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zika in the united states: how are we preparing? 027581255
contribution of dengue fever to the burden of acute febrile illnesses in papua new guinea: an age-specific prospective study.malaria is a major contributor to the burden of febrile illnesses in papua new guinea (png). dengue fever (df) is likely to contribute; however, its epidemiology in png is poorly understood. we performed a prospective age-stratified study in outpatient clinics investigating the prevalence of df; 578 patients were enrolled, and 317 patients with a negative rapid diagnostic test (rdt) for malaria were tested for dengue. malaria was confirmed in 52% (301/578, 95% confidence interval [ci] = 48-56%), ...021734138
mosquitocidal properties of igg targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (diptera: culicidae).the glutamate-gated chloride channel (glucl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. as an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulin g (igg) targeting the extracellular domain of glucl from anopheles gambiae (agglucl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: anopheles gambiae s.s., aedes aegypti and culex tarsalis. when administered through a single blood meal, anti-a ...025994632
evaluation of carbon dioxide- and 1-octen-3-ol-baited centers for disease control fay-prince traps to collect aedes albopictus.during the summer of 2001, field studies were performed to evaluate the effects of carbon dioxide (co2) and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) on the ability to collect aedes albopictus with centers for disease control (cdc) fay-prince traps. results from these studies indicated that ae. albopictus is significantly more attracted to co2- or co2 + octenol-baited cdc fay-prince traps than unbaited or octenol-baited traps. however, the difference between the responses to co2 and co2 + octenol was not statistic ...014710753
epidemic infections and their relevance to the gulf and other arabian peninsula countries. 024019727
preliminary analysis of several attractants and spatial repellents for the mosquito, aedes albopictus using an olfactometer.mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. in assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. in this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae). we found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. furthermor ...023418948
diversity of wolbachia pipientis strain wpip in a genetically admixtured, above-ground culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) population: association with form molestus ancestry and host selection patterns.analysis of molecular genetic diversity in nine marker regions of five genes within the bacteriophage wo genomic region revealed high diversity of the wolbachia pipentis strain wpip in a population of culex pipiens l. sampled in metropolitan chicago, il. from 166 blood fed females, 50 distinct genetic profiles of wpip were identified. rarefaction analysis suggested a maximum of 110 profiles out of a possible 512 predicted by combinations of the nine markers. a rank-abundance curve showed that fe ...022679853
effects of temperature on emergence and seasonality of west nile virus in california.temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of west nile virus transmission throughout california from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. we compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (bt), and the fundamental reproductive ratio (r(0)) based on a mathematical model, to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of receptivity to viral ampl ...022556092
analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals.we assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. mosquitoes were trapped at the rio grande zoo in albuquerque, nm, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. the distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. we found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. th ...022548540
in search of a better mosquito repellent. 018709154
survival of west nile virus-challenged southern house mosquitoes, culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, in relation to environmental temperatures.we investigated the effect of west nile virus (wnv) infection on survival in two colonies of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) originating from vero beach and gainesville, fl. mosquitoes were fed west nile virus-infected blood and checked daily for survival. exposure to wnv decreased survival among cx. p. quinquefasciatus from gainesville relative to unexposed individuals at 31° c. in contrast, exposure to wnv enhanced survival among cx. p. quinquefasciatus from vero beach ...024820564
zika virus, french polynesia, south pacific, 2013. 024856001
aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and aedes (howardina) cozumelensis in yucatán state, méxico, with a summary of published collection records for ae. cozumelensis.we collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010-2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of yucatán state in southeastern méxico. the arbovirus vector aedes (stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting aedes mosquito: aedes (howardina) cozumelensis. the communities from which ae. cozumelensis were coll ...023181861
