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emerging viral diseases. 018491811
thoughts around the zika virus crisis.as a lot of reviews are available on zika virus (zikv), in this short commentary, we will focus on the recent advances and gaps in knowledge regarding our understanding of zikv infections and on the reaction to the "zikv crisis."027832453
culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit zika virus.we report that two laboratory colonies of culex quinquefasciatus and culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit zikv either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on vero cells. we therefore consider it unlikely that culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of zikv.027605159
experimental investigation of the susceptibility of italian culex pipiens mosquitoes to zika virus infection.we investigated the susceptibility of an italian population of culex pipiens mosquitoes to zika virus (zikv) infection, tested in parallel with aedes aegypti, as a positive control. we analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. viral rna was detected in the body of cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. our results indicate that cx. pipiens is not susceptible to zikv infection.027605056
evaluation of carbon dioxide- and 1-octen-3-ol-baited centers for disease control fay-prince traps to collect aedes albopictus.during the summer of 2001, field studies were performed to evaluate the effects of carbon dioxide (co2) and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) on the ability to collect aedes albopictus with centers for disease control (cdc) fay-prince traps. results from these studies indicated that ae. albopictus is significantly more attracted to co2- or co2 + octenol-baited cdc fay-prince traps than unbaited or octenol-baited traps. however, the difference between the responses to co2 and co2 + octenol was not statistic ...014710753
epidemic infections and their relevance to the gulf and other arabian peninsula countries. 024019727
preliminary analysis of several attractants and spatial repellents for the mosquito, aedes albopictus using an olfactometer.mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. in assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. in this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae). we found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. furthermor ...023418948
diversity of wolbachia pipientis strain wpip in a genetically admixtured, above-ground culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) population: association with form molestus ancestry and host selection patterns.analysis of molecular genetic diversity in nine marker regions of five genes within the bacteriophage wo genomic region revealed high diversity of the wolbachia pipentis strain wpip in a population of culex pipiens l. sampled in metropolitan chicago, il. from 166 blood fed females, 50 distinct genetic profiles of wpip were identified. rarefaction analysis suggested a maximum of 110 profiles out of a possible 512 predicted by combinations of the nine markers. a rank-abundance curve showed that fe ...022679853
effects of temperature on emergence and seasonality of west nile virus in california.temperature has played a critical role in the spatiotemporal dynamics of west nile virus transmission throughout california from its introduction in 2003 through establishment by 2009. we compared two novel mechanistic measures of transmission risk, the temperature-dependent ratio of virus extrinsic incubation period to the mosquito gonotrophic period (bt), and the fundamental reproductive ratio (r(0)) based on a mathematical model, to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of receptivity to viral ampl ...022556092
in search of a better mosquito repellent. 018709154
analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals.we assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. mosquitoes were trapped at the rio grande zoo in albuquerque, nm, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. the distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. we found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. th ...022548540
public health response to aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes invading california, usa.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in california, usa. the threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control.026401891
regulation of physiological processes by micrornas in insects.micrornas (mirnas) are small non-coding rnas that function in gene regulatory processes in plants and animals by targeting sites within messenger rna. in insects, mirnas have been shown to regulate a variety of physiological processes throughout insect development, including molting, metamorphosis, oogenesis, embryogenesis, behavior and host-pathogen interactions. the roles of mirnas in the model organism, drosophila melanogaster, have been studied extensively due to the conserved nature of mirn ...026251827
urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) mainly infect people via direct spillover from enzootic cycles. however, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses have repeatedly initiated urban transmission cycles involving human amplification and peridomestic mosquito vectors to cause major epidemics. here, i review these urban emergences and potential strategies for their prevention and control.023910545
aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and aedes (howardina) cozumelensis in yucatán state, méxico, with a summary of published collection records for ae. cozumelensis.we collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010-2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of yucatán state in southeastern méxico. the arbovirus vector aedes (stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting aedes mosquito: aedes (howardina) cozumelensis. the communities from which ae. cozumelensis were coll ...023181861
