PMID(sorted descending)
acceptability of aedes aegypti blood feeding on dengue virus-infected human volunteers for vector competence studies in iquitos, part of a study to investigate drivers of dengue virus (denv) transmission dynamics, this qualitative study explored whether denv-infected residents of iquitos, peru, considered it acceptable (1) to participate in direct mosquito feeding experiments (lab-reared aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed directly on human volunteers) and (2) to provide blood meals indirectly (ae. aegypti fed on blood drawn from participants by venipuncture). twelve focus group discussions (fgds; 94 participants: 82 females ...201930742621
mathematical modeling of dengue epidemic: control methods and vaccination strategies.dengue is, in terms of death and economic cost, one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. so, its mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool to help us to understand the dynamics of the disease and to infer about its spreading by the proposition of control methods. in this paper, control strategies, which aim to eliminate the aedes aegypti mosquito, as well as proposals for the vaccination campaign are evaluated. in our mathematical model, the mechanical control is accomplish ...201930740641
small-molecule agonists of ae. aegypti neuropeptide y receptor block mosquito biting.female aedes aegypti mosquitoes bite humans to obtain blood to develop their eggs. remarkably, their strong attraction to humans is suppressed for days after the blood meal by an unknown mechanism. we investigated a role for neuropeptide y (npy)-related signaling in long-term behavioral suppression and discovered that drugs targeting human npy receptors modulate mosquito host-seeking. in a screen of all 49 predicted ae. aegypti peptide receptors, we identified npy-like receptor 7 (npylr7) as the ...201930735632
the perfect appetizer: a pharmacological strategy for a non-biting possibilities for vector-borne disease control are revealed by duvall et al. (2019), who link host-seeking behavioral modulation in aedes aegypti to neuropeptide y (npy)-like receptor 7. small-molecule screening yields agonist compounds able to activate npylr7 and suppress attraction to hosts.201930735629
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) for the identification of invasive aedes mosquito species.invasive aedes mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) are of public health concern in europe because they are either recognized or potential vectors of pathogens. loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is a rapid and simple method for amplifying dna with high specificity and efficiency, with the technique having potential for application in the field, including in high-throughput format. specific lamp assays based on rdna internal transcribed spacers 1 or 2 sequences, considering intraspec ...201930734975
supersensitive odorant receptor underscores pleiotropic roles of indoles in mosquito ecology.mosquitoes exhibit highly diverse and fast evolving odorant receptors (ors). the indole-sensitive or gene clade, comprised of or2 and or10 is a notable exception on account of its conservation in both mosquito subfamilies. this group of paralogous genes exhibits a complex developmental expression pattern in aedes aegypti: aaegor2 is expressed in both adults and larvae, aaegor10 is adult-specific and a third member named aaegor9 is larva-specific. or2 and or10 have been deorphanized and are selec ...201830733668
genome sequences of chikungunya virus isolates circulating in midwestern brazil.chikungunya virus (chikv) is a reemerging arbovirus of the family togaviridae that causes chikv fever, a disease that can extend from weeks to years depending on whether clinical signs of arthralgia persist. chikv is mainly transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes and possibly reached the americas in 2013, causing an outbreak in brazil in 2015. so far, two evolutionary lineages of chikv have been reported in brazil: the asian and the east-central-south african (ecsa) lineages. in this study, six ...201930729309
repellency assessment of nepeta cataria essential oils and isolated nepetalactones on aedes aegypti.there is an increased need for improved and affordable insect repellents to reduce transmission of rapidly spreading diseases with high mortality rates. natural products are often used when deet cannot be afforded or accessed and when consumers choose not to use a synthetic repellent. the essential oils from two newly bred nepeta cataria (catnip) plants representing two different chemotypes and their respective isolated nepetalactone isomers were evaluated as mosquito repellents against aedes ae ...201930728370
engineered resistance to zika virus in transgenic aedes aegypti expressing a polycistronic cluster of synthetic small rnas.recent zika virus (zikv) outbreaks have highlighted the necessity for development of novel vector control strategies to combat arboviral transmission, including genetic versions of the sterile insect technique, artificial infection with wolbachia to reduce population size and/or vectoring competency, and gene drive-based methods. here, we describe the development of mosquitoes synthetically engineered to impede vector competence to zikv. we demonstrate that a polycistronic cluster of engineered ...201930723148
genotoxic and mutagenic assessment of spinosad using bioassays with tradescantia pallida and drosophila melanogaster.spinosad (spn) is a naturally-occurring insecticide obtained from the fermentation process of the actinomycete saccharopolyspora spinosa. owing to the larvicidal action, the compound has been used in the control of aedes aegypti. as a new insecticide commercially available in the market, few data are reported on genotoxic effects in non-target organisms. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the mutagenic effect of spn through the micronucleus test in tradescantia pallida (trad-mcn) ...201930721808
[(assessment of risk for arbovirus infections in russia)].the sharply increased incidence and geographical expansion of arbovirus diseases in recent years suggest that some russian areas are vulnerable to vector-borne diseases and that it is important to elaborate control programs to ensure bio- logical safety in our country. moreover, the main vectors of the pathogens of arbovirus infections (zika fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fevers), such as aedes aegypti and ae.albopictus, have been registered on the black sea coast of the caucasus. the programs ...201730721608
assessment of acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of fluorescent markers produced by cardanol and glycerol, which are industrial waste, to different biological models.the amphyphylic triazoanilines recently synthesized 1-(4-(3-aminophenyl)-1h-1,2,3- triazole-1-yl)-3-(3-pentadecylphenoxy)propan-2-ol (1) and 1-(4-(4-aminophenyl)-1h- 1,2,3-triazole-1-yl)-3-(3-pentadecylphenoxy)propan-2-ol (2), synthesized from cardanol and glycerol, have photophysical properties which allow their use in the development of fluorescent biomarkers with applicability in the biodiesel quality control. based on this, the present research evaluated the toxic effects of both compounds i ...201930719661
evaluation of enhanced oviposition attractant formulations against aedes and culex vector mosquitoes in urban and semi-urban areas.surveillance is not only an important tool to assess the population dynamics of vector mosquitoes, but it can also be used to control vector-borne diseases. mosquito vectors that belong to several genera such as anopheles, aedes, and culex play a crucial role in the transmission of malaria, dengue, chikungunya, zika, and elephantiasis diseases worldwide. we tested the efficacy of two commercial-grade oviposition attractant formulations that were developed for the container-inhabiting aedes aegyp ...201930719534