public health response to aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes invading california, usa.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in california, usa. the threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control.026401891
regulation of physiological processes by micrornas in insects.micrornas (mirnas) are small non-coding rnas that function in gene regulatory processes in plants and animals by targeting sites within messenger rna. in insects, mirnas have been shown to regulate a variety of physiological processes throughout insect development, including molting, metamorphosis, oogenesis, embryogenesis, behavior and host-pathogen interactions. the roles of mirnas in the model organism, drosophila melanogaster, have been studied extensively due to the conserved nature of mirn ...026251827
next-generation sequencing in clinical virology: discovery of new viruses.viruses are a cause of significant health problem worldwide, especially in the developing nations. due to different anthropological activities, human populations are exposed to different viral pathogens, many of which emerge as outbreaks. in such situations, discovery of novel viruses is utmost important for deciding prevention and treatment strategies. since last century, a number of different virus discovery methods, based on cell culture inoculation, sequence-independent pcr have been used fo ...026279987
hla class ii allele polymorphism in an outbreak of chikungunya fever in middle andaman, india.a sudden upsurge of fever cases with joint pain was observed in the outpatient department, community health centre, rangat during july-august 2010 in rangat middle andaman, india. the aetiological agent responsible for the outbreak was identified as chikungunya virus (chikv), by using rt-pcr and igm elisa. the study investigated the association of polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen class ii genes with susceptibility or protection against chikv. one hundred and one patients with clinica ...023710940
modeling and biological control of mosquitoes.models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. at an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. when more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. there are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however, t ...017853610
habitat segregation of mosquito arbovirus vectors in south florida.oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south florida counties were colonized predominantly by culex quinquefasciatus say (35.1%), aedes albopictus (skuse) (34.5%), aedes aegypti (l.) (23.8%), and culex nigripalpus theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and ae. albopictus. aerial images of habitats around each collection site w ...017162945
urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) mainly infect people via direct spillover from enzootic cycles. however, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses have repeatedly initiated urban transmission cycles involving human amplification and peridomestic mosquito vectors to cause major epidemics. here, i review these urban emergences and potential strategies for their prevention and control.023910545
antiviral natural products and herbal medicines.viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural produ ...024872930
interspecific competition of a new invasive mosquito, culex coronator, and two container mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and cx. quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae), across different detritus environments.the mosquito culex coronator (dyar and knab) (diptera: culicidae) has undergone rapid range expansion in the united states since 2003, with its historical distribution in the southwest expanding eastward to the atlantic coast. although cx. coronator nominally use small natural aquatic habitats for development, the use of containers (e.g., tires) makes it potentially important as container invasive. to determine the potential ecological effects of cx. coronator on resident container species, we c ...024605457
high degree of single nucleotide polymorphisms in california culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) sensu lato.resolution of systematic relationships among members of the culex pipiens (l.) complex has important implications for public health as well as for studies on the evolution of sibling species. currently held views contend that in california considerable genetic introgression occurs between cx. pipiens and cx. quinquefasciatus say, and as such, these taxa behave as if they are a single species. development of high throughput snp genotyping tools for the analysis of cx. pipiens complex population s ...022493847
no evolutionary response to four generations of laboratory selection on antipredator behavior of aedes albopictus: potential implications for biotic resistance to invasion.aedes albopictus (skuse) is an invasive container-dwelling mosquito and an important disease vector that co-occurs with the native mosquito, aedes triseriatus (say), and the predatory midge, corethrella appendiculata (grabham). larval ae. triseriatus show significantly greater antipredatory responses when compared to larval ae. albopictus in the presence of predation cues from c. appendiculata. the potential for evolution of antipredatory behavioral responses to c. appendiculata in ae. albopictu ...019645279
emerging and re-emerging viruses in the era of globalisation. 019657478
