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global risk model for vector-borne transmission of zika virus reveals the role of el niño 2015.zika, a mosquito-borne viral disease that emerged in south america in 2015, was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the who in february of 2016. we developed a climate-driven r0 mathematical model for the transmission risk of zika virus (zikv) that explicitly includes two key mosquito vector species: aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus the model was parameterized and calibrated using the most up to date information from the available literature. it was then driven by ob ...201627994145
papular urticaria: a review of causal agents in colombia.papular urticaria is a chronic allergic reaction induced by insect bites, which is common in the tropics. the objective of this review was to deepen on epidemiological and immunological aspects of this disease, focused on data published in latin american countries.we conducted a non-systematic review of the literature through electronic search on the epidemiology of papular urticaria, the entomological characteristics of the causative agents and associated immunological mechanisms.several report ...201627992990
attempts to image the early inflammatory response during infection with the lymphatic filarial nematode brugia pahangi in a mouse model.helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. a lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. this is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a compl ...201627992545
travel volume to the united states from countries and u.s. territories with local zika virus transmission.air, land, and sea transportation can facilitate rapid spread of infectious diseases. in may 2015 the pan american health organization (paho) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed zika virus infection in brazil. as of march 8, 2016, the u.s. centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) had issued travel notices for 33 countries and 3 u.s. territories with local zika virus transmission.201627990321
zika in america: the year in review.short on funds and with no therapeutics or vaccines in sight, u.s. health officials are scrambling to prepare for a protracted fight with zika virus and the mosquitoes that carry it. in this article, the author focuses on the arrival of zika in the u.s.027990081
salinity alters snakeskin and mesh transcript abundance and permeability in midgut and malpighian tubules of larval mosquito, aedes aegypti.this study examined the distribution and localization of the septate junction (sj) proteins snakeskin (ssk) and mesh in osmoregulatory organs of larval mosquito (aedes aegypti), as well as their response to altered environmental salt levels. ssk and mesh transcripts and immunoreactivity were detected in tissues of endodermal origin such as the midgut and malpighian tubules of a. aegypti larvae, but not in ectodermally derived hindgut and anal papillae. immunolocalization of ssk and mesh in the m ...201727988380
diverse subcellular localizations of the insect cmp-sialic acid synthetases.the occurrence and biological importance of sialic acid (sia) and its metabolic enzymes in insects have been studied using drosophila melanogaster. the most prominent feature of d. melanogaster cmp-sia synthetase (dmcss) is its golgi-localization, contrasted with nuclear localization of vertebrate csss. however, it remains unclear if the golgi-localization is common to other insect csss and why it happens. to answer these questions, aedes aegypti (mosquito) css (aacss) and tribolium castaneum (b ...201727986833
chikungunya fever in traveler from angola to japan, 2016.simultaneous circulation of multiple arboviruses presents diagnostic challenges. in may 2016, chikungunya fever was diagnosed in a traveler from angola to japan. travel history, incubation period, and phylogenetic analysis indicated probable infection acquisition in angola, where a yellow fever outbreak is ongoing. thus, local transmission of chikungunya virus probably also occurs in angola.027983938
detection of human anti-zika virus igg by elisa using an antigen from in vitro infected vero cells: preliminary results.zika virus (zkv) infection is a huge public health problem in brazil because of the increased incidence of microcephaly in neonates from infected mothers. detection of specific igg antibodies in maternal serum samples constitutes an important approach for diagnosing zkv infection and evaluating its relationship with neonatal microcephaly. however, as there is no serological test produced in brazil to detect igm and igg antibodies against zkv, we sought to examine specific igg in serum samples fr ...201627982355
declining prevalence of disease vectors under climate change.more than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. in ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and amazonian regions to the andes mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. we estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne dis ...201627982119
potential for zika virus to establish a sylvatic transmission cycle in the americas.zika virus (zikv) originated and continues to circulate in a sylvatic transmission cycle between non-human primate hosts and arboreal mosquitoes in tropical africa. recently zikv invaded the americas, where it poses a threat to human health, especially to pregnant women and their infants. here we examine the risk that zikv will establish a sylvatic cycle in the americas, focusing on brazil. we review the natural history of sylvatic zikv and present a mathematical dynamic transmission model to as ...201627977671
rplp1 and rplp2 are essential flavivirus host factors that promote early viral protein accumulation.the flavivirus genus contains several arthropod-borne viruses that pose global health threats, including dengue viruses (denv), yellow fever virus (yfv), and zika virus (zikv). in order to understand how these viruses replicate in human cells, we previously conducted genome-scale rna interference screens to identify candidate host factors. in these screens, we identified ribosomal proteins rplp1 and rplp2 (rplp1/2) to be among the most crucial putative host factors required for denv and yfv infe ...201727974556
effect of heavy-equipment aided environmental nebulization on aedes aegypti vectors of dengue, zika and chikungunya in são paulo, brazil.the control of dengue constitutes a great challenge for public health; however, the methods normally used have shown themselves to be insufficient to keep the indices of infestation of aedes aegypti under control. recently, beyond the large number of cases and deaths associated with dengue, new risks have arisen such as those represented by chikungunya fever and zika. in the light of the great significance of these problems within the public health context, two areas in a municipality in the int ...201627974058