homologs of human dengue-resistance genes, fkbp1b and atcay, confer antiviral resistance in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.dengue virus (denv) is transmitted by mosquitoes and is a major public health concern. the study of innate mosquito defense mechanisms against denv have revealed crucial roles for the toll, imd, jak-stat, and rnai pathways in mediating denv in the mosquito. often overlooked in such studies is the role of intrinsic cellular defense mechanisms that we hypothesize to work in concert with the classical immune pathways to affect organismal defense. our understanding of the molecular interaction of de ...201930717390
attraction of female aedes aegypti (l.) to aphid honeydew.plant sugar is an essential dietary constituent for mosquitoes, and hemipteran honeydew is one of the many forms of plant sugar that is important to mosquitoes. many insects rely on volatile honeydew semiochemicals to locate aphids or honeydew itself. mosquitoes exploit volatile semiochemicals to locate sources of plant sugar but their attraction to honeydew has not previously been investigated. here, we report the attraction of female yellow fever mosquitoes, aedes aegypti, to honeydew odorants ...201930717169
analysis of salivary glands and saliva from aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti infected with chikungunya viruses.chikungunya virus (chikv) is a medically important mosquito-borne virus transmitted to humans by infected aedes (stegomyia) species. in 2013⁻2014, ae. aegypti transmitted chikv to humans in the caribbean and in 2005⁻2006, ae. albopictus transmitted chikv on la réunion island (indian ocean basin). chikv lr2006 opy1 from the la réunion epidemic was associated with a mutation (e1:a226v) in the viral e1 glycoprotein that enhanced chikv transmission by ae. albopictus. chikv r99659 from the caribbean ...201930717086
water-induced strong protection against acute exposure to low subzero temperature of adult aedes an important vector of dengue and zika, aedes albopictus has been the fastest spreading invasive mosquitoes in the world over the last 3-4 decades. cold tolerance is important for survival and expansion of insects. ae. albopictus adults are generally considered to be cold-intolerant that cannot survive at subzero temperature. however, we found that ae. albopictus could survive for several hours' exposure to -9 to -19 oc so long as it was exposed with water. median lethal time (lt50) of ae. al ...201930716071
pyrethroids use: threats on metabolic-mediated resistance mechanisms in the primary dengue vector aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in aedes aegypti (l.) has limited the success of vector control. early detection of resistance could assist authorities in deciding well-suited control strategies to minimize operational failures of ae. aegypti control. herein, biochemical analysis was performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance in nine populations of indonesian ae. aegypti. enzymes of adult ae. aegypti such as esterases (ests), glutathione-s-transferases (gsts ...201930715464
transcriptional profile of aedes aegypti leucine-rich repeat proteins in response to zika and chikungunya viruses.aedes aegypti (l.) is the primary vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and zika viruses. the leucine-rich repeats (lrr)-containing domain is evolutionarily conserved in many proteins associated with innate immunity in invertebrates and vertebrates, as well as plants. we focused on the aaelrim1 and aaeapl1 gene expressions in response to zika virus (zikv) and chikungunya virus (chikv) infection using a time course study, as well as the developmental expressions in the eggs, larvae, pupae, ...201930708982
insecticidal and repellent properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides ii.this project focused on the design, synthesis, and testing of trifluoromethylphenyl amides (tfmpas) as potential mosquitocides and repellents. fourteen compounds were evaluated for toxicity against larvae and adults of aedes aegypti. several compounds were toxic against aedes aegypti (larval, adult and feeding bioassays) and drosophila melanogaster (glass-surface contact assay), but were much less toxic than fipronil, with toxicity ratios ranging from 100-fold in the larval assay to 100,000-fold ...201830704711
toxicity, mode of action, and synergist potential of flonicamid against mosquitoes.the present study focused on the toxicity of the aphid anti-feedant flonicamid and its main metabolite, 4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide (tfna-am) to aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. the compounds were toxic to both species via topical application, resulting in un-coordinated locomotion and leg splaying, with a favorable an. gambiae ld50 value of 35 ng/mg for tfna-am, but no significant lethality to ae. aegypti at 10 μg/female. there was mild cross resistance in the akron-kdr (akdr) ...201830704710
use of chemical probes to explore the toxicological potential of the k+/cl- cotransporter (kcc) as a novel insecticide target to control the primary vector of dengue and zika virus, aedes aegypti.the majority of commercialized insecticides target the insect nervous system and therefore, neural proteins are well-validated targets for insecticide development. considering that only a few neural targets are exploited for insecticidal action and the development of insecticide resistance has reduced the efficacy of current insecticidal classes, we sought to test the toxicological potential of the potassium-chloride cotransporter (kcc). in mammals, kcc proteins have seminal roles in shaping gab ...201830704707
glycosaminoglycan compositional analysis of relevant tissues in zika virus pathogenesis and in vitro evaluation of heparin as an antiviral against zika virus infection.zika virus (zikv) is an enveloped rna virus from the flavivirus family that can cause fetal neural abnormalities in pregnant women. previously, we established that zikv-ep (envelope protein) binds to human placental chondroitin sulfate (cs), suggesting that cs may be a potential host cell surface receptor in zikv pathogenesis. in this study, we further characterized the gag disaccharide composition of other biological tissues (i.e., mosquitoes, fetal brain cells, and eye tissues) in zikv pathoge ...201930698412
vgsc-interacting proteins are genetically associated with pyrethroid resistance in aedes aegypti.association mapping of factors that condition pyrethroid resistance in aedes aegypti has consistently identified genes in multiple functional groups. toward better understanding of the mechanisms involved, we examined high throughput sequencing data (hts) from two aedes aegypti aegypti collections from merida, yucatan, mexico treated with either permethrin or deltamethrin. exome capture enrichment for coding regions and the aaegl5 annotation were used to identify genes statistically associated w ...201930695054
presence of the point mutations val1016gly in the voltage-gated sodium channel detected in a single mosquito from panama, arboviroses such as dengue fever, and more recently chikungunya fever and zika disease, are transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. their control is based on the elimination of breeding sites and fogging with pyrethroid insecticides. however, one of the significant issues derived from the prolonged use of pyrethroid insecticide is the development of resistance mechanisms, such as knockdown resistance or kdr. the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of kdr mu ...201930691518