effects of ingested vertebrate-derived factors on insect immune responses.during the process of blood feeding insect vectors are exposed to an array of vertebrate-derived blood factors ranging from byproducts of blood meal digestion to naturally occurring products in the blood including growth hormones, cytokines and factors derived from blood-borne pathogens themselves. in this review, we examine the ability of these ingested vertebrate blood factors to alter the innate pathogen defenses of insect vectors. the ability of these factors to modify the immune responses o ...025401083
towards a hybrid agent-based model for mosquito borne disease.agent-based models (abm) are used to simulate the spread of infectious disease through a population. detailed human movement, demography, realistic business location networks, and in-host disease progression are available in existing abms, such as the epidemic simulation system (episims). these capabilities make possible the exploration of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical mitigation strategies used to inform the public health community. there is a similar need for the spread of mosquito bor ...026618203
outsmarting olfaction: the next generation of mosquito repellents. 016002364
passive prophylaxis with permethrin-treated tents reduces mosquito bites among north american summer campers.over 2 million adolescents participate in summer-camp experiences, placing themselves at risk for mosquito-borne illness. insect repellent is recommended but often not used. it is unknown whether permethrin treatment of a location, such as a campsite, provides passive prophylaxis reducing mosquito bites among all persons in the immediate vicinity.015813141
functional circadian clock genes are essential for the overwintering diapause of the northern house mosquito, culex pipiens.the short day lengths of late summer are used to program the overwintering adult diapause (dormancy) of the northern house mosquito, culex pipiens. here, we investigated the role of clock genes in initiating this diapause and asked whether the circadian cycling of clock gene expression persists during diapause. we provide evidence that the major circadian clock genes continue to cycle throughout diapause and after diapause has been terminated. rna interference (rnai) was used to knock down the c ...025653422
facts and ideas from anywhere. 016369660
evaluation of a stable isotope method to mark naturally-breeding larval mosquitoes for adult dispersal studies.understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. mark-release-recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. however, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. culex pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were pro ...022308772
dengue outbreak in key west, florida, usa, 2009.after 3 dengue cases were acquired in key west, florida, we conducted a serosurvey to determine the scope of the outbreak. thirteen residents showed recent infection (infection rate 5%; 90% ci 2%-8%), demonstrating the reemergence of dengue in florida. increased awareness of dengue among health care providers is needed.022257471
volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals.plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable ...025383131
risk assessment for yellow fever in western and north-western provinces of zambia.north-western and western provinces of zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (yf). however, the current potential for yf transmission in these areas is unclear.025722614
peripheral coding of taste.five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty, and sour (acid), are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near-universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. the identification over the last two ...024607224
genomic screening with rnai: results and challenges.rna interference (rnai) is an effective tool for genome-scale, high-throughput analysis of gene function. in the past five years, a number of genome-scale rnai high-throughput screens (htss) have been done in both drosophila and mammalian cultured cells to study diverse biological processes, including signal transduction, cancer biology, and host cell responses to infection. results from these screens have led to the identification of new components of these processes and, importantly, have also ...020367032
zika virus: a global threat to humanity: a comprehensive review and current developments.at present, one of greatest concerns of medical personnel is zika virus (zikv). though it has been reported for quite a long time, its rapid emergence, new modes of transmission, and more importantly, the congenital anomalies associated with it have made the situation worse. it was first detected in 1947. after that, this infection was found in the countries of africa as well as asia. at present, interestingly it has been reported from brazil. microcephaly and intracranial calcification have bee ...027114968
virus evolution and transmission in an ever more connected world.the frequency and global impact of infectious disease outbreaks, particularly those caused by emerging viruses, demonstrate the need for a better understanding of how spatial ecology and pathogen evolution jointly shape epidemic dynamics. advances in computational techniques and the increasing availability of genetic and geospatial data are helping to address this problem, particularly when both information sources are combined. here, we review research at the intersection of evolutionary biolog ...026702033
history, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of zika: a systematic review.to describe salient epidemiological characteristics of zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history.026959260
dengue in the context of "safe blood" and global epidemiology: to screen or not to screen? 022882092
emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in brazil.environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. this review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in brazil: chikungunya, west nile, and zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the country's public health. the brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviru ...027355468
zika. an emerging teratogenic virus.[no abstract available].027464857
evolutionary and ecological characterization of mayaro virus strains isolated during an outbreak, venezuela, 2010.in 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at la estación village, portuguesa state, venezuela. the etiologic agent was determined to be mayaro virus (mayv), a reemerging south american alphavirus. a total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. mayv was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. we sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of mayv genetic diversity, which facilitated de ...026401714
microhabitat partitioning of aedes simpsoni (diptera: culicidae).yellow fever virus is a reemerging infection responsible for widespread, sporadic outbreaks across africa. although aedes aegypti (l.) is the most important vector globally, in east africa, epidemics may be vectored by aedes bromeliae (theobald), a member of the aedes simpsoni (theobald) species complex. the ae. simpsoni complex contains 10 subspecies, of which ae. bromeliae alone has been incriminated as a vector of yellow fever virus. however, morphological markers cannot distinguish ae. brome ...024897852
climate and human health: the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases, paphos, cyprus (17-19 october 2012). 024428826
a case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in ecuador.we report the first case of viscerotropic syndrome in ecuador. because of similarities between yellow fever and viscerotropic syndrome, the incidence of this recently described complication of vaccination with the 17d yellow fever vaccine is not known. there is a large population in south america that is considered at risk for possible reemergence of urban yellow fever. knowledge of potentially fatal complications of yellow fever vaccine should temper decisions to vaccinate populations where the ...020348528
the global distribution of yellow fever and dengue.yellow fever has been subjected to partial control for decades, but there are signs that case numbers are now increasing globally, with the risk of local epidemic outbreaks. dengue case numbers have also increased dramatically during the past 40 years and different serotypes have invaded new geographical areas. despite the temporal changes in these closely related diseases, and their enormous public health impact, few attempts have been made to collect a comprehensive dataset of their spatial an ...016647971
assessing the risk of international spread of yellow fever virus: a mathematical analysis of an urban outbreak in asuncion, 2008.yellow fever virus (yfv), a mosquito-borne virus endemic to tropical africa and south america, is capable of causing large urban outbreaks of human disease. with the ease of international travel, urban outbreaks could lead to the rapid spread and subsequent transmission of yfv in distant locations. we designed a stochastic metapopulation model with spatiotemporally explicit transmissibility scenarios to simulate the global spread of yfv from a single urban outbreak by infected airline travelers. ...022302873
chikungunya virus as cause of febrile illness outbreak, chiapas, mexico, 2014.since chikungunya virus (chikv) was introduced into the americas in 2013, its geographic distribution has rapidly expanded. of 119 serum samples collected in 2014 from febrile patients in southern mexico, 79% were positive for chikv or igm against chikv. sequencing results confirmed chikv strains closely related to caribbean isolates.026488312
the deadly ebola threat in the midst of an overwhelming dengue epidemic.the recent death tolls and morbidities associated with two deadly viral haemorrhagic fevers (vhfs), i.e., ebola and dengue, are simply shocking. by the end of august 2014, 65 672 people were afflicted with dengue fever (df) in malaysia, with 9505 from kelantan, and there were 128 reported deaths. more astounding are the death tolls associated with ebola: 3091 deaths from 6574 reported cases so far. it is not difficult to imagine the potential disaster if ebola spreads beyond africa. vhfs are cha ...025897277
a three year retrospective study on the increasing trend in seroprevalence of dengue infection from southern odisha, india.in odisha, several cases of dengue virus infection were detected for the first time in 2010, the importance of dengue as a serious mosquito-borne viral infection was felt only in 2011 with the reporting of many more positive cases. this retrospective three year study was done to find out the seroprevalence of dengue ig m0 antibody and to know the predominant serotype of dengue virus among the patients suspected to have dengue virus infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern odisha, india.025579149
