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tracking the return of aedes aegypti to brazil, the major vector of the dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses.aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. the history of ae. aegypti in brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. after cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several de ...201728742801
insecticide resistance is mediated by multiple mechanisms in recently introduced aedes aegypti from madeira island (portugal).aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and zika. in 2005, ae. aegypti was identified for the first time in madeira island. despite an initial insecticide-based vector control program, the species expanded throughout the southern coast of the island, suggesting the presence of insecticide resistance. here, we characterized the insecticide resistance status and the underlying mechanisms of two populations of ae. aegypti from madeira island, funchal a ...201728742096
linking only aedes aegypti with zika virus has world-wide public health implications. 201728736548
wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito aedes fluviatilis (diptera: culicidae).dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in latin america, b ...201728732048
assessment of the probability of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus in canada under recent and projected climate change.chikungunya virus (chikv) is a reemerging pathogen transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. the ongoing caribbean outbreak is of concern due to the potential for infected travelers to spread the virus to countries where vectors are present and the population is susceptible. although there has been no autochthonous transmission of chikv in canada, there is concern that both ae. albopictus and chikv will become established, particularly under projected climate change. we devel ...201728731409
conditions for success of engineered underdominance gene drive systems.engineered underdominance is one of a number of different gene drive strategies that have been proposed for the genetic control of insect vectors of disease. here we model a two-locus engineered underdominance based gene drive system that is based on the concept of mutually suppressing lethals. in such a system two genetic constructs are introduced, each possessing a lethal element and a suppressor of the lethal at the other locus. specifically, we formulate and analyse a population genetics mod ...201728728996
zika virus transmission to mouse ear by mosquito bite: a laboratory model that replicates the natural transmission process.zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and guillain-barré syndrome. zika virus (zikv) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with aedes aegypti being the main vector.201728728607
rhanterium epapposum oliv. essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial, insect-repellent and anticholinesterase activities.the essential oil (eo) of the aerial parts of rhanterium epapposum oliv. (asteraceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation. the oil was subsequently analyzed by both gc-fid and gc-ms, simultaneously. forty-five components representing 99.2% of the oil composition were identified. the most abundant compounds were camphene (38.5%), myrcene (17.5%), limonene (10.1%) and α-pinene (8.7%). referring to the ethnobotanical utilization, an insecticidal assay was performed, where the oil repelled the yellow ...201728725142
asymptomatic transmission and the dynamics of zika infection.following the 2013-14 outbreak in french polynesia, the zika virus (zikv) epidemic spread widely to many countries where aedes aegypti as the main transmitting vector is endemic. the lack of a second wave of zikv infection in most affected regions may suggest that a sufficiently high level of herd immunity was reached during the first wave. we developed an agent-based transmission model to investigate the role of asymptomatic infection on the likelihood of observing a second wave, while accounti ...201728724972
first record of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in aedes aegypti from cuba.while horizontal transmission (human-mosquito-human) of dengue viruses largely determines the epidemiology of the disease, vertical transmission (infected female mosquito- infected offspring) has been suggested as a mechanism that ensures maintenance of the virus during adverse conditions for horizontal transmission to occur. the purpose of this study was to analyze the natural infection of larval stages of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) with the dengue virus (denv) in cuba. here, we report ...201728720490
experimental infection with and maintenance of cell fusing agent virus (flavivirus) in aedes aegypti.during the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition and characterization of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (isfvs). some of these agents are closely related to important mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens. results of experimental studies suggest that mosquitoes and mosquito cell cultures infected with some isfvs are refractory to superinfection with related flavivirus pathogens; and it has been proposed that isfvs potentially could be used to alter the vector ...201728719335
american aedes vexans mosquitoes are competent vectors of zika virus.abstractstarting in 2013-2014, the americas have experienced a massive outbreak of zika virus (zikv) which has now reached at least 49 countries. although most cases have occurred in south america and the caribbean, imported and autochthonous cases have occurred in the united states. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes are known vectors of zikv. little is known about the potential for temperate aedes mosquitoes to transmit zikv. aedes vexans has a worldwide distribution, is highly abun ...201728719283
low density lipopolyprotein inhibits flavivirus acquisition in aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is the primary vector of a number of human pathogens including dengue virus (denv) and zika virus (zikv). ae. aegypti acquires these viruses during the processing of bloodmeals obtained from an infected vertebrate host. vertebrate blood contains a number of factors that have the potential to modify virus acquisition in the mosquito. interestingly, low density lipopolyprotein (ldl) levels are decreased during severe denv infection. accordingly, we hypothesized that ldl is a modifiab ...201728718976