identification of potential inhibitors from pyriproxyfen with insecticidal activity by virtual screening.aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue fever transmission, yellow fever, zika, and chikungunya in tropical and subtropical regions and it is considered to cause health risks to millions of people in the world. in this study, we search to obtain new molecules with insecticidal potential against ae. aegypti via virtual screening. pyriproxyfen was chosen as a template compound to search molecules in the database zinc_natural_stock (znst) with structural similarity using rocs (rapid overlay of c ...201930691028
factors affecting short-range host-seeking for the yellow fever mosquito (diptera: culicidae).understanding short-range cues (e.g., host odorants, heat, moisture) of host-seeking female aedes aegypti l. is very important for attempts to reduce mosquito bites, to complement current control strategies, and to develop potential spatial repellents. we investigated behavior under semi-field conditions utilizing a new portable uni-port taxis box with a caged chicken host. the combined influences of airflow regimes (0, 1.5, 3, 5, and 6 m/s), distance from host odor (10, 50, 100 cm), host-odor c ...201930689913
predation on eggs of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae): temporal dynamics and identification of potential predators during the winter season in a temperate temperate regions, the populations of aedes aegypti (l.) remain in the egg stage during the cold season. the ability of these eggs to survive until the next favorable season is affected by several mortality factors, including the action of predators. in the present study, we analyzed the temporal dynamics of the loss of eggs and identified predators of ae. aegypti eggs along the unfavorable season in a temperate region of argentina. to this end, eggs were exposed in field conditions in pitfal ...201930689912
zebrafish embryo toxicity of a binary mixture of pyrethroid insecticides: d-tetramethrin and cyphenothrin.pesguard fg161™, a mixture of d-tetramethrin and cyphenothrin (1:3 ratio), is extensively used to achieve rapid control of adult dengue vector, aedes aegypti, during the disease outbreaks. both d-tetramethrin and cyphenothrin are synthetic pyrethroids that are known to have adverse effects on non-mammalian organisms such as fish. the present study intended to use zebrafish embryo toxicity model to investigate the toxic effect of the above binary mixture on fish. particularly, zebrafish embryo to ...201830687404
microbial exopolymer-capped selenium nanowires - towards new antibacterial, antibiofilm and arbovirus vector larvicides?arboviral diseases and microbial pathogens resistant to commercially available drugs are on the rise. herein, a facile microbial-based approach was developed to synthesize selenium nanowires (se nws) using microbial exopolymer (mep) extracted from the bacillus licheniformis (probiotic bacteria). mep-se nws were characterized using uv-visible, xrd, ftir, hr-tem, fe-sem and edx. an uv-visible peak was detected at 330 nm while xrd spectrum data pointed out the crystalline nature of mep-se nws. ftir ...201930685584
complete nmr chemical shift assignments of odorant binding protein 22 from the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, bound to arachidonic acid.aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the vector for transmission of dengue, zika and chikungunya viruses. these mosquitos feed exclusively on human hosts for a blood meal. previous studies have established that dengue virus infection of the mosquito results in increased expression of the odorant binding proteins 22 and 10 within the mosquito salivary gland and silencing of these genes dramatically reduces blood-feeding behaviors. odorant binding proteins are implicated in modulating the chemosensory per ...201930684234
toxicity and possible mechanisms of action of honokiol from magnolia denudata seeds against four mosquito species.this study was performed to determine the toxicity and possible mechanism of the larvicidal action of honokiol, extracted from magnolia denudata seeds, and its 10 related compounds against third-instar larvae of insecticide-susceptible culex pipiens pallens, aedes aegypti, and aedes albopictus and anopheles sinensis resistant to deltamethrin and temephos. honokiol (lc50, 6.13-7.37 mg/l) was highly effective against larvae of all of the four mosquito species, although the toxicity of the compound ...201930674912
chemical composition, aedes mosquito larvicidal activity, and repellent activity against triatoma rubrofasciata of severinia monophylla leaf essential oil.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are key vectors in the spread of arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika. triatoma rubrofasciata is an "assassin bug" whose populations and association with humans have dramatically increased and may represent a serious health concern. control of insect vectors is a logical course of action to prevent the spread of these insect-borne infections. this work presents the leaf essential oil composition, mosquito larvicidal activities, and inse ...201930671730
current status of aedes aegypti insecticide resistance development from banjarmasin, kalimantan, indonesia.aedes aegypti represents the principal vector of many arthropod-borne diseases in tropical areas worldwide. since mosquito control strategies are mainly based on use of insecticides, resistance development can be expected to occur in frequently exposed ae. aegypti populations. surveillance on resistance development as well as testing of insecticide susceptibility is therefore mandatory and needs further attention by national/international public health authorities. in accordance, we here conduct ...201830671445
rapid loss of resistance to satyrization in invasive mosquitoes and the effects of age on interspecific mating several areas where aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) have come in contact following successful invasions, ae. aegypti have been rapidly displaced by ae. albopictus. recent work has confirmed that mating interference, in the form of satyrization, is likely a driving factor in these competitive displacements. however, in sites of sympatry, ae. aegypti females evolve resistance to satyrization, and in the laboratory, satyrization-susceptib ...201930668807
florida aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus vector competency for zika virus.zika virus (zikv) first spread into brazil in 2013 and is now present throughout the americas. in 2016, florida witnessed the beginnings of local zikv transmission. no reports of local transmission have been reported for 2018; however, travel related cases continue to be reported. recurrence of local transmission in the united states is a major public health risk in florida where vectors aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae, linnaeus) and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae, skuse) are abundant an ...201930668772
infection pattern of mayaro virus in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and transmission potential of the virus in mixed infections with chikungunya virus.mayaro virus (mayv; togaviridae; alphavirus) has drawn increasing attention as an arthropod-borne virus with potential to cause outbreaks among the human populations of the western hemisphere. in the tropical regions of central and south america, the virus exists in sylvatic cycles between mosquitoes and primate reservoirs such as marmosets. although forest-dwelling mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors for mayv, it has been shown previously that the virus can infect and potentially be tr ...201930668762