false-negative dengue cases in roraima, brazil: an approach regarding the high number of negative results by ns1 ag kits.serum samples from 150 ns1-negative (platelia elisa) patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the taqman probed real-time reverse transcription pcr (taqman qrt-pcr) method. the qrt-pcr positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested rt-pcr and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for igg and igm. molecular detection methods showed 33 (22%) positive samples out of 150 ns1-antigen negative samples. of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of sympt ...025229228
clinicohematological profiles of hospitalized patients with dengue in kolkata in 2012 epidemic, west bengal.dengue usually presents itself with subclinical or mild infection to full blown dengue fever (df) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) and dengue shock syndrome (dss). in kolkata, dengue started in 1824 followed by five epidemics that occurred in 1836, 1906, 1911, 1923 and 2005. the aim of this investigation is to study the clinicohematological correlation of all patients with respect to their gender that were admitted to "kali pada chowdhury medical college and hospital" during 2012 epidemic. amon ...025242847
emergence of dengue in tribal villages of mandla district, madhya pradesh, india.dengue (den) is a rapidly spreading arboviral disease transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. although it is endemic in india, dengue virus (denv) infection has not been reported from tribal areas of madhya pradesh. investigations were conducted to establish the aetiology of sudden upsurge of cases with febrile illness in june 2013 from tribal villages of mandla district of madhya pradesh, india.026139775
symbionts conferring resistance to viruses in insects. 025417905
dengue fever outbreak in delhi, north india: a clinico-epidemiological study.dengue viruses, single-stranded positive polarity ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses of the family flaviviridae, are the most common cause of arboviral disease in the world. we report a clinico-epidemiological study of the dengue fever outbreak of 2010 from a tertiary care hospital in delhi, north india.025861176
autochthonous dengue fever, tokyo, japan, 2014.after 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in japan, 19 cases were reported during august-september 2014. dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in japan.025695200
minimal within-host dengue models highlight the specific roles of the immune response in primary and secondary dengue infections.in recent years, the within-host viral dynamics of dengue infections have been increasingly characterized, and the relationship between aspects of these dynamics and the manifestation of severe disease has been increasingly probed. despite this progress, there are few mathematical models of within-host dengue dynamics, and the ones that exist focus primarily on the general role of immune cells in the clearance of infected cells, while neglecting other components of the immune response in limitin ...025519990
analogs of ldl receptor ligand motifs in dengue envelope and capsid proteins as potential codes for cell entry.it is established that cell entry of low density lipoprotein particles (llps) containing apo b100 and apo e is mediated by receptors and gags. receptor ligand motifs, xbbbxxbx, xbbxbx, and ψbψxb, and mono- and bipartite nls sequences are abundant in apo e and apo b100 as well as in envelope and capsid proteins of dengue viruses 1-4 (denv1-4). synthetic, fluorescence-labeled peptides of sequences in denv2 envelope protein, and denv3 capsid that include these motifs were used to conduct a qualitat ...027123468
dengue and its effects on liver.dengue has emerged as an important arboviral disease with significant impact on the disease burden in population residing in tropical countries. dengue is spread by the bite of aedes mosquito. the virus seems to have some hepatotoxic effects. affliction of liver in form of derangements in the liver function tests is common and may include mild elevations in serum bilirubin, elevated transaminases and derangements in serum albumin. although asymptomatic in most cases, clinical manifestations like ...025685758
dengue virus specific dual hla binding t cell epitopes induce cd8+ t cell responses in seropositive individuals.dengue virus infects an estimated 300 million people each year and even more are at risk of becoming infected as the virus continues to spread into new areas. despite the increase in viral prevalence, no anti-viral medications or vaccines are approved for treating or preventing infection. cd8+ t cell responses play a major role in viral clearance. therefore, effective vaccines that induce a broad, multi-functional t cell response with substantial cross-reactivity between all virus serotypes can ...025668665
el niño southern oscillation and vegetation dynamics as predictors of dengue fever cases in costa rica.dengue fever (df) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) are growing health concerns throughout latin america and the caribbean. this study focuses on costa rica, which experienced over 100 000 cases of df/dhf from 2003 to 2007. we utilized data on sea-surface temperature anomalies related to the el niño southern oscillation (enso) and two vegetation indices derived from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (modis) from the terra satellite to model the influence of climate and vegetation dyn ...019763186
