of biological research in this area. here, we present a comprehensive comparative genomics study of obps in the three disease-transmitting mosquito species anopheles gambiae, a ...023292137
functional classification and central nervous projections of olfactory receptor neurons housed in antennal trichoid sensilla of female yellow fever mosquitoes, aedes aegypti.mosquitoes are highly dependent on their olfactory system for, e.g. host location and identification of nectar-feeding and oviposition sites. odours are detected by olfactory receptor neurons (orns) housed in hair-shaped structures, sensilla, on the antennae and maxillary palps. in order to unravel the function of the olfactory system in the yellow fever vector, aedes aegypti, we performed single-sensillum recordings from trichoid sensilla on female antennae. these sensilla are divided into four ...017880395
vasa genes: emerging roles in the germ line and in multipotent cells.sexually reproducing metazoans establish a cell lineage during development that is ultimately dedicated to gamete production. work in a variety of animals suggests that a group of conserved molecular determinants act in this germ line maintenance and function. the most universal of these genes are vasa and vasa-like dead-box rna helicase genes. however, recent evidence indicates that vasa genes also function in other cell types, distinct from the germ line. here we evaluate our current understan ...020586054
towards abolition of immunogenic structures in insect cells: characterization of a honey-bee (apis mellifera) multi-gene family reveals both an allergy-related core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase and the first insect lewis-histo-blood-group-related antigen-synthesizing enzyme.glycoproteins from honey-bee (apis mellifera), such as phospholipase a2 and hyaluronidase, are well-known major bee-venom allergens. they carry n-linked oligosaccharide structures with two types of alpha1,3-fucosylation: the modification by alpha1,3-fucose of the innermost core glcnac, which constitutes an epitope recognized by ige from some bee-venom-allergic patients, and an antennal lewis-like galnacbeta1,4(fucalpha1,3)glcnac moiety. we now report the cloning and expression of two cdnas encod ...017029591
the central role of mosquito cytochrome p450 cyp6zs in insecticide detoxification revealed by functional expression and structural modelling.the resistance of mosquitoes to chemical insecticides is threatening vector control programmes worldwide. cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (cyps) are known to play a major role in insecticide resistance, allowing resistant insects to metabolize insecticides at a higher rate. among them, members of the mosquito cyp6z subfamily, like aedes aegypti cyp6z8 and its anopheles gambiae orthologue cyp6z2, have been frequently associated with pyrethroid resistance. however, their role in the pyrethroid degr ...023844938
cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, spodoptera litura.intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. the gaba receptor a2 (slgabarα2) subunit gene in spodoptera litura (fabricius) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription pcr and rapid amplification of cdna ends. the gemonic dna sequence of slgabarα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exo ...023909412
multimodal integration of carbon dioxide and other sensory cues drives mosquito attraction to humans.multiple sensory cues emanating from humans are thought to guide blood-feeding female mosquitoes to a host. to determine the relative contribution of carbon dioxide (co2) detection to mosquito host-seeking behavior, we mutated the aaeggr3 gene, a subunit of the heteromeric co2 receptor in aedes aegypti mosquitoes. gr3 mutants lack electrophysiological and behavioral responses to co2. these mutants also fail to show co2-evoked responses to heat and lactic acid, a human-derived attractant, suggest ...024581501
nutrition-dependent control of insect development by insulin-like peptides.in metazoans, members of the insulin-like peptide (ilp) family play a role in multiple physiological functions in response to the nutritional status. ilps have been identified and characterized in a wide variety of insect species. insect ilps that are mainly produced by several pairs of medial neurosecretory cells in the brain circulate in the hemolymph and act systemically on target tissues. physiological and biochemical studies in lepidoptera and genetic studies in the fruit fly have greatly e ...026664828
foreword. 024473796
cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of demodex mites.to our knowledge, few reports on demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. in this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (chs) gene fragments of demodex folliculorum, demodex brevis, and demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from xi'an china, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the chs gene of d. canis from japan, retrieved from genbank. results show that amplification was successf ...023024043
proteome changes in the plasma of papilio xuthus (lepidoptera: papilionidae): effect of parasitization by the endoparasitic wasp pteromalus puparum (hymenoptera: pteromalidae).although the biochemical dissection of parasitoid-host interactions is becoming well characterized, the molecular knowledge concerning them is minimal. in order to understand the molecular bases of the host immune response to parasitoid attack, we explored the response of papilio xuthus parasitized by the endoparasitic wasp pteromalus puparum using proteomic approach. by examining the differential expression of plasma proteins in the parasitized and unparasitized host pupae by two-dimensional (2 ...019489110
but2 is a member of the third major group of hat transposons and is involved in horizontal transfer events in the genus drosophila.the hat superfamily comprises a large and diverse array of dna transposons found in all supergroups of eukaryotes. here we characterized the drosophila buzzatii but2 element and found that it harbors a five-exon gene encoding a 643-aa putatively functional transposase. a phylogeny built with 85 hat transposases yielded, in addition to the two major groups already described, ac and buster, a third one comprising 20 sequences that includes but2, tip100, hat-4_bm, and rp-hat1. this third group is h ...024459285
cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-ht 1mac and 5-ht 2mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii.biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape respon ...019184976
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