variations on a theme: antennal lobe architecture across coleoptera.beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. the enormous success of the order coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. all these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain a ...201627973569
the influence of urbanization modes on the spatial circulation of flaviviruses within ouagadougou (burkina faso).dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. although this virus has been reported for a long time, its significance within the burden of diseases in west africa is not obvious, especially in burkina faso. our objective was to evaluate flavivirus presence in ouagadougou (burkina faso) and the link between anti-flavivirus antibody seroprevalence and urbanization modes. a population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted and 3015 children were enrolled from ouagadougou dist ...201627973402
identification of development-related genes in the ovaries of adult harmonia axyridis (pallas) lady beetles using a time- series analysis by rna-seq.adults of the lady beetle species harmonia axyridis (pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the h. axyridis ovary. development-related genes may impact the growth of the h. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. here, we used integrative time-series rna-seq analysis of the ovary in h. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. a total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to o ...201627966611
oviposition habitat selection of dengue vectors, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in response to fish predator.to understand the effects of fish predator's kairomones on aedes mosquitoes' oviposition, we established an experiment using gravid aedes females. kairomones concentrations were established using hampala macrolepidota. one individual fish was placed inside containers with varying water levels (1 l, 5 l, and 10 l of water). the fish were kept in the containers for 24 hours and were removed immediately at the start of each trial in order to have the kairomones remnants. twenty gravid adult females ...027965749
annotation of the asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system.citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. the citrus greening bacteria, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae). hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the imd pathway targeting gram-negative bacteria. the d. citri draft ...201627965582
perspectives on the role of mobility, behavior, and time scales in the spread of diseases.the dynamics, control, and evolution of communicable and vector-borne diseases are intimately connected to the joint dynamics of epidemiological, behavioral, and mobility processes that operate across multiple spatial, temporal, and organizational scales. the identification of a theoretical explanatory framework that accounts for the pattern regularity exhibited by a large number of host-parasite systems, including those sustained by host-vector epidemiological dynamics, is but one of the challe ...201627965394
mitigating the risk of transfusion-transmitted dengue in australia.dengue viruses (denv 1-4) are a risk to transfusion safety, with several transfusion-transmitted (tt) cases reported globally. denv 1-4 are endemic in over 100 countries, with seasonal outbreaks occurring in northeastern australia. to mitigate tt-denv risk in australia, fresh blood components are not manufactured from donors returning from any area (domestic/overseas) with known dengue transmission. alternatively, tt-denv risk may be mitigated using an appropriate blood donor screening assay. we ...201627957384
cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of croton argyrophylloides in normotensive rats: role of the autonomic nervous system.cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of croton argyrophylloides muell. arg. (eoca) were investigated in normotensive rats. in saline-pretreated anesthetized or conscious rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of the eoca induced dose-dependent hypotension. dose-dependent tachycardia was observed only in conscious rats. in anesthetized rats, cervical bivagotomy failed to enhance eoca-induced hypotension but unmasked significant bradycardia. in conscious rats, i.v. pretreatment with methylatrop ...201627956919
long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing: protective efficacy against malaria in hyperendemic foci, and laundering, wearing, and weathering effects on residual bioactivity after worst-case use in the rain forests of french guiana.personal protective measures against hematophagous vectors constitute the first line of defense against arthropod-borne diseases. however, guidelines for the standardized testing and licensing of insecticide-treated clothing are still lacking. the aim of this study was to analyze the preventive effect of long-lasting polymer-coated permethrin-impregnated clothing (ptbdu) against malaria after exposure to high-level disease transmission sites as well as the corresponding loss of permethrin and bi ...201727942961
diversity of cultivable midgut microbiota at different stages of the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus from tezpur, india.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are among the most important vectors of arboviral diseases, worldwide. recent studies indicate that diverse midgut microbiota of mosquitoes significantly affect development, digestion, metabolism, and immunity of their hosts. midgut microbiota has also been suggested to modulate the competency of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses, malaria parasites etc. interestingly, the midgut microbial flora is dynamic and the diversity changes with the development of vectors ...201627941985
how do households respond to unreliable water supplies? a systematic review.although the millennium development goal (mdg) target for drinking water was met, in many developing countries water supplies are unreliable. this paper reviews how households in developing countries cope with unreliable water supplies, including coping costs, the distribution of coping costs across socio-economic groups, and effectiveness of coping strategies in meeting household water needs. structured searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature in electronic databases and sea ...201627941695