zika virus alters the microrna expression profile and elicits an rnai response in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv), a flavivirus transmitted primarily by aedes aegypti, has recently spread globally in an unprecedented fashion, yet we have a poor understanding of host-microbe interactions in this system. to gain insights into the interplay between zikv and the mosquito, we sequenced the small rna profiles in zikv-infected and non-infected ae. aegypti mosquitoes at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection. zika induced an rnai response in the mosquito with virus-derived short interfering rnas and piwi ...201728715413
mosquitoes can harbour yeasts of clinical significance and contribute to their environmental dissemination.there is still a lack of studies on fungal microbiota in mosquitoes, compared with the number available on bacterial microbiota. this study reports the identification of yeasts of clinical significance in laboratory mosquito species: anopheles gambiae, anopheles stephensi, culex quinquefasciatus, aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti. among the yeasts isolated, they focused on the opportunistic pathogen candida parapsilosis, since there is a need to better understand breakthrough candidaemia with r ...201728714286
toward mosquito control with a green alga: expression of cry toxins of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) in the chloroplast of chlamydomonas.we are developing chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) in the chloroplast. chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. the bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three cry proteins, cry4aa (135 kda), c ...201728713202
specificity and putative mode of action of a mosquito larvicidal toxin from the bacterium xenorhabdus innexi.reduction of mosquito-borne diseases relies, in part, on the use of synthetic pesticides to control pest mosquitoes. this reliance has led to genetic resistance, environmental contamination and the nondiscriminatory elimination of both pest and non-pest species. to expand our options for control, we screened entomopathogenic bacteria for potential larvicidal activity. a lipopeptide from the bacterium, xenorhabdus innexi, was discovered that displayed potent larvicidal activity. the lc50s of the ...201728712711
characterization and productivity profiles of aedes aegypti (l.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal kenya.aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue and other emerging arboviruses, breeds preferentially in various man-made and natural container habitats. in the absence of vaccine, epidemiological surveillance and vector control remain the best practices for preventing dengue outbreaks. effective vector control depends on a good understanding of larval and adult vector ecology of which little is known in kenya. in the current study, we sought to characterize breeding habitats and establish contai ...201728701194
understanding the role of micrornas in the interaction of aedes aegypti mosquitoes with an insect-specific flavivirus.the flavivirus genus contains some of the most prevalent vector-borne viruses, such as the dengue, zika and yellow fever viruses that cause devastating diseases in humans. however, the insect-specific clade of flaviviruses is restricted to mosquito hosts, albeit they have retained the general features of the genus, such as genome structure and replication. the interactions between insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) and their mosquito hosts are largely unknown. pathogenic flaviviruses are known ...201728699859
camino verde (the green way): evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in nicaragua and mexico: feasibility study and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.since the aedes aegypti mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus can breed in clean water, who-endorsed vector control strategies place sachets of organophosphate pesticide, temephos (abate), in household water storage containers. these and other pesticide-dependent approaches have failed to curb the spread of dengue and multiple dengue virus serotypes continue to spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. a feasibility study in managua, nicaragua, generated instruments, interven ...201728699570
which green way: description of the intervention for mobilising against aedes aegypti under difficult security conditions in southern mexico.community mobilisation for prevention requires engagement with and buy in from those communities. in the mexico state of guerrero, unprecedented social violence related to the narcotics trade has eroded most community structures. a recent randomised controlled trial in 90 coastal communities achieved sufficient mobilisation to reduce conventional vector density indicators, self-reported dengue illness and serologically proved dengue virus infection.201728699562
mobilising communities for aedes aegypti control: the sepa approach.camino verde (the green way) is an evidence-based community mobilisation tool for prevention of dengue and other mosquito-borne viral diseases. its effectiveness was demonstrated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in 2010-2013 in nicaragua and mexico. the common approach that brought functional consistency to the camino verde intervention in both mexico and nicaragua is socialisation of evidence for participatory action (sepa). in this article, we explain the sepa concept and its ...201728699561
aedes aegypti breeding ecology in guerrero: cross-sectional study of mosquito breeding sites from the baseline for the camino verde trial in mexico.understanding the breeding patterns of aedes aegypti in households and the factors associated with infestation are important for implementing vector control. the baseline survey of a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in mexico and nicaragua collected information about the containers that are the main breeding sites, identified possible actions to reduce breeding, and examined factors associated with household infestation. this paper describes fin ...201728699559
beyond efficacy in water containers: temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in managua, nicaragua.a cluster-randomized controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in mexico and nicaragua reported, as a secondary finding, a higher risk of dengue virus infection in households where inspectors found temephos in water containers. data from control sites in the preceding pilot study and the nicaragua trial arm provided six time points (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2011, 2012, 2013) to examine potentially protective effects of temephos on entomological indices under every day conditio ...201728699558