habitat segregation of mosquito arbovirus vectors in south florida.oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south florida counties were colonized predominantly by culex quinquefasciatus say (35.1%), aedes albopictus (skuse) (34.5%), aedes aegypti (l.) (23.8%), and culex nigripalpus theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and ae. albopictus. aerial images of habitats around each collection site w ...017162945
antiviral natural products and herbal medicines.viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural produ ...024872930
high degree of single nucleotide polymorphisms in california culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) sensu lato.resolution of systematic relationships among members of the culex pipiens (l.) complex has important implications for public health as well as for studies on the evolution of sibling species. currently held views contend that in california considerable genetic introgression occurs between cx. pipiens and cx. quinquefasciatus say, and as such, these taxa behave as if they are a single species. development of high throughput snp genotyping tools for the analysis of cx. pipiens complex population s ...022493847
no evolutionary response to four generations of laboratory selection on antipredator behavior of aedes albopictus: potential implications for biotic resistance to invasion.aedes albopictus (skuse) is an invasive container-dwelling mosquito and an important disease vector that co-occurs with the native mosquito, aedes triseriatus (say), and the predatory midge, corethrella appendiculata (grabham). larval ae. triseriatus show significantly greater antipredatory responses when compared to larval ae. albopictus in the presence of predation cues from c. appendiculata. the potential for evolution of antipredatory behavioral responses to c. appendiculata in ae. albopictu ...019645279
passive prophylaxis with permethrin-treated tents reduces mosquito bites among north american summer campers.over 2 million adolescents participate in summer-camp experiences, placing themselves at risk for mosquito-borne illness. insect repellent is recommended but often not used. it is unknown whether permethrin treatment of a location, such as a campsite, provides passive prophylaxis reducing mosquito bites among all persons in the immediate vicinity.015813141
evaluation of a stable isotope method to mark naturally-breeding larval mosquitoes for adult dispersal studies.understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. mark-release-recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. however, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. culex pipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were pro ...022308772
volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals.plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable ...025383131
genomic screening with rnai: results and challenges.rna interference (rnai) is an effective tool for genome-scale, high-throughput analysis of gene function. in the past five years, a number of genome-scale rnai high-throughput screens (htss) have been done in both drosophila and mammalian cultured cells to study diverse biological processes, including signal transduction, cancer biology, and host cell responses to infection. results from these screens have led to the identification of new components of these processes and, importantly, have also ...020367032
zika virus: a global threat to humanity: a comprehensive review and current developments.at present, one of greatest concerns of medical personnel is zika virus (zikv). though it has been reported for quite a long time, its rapid emergence, new modes of transmission, and more importantly, the congenital anomalies associated with it have made the situation worse. it was first detected in 1947. after that, this infection was found in the countries of africa as well as asia. at present, interestingly it has been reported from brazil. microcephaly and intracranial calcification have bee ...027114968
virus evolution and transmission in an ever more connected world.the frequency and global impact of infectious disease outbreaks, particularly those caused by emerging viruses, demonstrate the need for a better understanding of how spatial ecology and pathogen evolution jointly shape epidemic dynamics. advances in computational techniques and the increasing availability of genetic and geospatial data are helping to address this problem, particularly when both information sources are combined. here, we review research at the intersection of evolutionary biolog ...026702033
dengue in the context of "safe blood" and global epidemiology: to screen or not to screen? 022882092
emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in brazil.environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. this review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in brazil: chikungunya, west nile, and zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the country's public health. the brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviru ...027355468
evolutionary and ecological characterization of mayaro virus strains isolated during an outbreak, venezuela, 2010.in 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at la estación village, portuguesa state, venezuela. the etiologic agent was determined to be mayaro virus (mayv), a reemerging south american alphavirus. a total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. mayv was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. we sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of mayv genetic diversity, which facilitated de ...026401714
climate and human health: the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases, paphos, cyprus (17-19 october 2012). 024428826