response of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) survival, life history, and population growth to oak leaf and acorn detritus.aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) and aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) are invasive container mosquitoes that are of potential medical importance in the southern united states. seeds (acorns) and leaves from oak trees can contribute seasonally to the detritus of larval container habitats. herein, we examined the effect of acorns and leaves from the southern live oak (quercus virginiana mill.), which has a concomitant range with these mosquitoes, on the population performance o ...201930668756
spermathecal filling in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus: effects of female and male body sizes and species.the mosquitoes aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) are ecologically similar species that have evolved independently in their native ranges, ae. aegypti in africa and ae. albopictus in asia. where their invasive ranges overlap, interspecific mating is facilitated by both species swarming to mate around bloodmeal hosts during daylight. here, we test hypotheses to account for variation in spermathecal filling in females of ae. aegypti and ae. al ...201930668724
arbovirus coinfection and co-transmission: a neglected public health concern?epidemiological synergy between outbreaks of viruses transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes, such as chikungunya, dengue, and zika viruses, has resulted in coinfection of humans with multiple viruses. despite the potential impact on public health, we know only little about the occurrence and consequences of such coinfections. here, we review the impact of coinfection on clinical disease in humans, discuss the possibility for co-transmission from mosquito to human, and describe a role for modeli ...201930668574
entomological and sociobehavioral components of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection in two florida communities with a high or low prevalence of dogs with heartworm infection.objective to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) and mosquito vectors among residents (dog owners and non-dog owners) in 2 neighborhoods in florida and to perform entomological surveys of mosquito species in these neighborhoods and identify mosquito species infected with heartworm. design cross-sectional study. sample 2,572 mosquitoes and 96 residents of 2 northern florida communities. procedures a 32-item questionnaire was orally administered to ...201930668298
effect of meteorological factors on the seasonal prevalence of dengue vectors in upland hilly and lowland terai regions of nepal.the expansion of dengue vectors from lowland plains to the upland hilly regions of nepal suggests the likelihood of increased risk of dengue. our objective was to assess the effects of meteorological variables on vector indices and populations of dengue vectors in two different ecological regions of nepal. an entomological survey was conducted in kathmandu and lalitpur (upland) and chitwan (lowland) of nepal in three different seasons from july 2015 to may 2016. the effect of meteorological vari ...201930658693
aedes aegypti larvae treated with spinosad produce adults with damaged midgut and reduced fecundity.the mosquito aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses, which are responsible for high human morbidity and mortality. the fight against these pathogens is mainly based on the control of the insect vector with the use of insecticides. among insecticides, spinosad bioinsecticide is efficient against a. aegypti larvae and may be an alternative for vector control. here, we investigate the sublethal effects of spinosad during midgut metamorphosis of a. ae ...201930654260
a role for the insulin receptor in the suppression of dengue virus and zika virus in wolbachia-infected mosquito cells.wolbachia-infected mosquitoes are refractory to super-infection with arthropod-borne pathogens, but the role of host cell signaling proteins in pathogen-blocking mechanisms remains to be elucidated. here, we use an antibody microarray approach to provide a comprehensive picture of the signaling response of aedes aegypti-derived cells to wolbachia. this approach identifies the host cell insulin receptor as being downregulated by the bacterium. furthermore, sirna-mediated knockdown and treatment w ...201930650347
extremely long viability of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) eggs stored under normal room condition.the viability of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) eggs was determined by storing the eggs for long period of up to 1,889 d. the viability of eggs declined over time from 88.54 to 4.89% for the storage period of 1-1,883 d (5.15 yr). the percentage of collapsed eggs was inversely proportional to the hatching rate of eggs. in the first day of storage, the eggs remained healthy and intact, and except a few, the eggs were deformed and boat shaped with cleft due to inward shrinkage during long storage of 1,88 ...201930649399
dirofilaria and wolbachia in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in central european russia and on the black sea coast.dirofilariasis is endemic in russia, as well as in many other european countries. the aim of this study was to assess the ability of mosquitoes to transfer dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens in regions with temperate and subtropical climates. the possible impact of the symbiotic bacterium wolbachia on dirofilaria transmission was also investigated. 5333 female mosquitoes were collected at 11 points in central european russia and on the black sea coast during the period 2013-2017. out of ...201930644356
cross-generational effects of heat stress on fitness and wolbachia density in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with wolbachia symbionts are now being released into the field to control the spread of pathogenic human arboviruses. wolbachia can spread throughout vector populations by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility and can reduce disease transmission by interfering with virus replication. the success of this strategy depends on the effects of wolbachia on mosquito fitness and the stability of wolbachia infections across generations. wolbachia infections are vulnerable ...201930642130
application of convolutional neural networks for classification of adult mosquitoes in the field.dengue, chikungunya and zika are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitos of the genus aedes and have caused several outbreaks in world over the past ten years. morphological identification of mosquitos is currently restricted due to the small number of adequately trained professionals. we implemented a computational model based on a convolutional neural network (cnn) to extract features from mosquito images to identify adult mosquitoes from the species aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quin ...201930640961
genome-wide transcriptome profiling reveals genes associated with meiotic drive system of aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is an important mosquito vector of several arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever, zika, and chikungunya, which cause significant human morbidity and mortality globally. in certain populations of this mosquito, a native meiotic drive system causes abnormal spermatogenesis that results in highly male-biased progenies from some matings. although the basic genetics and cytogenetics of the drive mechanism were elucidated, very little is known on a transcriptome level about how the ...201930634571