"where we put little fish in the water there are no mosquitoes:" a cross-sectional study on biological control of the aedes aegypti vector in 90 coastal-region communities of guerrero, mexico.in the mexican state of guerrero, some households place fish in water storage containers to prevent the development of mosquito larvae. studies have shown that larvivorous fish reduce larva count in household water containers, but there is a lack of evidence about whether the use of fish is associated with a reduction in dengue virus infection. we used data from the follow up survey of the camino verde cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation to reduce dengue risk to study t ...201728699557
pupal productivity in rainy and dry seasons: findings from the impact survey of a randomised controlled trial of dengue prevention in guerrero, mexico.the follow-up survey of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in nicaragua and mexico included entomological information from the 2012 rainy and dry seasons. we used data from the mexican arm of the trial to assess the impact of the community action on pupal production of the dengue vector aedes aegypti in both rainy and dry seasons.201728699555
coverage and beliefs about temephos application for control of dengue vectors and impact of a community-based prevention intervention: secondary analysis from the camino verde trial in mexico.temephos in domestic water containers remains a mainstay of latin american government programmes for control of aedes aegypti and associated illnesses, including dengue. there is little published evidence about coverage of routine temephos programmes. a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation in mexico and nicaragua reduced vector indices, dengue infection, and clinical dengue cases. secondary analysis from the mexican arm of the trial examined temephos coverage and beliefs ...201728699554
assessing the effects of interventions for aedes aegypti control: systematic review and meta-analysis of cluster randomised controlled trials.the aedes aegypti mosquito is the vector for dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika viruses. inadequate vector control has contributed to persistence and increase of these diseases. this review assesses the evidence of effectiveness of different control measures in reducing aedes aegypti proliferation, using standard entomological indices.201728699552
the camino verde intervention in nicaragua, 2004-2012.camino verde (the green way) is an evidence-based community mobilisation tool for prevention of dengue and other mosquito-borne viral diseases. its effectiveness was demonstrated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in 2010-2013 in nicaragua and mexico. the nicaraguan arm of the trial was preceded, from 2004 to 2008, by a feasibility study that provided valuable lessons and trained facilitators for the trial itself. here, guided by the template for intervention description and repl ...201728699551
when communities are really in control: ethical issues surrounding community mobilisation for dengue prevention in mexico and nicaragua.we discuss two ethical issues raised by camino verde, a 2011-2012 cluster-randomised controlled trial in mexico and nicaragua, that reduced dengue risk though community mobilisation. the issues arise from the approach adopted by the intervention, one called socialisation of evidence for participatory action. community volunteer teams informed householders of evidence about dengue, its costs and the life-cycle of aedes aegypti mosquitoes, while showing them the mosquito larvae in their own water ...201728699548
informed community mobilization for dengue prevention in households with and without a regular water supply: secondary analysis from the camino verde trial in nicaragua.studies in different countries have identified irregular water supply as a risk factor for dengue virus transmission. in 2013, camino verde, a cluster-randomised controlled trial in managua, nicaragua, and mexico's guerrero state, demonstrated impact of evidence-based community mobilisation on recent dengue infection and entomological indexes of infestation by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. this secondary analysis of data from the trial impact survey asks: (1) what is the importance of regular water ...201728699544
randomised controlled trials and changing public health practice.one reason for doing randomised controlled trials (rcts) is that experiments can be convincing. early epidemiological experimenters, such as jenner and the smallpox vaccine and snow and his famous broad street pump handle, already knew the answer they were demonstrating; they used the experiments as knowledge translation devices to convince others.more sophisticated modern experiments include cluster randomised controlled trials (crcts) for experiments in the public health setting. the knowledge ...201728699541
effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent aedes aegypti reproduction in salvador, brazil.aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. in urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for aedes spp. reproduction. herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and imma ...201728697811
the medicinal chemistry of chikungunya virus.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important threat to human and animal health globally. among these, zoonotic diseases account for billions of cases of human illness and millions of deaths every year, representing an increasing public health problem. chikungunya virus belongs to the genus alphavirus of the family togariridae, and is transmitted mainly by the bite of female mosquitoes of the aedes aegypti and/or a. albopictus species. the focus of this review will be on the medicinal c ...201728689975
potential risk of re-emergence of urban transmission of yellow fever virus in brazil facilitated by competent aedes populations.yellow fever virus (yfv) causing a deadly viral disease is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. in brazil, yfv is restricted to a forest cycle maintained between non-human primates and forest-canopy mosquitoes, where humans can be tangentially infected. since late 2016, a growing number of human cases have been reported in southeastern brazil at the gates of the most populated areas of south america, the atlantic coast, with rio de janeiro state hosting nearly 16 million people. we sh ...201728687779
comparative genomics shows that viral integrations are abundant and express pirnas in the arboviral vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) transmitted by mosquito vectors cause many important emerging or resurging infectious diseases in humans including dengue, chikungunya and zika. understanding the co-evolutionary processes among viruses and vectors is essential for the development of novel transmission-blocking strategies. episomal viral dna fragments are produced from arboviral rna upon infection of mosquito cells and adults. additionally, sequences from insect-specific viruses and arboviru ...201728676109