microhabitat partitioning of aedes simpsoni (diptera: culicidae).yellow fever virus is a reemerging infection responsible for widespread, sporadic outbreaks across africa. although aedes aegypti (l.) is the most important vector globally, in east africa, epidemics may be vectored by aedes bromeliae (theobald), a member of the aedes simpsoni (theobald) species complex. the ae. simpsoni complex contains 10 subspecies, of which ae. bromeliae alone has been incriminated as a vector of yellow fever virus. however, morphological markers cannot distinguish ae. brome ...024897852
a case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in ecuador.we report the first case of viscerotropic syndrome in ecuador. because of similarities between yellow fever and viscerotropic syndrome, the incidence of this recently described complication of vaccination with the 17d yellow fever vaccine is not known. there is a large population in south america that is considered at risk for possible reemergence of urban yellow fever. knowledge of potentially fatal complications of yellow fever vaccine should temper decisions to vaccinate populations where the ...020348528
assessing the risk of international spread of yellow fever virus: a mathematical analysis of an urban outbreak in asuncion, 2008.yellow fever virus (yfv), a mosquito-borne virus endemic to tropical africa and south america, is capable of causing large urban outbreaks of human disease. with the ease of international travel, urban outbreaks could lead to the rapid spread and subsequent transmission of yfv in distant locations. we designed a stochastic metapopulation model with spatiotemporally explicit transmissibility scenarios to simulate the global spread of yfv from a single urban outbreak by infected airline travelers. ...022302873
false-negative dengue cases in roraima, brazil: an approach regarding the high number of negative results by ns1 ag kits.serum samples from 150 ns1-negative (platelia elisa) patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the taqman probed real-time reverse transcription pcr (taqman qrt-pcr) method. the qrt-pcr positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested rt-pcr and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for igg and igm. molecular detection methods showed 33 (22%) positive samples out of 150 ns1-antigen negative samples. of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of sympt ...025229228
clinicohematological profiles of hospitalized patients with dengue in kolkata in 2012 epidemic, west bengal.dengue usually presents itself with subclinical or mild infection to full blown dengue fever (df) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) and dengue shock syndrome (dss). in kolkata, dengue started in 1824 followed by five epidemics that occurred in 1836, 1906, 1911, 1923 and 2005. the aim of this investigation is to study the clinicohematological correlation of all patients with respect to their gender that were admitted to "kali pada chowdhury medical college and hospital" during 2012 epidemic. amon ...025242847
the deadly ebola threat in the midst of an overwhelming dengue epidemic.the recent death tolls and morbidities associated with two deadly viral haemorrhagic fevers (vhfs), i.e., ebola and dengue, are simply shocking. by the end of august 2014, 65 672 people were afflicted with dengue fever (df) in malaysia, with 9505 from kelantan, and there were 128 reported deaths. more astounding are the death tolls associated with ebola: 3091 deaths from 6574 reported cases so far. it is not difficult to imagine the potential disaster if ebola spreads beyond africa. vhfs are cha ...025897277
a three year retrospective study on the increasing trend in seroprevalence of dengue infection from southern odisha, india.in odisha, several cases of dengue virus infection were detected for the first time in 2010, the importance of dengue as a serious mosquito-borne viral infection was felt only in 2011 with the reporting of many more positive cases. this retrospective three year study was done to find out the seroprevalence of dengue ig m0 antibody and to know the predominant serotype of dengue virus among the patients suspected to have dengue virus infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern odisha, india.025579149
dengue fever outbreak in delhi, north india: a clinico-epidemiological study.dengue viruses, single-stranded positive polarity ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses of the family flaviviridae, are the most common cause of arboviral disease in the world. we report a clinico-epidemiological study of the dengue fever outbreak of 2010 from a tertiary care hospital in delhi, north india.025861176
analogs of ldl receptor ligand motifs in dengue envelope and capsid proteins as potential codes for cell entry.it is established that cell entry of low density lipoprotein particles (llps) containing apo b100 and apo e is mediated by receptors and gags. receptor ligand motifs, xbbbxxbx, xbbxbx, and ψbψxb, and mono- and bipartite nls sequences are abundant in apo e and apo b100 as well as in envelope and capsid proteins of dengue viruses 1-4 (denv1-4). synthetic, fluorescence-labeled peptides of sequences in denv2 envelope protein, and denv3 capsid that include these motifs were used to conduct a qualitat ...027123468
reconstructing historical changes in the force of infection of dengue fever in singapore: implications for surveillance and control.to reconstruct the historical changes in force of dengue infection in singapore, and to better understand the relationship between control of aedes mosquitoes and incidence of classic dengue fever.018368205
dengue fever presenting as acute pancreatitis.a 56-year-old non-alcoholic male was admitted with complaints of severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis after blood investigations and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen. he developed a high-grade fever on the third day of admission, and serology tested positive for dengue. treatment for dengue was instituted, leading to a good response and complete resolution of pancreatitis. the patient has been doing well and has had no recurrence of pancreatitis at the end of ...025610147