climate variation drives dengue dynamics.dengue, a viral infection transmitted between people by mosquitoes, is one of the most rapidly spreading diseases in the world. here, we report the analyses covering 11 y (2005-2015) from the city of guangzhou in southern china. using the first 8 y of data to develop an ecologically based model for the dengue system, we reliably predict the following 3 y of dengue dynamics-years with exceptionally extensive dengue outbreaks. we demonstrate that climate conditions, through the effects of rainfall ...201627940911
impact of terminalia chebula retz. against aedes aegypti l. and non-target aquatic predatory insects.aedes aegypti linn is one of the most important mosquito species. the vectors are responsible for causing deadly diseases like dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. several chemical pesticides used to control these dengue vectors caused severe toxic significances on human health and other non-target beneficial insects. therefore the current investigation has been made to access the bio-efficacy of the crude seed extracts of t. chebula against the dengue vector ae. aegypti. the gc-ms analysis of c ...201727940415
zika virus in asia.zika virus (zikv) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the zika forest in uganda in 1947. in asia, the virus was isolated in malaysia from aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in central java, indonesia. in this review, all reported cases of zikv infection in asia as of september 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of zi ...201727939768
effect of the saliva from different triatomine species on the biology and immunity of tlr-4 ligand and trypanosoma cruzi-stimulated dendritic cells.triatomines are blood-sucking vectors of trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of chagas disease. during feeding, triatomines surpass the skin host response through biomolecules present in their saliva. dendritic cells (dcs) play a crucial role in the induction of the protection to aggressive agents, including blood-sucking arthropods. here, we evaluated if salivary components of triatomines from different genera evade the host immunity by modulating the biology and the function of lps- or t. c ...201627938380
flavivirus transmission focusing on zika.flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family flaviviridae. most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplificati ...201727936448
chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of flowers essential oils of alpinia zerumbet (pers.) b.l.burtt & r.m.sm. from martinique island.alpinia species, used as ornamental plants and flavoring agents, are renowned for their therapeutic properties and their subsequent use in traditional medicines throughout the world. alpinia zerumbet (pers.) b.l.burtt & r.m.sm. is the most common alpinia species encountered in martinique. several essential oils (eos) obtained by hydrodistillation of a. zerumbet flowers collected in various locations on the island at different seasons were analysed to evaluate the influence of the collection peri ...201627935668
the worldwide spread of the tiger mosquito as revealed by mitogenome haplogroup diversity.in the last 40 years, the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus, indigenous to east asia, has colonized every continent except antarctica. its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, west nile, and the recently emerged zika fever. to acquire more information on the ancestral source(s) of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed th ...201627933090
small rnas from bemisia tabaci are transferred to solanum lycopersicum phloem during feeding.the phloem-feeding whitefly bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. these insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. it is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. we hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small rnas (srna) are delivered by b. tabaci into the phloem, where the ...201627933079
contraceptive sales in the setting of the zika virus epidemic.has there been any influence of the zika virus (zikv) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in brazil?201627932442
a historic report of zika in mozambique: implications for assessing current risk. 201627930650
the self-regulation model of illness: comparison between zika and dengue and its application to predict mosquito prevention behaviours in malaysia, a dengue-endemic country.perceptions about illnesses may influence self-care and preventive health behaviours. illness perceptions of the zika virus (zikv) infection were investigated under the framework of the self-regulation model of illness. illness perception differences between zikv and dengue fever were also examined. lastly, associations between illness perceptions of zikv with mosquito prevention practices were studied. samples were drawn from landline telephone numbers using computer-assisted telephone intervie ...201627929451
aphids transform and detoxify the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol via a type ii biotransformation mechanism yet unknown in animals.biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase i and phase ii metabolisation reactions. for the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (don), several phase ii biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in don-glutathiones, don-glucuronides and don-sulfates made by glutathione-s-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. these metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. here, we demonstrate for ...201627929076
optomotor reactions reveal polarization sensitvity in the zika virus transmitting yellow fever mosquito aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (diptera; nematocera).in polarization-sensitive insect species an orthogonal arrangement of photoreceptive microvilli is a characteristic feature. however, mosquito eyes had not revealed this feature, and polarization sensitivity (ps) was considered to be non-existent in them. recently, however, gravid aedes (stegomyia) aegypti females were found to possess ps, sequels of which could be demonstrated only in the absence of chemicals emitted by conspecifics. therefore, ps in ae. aegypti, unlike that of other aquatic in ...201627927093
public health interventions for aedes control in the time of zikavirus- a meta-review on effectiveness of vector control strategies.there is renewed interest in effective measures to control zika and dengue vectors. a synthesis of published literature with a focus on the quality of evidence is warranted to determine the effectiveness of vector control strategies.201627926934