protection against mosquito vectors aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi and culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate.growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. in view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (ea), a non-toxic, fda approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi and culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions followin ...201728666890
high risk for chikungunya virus to initiate an enzootic sylvatic cycle in the tropical americas.chikungunya virus (chikv) has dispersed in the americas since 2013, and its range of distribution has overlapped large forested areas. herein, we assess vector competence of two sylvatic neotropical mosquito species, haemagogus leucocelaenus and aedes terrens, to evaluate the risk of chikv to initiate a sylvatic cycle in the continent.201728662031
effects of rearing salinity on expression and function of ion-motive atpases and ion transport across the gastric caecum of aedes aegypti larvae.larvae of aedes aegypti, the yellow fever vector, inhabit a variety of aquatic habitats ranging from freshwater to brackish water. this study focuses on the gastric caecum of the larvae, an organ that has not been widely studied. we provide the first measurements of h+, k+ and na+ fluxes at the distal and proximal gastric caecum, and have shown that they differ in the two regions, consistent with previously reported regionalization of ion transporters. moreover, we have shown that the regionaliz ...201728659305
wolbachia infection in aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.blood feeding in aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the zika and dengue viruses. wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. yet while wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. to t ...201728655666
biopolymer zein-coated gold nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial potential, toxicity and histopathological effects against the zika virus vector aedes aegypti.the control of multidrug-resistant bacteria as well as insect pests and vectors is timely and important now a days. the present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial, antibiofilm and mosquito larvicidal effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using the zein biopolymer (ze-aunps) against gram positive (bacillus pumilus and bacillus subtilis), gram negative (shigella sonnei and pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and third instar larvae of the dengue and zika virus vector aedes ...201728654862
insecticide resistance to permethrin and malathion and associated mechanisms in aedes aegypti mosquitoes from st. andrew jamaica.the emergence of novel diseases spread by the aedes aegypti mosquito in jamaica and the caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. though jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. we analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across st. andr ...201728650966
peridomestic aedes malayensis and aedes albopictus are capable vectors of arboviruses in cities.dengue and chikungunya are global re-emerging mosquito-borne diseases. in singapore, sustained vector control coupled with household improvements reduced domestic mosquito populations for the past 45 years, particularly the primary vector aedes aegypti. however, while disease incidence was low for the first 30 years following vector control implementation, outbreaks have re-emerged in the past 15 years. epidemiological observations point to the importance of peridomestic infection in areas not t ...201728650959
data from salivary gland proteome analysis of female aedes aegypti linn.salivary gland proteins from female aedes aegypti mosquito were extracted and analyzed on high-resolution mass spectrometry. proteomic data was analysed using two search algorithms sequest and mascot, which results in acquisition of 83,836 spectra which were assigned to 5417 peptides belonging to 1208 proteins.these proteins were then assigned molecular functions and further analysis revealed biological processes they are involved in using gene ontology annotations. several immunity related path ...201728649586
larval stress alters dengue virus susceptibility in aedes aegypti (l.) adult females.in addition to genetic history, environmental conditions during larval stages are critical to the development, success and phenotypic fate of the aedes aegypti mosquito. in particular, previous studies have shown a strong genotype-by-environment component to adult mosquito body size in response to optimal vs stressed larval conditions. here, we expand upon those results by investigating the effects of larval-stage crowding and nutritional limitation on the susceptibility of a recent field isolat ...201728648790
discovery of a single male aedes aegypti (l.) in merseyside, england.the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions where it is the major vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and more recently zika virus. given its importance as a vector of arboviruses and its propensity to be transported to new regions, the european centre for disease prevention and control (ecdc) has placed ae. aegypti on a list of potentially invasive mosquito species. it was previously reported in the united kingdom (uk) in 1865 and 1919 but did not ...201728646879
screening of plant extracts and fractions on aedes aegypti larvae found in the state of mato grosso do sul (linnaeus, 1762) (culicidae).the constant use of chemical insecticides for aedes aegypti control has caused resistance in the mosquito populations. thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of plants on a. aegypti larvae. the analysis included sixty one extracts and twenty five fractions of fifty botanical species at concentrations of 0.25; 0.12; 0.06 to 0.03 mg ml-1; 4 replications and one negative control of dechlorinate water and 1% dmso; and a positive control wi ...201828640344
jaburetox: update on a urease-derived peptide.urease from canavalia ensiformis seeds was the first enzyme ever to be crystallized, in 1926. these proteins, found in plants, bacteria and fungi, present different biological properties including catalytic hydrolysis of urea, and also enzyme-independent activities, such as induction of exocytosis, pro-inflammatory effects, neurotoxicity, antifungal and insecticidal properties. urease is toxic to insects and fungi per se but part of this toxicity relies on an internal peptide (~11 kda), which is ...201728638403
bacteria-mediated hypoxia functions as a signal for mosquito development.mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. we previously reported that several mosquito species, including aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. in contrast, several species of bacteria, including escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. the molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. here, we des ...201728630299