dengue: an escalating problem. 012089096
rnai: antiviral therapy against dengue virus.dengue virus infection has become a global threat affecting around 100 countries in the world. currently, there is no licensed antiviral agent available against dengue. thus, there is a strong need to develop therapeutic strategies that can tackle this life threatening disease. rna interference is an important and effective gene silencing process which degrades targeted rna by a sequence specific process. several studies have been conducted during the last decade to evaluate the efficiency of si ...023620845
dengue in india.dengue virus belongs to family flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected aedes mosquitoes. it causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (dhf/dss). approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. the cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the ...023041731
seroprevalence and trend of dengue cases admitted to a government hospital, delhi - 5-year study (2006-2010): a look into the age shift.diagnosis of dengue infection is easily and best accomplished by demonstration of specific igm antibodies in blood. we analyzed retrospectively the dengue igm seropositivity available for samples obtained over a period of 5 years (2006-2010) from patients with suspected dengue fever (df)-like illness to investigate whether there was an overall increase in the dengue igm prevalence over this period.022973483
molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of dengue viruses imported into taiwan during 2008-2010.we present our surveillance results on imported dengue cases in taiwan during 2008-2010. a total of 734 imported dengue patients were identified. the travelers were arriving from 18 countries, including southeast asia, the indian subcontinent, south pacific islands, and latin america. gene sequences from 358 dengue virus (denv) isolates were used to perform phylogenetic analyses, thus, providing an updated view of the geographic distribution and dynamic transmission of denv strains circulating i ...022855770
dispersal of male aedes aegypti in a coastal village in southern mexico.most aedes aegypti dispersal studies have focused on females because of their central role in dengue virus transmission. only a few mark-release-recapture (mrr) studies provided insights into male ae. aegypti dispersal. to fill this knowledge gap, we conducted five male ae. aegypti mrr experiments in a coastal village in southern mexico. small and large male cohorts were marked with fluorescent dusts, released outside buildings, and recaptures were carried out by using backpack aspirators. recap ...022492152
molecular insight into dengue virus pathogenesis and its implications for disease control.dengue virus (denv) is a mosquito-transmitted rna virus that infects an estimated 390 million humans each year. here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the biology of denv and describe knowledge gaps that have impacted the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics.026232221
chikungunya and dengue fever among hospitalized febrile patients in northern tanzania.consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in moshi, tanzania. confirmed acute chikungunya virus (chikv), dengue virus (denv), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) result. presumptive acute denv infection was defined as a positive anti-denv immunoglobulin m (igm) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (elisa) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-denv igg elisa result. among 870 participants, pcr testing w ...022232469
dengue fever treatment with carica papaya leaves extracts.the main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of carica papaya leaves extracts against dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. for the treatment of dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 ml of aqueous extract of c. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. platelet ...023569787
dengue: profile of hematological and biochemical dynamics.the objective of this study was to correlate laboratory tests during the evolution of dengue fever, comparing frequencies between the different clinical forms in order to use test results to predict the severity of the disease.023049382
development of assure dengue iga rapid test for the detection of anti-dengue iga from dengue infected patients.rapid and early dengue diagnosis is essential for patient management and early disease intervention. mp diagnostics assure(®) dengue iga rapid test (dengue iga rt) was developed for the rapid detection of anti-dengue iga in patients' biological samples. the performance of dengue iga rt was examined using multiple categories of well-characterized samples.021887054
transition in the cause of fever from malaria to dengue, northwestern ecuador, 1990-2011.in tropical areas, the predominant cause of fever has historically been malaria. however by 2011, among febrile patients in northwestern ecuador, dengue was identified in 42% and malaria in none. this finding suggests a transition in the cause of fever from malaria to other illnesses, such as dengue.024047566
global consensus sequence development and analysis of dengue ns3 conserved domains.the dengue virus (denv) genome encodes 10 different genes including the ns3 gene, which has a protease and helicase domain used in virus replication. this domain is a potential target for antiviral agents against dengue. due to a high mutation rate, denv is classified into four major serotypes (denv1-denv4). this study was designed to perform conservancy analysis of all four serotypes by drawing a consensus sequence for each serotype and then drawing a global consensus sequence to study conserve ...024083095