comparative analysis of dengue and zika outbreaks reveals differences by setting and virus.the pacific islands of micronesia have experienced several outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases over the past decade. in outbreaks on small islands, the susceptible population is usually well defined, and there is no co-circulation of pathogens. because of this, analysing such outbreaks can be useful for understanding the transmission dynamics of the pathogens involved, and particularly so for yet understudied pathogens such as zika virus. here, we compared three outbreaks of dengue and zika vir ...201627926933
dengue in the middle east and north africa: a systematic review.dengue virus (denv) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. however, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the middle east and north africa (mena).201627926925
susceptibility of phytomonas serpens to calpain inhibitors in vitro: interference on the proliferation, ultrastructure, cysteine peptidase expression and interaction with the invertebrate host.a pleiotropic response to the calpain inhibitor mdl28170 was detected in the tomato parasite phytomonas serpens. ultrastructural studies revealed that mdl28170 caused mitochondrial swelling, shortening of flagellum and disruption of trans golgi network. this effect was correlated to the inhibition in processing of cruzipain-like molecules, which presented an increase in expression paralleled by decreased proteolytic activity. concomitantly, a calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase was detected in ...201627925020
transcriptomic characterization and curation of candidate neuropeptides regulating reproduction in the eyestalk ganglia of the australian crayfish, cherax quadricarinatus.the australian redclaw crayfish (cherax quadricarinatus) has recently received attention as an emerging candidate for sustainable aquaculture production in australia and worldwide. more importantly, c. quadricarinatus serves as a good model organism for the commercially important group of decapod crustaceans as it is distributed worldwide, easy to maintain in the laboratory and its reproductive cycle has been well documented. in order to better understand the key reproduction and development reg ...201627924858
consecutive large dengue outbreaks in taiwan in 2014-2015. 201627924810
towards green oviposition deterrents? effectiveness of syzygium lanceolatum (myrtaceae) essential oil against six mosquito vectors and impact on four aquatic biological control agents.essential oils (eos) from plants may be alternative sources of molecules toxic against mosquito vectors of public health relevance. most of researches in this field focused on eos as larvicides or ovicides, while limited efforts focused on the exploitation of eos as oviposition deterrents. in the present study, the larvicidal and oviposition deterrent activity of syzygium lanceolatum leaf eo was evaluated against six mosquito species, anopheles stephensi, an. subpictus, aedes aegypti, ae. albopi ...201627921244
detection of wolbachia in aedes albopictus and their effects on chikungunya virus.wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. prior to utilizing wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the wolbachia-mosquito interactions. in this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of wolbachia in field-collected aedes albopictus the effects of wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemin ...201627920393
chikungunya in the americas: recommendations and conclusions.discovered in 1953, chikungunya virus (chikv) circulated in africa and southeast asia, with periodic outbreaks, for many years. highly efficient transmission following a genetic mutation of the virus in 2005 caused its global spread. associated with significant morbidity, chikv creates a large public health burden, and despite various efforts, there are currently no licensed vaccines nor specific treatments. to garner a better understanding of the virus, identify gaps in knowledge, and guide the ...201627920183
bridging the gap between experimental data and model parameterization for chikungunya virus transmission predictions.chikungunya virus (chikv) has experienced 2 major expansion events in the last decade. the most recently emerged sublineage (ecsa-v) was shown to have increased efficiency in a historically secondary vector, aedes albopictus, leading to speculation that this was a major factor in expansion. subsequently, a number of experimental studies focused on the vector competence of chikv, as well as transmission modeling efforts. mathematical models have used these data to inform their own investigations, ...201627920175
perspectives and challenges in entomological risk assessment and vector control of chikungunya.chikungunya virus (chikv) is primarily spread by the aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquito vectors. because there is no licensed vaccine for chikv, identifying ways to reduce or eliminate mosquito populations is the most effective strategy to immediately halt transmission to man. strategies to assess the entomological risk and to control the vector are absolutely crucial to demolishing the rise of chikv. this review provides perspectives in entomological risk assessment and vector control, ...201627920174
invasiveness of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus and vectorial capacity for chikungunya virus.in this review, we highlight biological characteristics of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, 2 invasive mosquito species and primary vectors of chikungunya virus (chikv), that set the tone of these species' invasiveness, vector competence, and vectorial capacity (vc). the invasiveness of both species, as well as their public health threats as vectors, is enhanced by preference for human blood. vector competence, characterized by the efficiency of an ingested arbovirus to replicate and become i ...201627920173
chikungunya: its history in africa and asia and its spread to new regions in 2013-2014.chikungunya virus (chikv) is transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. there are 3 circulating chikv genotypes, asia, east/central/south africa, and west africa. chikv was first reported in 1953 in tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of chikv were mainly reported in africa and asia. however, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from kenya over to the southwestern indian o ...201627920169