rapid evolution of ovarian-biased genes in the yellow fever mosquito (aedes aegypti).males and females exhibit highly dimorphic phenotypes, particularly in their gonads, which is believed to be driven largely by differential gene expression. typically, the protein sequences of genes upregulated in males, or male-biased genes, evolve rapidly as compared to female-biased and unbiased genes. to date, the specific study of gonad-biased genes remains uncommon in metazoans. here, we identified and studied a total of 2927, 2013, and 4449 coding sequences (cds) with ovary-biased, testis ...201728630112
early evidence for zika virus circulation among aedes aegypti mosquitoes, rio de janeiro, brazil.during 2014-2016, we conducted mosquito-based zika virus surveillance in rio de janeiro, brazil. results suggest that zika virus was probably introduced into the area during may-november 2013 via multiple in-country sources. furthermore, our results strengthen the hypothesis that zika virus in the americas originated in brazil during october 2012-may 2013.201728628464
determinants of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases : the case of chikungunya in indian ocean, 2004-2007.emerging outbreaks of arboviroses are most often tied to the convergence of a set of factors which have physical and environmental, genetic and biological, ecological, social, political and economic origins. thirteen out of these factors are known as main determinants of emerging infectious disease outbreaks. this paper assesses the role of these factors from exploring the chikungunya outbreak which occurred in indian ocean in 2004-2007, as case study. chikungunya is an alphavirus borne and tran ...201728627853
the impact of wolbachia infection on the rate of vertical transmission of dengue virus in brazilian aedes aegypti.wolbachia pipientis is a common endosymbiotic bacterium of arthropods that strongly inhibits dengue virus (denv) infection and transmission in the primary vector, the mosquito aedes aegypti. for that reason, wolbachia-infected ae. aegypti are currently being released into the field as part of a novel strategy to reduce denv transmission. however, there is evidence that denv can be transmitted vertically from mother to progeny, and this may help the virus persist in nature in the absence of regul ...201728623959
larvicidal potency of marine actinobacteria isolated from mangrove environment against aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi.the marine soil samples were collected from different locations of parangipettai mangrove ecosystem, vellar estuary, southeast coast of india. totally 30 different marine actinobacteria were isolated by serial dilution plate technique on starch casein agar medium. the isolated actinobacteria were investigated for their larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. streptomyces fungicidicus, s. griseus, s. albus, s. alboflavus and s. rochei were identified as poten ...201728615847
first report of naturally infected aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ecsa in the americas.the worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as chikungunya and zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. this knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. although the first autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of ...201728614394
a single substitution changes zika virus infectivity in mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv) has caused outbreaks in the pacific and the americas. the mechanism underlying the recent zikv epidemic remains obscure. a recent study reveals that an amino acid substitution is associated with increased infectivity of zikv in the aedes aegypti mosquito.201728610876
the genetic diversity and population structure of domestic aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in yunnan province, southwestern china.there was no record of aedes aegypti in yunnan province, china, until 2002, but this species is now continuously found in nine cities (or counties). until now, little was known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this invasive species. thus, a detailed understanding of the invasion strategies, colonisation and dispersal of this mosquito from a population genetics perspective is urgently needed for controlling and eliminating this disease vector.201728610594
dengue vectors in urban and suburban assam, india: entomological observations.dengue is rapidly becoming established in north-east india and spreading, on account of rapid urbanization and population movement, with reported morbidity and attributable death cases. this study aims to determine the seasonal abundance of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus and aedes (stegomyia) aegypti in guwahati metropolis and suburban settlements; to characterize the breeding resources for these mosquitoes; and to ascertain the status of their susceptibility to adulticides and larvicides.201728607255
co-circulation of dengue virus serotypes with chikungunya virus in madhya pradesh, central india.dengue and chikungunya present with very similar signs and symptoms in the initial stage of illness and so it is difficult to distinguish them clinically. both are transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. this study was conducted with the aim to explore the co-circulation of dengue and chikungunya viruses in central india.201728607252
deltamethrin resistance in aedes aegypti results in treatment failure in merida, mexico.the operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control aedes aegypti was evaluated in merida, mexico. a randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (irs) against adult ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance) or bendiocarb (to which local ae. aegypti were fully susceptible) as compared to untreated control houses. all adult ...201728604781
qsar models for predicting the toxicity of piperidine derivatives against aedes aegypti.qsar models are proposed for predicting the toxicity of 33 piperidine derivatives against aedes aegypti. from 2d topological descriptors, calculated with the padel software, ordinary least squares multilinear regression (ols-mlr) treatment from the qsarins software and machine learning and related approaches including linear and radial support vector machine (svm), projection pursuit regression (ppr), radial basis function neural network (rbfnn), general regression neural network (grnn) and k-ne ...201728604113
[new strategies for the eradication of aedes aegypti: what challenges do we face in latin america?]not available.201728603242