dual role of commensal bacteria in viral infections.with our abilities to culture and sequence the commensal bacteria that dwell on and within a host, we can now study the host in its entirety, as a supraorganism that must be navigated by the pathogen invader. at present, the majority of studies have focused on the interaction between the host's microbiota and bacterial pathogens. this is not unwarranted, given that bacterial pathogens must compete with commensal organisms for the limited territory afforded by the host. however, viral pathogens a ...023947358
cell phone-based system (chaak) for surveillance of immatures of dengue virus mosquito vectors.capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. we focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a ce ...023926788
viruses and the microbiota.every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of microbiota on viruses is unclear. recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. microbiota inhibit infection of some viruses and promote infection of other viruses. these effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or virus. this review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which the microbiota inf ...025821837
dengue vaccine: a valuable asset for the future.dengue has emerged as one of the major global public health problems. the disease has broken out of its shell and has spread due to increased international travel and climatic changes. globally, over 2.5 billion people accounting for >40% of the world's population are at risk from dengue. since the 1940s, dengue vaccines have been under investigation. a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (cyd-tdv) has progressed to phase iii efficacy studies. dengue v ...025424928
dengue in costa rica: the gap in local scientific research. 017316494
spontaneous arterial hemorrhage as a complication of dengue.bleeding complications of dengue hemorrhagic fever such as epistaxis, gum bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, hypermenorrhea, hematuria, and thrombocytopenia have been documented. a 49-year-old female presented with complaints of intermittent high-grade fever for the past 4 days, lower abdominal pain and altered sensorium for 1 day. laboratory investigations revealed severe anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and positive dengue serology. emergency ultrasound examination of the a ...027275081
the brazilian zika virus strain causes birth defects in experimental models.zika virus (zikv) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus (family flaviviridae) and was first described in 1947 in uganda following blood analyses of sentinel rhesus monkeys. until the twentieth century, the african and asian lineages of the virus did not cause meaningful infections in humans. however, in 2007, vectored by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, zikv caused the first noteworthy epidemic on the yap island in micronesia. patients experienced fever, skin rash, arthralgia and conjunctiv ...027279226
waiting for chikungunya fever in argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps.chikungunya virus (chikv) transmission has been detected in america in 2013 and recently reached south up to bolivia, brazil and paraguay, bordering countries of argentina. the presence of the mosquito aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk ...025946252
chikungunya fever outbreak, bhutan, 2012.in 2012, chikungunya virus (chikv) was reported for the first time in bhutan. igm elisa results were positive for 36/210 patient samples; pcr was positive for 32/81. phylogenetic analyses confirmed that bhutan chikv belongs to the east/central/south african genotype. appropriate responses to future outbreaks require a system of surveillance and improved laboratory capacity.024047543
genomes to hits in silico - a country path today, a highway tomorrow: a case study of chikungunya.these are exciting times for bioinformaticians, computational biologists and drug designers with the genome and proteome sequences and related structural databases growing at an accelerated pace. the post-genomic era has triggered high expectations for a rapid and successful treatment of diseases. however, in this biological information rich and functional knowledge poor scenario, the challenges are indeed grand, no less than the assembly of the genome of the whole organism. these include functi ...023260020
chikungunya virus infection, brazzaville, republic of congo, 2011. 023968609
outbreak of chikungunya virus infection, vanimo, papua new guinea.in june 2012, health authorities in papua new guinea detected an increase in febrile illnesses in vanimo. chikungunya virus of the eastern/central/southern african genotype harboring the e1:a226v mutation was identified. this ongoing outbreak has spread to ≥8 other provinces and has had a harmful effect on public health.023965757
nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of chikungunya virus (chikv) enhances protective immunity mediated by a chikv envelope protein expressing dna vaccine.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an important emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, indigenous to tropical africa and asia. it can cause epidemic fever and acute illness characterized by fever and arthralgias. the epidemic cycle of this infection is similar to dengue and urban yellow fever viral infections. the generation of an efficient vaccine against chikv is necessary to prevent and/or control the disease manifestations of the infection. in this report, we studied immune response against a chikv-e ...023409931