toxicity of ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol from hedychium larsenii (zingiberaceae) essential oil on malaria, chikungunya and st. louis encephalitis mosquito vectors.mosquitoes act as vectors of key pathogens and parasites. plant essential oils have been recognized as important sources of biopesticides, which do not induce resistance and have limited toxic effects on human health and non-target organisms. in this research, we evaluated the larvicidal and oviposition deterrence activity of hedychium larsenii essential oil (eo) and its major compounds ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol. both molecules showed high toxicity against early third instars of anopheles ...201727918946
control of aedes aegypti breeding: a novel intervention for prevention and control of dengue in an endemic zone of delhi, india.the study is based on hypothesis that whether continuous entomological surveillance of ae. aegypti and simultaneous appropriate interventions in key containers during non-transmission (december-may) months would have any impact on breeding of aedes and dengue cases during the following transmission months (june-november). the impact of the surveillance and intervention measures undertaken during non-transmission months were assessed by entomological indicators namely container index (ci), house ...201627918577
bioactivities of a new pyrrolidine alkaloid from the root barks of orixa japonica.a new pyrrolidine alkaloid named (z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one was isolated from the ethanol extract of the root barks of orixa japonica. the structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of nmr and ms analysis. the compound exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti (lc50 = 232.09 μg/ml), anopheles sinensis (lc50 = 49.91 μg/ml), and culex pipiens pallens (lc50 = 161.10 μg/ml). the new alkaloid also poss ...201627918451
indoor development of aedes aegypti in germany, 2016.in spring 2016, a german traveller returning from martinique cultivated imported plant offsets in her home, and accidentally bred aedes aegypti. thirteen adult mosquito specimens submitted for identification and the traveller were tested for zika, dengue and chikungunya virus infections, with negative results. the detection of ae. aegypti by the 'mueckenatlas' project demonstrates the value of this passive surveillance scheme for potential public health threats posed by invasive mosquitoes in ge ...201627918261
genomic studies of envelope gene sequences from mosquito and human samples from bangkok, thailand.dengue virus (denv) is an rna virus showing a high degree of genetic variation as a consequence of its proofreading inability. this variation plays an important role in virus evolution and pathogenesis. although levels of within-host genetic variation are similar following equilibrium, variation among different hosts is frequently different. to identify dengue quasispecies present among two hosts, we collected patient samples from six acute denv cases and two pools of aedes aegypti mosquitoes an ...201627917342
zika antiviral chemotherapy: identification of drugs and promising starting points for drug discovery from an fda-approved library.background the recent epidemics of zika virus (zikv) implicated it as the cause of serious and potentially lethal congenital conditions such microcephaly and other central nervous system defects, as well as the development of the guillain-barré syndrome in otherwise healthy patients. recent findings showed that anti-dengue antibodies are capable of amplifying zikv infection by a mechanism similar to antibody-dependent enhancement, increasing the severity of the disease. this scenario becomes pot ...201627909576
rnai efficiency, systemic properties, and novel delivery methods for pest insect control: what we know so far.in recent years, the research on the potential of using rna interference (rnai) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. however, given the variability of rnai efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using rnai requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsrna-mediated gene silencing. in this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase rnai efficiency by delivery of dsr ...201627909411
response of three cyprinid fish species to the scavenger deterrent factor produced by the mutualistic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes.the symbiotic bacteria, photorhabdus and xenorhabdus associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) in the genera heterorhabditis and steinernema, respectively, produce a compound(s) called the scavenging deterrent factor (sdf). sdf deters a number of terrestrial insect scavengers and predators and one bird species from feeding on host insects killed by the nematode-bacterium complex but has not been tested against aquatic vertebrates. moreover, the heterorhabditis-photorhabdus association is ...201727908637
cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of pd nps and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.in recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. cocos nucifera (c. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help c. nucifera coir, palladium nanoparticles (pd nps) were synthesized. green-synthesized spherical-shape pd nps were ove ...201627908201
mycobacterium ulcerans toxin, mycolactone may enhance host-seeking and oviposition behaviour by aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae).the ecological functions of many toxins continue to remain unknown for those produced by environmental pathogens. mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease, buruli ulcer, produces a cytotoxic macrolide, mycolactone, whose function(s) in the environment remains elusive. through a series of dual-choice behaviour assays, they show that mycolactone may be an interkingdom cue for the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, seeking blood-meals as well as oviposition s ...201627907248
human igg antibody response to aedes nterm-34kda salivary peptide, an epidemiological tool to assess vector control in chikungunya and dengue transmission area.arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. recent studies have reported that human antibody (ab) responses to aedes aegypti nterm-34kda salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-aedes contact. the present study ...201627906987
tracking insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors of arboviruses: the worldwide insecticide resistance network (win). 201627906961
larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using excoecaria agallocha l. (euphorbiaceae) leaf extract against aedes aegypti.green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) using plant extracts has been achieved by eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. the present study was conducted to evaluate the larvicidal efficacies of agnps synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts of excoecaria agallocha against dengue vector, aedes aegypti. the 3(rd) and 4(th) instar larvae of a. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extracts of e. agallocha, synthesized agnps and also crude solvent extracts (methanol and ...201627906138
size, sounds and sex: interactions between body size and harmonic convergence signals determine mating success in aedes aegypti.several new mosquito control strategies will involve the release of laboratory reared males which will be required to compete with wild males for mates. currently, the determinants of male mating success remain unclear. the presence of convergence between male and female harmonic flight tone frequencies during a mating attempt have been found to increase male mating success in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. size has also been implicated as a factor in male mating success. here, we inv ...201627906074
comparative genomics of beauveria bassiana: uncovering signatures of virulence against mosquitoes.entomopathogenic fungi such as beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. indeed, infection with b. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. natural isolates of b. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. in this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three rna libraries, and applied a genome c ...201627905873
[reasons to recommend vaccination against dengue in easter island: immunization advisory committee of sociedad chilena de infectología].dengue was first diagnosed on easter island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. its vector, aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a critical care unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. besides, transfer, of severely affected patients ...201627905629
sequence diversity of dengue virus type 2 in brain and thymus of infected interferon receptor ko mice: implications for dengue virulence.we previously reported that a clinical isolate of dengue virus (denv) is capable of causing acute-phase systemic infection in mice harboring knockouts of the genes encoding type-i and -ii interferon ifn receptors (ifn-α/β/γr ko mice); in contrast, other virulent denv isolates exhibited slow disease progression in this mice, yielding lethal infection around 20 days post-infection (p.i.). in the present study, we sought to clarify the dynamics of slow disease progression by examining disease progr ...201627903277
spatial pattern evolution of aedes aegypti breeding sites in an argentinean city without a dengue vector control programme.the main objective of this study was to obtain and analyse the space-time dynamics of aedes aegypti breeding sites in clorinda city, formosa province, argentina coupled with landscape analysis using the maximum entropy approach in order to generate a dengue vector niche model. in urban areas, without vector control activities, 12 entomologic (larval) samplings were performed during three years (october 2011 to october 2014). the entomologic surveillance area represented 16,511 houses. predictive ...201627903056
wolbachia suppresses cell fusing agent virus in mosquito cells.the genus flavivirus contains a large number of positive-sense ssrna viruses. while some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. these are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs). cell fusing agent virus (cfav) was the first described isf, which was detected in an aedes aegypti cell line, aag2. here, we investigated the effect of wolbachia, a ...201627902358
analysis of chikungunya virus proteins reveals that non-structural proteins nsp2 and nsp3 exhibit rna interference (rnai) suppressor activity.rnai pathway is an antiviral defence mechanism employed by insects that result in degradation of viral rna thereby curbing infection. several viruses including flaviviruses encode viral suppressors of rnai (vsrs) to counteract the antiviral rnai pathway. till date, no vsr has been reported in alphaviruses. the present study was undertaken to evaluate chikungunya virus (chikv) proteins for rnai suppressor activity. we systematically analyzed all nine chikv proteins for rnai suppressor activity us ...201627901124
successful malaria elimination in the ecuador-peru border region: epidemiology and lessons learned.in recent years, malaria (plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the ecuador-peru coastal border region. the aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. a proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in el oro province, ecuador, and the tumbes region, peru. data collection efforts incl ...201627894320
analysis of synonymous codon usage bias of zika virus and its adaption to the hosts.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family flaviviridae, and the symptoms caused by zikv infection in humans include rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia and conjunctivitis. codon usage bias analysis can reveal much about the molecular evolution and host adaption of zikv. to gain insight into the evolutionary characteristics of zikv, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the codon usage pattern in 46 zikv strains by calculating the effective number of codons ( ...201627893824
diet-induced nutritional stress and pathogen interference in wolbachia-infected aedes aegypti.the pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (denv) and other pathogens in wolbachia-infected aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of wolbachia-based mosquito control. critically, the phenotype's causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. to better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against denv and t ...201627893736
zika virus-what the otolaryngologist should know: a review.initially discovered in 1947, zika virus infection received little notoriety as a tropical disease until 2015 when an outbreak of microcephaly cases was reported in brazil. zika is a single-stranded rna arbovirus of the flaviviridae family. the primary source of infection in humans stems from aedes aegypti mosquito bites but can also occur through sexual, blood, and perinatal transmission. with expectations that 3 to 4 million people across the americas will be infected over the next year, the w ...201727892990