aspergillus flavus (link) toxins reduces the fitness of dengue vector aedes aegypti (linn.) and their non-target toxicity against aquatic predator.mosquito that accountable for dispersal of dengue fever is aedes aegypti linn. and considered to be a chief vector for dengue especially in south asian countries. aspergillus flavus is considered to be wild growing green yellow colonies and synthesis highly regulating aflatoxins (b1, b2, g1 and g2) as a secondary metabolite. mycotoxins of a. flavus showed its efficacy against iii and iv instars of ae. aegypti with more than 90% mortality at the prominent dosage of 2 × 108 conidia/ml. the proxima ...201930633984
impact of sugar composition on meal distribution, longevity, and insecticide toxicity in aedes aegypti.toxic sugar baits (tsbs) are an inexpensive and field-applicable approach to deliver a variety of insecticides to sugar-seeking mosquitoes. we reasoned that carbohydrate chemistry could alter the performance and efficacy of tsbs. in this study, the uptake, distribution, and survival of female aedes aegypti provided with twelve different aqueous sugar meals was recorded. sucrose, a standard control sugar used in mosquito rearing, is always diverted to the ventral diverticulum upon ingestion; but ...201930633897
honeysuckle essential oil as a potential source of ecofriendly larvicides for mosquito control.some plant essential oils have insecticidal properties against mosquitoes and can be harnessed as ecofriendly tools for mosquito control. we conducted bioassays to determine the toxicity of italian honeysuckle (lonicera caprifolium) essential oil and its fractions against larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.201930632272
sex and age modulate antennal chemosensory-related genes linked to the onset of host seeking in the yellow-fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.the mosquito aedes aegypti is the primary vector for the fastest growing infectious disease in the world, dengue fever. disease transmission heavily relies on the ability of female mosquitoes to locate their human hosts. additionally, males may be found in close proximity to humans, where they can find mates. host seeking behaviour of both sexes is dependent on adult sexual maturation. identifying the molecular basis for the onset of host seeking may help to determine targets for future vector c ...201930631085
crossing the mucosal barrier: a commensal bacterium gives dengue virus a leg-up in the mosquito midgut.commensal bacteria that colonize the midgut of aedes aegypti mosquitoes can influence the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses. in this issue of cell host & microbe, wu et al. (2019) show that serratia marcescens bacteria secrete enhancin proteins that cleave membrane-bound mucins, thereby facilitating dengue virus infection of midgut epithelial cells.201930629911
economic burden of dengue in indonesia.dengue is associated with significant economic expenditure and it is estimated that the asia pacific region accounts for >50% of the global cost. indonesia has one of the world's highest dengue burdens; aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary vectors. in the absence of local data on disease cost, this study estimated the annual economic burden during 2015 of both hospitalized and ambulatory dengue cases in indonesia.201930629593
ocular findings in yellow fever infection.yellow fever virus (yfv) is a reemerging, potentially lethal arboviral disease that has been occurring recently in africa and south america. poor levels of immunization have facilitated the viral spread in southeastern brazil, leading to an unprecedented outbreak that started in late 2016. although human cases have been linked to sylvatic mosquitoes, the concern is that yfv may spread to urban centers infested with aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes and start a true urban cycle.201930629101
larvicidal potential of five selected dragonfly nymphs in sri lanka over aedes aegypti (linnaeus) larvae under laboratory settings.limitations in breeding source reduction practices, development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, and ill effects of chemical controlling methods on human and ecosystem health have motivated sri lankan authorities working for dengue control to seek for alternative, ecofriendly, and sustainable approaches for controlling of aedes vectors, to manage dengue epidemics. the present study attempted to investigate the predation efficiency of locally available dragonfly nymphs over aedes aegypti ...201830627580
fine-scale spatial and temporal dynamics of kdr haplotypes in aedes aegypti from resistance to insecticides increases in disease vectors, it has become exceedingly important to monitor populations for susceptibility. most studies of field populations of aedes aegypti have largely characterized resistance patterns at the spatial scale of the city or country, which may not be completely informative given that insecticide application occurs at the scale of the house or city block. phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids dominates in ae. aegypti, and it has been partially explai ...201930626410
comparative efficacy of eucalyptus globulus (labill) hydrodistilled essential oil and temephos as mosquito this study eucalyptus globulus essential oil was tested on major mosquito species and toxicity was compared with temephos. mortality was calculated after 24 h and 48 h post treatment. in 24 h treatment essential oil show strong larvicidal activity with lc50 and lc90 values were 30.198ppm, 103.389ppm for anopheles stephensi, 13.578ppm, 106.755ppm for aedes aegypti; and, 7.469ppm, 32.454ppm for culex quinquefasciatus and 48 h post treatment lc50 and lc90 values were, 12.576, 49.380ppm for anoph ...201930623679
a novel entomological index, aedes aegypti breeding percentage, reveals the geographical spread of the dengue vector in singapore and serves as a spatial risk indicator for dengue.aedes aegypti is an efficient primary vector of dengue, and has a heterogeneous distribution in singapore. aedes albopictus, a poor vector of dengue, is native and ubiquitous on the island. though dengue risk follows the dispersal of ae. aegypti, the spatial distribution of the vector is often poorly characterized. here, based on the ubiquitous presence of ae. albopictus, we developed a novel entomological index, ae. aegypti breeding percentage (bp), to demonstrate the expansion of ae. aegypti i ...201930621762
matching the genetics of released and local aedes aegypti populations is critical to assure wolbachia invasion.traditional vector control approaches such as source reduction and insecticide spraying have limited effect on reducing aedes aegypti population. the endosymbiont wolbachia is pointed as a promising tool to mitigate arbovirus transmission and has been deployed worldwide. models predict a rapid increase on the frequency of wolbachia-positive ae. aegypti mosquitoes in local settings, supported by cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci) and high maternal transmission rate associated with the wmelbr strain ...201930620733
identification and characterization of a mosquito-specific eggshell organizing factor in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for several million human deaths annually around the world. one approach to controlling mosquito populations is to disrupt molecular processes or antagonize novel metabolic targets required for the production of viable eggs. to this end, we focused our efforts on identifying proteins required for completion of embryonic development that are mosquito selective and represent potential targets for vector control. we performed bioinformatic analyses to identif ...201930620728