reconstructing historical changes in the force of infection of dengue fever in singapore: implications for surveillance and control.to reconstruct the historical changes in force of dengue infection in singapore, and to better understand the relationship between control of aedes mosquitoes and incidence of classic dengue fever.018368205
dengue fever presenting as acute pancreatitis.a 56-year-old non-alcoholic male was admitted with complaints of severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis after blood investigations and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen. he developed a high-grade fever on the third day of admission, and serology tested positive for dengue. treatment for dengue was instituted, leading to a good response and complete resolution of pancreatitis. the patient has been doing well and has had no recurrence of pancreatitis at the end of ...025610147
study of seroprevalence of dengue fever in central india. 021278875
observation on dengue cases from a virus diagnostic laboratory of a tertiary care hospital in north india.the epidemiology of dengue fever (df) is complex in the indian subcontinent as all the four serotypes are circulating. this study reports observations on dengue cases from a virus diagnostic laboratory of a north indian tertiary care hospital catering to areas in and around lucknow, uttar pradesh.026905245
dengue: an escalating problem. 012089096
rnai: antiviral therapy against dengue virus.dengue virus infection has become a global threat affecting around 100 countries in the world. currently, there is no licensed antiviral agent available against dengue. thus, there is a strong need to develop therapeutic strategies that can tackle this life threatening disease. rna interference is an important and effective gene silencing process which degrades targeted rna by a sequence specific process. several studies have been conducted during the last decade to evaluate the efficiency of si ...023620845
evasion of the human innate immune system by dengue virus.dengue virus is a worldwide health problem, with billions of people at risk annually. dengue virus causes a spectrum of diseases, namely dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome with the latter two being linked to death. understanding how dengue is able to evade the immune system and cause enhanced severity of disease is the main topics of interest in the fernandez-sesma laboratory at mount sinai school of medicine. using primary human immune cells, our group investigates ...022569913
oral presentation in dengue hemorrhagic fever: a rare entity.one of the major health hazards which is prevalent and dangerous is the dengue fever which causes the death of many people. this may be associated with a variety of mucocutaneous manifestations which may be of help in early diagnosis. many biochemical assays and hematological investigations may aid in the further diagnosis and treatment of the fatal disease. oral lesions are rare to occur and if present, are often mistaken for platelet abnormality. this case report highlights the importance of o ...023633881
dengue outbreaks in high-income area, kaohsiung city, taiwan, 2003-2009.kaohsiung city, a modern metropolis of 1.5 million persons, has been the focus of dengue virus activity in taiwan for several decades. the aim of this study was to provide a temporal and spatial description of dengue virus epidemiology in kaohsiung city by using data for all laboratory-confirmed dengue cases during 2003-2009. we investigated age- and sex-dependent incidence rates and the spatiotemporal patterns of all cases confirmed through passive or active surveillance. elderly persons were a ...023017369
dengue shock.shock syndrome is a dangerous complication of dengue infection and is associated with high mortality. severe dengue occurs as a result of secondary infection with a different virus serotype. increased vascular permeability, together with myocardial dysfunction and dehydration, contribute to the development of shock, with resultant multiorgan failure. the onset of shock in dengue can be dramatic, and its progression relentless. the pathogenesis of shock in dengue is complex. it is known that endo ...021633580
dengue in india.dengue virus belongs to family flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected aedes mosquitoes. it causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (dhf/dss). approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. the cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the ...023041731
seroprevalence and trend of dengue cases admitted to a government hospital, delhi - 5-year study (2006-2010): a look into the age shift.diagnosis of dengue infection is easily and best accomplished by demonstration of specific igm antibodies in blood. we analyzed retrospectively the dengue igm seropositivity available for samples obtained over a period of 5 years (2006-2010) from patients with suspected dengue fever (df)-like illness to investigate whether there was an overall increase in the dengue igm prevalence over this period.022973483
molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of dengue viruses imported into taiwan during 2008-2010.we present our surveillance results on imported dengue cases in taiwan during 2008-2010. a total of 734 imported dengue patients were identified. the travelers were arriving from 18 countries, including southeast asia, the indian subcontinent, south pacific islands, and latin america. gene sequences from 358 dengue virus (denv) isolates were used to perform phylogenetic analyses, thus, providing an updated view of the geographic distribution and dynamic transmission of denv strains circulating i ...022855770
dengue outbreak in hadramout, yemen, 2010: an epidemiological perspective.we analyzed surveillance data of a dengue outbreak (2010) reported to the hadramout health office (yemen) and retrospectively analyzed dengue-related epidemiological and entomological events reported in hadramout from 2005 to 2009. a total of 630 immunoglobulin m (igm) -confirmed dengue cases of 982 febrile cases was reported during the period from february to june of 2010; 12 cases died, giving case fatality a rate of 1.9%. among febrile cases, the highest proportion of dengue cases (37.3%) was ...022665621
dispersal of male aedes aegypti in a coastal village in southern mexico.most aedes aegypti dispersal studies have focused on females because of their central role in dengue virus transmission. only a few mark-release-recapture (mrr) studies provided insights into male ae. aegypti dispersal. to fill this knowledge gap, we conducted five male ae. aegypti mrr experiments in a coastal village in southern mexico. small and large male cohorts were marked with fluorescent dusts, released outside buildings, and recaptures were carried out by using backpack aspirators. recap ...022492152
dengue hemorrhagic fever in trinidad and tobago: a case for a conservative approach to platelet transfusion.dengue fever is endemic to trinidad and tobago. a retrospective analysis of all adult admissions at a tertiary hospital in trinidad treated for dengue during january 1-december 31, 2008 was performed. a total of 186 patients were treated during this period: 98.9% (184) of the patients were thrombocytopenic; 45.2% were severely thrombocytopenic; 13 patients showed development of minor hemorrhage and only one case of major hemorrhage; platelet transfusion was given for 7% (13) of the cases; and 6 ...022403331
impact of insect salivary proteins in blood feeding, host immunity, disease, and in the development of biomarkers for vector exposure.functional genomic approaches based on expression of recombinant proteins linked to biochemical and disease model approaches resulted in the discovery of novel biological activities and the role some of these proteins play in disease transmission. importantly, the expression of salivary proteins was recently shown to be affected by environmental factors and by the presence of the pathogen in the salivary gland. a practical application resulting from insect saliva research is the use of insect an ...026339571
molecular insight into dengue virus pathogenesis and its implications for disease control.dengue virus (denv) is a mosquito-transmitted rna virus that infects an estimated 390 million humans each year. here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the biology of denv and describe knowledge gaps that have impacted the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics.026232221
clinical and laboratory profile of dengue in the elderly.dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world with a 30-fold increase in incidence in the last 50 years. approximately, 50 million dengue infections occur annually.026288776
dengue hemorrhagic fever at 60 years: early evolution of concepts of causation and treatment.during the decade of the 1960s, the epidemiology of a new dengue disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (dhf/dss), was described by collaborative research performed by thai scientists from many institutions and by workers at the u.s. army's seato medical research laboratory in bangkok, thailand. careful clinical and physiological studies provided the initial description of dss. dss cases were caused by each of the four dengue viruses (denv) and not chikungunya (chik) virus o ...026085471
dengue: profile of hematological and biochemical dynamics.the objective of this study was to correlate laboratory tests during the evolution of dengue fever, comparing frequencies between the different clinical forms in order to use test results to predict the severity of the disease.023049382
chikungunya and dengue fever among hospitalized febrile patients in northern tanzania.consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in moshi, tanzania. confirmed acute chikungunya virus (chikv), dengue virus (denv), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) result. presumptive acute denv infection was defined as a positive anti-denv immunoglobulin m (igm) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (elisa) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-denv igg elisa result. among 870 participants, pcr testing w ...022232469
dengue fever treatment with carica papaya leaves extracts.the main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of carica papaya leaves extracts against dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. for the treatment of dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 ml of aqueous extract of c. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. platelet ...023569787
emergence of dengue in andaman & nicobar archipelago: eco-epidemiological perspective. 021911978