zika vector transmission risk in temperate australia: a vector competence study.zika virus is an emerging pathogen of global importance. it has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the americas and in the pacific region. this study assessed five different mosquito species from the temperate climatic zone in australia and included aedes albopictus as a potentially invasive species.201728599659
molecular characterization of indigenous bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from kashmir valley.bacillus thuringiensis (bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important. in the present study, new indigenous b. thuringiensis strains were isolated and investigated so that these could be used as an alternative and/or support the current commercial strains/cry proteins in use. for this, 159 samples including soil, leaf and spider web ...201728597156
habitat productivity and pyrethroid susceptibility status of aedes aegypti mosquitoes in dar es salaam, tanzania.aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) is the main vector of the dengue virus globally. dengue vector control is mainly based on reducing the vector population through interventions, which target potential breeding sites. however, in tanzania, little is known about this vector's habitat productivity and insecticide susceptibility status to support evidence-based implementation of control measures. the present study aimed at assessing the productivity and susceptibility status of a. aegypti mosquitoe ...201728595653
comparative efficiency of biogents gravid aedes trap, cdc autocidal gravid ovitrap, and cdc gravid trap in northeastern florida.we conducted a study to compare the effectiveness of the biogents gravid aedes trap (bg-gat) and centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) autocidal gravid ovitrap (ago) with that of the cdc gravid trap (cdc-gt) (as a standard) for their proficiency to collect mosquitoes in an urban residential neighborhood in northeastern florida. aedes aegypti , ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus were collected from each trap, with the latter species being predominant. significantly more cx. qui ...201728590226
comparison of mosquito abundance from biogents sentinel 2.0 traps with and without rain covers.biogents sentinel (bgs) traps have rapidly become a standard for adult aedes aegypti surveillance. several investigators have found that trap collections can be damaged easily by heavy dew or rain entering the trap intake port. in addition, water entering the trap may temporarily stop the fan, thus reducing the collection potential of the trap. we evaluated the effectiveness of a rain cover designed to minimize damage to mosquito trap collections from bgs 2.0 traps in a residential backyard in j ...201728590218
field evaluation of indoor thermal fog and ultra-low volume applications for control of aedes aegypti in thailand.efficacies of a handheld thermal fogger (patriot™) and a backpack ultra-low volume (ulv) sprayer (twister™) with combinations of 2 different adulticides (pyrethrin, deltamethrin) and an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen) were field-tested and compared for their impact on reducing indoor aedes aegypti populations in thailand. the effectiveness of the indoor space sprays was evaluated by sampling the natural ae. aegypti population in houses and determining their physiological status, by monito ...201728590217
diagnostic doses of insecticides for adult aedes aegypti to assess insecticide resistance in cuba.the objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses (dds) of 5 insecticides for the rockefeller susceptible strain of aedes aegypti , using the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) bottle bioassay as a tool for monitoring insecticide resistance in the cuban vector control program. the 30-min dd values determined in this study were 13.5 μg/ml, 6.5 μg/ml, 6 μg/ml, 90.0 μg/ml, and 15.0 μg/ml for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and propoxur, respec ...201728590216
functional characterization of aedes aegypti alkaline phosphatase alp1 involved in the toxicity of cry toxins from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and jegathesan.presently three major groups of proteins from aedes aegypti, cadherin, alkaline phosphatases (alp) and aminopeptidases n (apn), have been identified as cry11aa toxin receptors. to further characterize their role on toxicity, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced aedes cadherin expression were previously generated and the role of cadherin in mediating the toxicity of four different mosquitocidal toxins (cry11aa, cry11ba, cry4aa and cry4ba) was demonstrated. here, we investigated the role of another ...201728587836
knockdown resistance (kdr) of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of aedes aegypti population in denpasar, bali, indonesia.aedes aegypti is the main vector of several arthropod-borne viral infections in the tropics profoundly affecting humans, such as dengue fever (df), west nile (wn), chikungunya and more recently zika. eradication of aedes still largely depends on insecticides, which is the most cost-effective strategy, and often inefficient due to resistance development in exposed aedes populations. we here conducted a study of ae. aegypti resistance towards several insecticides regularly used in the city of denp ...201728583207
effects of low-powered rf sweep between 0.01-20 ghz on female aedes aegypti mosquitoes: a collective behaviour analysis.there are many products claiming to be an electronic solution towards repelling mosquitoes. several reviews were published in debunking these claims. however, there is a lack of a systematic study on effects of electromagnetic (em) or more specifically, radio frequency (rf) waves against mosquitoes due to the conclusions made in those years. therefore, we attempt to establish a fundamental study on female aedes aegypti (linnaeus) mosquitoes by quantifying the collective behavior of the mosquitoe ...201728582398
development of an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from alangium salvifolium against the dengue vector aedes aegypti and its biosafety on the aquatic predator.plant extracts with their enriched chemical constituents have established potential alternative mosquito control agents. in this research, we developed an eco-friendly mosquitocidal agent from alangium salvifolium leaves against the dengue and zika virus vector aedes aegypti and we investigated its biosafety on the mosquito aquatic predator toxorhynchites splendens. results showed that the methanolic extract of a. salvifolium leaves was composed by eight main compounds, with major peak area for ...201728580548