fern-synthesized silver nanocrystals: towards a new class of mosquito oviposition deterrents?mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. eco-friendly control tools are urgently required. we proposed a novel method of fern-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnp) using dicranopteris linearis, acting as a reducing and capping agent. agnp were characterized by uv-vis spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (sem), energy-dispersive x-ra ...201627892872
editorial brain malformation surveillance in the zika era.the current surveillance systems for congenital microcephaly are necessary to monitor the impact of zika virus (zikv) on the developing human brain, as well as the zikv prevention efforts. however, these congenital microcephaly surveillance systems are insufficient. abnormalities of neuronal differentiation, development and migration may occur among infants with normal head circumference who have intrauterine exposure to zikv. therefore, surveillance for congenital microcephaly does not ascertai ...027891785
a prospective cohort study to assess seroprevalence, incidence, knowledge, attitudes and practices, willingness to pay for vaccine and related risk factors in dengue in a high incidence setting.dengue is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the world, causing significant morbidity and economic impact. in colombia, dengue is a major public health problem. departments of la guajira, cesar and magdalena are dengue endemic areas. the objective of this research is to determine the seroprevalence and the incidence of dengue virus infection in the participating municipalities from these departments, and also establish the association between individual and housing factors and ve ...201627887591
frequency of the val1016ile mutation on the kdr gene in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in south brazil.recently, the number of aedes aegypti foci has increased in west of santa catarina, south brazil, which has increased concern regarding mosquito-borne disease outbreaks such as dengue fever, zika virus, and chikungunya. therefore, it is important to monitor genetic resistance to insecticides through "knockdown resistance". homozygosity (ile/ile) at position 1016 in the coding region of a voltage-dependent sodium channel gene (nav) may induce resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. we evaluated th ...201627886338
aedes aegypti rhesus glycoproteins contribute to ammonia excretion by larval anal papillae.in larval aedes aegypti, transcripts of the rhesus-like glycoproteins aerh50-1 and aerh50-2 have been detected in the anal papillae, sites of ammonia (nh3/nh4(+)) excretion; however, these putative ammonia transporters have not been previously localized or functionally characterized. in this study, we show that the aerh50s co-immunolocalize with apical v-type h(+)-atpase as well as with basal na(+)/k(+)-atpase in the epithelium of anal papillae. the double-stranded rna-mediated knockdown of aerh ...201727885043
tsetse fly tolerance to t. brucei infection: transcriptome analysis of trypanosome-associated changes in the tsetse fly salivary gland.for their transmission, african trypanosomes rely on their blood feeding insect vector, the tsetse fly (glossina sp.). the ingested trypanosoma brucei parasites have to overcome a series of barriers in the tsetse fly alimentary tract to finally develop into the infective metacyclic forms in the salivary glands that are transmitted to a mammalian host by the tsetse bite. the parasite population in the salivary gland is dense with a significant number of trypanosomes tightly attached to the epithe ...201627884110
proteomic profile of the bradysia odoriphaga in response to the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole.benzothiazole, a microbial secondary metabolite, has been demonstrated to possess fumigant activity against sclerotinia sclerotiorum, ditylenchus destructor and bradysia odoriphaga. however, to facilitate the development of novel microbial pesticides, the mode of action of benzothiazole needs to be elucidated. here, we employed itraq-based quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate the effects of benzothiazole on the proteomic expression of b. odoriphaga. in response to benzothiazole, 92 of ...201627883048
prolonged shedding of chikungunya virus in semen and urine: a new perspective for diagnosis and implications for transmission.we report the presence of chikungunya (chikv) rna in the blood, urine and semen during the acute phase of the disease in an adult with a dual infection with dengue virus type 3. the patient, a 25 yr-old man from salvador, brazil, reported a 6-day duration of high fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and photophobia.blood and semen specimens were positive for chikv in the first collected samples; semen and urine specimens were positive for chikv after 30 days of symptoms onset. denv-3 rna was pos ...201627882301
efficacy of ulv and thermal aerosols of deltamethrin for control of aedes albopictus in nice, france.ultra-low volume (ulv) insecticidal aerosols dispensed from vehicle-mounted cold-foggers are widely considered the method of choice for control of aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus during outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya and, more recently, zika. nevertheless, their effectiveness has been poorly studied, particularly in europe. nearly all published studies of ulv efficacy are bio-assays based on the mortality of caged mosquitoes. in our study we preferred to monitor the direct impact of treatm ...201627881181
susceptibility profile and metabolic mechanisms involved in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus resistant to ddt and deltamethrin in the central african republic.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses worldwide. their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. in africa, where aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. to fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to ...201627881148
neurological manifestations of zika virus infection.zika virus (zikv) is a flavivirus (flaviviridae family) transmitted mainly by aedes mosquitoes. the virus was restricted to the african continent until its spread to south-east asia in the 1980's, the micronesia in 2007, the french polynesia in 2013 and, more recently in the americas in 2015, where, up to date, the world health organization (who) has estimated about 3-4 million total cases of zikv infection. during outbreaks in the french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015, respectively, nati ...027878100