development of assure dengue iga rapid test for the detection of anti-dengue iga from dengue infected patients.rapid and early dengue diagnosis is essential for patient management and early disease intervention. mp diagnostics assure(®) dengue iga rapid test (dengue iga rt) was developed for the rapid detection of anti-dengue iga in patients' biological samples. the performance of dengue iga rt was examined using multiple categories of well-characterized samples.021887054
vertical transmission of key west dengue-1 virus by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes from florida.following the 2009 and 2010 dengue-1 (denv-1) outbreaks in key west, fl, we used florida aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes and denv-1 isolated from key west in 2010 to test the hypothesis that if the 2009 and 2010 denv-1 genome sequences are similar, then vertical transmission of denv-1 from infected ae. aegypti female mosquitoes to their eggs could have served as an interepidemic reservoir between outbreaks. we also investigated the ability of florida aedes albopictus (skuse) mosquitoes to vertical ...024843934
atypical dengue meningitis in makkah, saudi arabia with slow resolving, prominent migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia.although dengue meningitis is a rare presentation of dengue infection, our aim is to focus on atypical presentation of dengue meningitis that may appear in dengue endemic area like the makkah region. we report two cases of clinical meningitis with positive dengue virus (denv) igm in cerebrospinal fluid, followed for minimal 3 months for their prominent attacks of migraine like headache, phobia, and arrhythmia. with special consideration to attack time, type, severity, and respond to classical th ...024672183
transition in the cause of fever from malaria to dengue, northwestern ecuador, 1990-2011.in tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. however by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. this finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue.024047566
global consensus sequence development and analysis of dengue ns3 conserved domains.the dengue virus (denv) genome encodes 10 different genes including the ns3 gene, which has a protease and helicase domain used in virus replication. this domain is a potential target for antiviral agents against dengue. due to a high mutation rate, denv is classified into four major serotypes (denv1-denv4). this study was designed to perform conservancy analysis of all four serotypes by drawing a consensus sequence for each serotype and then drawing a global consensus sequence to study conserve ...024083095
dual role of commensal bacteria in viral infections.with our abilities to culture and sequence the commensal bacteria that dwell on and within a host, we can now study the host in its entirety, as a supraorganism that must be navigated by the pathogen invader. at present, the majority of studies have focused on the interaction between the host's microbiota and bacterial pathogens. this is not unwarranted, given that bacterial pathogens must compete with commensal organisms for the limited territory afforded by the host. however, viral pathogens a ...023947358
cell phone-based system (chaak) for surveillance of immatures of dengue virus mosquito vectors.capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. we focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a ce ...023926788
commentary. 024250192
dengue: a growing menace -- a snapshot of recent facts, figures & remedies.dengue is specially owing to inadequate water supply and poor solid waste management , which are favorable for multiplication of the main vectors including the aedes ageypti coupled with lack of proven anti viral therapy and no proven efficient vaccine .there are many cases of both dengue shock syndrome and dengue haemmorhagic fever making it a major public health burden sending ominous signal resulting both rising morbidity & mortality, deleterious effect on daly [disability adjusted life year] ...023847455
dengue vaccine: a valuable asset for the future.dengue has emerged as one of the major global public health problems. the disease has broken out of its shell and has spread due to increased international travel and climatic changes. globally, over 2.5 billion people accounting for >40% of the world's population are at risk from dengue. since the 1940s, dengue vaccines have been under investigation. a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (cyd-tdv) has progressed to phase iii efficacy studies. dengue v ...025424928
papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. in the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the carica papaya plant from the family caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. this review describes some of the published studies on this topic. the search w ...024971201
mucocutaneous manifestations of dengue fever.dengue viral infection is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality and may be associated with a variety of mucocutaneous manifestations that may provide important early clues to the diagnosis of this condition. cutaneous and mucosal findings like confluent erythema, morbilliform eruptions, and hemorrhagic lesions may figure prominently in the clinical features of dengue. the differential diagnoses include a large number of bacterial and viral exanthems as well as drug rash.020418984
dengue fever-induced cold-agglutinin syndrome. 025469236
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