zika virus infection produces a reduction on aedes aegypti lifespan but no effects on mosquito fecundity and oviposition success.a zika virus (zikv) pandemic started soon after the first autochthonous cases in latin america. although aedes aegypti is pointed as the primary vector in latin america, little is known about the fitness cost due to zikv infection. we investigated the effects of zikv infection on the life-history traits of ae. aegypti females collected in three districts of rio de janeiro, brazil (barra, deodoro, and porto), equidistant ~25 km each other. aedes aegypti mosquitoes were classified into infected (a ...201830619118
adaptation of aedes aegypti to salinity: characterized by larger anal papillae in larvae. 201930618451
epidemic potential of zika virus in australia: implications for blood transfusion safety.zika virus (zikv) is transfusion-transmissible. in australia the primary vector, aedes aegypti, is established in the north-east, such that local transmission is possible following importation of an index case, which has the potential to impact on blood transfusion safety and public health. we estimated the basic reproduction number (r 0 ) to model the epidemic potential of zikv in australian locations, compared this with the ecologically similar dengue viruses (denv), and examined possible impl ...201930618208
larvicidal and pupicidal activities of eco-friendly phenolic lipid products from anacardium occidentale nutshell against arbovirus vectors.aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of diseases that constitute public health problems. the discovery of products capable of inhibiting their development which are less harmful to the environment would have a huge impact on vector control. here, natural cashew nut shell liquid (cnsl), technical cnsl, anacardic acid, cardanol, and cardol were isolated from anacardium occidentale and evaluated for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus under ...201930610586
assessment of combined tools and strategies for aedes aegypti control with low environmental impact.the control of the mosquito vector aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) is the main action against dengue, chikungunya, and zika. the excessive use of conventional insecticides has promoted the development of other control methods and strategies with lower environmental impact. we evaluated the effectiveness of applying triflumuron 1 ppm and emptying water-filled containers in a field trial in temperate argentina. both control methods were implemented either individually or combined and regular ...201930607607
alternative strategies for mosquito-borne arbovirus control.mosquito-borne viruses-such as zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, and yellow fever, among others-are of global importance. although vaccine development for prevention of mosquito-borne arbovirus infections has been a focus, mitigation strategies continue to rely on vector control. however, vector control has failed to prevent recent epidemics and arrest expanding geographic distribution of key arboviruses, such as dengue. as a consequence, there has been increasing necessity to further optimize cu ...201930605475
laboratory evaluation of repellency of traditional czech homemade repellents against aedes the czech republic, autochtonous transmission of mosquito borne diseases is not common; however, the need for personal protection should not be underestimated. many people still rely on homemade repellents utilizing recipes based on local folk wisdom that are published annually in local czech media. despite minimal disease risk, nuisance biting and potential allergic responses make it essential to evaluate the chemical composition, effect, and duration of four homemade repellents often used a ...201930602280
igg1 and igg4 antibodies against aedes aegypti salivary proteins and risk for dengue infections.dengue virus (denv) is an arbovirus responsible for a significant number of deaths in latin america. this virus is transmitted through the bite of aedes aegypti, the main mosquito vector, and ae. albopictus. during blood uptake, the mosquito injects its saliva into the host to facilitate the feeding process. mosquito saliva contains potent immunogens capable of inducing antibody production directly related to mosquito bite exposure intensity and disease risk. in this study, we first determined t ...201930601814
mapping the global potential distributions of two arboviral vectors aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus under changing climate.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are the primary vectors that transmit several arboviral diseases, including dengue, chikungunya, and zika. the world is presently experiencing a series of outbreaks of these diseases, so, we still require to better understand the current distributions and possible future shifts of their vectors for successful surveillance and control programs. few studies assessed the influences of climate change on the spatial distributional patterns and abundance of these impor ...201830596764
scaled deployment of wolbachia to protect the community from dengue and other  aedes transmitted arboviruses.background: a number of new technologies are under development for the control of mosquito transmitted viruses, such as dengue, chikungunya and zika that all require the release of modified mosquitoes into the environment. none of these technologies has been able to demonstrate evidence that they can be implemented at a scale beyond small pilots. here we report the first successful citywide scaled deployment of wolbachia in the northern australian city of townsville. methods: the wmel strain of ...201830596205
a gut commensal bacterium promotes mosquito permissiveness to arboviruses.mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors that can acquire human viruses in their intestinal tract. here, we define a mosquito gut commensal bacterium that promotes permissiveness to arboviruses. antibiotic depletion of gut bacteria impaired arboviral infection of a lab-adapted aedes aegypti mosquito strain. reconstitution of individual cultivable gut bacteria in antibiotic-treated mosquitoes identified serratia marcescens as a commensal bacterium critical for efficient arboviral acquisition. s. marc ...201930595552
a simple model to predict the potential abundance of aedes aegypti mosquitoes one month in advance.the mosquito aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) is the primary vector of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses in the united states. surveillance for adult ae. aegypti is limited, hindering understanding of the mosquito's seasonal patterns and predictions of areas at elevated risk for autochthonous virus transmission. we developed a simple, intuitive empirical model that uses readily available temperature and humidity variables to predict environmental suitability for low, medium, or high potential ...201930594264
long-term exposure of aedes aegypti to bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis did not involve altered susceptibility to this microbial larvicide or to other control agents.bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (bti) is an effective and safe biolarvicide to control aedes aegypti. its mode of action based on four protoxins disfavors resistance; however, control in endemic areas that display high mosquito infestation throughout the year requires continuous larvicide applications, which imposes a strong selection pressure. therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an intensive bti exposure on an ae. aegypti strain (recbti), regarding its susceptibil ...201830594214