vector competence of aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (linnaeus) for plasmodium gallinaceum infection and transmission.avian malaria caused by plasmodium gallinaceum is an important mosquito-borne disease. eradication of this disease remains problematic since its competent vectors are diverse and widely distributed across the globe. several mosquito species were implicated as competent vectors for this parasite. however, studies on vector competence for p. gallinaceum remain limited. in this study, vector competence in the two most predominant mosquito vectors in tropical countries, aedes albopictus and ae. aegy ...201728579025
corrigendum to "functional and immunohistochemical characterization of cceae3a, a carboxylesterase associated with temephos resistance in the major arbovirus vectors aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus" [insect biochem. mol. biol. 74 (july 2016) 61-67]. 201728578775
viruses vector control proposal: genus aedes emphasis.the dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. in brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. the distribution of aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. recently, zika and chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. this article is focused on reviewing vector ...201728577370
immunoglobulin-responsive chikungunya encephalitis: two case reports.chikungunya virus is an alphavirus transmitted by the mosquito aedes, mainly aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, that can cause acute illness, mostly self-limited, characterized by fever, maculopapular rash, and disabling polyarthritis/arthralgia, with an incubation period of 1 to 12 days. chikungunya was largely regarded as a non-fatal and self-limited disease, but recently, serious cases have been reported including some with severe involvement of the nervous system, such as meningoencephaliti ...201728577289
detection and perception of generic host volatiles by mosquitoes: responses to co2 constrains host-seeking behaviour.natural selection has favoured specialization in anthropophilic mosquito host choice, yet in the absence of human hosts, females feed on a selected range of vertebrates. for host recognition, we hypothesize that mosquitoes primarily rely on generic host volatiles. detection and perception of such compounds would provide the mosquito with a flexible, yet constrained, odour coding system that could delineate host preference. in this study, we show that the quintessential generic volatile for host- ...201728573028
mosquito co-infection with zika and chikungunya virus allows simultaneous transmission without affecting vector competence of aedes aegypti.zika virus (zikv) and chikungunya virus (chikv) are highly pathogenic arthropod-borne viruses that are currently a serious health burden in the americas, and elsewhere in the world. zikv and chikv co-circulate in the same geographical regions and are mainly transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes. there is a growing number of case reports of zikv and chikv co-infections in humans, but it is uncertain whether co-infection occurs via single or multiple mosquito bites. here we investigate the poten ...201728570693
the spread of wolbachia through mosquito populations.in many regions of the world, mosquito-borne viruses pose a growing threat to human health. as an alternative to traditional control measures, the bacterial symbiont wolbachia has been transferred from drosophila into the mosquito aedes aegypti, where it can block the transmission of dengue and zika viruses. a recent paper has reported large-scale releases of wolbachia-infected ae. aegypti in the city of cairns, australia. wolbachia, which is maternally transmitted, invaded and spread through th ...201728570608
effects of sublethal exposure to metofluthrin on the fitness of aedes aegypti in a domestic setting in cairns, queensland.metofluthrin is highly effective at reducing biting activity in aedes aegypti. its efficacy lies in the rapid onset of confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. in the field, there are a variety of scenarios that might result in sublethal exposure to metofluthrin, including mosquitoes that are active at the margins of the chemical's lethal range, brief exposure as mosquitoes fly in and out of treated spaces or decreasing efficacy of the emanators with time. sublethal effects are k ...201728569175
genetic distinctness of sympatric forms of aedes aegypti in east africa. 197928568173
emerging infectious disease agents and blood safety in australia: spotlight on zika virus.emerging infectious diseases (eids) are infectious diseases whose incidence has increased in humans in the past 20 years or could increase in the near future. eid agents may represent a threat to blood safety if they infect humans, cause a clinically significant illness, include an asymptomatic blood phase in the course of infection, and are transmissible by transfusion. eid agents are typically not well characterised, but there is a consensus that we can expect ongoing outbreaks. strategies to ...201728566073
costs and benefits of mosquito refractoriness to malaria parasites: implications for genetic variability of mosquitoes and genetic control of malaria.the problem of fitness costs associated with host resistance to parasitism is related to the evolution of parasite virulence, population genetic diversity and the dynamics of host-parasite relationships, and proposed strategies for disease control through the genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors. two aedes aegypti populations, refractory and susceptible to plasmodium gallinaceum, were previously selected from the moyo-in-dry strain (moyo) through inbreeding (f = 0.5). reproductive success an ...199728565348
reproductive isolation in stegomyia mosquitoes. ii. hybrid breakdown between aedes aegypti and a. mascarensis. 197028564933
a potent larvicidal agent against aedes aegypti mosquito from cardanol.cardanol is a constituent of cashew nut shell liquid that presents larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti. the isolation of cardanol is somewhat troublesome, however, in this work we describe an efficient and inexpensive method to obtain it as a pure material. the compound was used as starting material to make chemical transformation leading to saturated cardanol, epoxides and, halohydrins. these derivatives were tested for toxicity against aedes aegypti larvae. the results showed that iodohy ...201728562821
ascogregarina taiwanensis infection in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in santa catarina, south brazil.this study registers ascogregarina spp. infection in field populations of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in a subtropical region of brazil.201728562761