a comparative study of clinical features between monotypic and dual infection cases with chikungunya virus and dengue virus in west bengal, india.chikungunya virus (chikv) and dengue virus (denv) are circulating individually in the state of west bengal, india. however, after 1965 the dual-infection caused by both viruses had not been recorded until 2010. in 2010, an investigation of the febrile cases was carried out to confirm the involvement of both viruses simultaneously. a total of 550 blood samples were tested for the detection of immunoglobulin m (igm) antibody against both chikv and denv. serology by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...022492160
perinatal chikungunya in twins.we report a case of vertically transmitted chikungunya infection in heterozygous twin neonates presenting as seizures, encephalopathy, midfacial hyperpigmentation, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. this could be considered as a rare cause of neonatal seizure and identification would help in appropriate management.027857791
two disciplines, one priority: the seamless integration of human and veterinary microbiology is urgent. 026038422
the chikungunya virus: an emerging us pathogen.the chikungunya (chik) virus was recently reported by the cdc to have spread to the united states. we report an early documented case of chik from the state of pennsylvania after a patient recently returned from haiti in june of 2014.027006742
mucocutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: a study from an epidemic in coastal karnataka.chikungunya fever (cf) epidemic has recently re-emerged in india affecting large population. mucocutaneous manifestations are an important clinical feature of the disease. we have reviewed mucocutaneous manifestations of the disease during a recent epidemic in coastal karnataka.021772590
bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. these bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. if bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or ey ...022232375
distinguishing between zika and spondweni viruses. 027843157
highly diversified zika viruses imported to china, 2016. 027209301
projecting month of birth for at-risk infants after zika virus disease outbreaks.the marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in brazil after a 2015 outbreak of zika virus (zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. to project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in bahia state, brazil, we incorporated data on reported zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. we projected that these birt ...027088494
threat from emerging vectorborne viruses. 027551712
asian genotype zika virus detected in traveler returning to mexico from colombia, october 2015. 027088574
bioethical considerations at times of zika virus. 027462882
autochthonous chikungunya fever in traveler returning to japan from cuba. 027533717
public health round-up. 027516631
zika - global concern. 027610070
microcephaly in north-east brazil: a retrospective study on neonates born between 2012 and 2015.to assess the number of children born with microcephaly in the state of paraíba, north-east brazil.027821886
effects of intraspecific larval competition on adult longevity in the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. the impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. the effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. the effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by m ...019239615
species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emerge ...019067629
effects of habitat type and drying on ascogregarina barretti (eugregarinida: lecudinidae) infection in aedes triseritatus (diptera: culicidae).the intensity and prevalence of parasitism by ascogregarina barretti (vavra) in aedes triseriatus (say) did not differ between tires and tree holes in field samples taken in september 1996. there was significant variation in the intensity of parasitism among containers that was not significantly correlated with the ph, conductivity, or temperature of the container water. in an experiment manipulating habitat drying, treatments had a significant effect on a. barretti infection of ae. triseriatus, ...011126556
contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in north america.the mosquito aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) has spread rapidly through north america since its introduction in the 1990s. the mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors aedes triseriatus and aedes albopictus are unclear. possibilities include (a) temporal separation of a. japonicus from other aedes, (b) oviposition avoidance by a. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific aedes larvae, and (c) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages ...026101466
characterisation of culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in córdoba, argentina.the aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in córdoba city. every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches) were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. data regarding the water dep ...024037200
senescent leaf exudate increases mosquito survival and microbial activity.we conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of soluble components in senescent leaf material on the growth and development of the eastern tree hole mosquito, aedes triseriatus (say). oak leaves that were either leached for three days to remove the labile nutrient fraction, or were not leached, served as basal nutrient inputs in each experiment.mosquito performance in microcosms containing leachate only was significantly worse compared with microcosms containing leaf material in combination ...021113430
interpopulation divergence in competitive interactions of the mosquito aedes albopictus.geographic variation in species interactions can have major effects on distributions. effects of such variation can be particularly evident for invasive species, in which variation in competitive ability can influence invasive success and impacts. we tested the hypothesis that coexistence or exclusion of the resident mosquito aedes aegypti results from variation among local populations of the invasive aedes albopictus in competitive interactions with a. aegypti. we also examined the role of vari ...019769119