biochemical effects of petroselinum crispum (umbellifereae) essential oil on the pyrethroid resistant strains of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).in ongoing screening research for edible plants, petroselinum crispum essential oil was considered as a potential bioinsecticide with proven antimosquito activity against both the pyrethroid susceptible and resistant strains of aedes aegypti. due to the comparative mosquitocidal efficacy on these mosquitoes, this plant essential oil is promoted as an attractive candidate for further study in monitoring resistance of mosquito vectors. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ...201830586929
a comparative study of energy contents in mosquito vectors of malaria and dengue prevailing in jodhpur city (thar desert) of rajasthan state, india.transmission of malaria and dengue in the desert part of india is mainly caused by anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti respectively. the maintenance and transmission of the pathogens that cause malaria and dengue are dependent on the physiology of the mosquito vectors. we aimed to measure the energy contents in the mosquitoes transmitting malaria and dengue in the desert part of the country.201830584552
combined sterile insect technique and incompatible insect technique: sex separation and quality of sterile aedes aegypti male mosquitoes released in a pilot population suppression trial in thailand.the sterile insect technique (sit), which is based on irradiation-induced sterility, and incompatible insect technique (iit), which is based on wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (a kind of male sterility), have been used as alternative methods to reduce mosquito vector populations. both methods require the release of males to reduce fertile females and suppress the number of natural populations. different techniques of sex separation to obtain only males have been investigated previo ...201830583749
molecular tools to create new strains for mosquito sexing and vector control.vector control programs based on population reduction by matings with mass-released sterile insects require the release of only male mosquitoes, as the release of females, even if sterile, would increase the number of biting and potentially disease-transmitting individuals. while small-scale releases demonstrated the applicability of sterile males releases to control the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti, large-scale programs for mosquitoes are currently prevented by the lack of efficient sexi ...201830583736
functional analysis of the promoter of an early zygotic gene klc2 in aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is an important mosquito vector that transmits arboviruses that cause devastating diseases including zika, dengue fever, yellow fever and chikungunya. improved understanding of gene regulation in the early development of ae. aegypti will facilitate genetic studies and help the development of novel control strategies of this important disease vector.201830583735
sex determination and aedes population control.the global economic cost of aedes-borne diseases, such as dengue, is estimated to be in the billions of dollars annually. in this scenario, a sustained vector control strategy is the only alternative to control dengue, as well as other diseases transmitted by aedes, including zika and chikungunya. the use of transgenic mosquitoes is a promising weapon in the improvement of approaches currently applied in aedes aegypti control. field trials using genetically modified mosquitoes for population con ...201830583731
pure early zygotic genes in the asian malaria mosquito anopheles stephensi.the asian malaria mosquito, anopheles stephensi, is a major urban malaria vector in the middle east and on the indian subcontinent. early zygotic transcription, which marks the maternal-to-zygotic transition, has not been systematically studied in an. stephensi or any other anopheles mosquitoes. improved understanding of early embryonic gene expression in an. stephensi will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies and help with the development of novel control strategies for this important di ...201830583723
exploring the potential of computer vision analysis of pupae size dimorphism for adaptive sex sorting systems of various vector mosquito species.several mosquito population suppression strategies based on the rearing and release of sterile males have provided promising results. however, the lack of an efficient male selection method has hampered the expansion of these approaches into large-scale operational programmes. currently, most of these programmes targeting aedes mosquitoes rely on sorting methods based on the sexual size dimorphism (ssd) at the pupal stage. the currently available sorting methods have not been developed based on ...201830583722
density-dependent enhanced replication of a densovirus in wolbachia-infected aedes cells is associated with production of pirnas and higher virus-derived sirnas.the endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia pipientis has been shown to restrict a range of rna viruses in drosophila melanogaster and transinfected dengue mosquito, aedes aegypti. here, we show that wolbachia infection enhances replication of aedes albopictus densovirus (aaldnv-1), a single stranded dna virus, in aedes cell lines in a density-dependent manner. analysis of previously produced small rnas of aag2 cells showed that wolbachia-infected cells produced greater absolute abundance of virus-der ...201930583288
the aedes aegypti imd pathway is a critical component of the mosquito antifungal immune response.successful infection of the insect body by entomopathogenic fungi is the result of complex molecular interactions between the host and the invading pathogenic fungi. the mosquito antifungal response is multifaceted and is regulated in part by the toll and jak-stat pathways. here, we assessed the role of the imd pathway in the mosquito ae. aegypti antifungal immune response when challenged with one of two entomopathogenic fungi, beauveria bassiana and isaria javanica. imd pathway components of th ...201930582948
green synthesis of silver-nanoparticles from annona reticulata leaves aqueous extract and its mosquito larvicidal and anti-microbial activity on human pathogens.silver nanoparticles play a important role in controlling mosquito population as well as multi drug resistant pathogens without causing much harm to humans. in the present study was focused on green synthesis of silver nanoparticles against dengue causing vector (aedes aegypti) and pathogens affecting humans. the synthesized silver nanoparticle was confirmed using uv- absorption spectrum range obtained at 416 nm, xrd, ftir and hr-tem analysis were used to determine the silver nanoparticle morpho ...201930581768
dengue outbreaks and the geographic distribution of dengue vectors in taiwan: a 20-year epidemiological analysis.dengue fever is an important mosquito-borne viral infectious disease that mostly occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. according to epidemiological data from the center for disease control of taiwan, more than 98.62% of outbreaks of indigenous total dengue cases were reported in the southern part of taiwan. southern taiwan is an aggregate area encompassing tainan, kaohsiung, and pingtung, all of which are located below the tropic of cancer (23º35'n). with a few exceptions, dengu ...201830580791
dengue in taiwan: pointing the finger at aedes this issue of the biomedical journal we explore the history of dengue infection in taiwan and what current trends have to say about the vector responsible for transmitting the disease on the island. we focus on original research reporting the development of a new perfusion bioreactor to engineer bone from human cord blood stem cells. finally, we look at trends in osteoporosis in taiwan and how they highlight the success of public health campaigns.201830580790