molecular studies with aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (linnaeus, 1762), mosquito transmitting the dengue virus.dengue is an infectious viral disease, which can present a wide clinical picture, ranging from oligo or asymptomatic forms, to bleeding and shock, and can progress to death. the disease problem has increased in recent years, especially in urban and suburban areas of tropical and subtropical regions. there are five dengue viruses, called serotypes (den-1, den-2, den-3, den-4, and den-5), which belong to the flaviviridae family and are transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites, with th ...201728560571
metofluthrin: investigations into the use of a volatile spatial pyrethroid in a global spread of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses.metofluthrin reduces biting activity in aedes aegypti through the confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. a geographical spread in dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses, increases intervention demands. response to a zika outbreak may require a different strategy than dengue, as high-risk individuals, specifically pregnant women, need to be targeted.201728558804
local introduction and heterogeneous spatial spread of dengue-suppressing wolbachia through an urban population of aedes aegypti.dengue-suppressing wolbachia strains are promising tools for arbovirus control, particularly as they have the potential to self-spread following local introductions. to test this, we followed the frequency of the transinfected wolbachia strain wmel through ae. aegypti in cairns, australia, following releases at 3 nonisolated locations within the city in early 2013. spatial spread was analysed graphically using interpolation and by fitting a statistical model describing the position and width of ...201728557993
activation of aedes aegypti prophenoloxidase-3 and its role in the immune response against entomopathogenic fungi.serine protease cascade-mediated melanization is an important innate immune response in insects and crustaceans, which involves the proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (ppo). in this study, we investigated the role of aedes aegypti ppo3 in antifungal immune defence. we expressed and purified recombinant ppo3 (rppo3) in escherichia coli and demonstrated that rppo3 was activated by ethanol and, to a lesser extent, by cetylpyridinium chloride. in the presence of cu(2+) , rppo3 exhibited enzy ...201728556276
barriers to hybridization between aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae). 196728556103
evolutionary strategies in life table characteristics among feral and urban strains of aedes aegypti (l.). 197228555736
elevation as a proxy for mosquito-borne zika virus transmission in the americas.when zika virus (zikv) first began its spread from brazil to other parts of the americas, national-level travel notices were issued, carrying with them significant economic consequences to affected countries. although regions of some affected countries were likely unsuitable for mosquito-borne transmission of zikv, the absence of high quality, timely surveillance data made it difficult to confidently demarcate infection risk at a sub-national level. in the absence of reliable data on zikv activi ...201728542540
wmel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a singapore wolbachia-introgressed ae. aegypti strain, wmel-sg.zika (zikv) and chikungunya (chikv) viruses are emerging aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. it has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by ae. aegypti. recent studies have shown that ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (denv), chikungunya (chikv), and yellow fever (yfv) viruses. the aim of this study was to determi ...201728542240
a new in vitro bioassay system for the discovery and quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents.mosquitoes vector many pathogens that cause human diseases. repellents play a significant role in reducing the risk of these diseases by preventing mosquito bites. in this paper, we are reporting an ali and khan (a & k), large cage in vitro bioassay system that can effectively be used to measure repellency of compounds against mosquitoes. the system uses temperature as a landing and feeding stimulus, and collagen as a feeding substrate. the minimum effective dose (med) of deet (n, n-diethyl-meta ...201728541424
uncovering the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements in aedes mosquito genomes.endogenous viral elements derived from nonretroviral rna viruses have been described in various animal genomes. whether they have a biological function, such as host immune protection against related viruses, is a field of intense study. here, we investigated the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements (efves) in aedes mosquitoes, the vectors of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. previous studies identified three efves from aedes albopictus cell lines and one from aedes aeg ...201728539440
genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of zika virus into the united states.zika virus (zikv) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. in july 2016, mosquito-borne zikv transmission was reported in the continental united states; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in florida. to gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of zikv introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in florida by sequencing zikv genomes from infected patients and aedes aegypti mosquitoes. we s ...201728538723
enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of tio2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of parthenium hysterophorus.titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. in this study, titanium dioxide (tio2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. tio2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the p. hysterophorus leaf extracts with the tio4 solution. biologically active compounds such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, and fluoroalkanes were involved in bioredu ...201728537028
rna-seq comparison of larval and adult malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti reveals life stage-specific changes in renal function.introduction: the life history of aedes aegypti presents diverse challenges to its diuretic system. during the larval and pupal life stages mosquitoes are aquatic. with the emergence of the adult they become terrestrial. this shifts the organism within minutes from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial environment where dehydration has to be avoided. in addition, female mosquitoes take large blood meals, which present an entirely new set of challenges to salt and water homeostasis. methods: to ...201728536536
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