leaf species identity and combination affect performance and oviposition choice of two container mosquito species.1. resource diversity can be an important determinant of individual and population performance in insects. fallen parts of plants form the nutritive base for many aquatic systems, including mosquito habitats, but the effect of plant diversity on mosquito production is poorly understood.2. to determine the effects of diverse plant inputs on larval mosquitoes, experiments were conducted that examined how leaves of vitis aestivalis, quercus virginiana, psychotria nervosa, and nephrolepis exalta aff ...020161198
hunger-dependent and sex-specific antipredator behaviour of larvae of a size-dimorphic mosquito.1. modification of behaviors in the presence of predators or predation cues is widespread among animals. costs of a behavioral change in the presence of predators or predation cues depend on fitness effects of lost feeding opportunities and, especially when organisms are sexually dimorphic in size or timing of maturation, these costs are expected to differ between the sexes. 2. larval aedes triseriatus (say) (diptera: culicidae) were used to test the hypothesis that behavioral responses of the s ...025309025
competitive displacement and reduction. 017853612
consequences of detritus type in an aquatic microsystem: effects on water quality, micro-organisms and performance of the dominant consumer.1. variation in detritus quality and quantity can have significant effects on aquatic invertebrate food webs. allochthonous inputs of detritus are the principal energy source for organisms in aquatic tree hole microsystems. we compared the effects of two major detritus types found in tree holes, senescent leaves (sugar maple and white oak) and invertebrate carcasses (dead adult fruit flies and crickets), on several water quality characteristics of laboratory microcosms as well as on mass, surviv ...017476312
precipitation and temperature effects on populations of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae): implications for range expansion.we investigated how temperature and precipitation regime encountered over the life cycle of aedes albopictus (skuse) affects populations. caged populations of a. albopictus were maintained at 22, 26, and 30 degrees c. cages were equipped with containers that served as sites for oviposition and larval development. all cages were assigned to one of three simulated precipitation regimes: (1) low fluctuation regime - water within the containers was allowed to evaporate to 90% of its maximum before b ...011580037
temperature effects on the dynamics of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) populations in the laboratory.we investigated how constant temperatures of 22, 24, and 26 degrees c experienced across the full life cycle affected the dynamics of caged populations of aedes albopictus (skuse). all cages were equipped with plastic beakers that served as sites for oviposition and larval development. we measured the per capita daily mortality and emergence rates of the adults and size of adult females, and estimated the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and asymptotic density (k) for each caged population. popula ...011476335
use of the cdc autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).populations ofaedes aegypti (l.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticide-impregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. the fertility ofae. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal ovipositi ...024605464
an improved trap to capture adult container-inhabiting mosquitoes.although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by aedes aegypti in puerto rico, aedes mediovittatus, the caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. this species is native to the greater antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. consequently, it has been suggested that ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. this study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine ...024551969
monitoring resistance to bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each cry toxin separately.bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the french rhône-alpes region since decades. the artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual bti cry toxins. based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each bti cry toxin separ ...024037105
attractive toxic sugar baits: control of mosquitoes with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on nontarget organisms in morocco.we evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb) in the laboratory and field with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. preliminary laboratory assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female culex quinquefasciatus say and aedes aegypti linnaeus. field studies demonstrated >70% reduction of mosquito populations at 3 wk post-atsb application. nontarget feeding of seven insect ...024331613
identification and molecular characterization of a prophenoloxidase involved in aedes aegypti chorion melanization.chorion melanization is a vital biochemical event for the survival of mosquito eggs in the environment. this study describes the identification and molecular characterization of a prophenoloxidase (propo) involved in chorion melanization in aedes aegypti by various biochemical and molecular techniques. results revealed that transcription of the chorion propo occurs only in adults, blood feeding greatly stimulated its transcription and haemocytes are responsible for its transcription. our study p ...015796752
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