distinctive regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase 1 from aedes aegypti mosquitoes.female aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that cause diseases of public health significance. the discovery of new metabolic targets is crucial for improving mosquito control strategies. we recently demonstrated that glucose oxidation supports ammonia detoxification in a. aegypti. pyruvate kinase (pk, ec catalyzes the last step of the glycolytic pathway. in most organisms, one or more allosteric effectors control pk activity. however, the kinetic properties and structur ...201930578824
production of tetravalent dengue virus envelope protein domain iii based antigens in lettuce chloroplasts and immunologic analysis for future oral vaccine development.dengue fever is a mosquito (aedes aegypti) -transmitted viral disease that is endemic in more than 125 countries around the world. there are four serotypes of the dengue virus (denv 1-4) and a safe and effective dengue vaccine must provide protection against all four serotypes. to date, the first vaccine, dengvaxia (cyd-tdv), is available after many decades' efforts, but only has moderate efficacy. more effective and affordable vaccines are hence required. plants offer promising vaccine producti ...201930578710
zika in puerto rico, 2016-2017: ii perspectives on epidemic surveillance and control, health communication, outcomes and lessons.the social reaction to the zika epidemic in puerto rico reached a confrontational climax regarding aerial fumigation with an organophosphate insecticide. the public drama has obscured multiple simultaneous controversies. this and a companion paper, based mostly on print and digital news reports, provide a context and description of the major controversies and examine the outcomes and their lessons for the protection of the public's health. part ii covers the questions on disease surveillance (wh ...201830576574
zika virus in the americas: an environmental health perspective.phylogenetic studies suggest that zikv may have been introduced to brazil, and therefore to the americas, in 2014 during the world spring canoe championship held in the city of rio de janeiro. since then the virus has spread across latin america, caribbean, and north america. it seems clear that aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, aedes albopictus are the main vectors of the pathogen. zikv infection symptoms are similar to other flaviviruses such as a dengue infection and therefore can be eas ...201830576572
the pagodas protocol: pediatric assessment group of dengue and aedes saliva protocol to investigate vector-borne determinants of aedes-transmitted arboviral infections in cambodia.mosquito-borne arboviruses, like dengue virus, continue to cause significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly in southeast asia. when the infectious mosquitoes probe into human skin for a blood meal, they deposit saliva containing a myriad of pharmacologically active compounds, some of which alter the immune response and influence host receptivity to infection, and consequently, the establishment of the virus. previous reports have highlighted the complexity of mosquito vector-derive ...201830572920
construction sites in miami-dade county, florida are highly favorable environments for vector mosquitoes.urbanization is increasing globally, and construction sites are an integral part of the urbanization process. it is unknown to what extent construction sites create favorable breeding conditions for mosquitoes. the main objectives of the present study were to identify what species of mosquitoes are present at construction sites and the respective physical features associated with their production. eleven construction sites were cross-sectionally surveyed for the presence of mosquitoes in miami-d ...201830571764
the tudor protein veneno assembles the ping-pong amplification complex that produces viral pirnas in aedes mosquitoes.piwi-interacting rnas (pirnas) comprise a class of small rnas best known for suppressing transposable elements in germline tissues. the vector mosquito aedes aegypti encodes seven piwi genes, four of which are somatically expressed. this somatic pirna pathway generates pirnas from viral rna during infection with cytoplasmic rna viruses through ping-pong amplification by the piwi proteins ago3 and piwi5. yet, additional insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating non-canonical pirna producti ...201930566680
container size alters the outcome of interspecific competition between aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus.aedes aegypti l. and aedes albopictus skuse co-occur in a variety of water-filled containers where they compete for resources. larvae of ae. albopictus skuse often outcompete those of ae. aegypti l., but variation in biotic and abiotic parameters can modify the outcome of this interspecific competition. we tested whether container size can alter the magnitude and direction of intra- and interspecific competition by rearing three ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus larval combinations (100:0, 50:50 an ...201930566608
bioactivity of wild carrot (daucus carota, apiaceae) essential oil against mosquito larvae.invasive alien plants wreak havoc on native ecosystems and using them as a source of biopesticides could improve their management. we examined the toxicity of essential oil of wild carrot (also known as 'queen anne's lace', daucus carota linnaeus), an aggressive invader throughout the united states, against aedes aegypti l., culex pipiens l., and culex restuans theobald larvae. comparisons were made between essential oil extracted from umbels of local populations of wild carrot versus a commerci ...201930566578
soluble expression of recombinant midgut zymogen (native propeptide) proteases from the aedes aegypti mosquito utilizing e. coli as a host.studying proteins and enzymes involved in important biological processes in the aedes aegypti mosquito is limited by the quantity that can be directly isolated from the mosquito. adding to this difficulty, digestive enzymes (midgut proteases) involved in metabolizing blood meal proteins require a more oxidizing environment to allow proper folding of disulfide bonds. therefore, recombinant techniques to express foreign proteins in escherichia coli prove to be effective in producing milligram quan ...201830563449
simultaneous detection of different zika virus lineages via molecular computation in a point-of-care assay.we have developed a generalizable "smart molecular diagnostic" capable of accurate point-of-care (poc) detection of variable nucleic acid targets. our isothermal assay relies on multiplex execution of four loop-mediated isothermal amplification reactions, with primers that are degenerate and redundant, thereby increasing the breadth of targets while reducing the probability of amplification failure. an easy-to-read visual answer is computed directly by a multi-input boolean or logic gate (gate o ...201830558136
larval exposure to the bacterial insecticide bti enhances dengue virus susceptibility of adult aedes aegypti mosquitoes.understanding the interactions between pathogens sharing the same host can be complicated for holometabolous animals when larval and adult stages are exposed to distinct pathogens. in medically important insect vectors, the effect of pathogen exposure at the larval stage may influence susceptibility to human pathogens at the adult stage. we addressed this hypothesis in the mosquito aedes aegypti, a major vector of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as the dengue virus (denv) and the chi ...201830558130
Displaying items 601 - 700 of 14974