conserved chemosensory proteins in the proboscis and eyes of lepidoptera.odorant-binding proteins (obps) and chemosensory proteins (csps) are endowed with several different functions besides being carriers for pheromones and odorants. based on a previous report of a csp acting as surfactant in the proboscis of the moth helicoverpa armigera, we revealed the presence of orthologue proteins in two other moths plutella xylostella and chilo suppressalis, as well as two butterflies papilio machaon and pieris rapae, using immunodetection and proteomic analysis. the unusual ...201627877091
long-term spatio-temporal dynamics of the mosquito aedes aegypti in temperate argentina.buenos aires city is located near the southern limit of the distribution of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). this study aimed to assess long-term variations in the abundance of ae. aegypti in buenos aires in relation to changes in climatic conditions. ae. aegypti weekly oviposition activity was analyzed and compared through nine warm seasons from 1998 to 2014, with 200 ovitraps placed across the whole extension of the city. the temporal and spatial dynamics of abundances were compared among s ...201727876100
methanolic extract of agerantum conyzoides exhibited toxicity and growth disruption activities against anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and anopheles arabiensis larvae.vector control remains the mainstay to effective malaria management. the negative implications following persistent application of synthetic insecticides geared towards regulation of mosquito populations have necessitated prospection for ecofriendly effective chemistries. plant-derived compounds have the potential to control malaria-transmitting mosquito populations. previously, agerantum conyzoides extracts have demonstrated toxicity effects on disease-transmitting mosquitoes. however, their ef ...201627876055
generation of monoclonal antibodies against native viral proteins using antigen-expressing mammalian cells for mouse immunization.due to their rising incidence and progressive geographical spread, infections with mosquito-borne viruses, such as dengue (denv), chikungunya and zika virus, have developed into major public health challenges. since all of these viruses may cause similar symptoms and can occur in concurrent epidemics, tools for their differential diagnosis and epidemiological monitoring are of urgent need.201627876044
low circulation of zika virus, cambodia, 2007-2016.we describe a retrospective study on circulation of zika virus in cambodia during 2007-2016 among patients with dengue-like symptoms and aedes aegypti mosquitoes. our findings suggest that zika virus in cambodia belongs to the asia genotype, is endemic, has low prevalence, and has had low-level impact on public health.201727875110
dengue with a morbilliform rash and a positive tourniquet test. 201627872891
identification of genes for engineering the male germline of aedes aegypti and ceratitis capitata.synthetic biology approaches are promising new strategies for control of pest insects that transmit disease and cause agricultural damage. these strategies require characterised modular components that can direct appropriate expression of effector sequences, with components conserved across species being particularly useful. the goal of this study was to identify genes from which new potential components could be derived for manipulation of the male germline in two major pest species, the mosqui ...201627871244
methods and procedures used in aedes aegypti control in the successful campaign for yellow fever prophylaxis in rio de janeiro, brazil, in 1928 and 1929.to review the challenges and procedures used in aedes aegypti control and the characteristics of the epidemics in the successful campaign, led by clementino fraga, for yellow fever control in rio de janeiro, brazil, in 1928 and 1929, before the vaccine (1937) and ddt (1947).201627869977
incidence of dengue cases (2007-2013) and seasonal distribution of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) (2012-2013) in barreiras, bahia, brazil.to describe seasonal mosquito distribution and the incidence of dengue cases in barreiras, bahia, brazil.201627869967
[aedes aegypti control strategies: a review].to describe the main strategies to control aedes aegypti, with emphasis on promising technological innovations for use in brazil.201627869956
no magic bullet: citizenship and social participation in the control of aedes aegypti. 201627869933
mosquito oviposition behavior and vector control.the burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. the selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. the dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of ovipositio ...201627869724
a genome-wide identification and analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens.the basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) transcription factors in insects play essential roles in multiple developmental processes including neurogenesis, sterol metabolism, circadian rhythms, organogenesis and formation of olfactory sensory neurons. the identification and function analysis of bhlh family members of the most destructive insect pest of rice, nilaparvata lugens, may provide novel tools for pest management. here, a genome-wide survey for bhlh sequences identified 60 bhlh sequences (nlbhlh ...201627869716
assessing the epidemic potential of rna and dna viruses.many new and emerging rna and dna viruses are zoonotic or have zoonotic origins in an animal reservoir that is usually mammalian and sometimes avian. not all zoonotic viruses are transmissible (directly or by an arthropod vector) between human hosts. virus genome sequence data provide the best evidence of transmission. of human transmissible virus, 37 species have so far been restricted to self-limiting outbreaks. these viruses are priorities for surveillance because relatively minor changes in ...027869592
[recommendations for the surveillance of aedes aegypti].diseases caused by arboviruses transmitted by aedes aegypti, such as dengue, chikungunya and zika, continue to rise in annual incidence and geographic expansion. a key limitation for achieving control of a. aegypti has been the lack of effective tools for monitoring its population, and thus determine what control measures actually work. surveillance of a. aegypti has been based mainly on immature indexes, but they bear little relation to the number of mosquito females, which are the ones capable ...201627869394
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