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complex wolbachia infection dynamics in mosquitoes with imperfect maternal transmission.dengue, malaria, and zika are dangerous diseases primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and anopheles stephensi. in the last few years, a new disease control method, besides pesticide spraying to kill mosquitoes, has been developed by releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium wolbachia into the natural areas to infect the wild population of mosquitoes and block disease transmission. the bacterium is transmitted by infected mothers and the maternal transmission was assumed to be ...201829161848
emergent acoustic order in arrays of mosquitoes.the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti forms aerial swarms that serve as mating aggregations [1]. despite lacking the remarkable collective order of other animal ensembles, such as fish and birds [2], the kinematic properties of these swarms bear the hallmarks of local interaction and global cohesion [3,4]. however, the mechanisms responsible for collective behaviour in mosquitoes are not well understood. mosquitoes use their antennae as hearing organs to locate and interact with one another vi ...201729161555
dengue virus detection in aedes aegypti larvae and pupae collected in rural areas of anapoima, cundinamarca, colombia.there is a high incidence and prevalence of dengue in the department of cundinamarca, and recently aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue virus (denv), was detected in some of its rural areas.201729161491
effect of the type and number of washes in the efficacy of long lasting insecticidal nets for aedes aegypti control in girardot, colombia.the use of long lasting insecticidal materials has shown promising results in the control of aedes aegypti.201729161489
virological surveillance of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and aedes (stegomyia) albopictus as support for decision making for dengue control in medellín.dengue represents an important public health problem in colombia. no treatment is available and the vaccine has not been approved in all countries, hence, actions should be strengthened to mitigate its impact through the control of aedes aegypti, the vector mosquito. in colombia, surveillance is done using entomological indexes and case notification, which is usually informed late, leading to untimely interventions. viral detection in urban mosquitoes using molecular techniques provides more acc ...201729161487
aedes albopictus (skuse, 1894) infected with the american-asian genotype of dengue type 2 virus in medellín suggests its possible role as vector of dengue fever in colombia.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are recognized vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika arboviruses in several countries worldwide. in colombia, ae. albopictus geographical distribution has increased to include highly populated cities such as cali and medellín. although this species has been frequently found in urban and semi-urban zones in the country, its role as vector of the dengue fever is poorly known.201729161485
[laboratory susceptibility tests of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus larvae to the entomopathogenic nematode heterorhabditis bacteriophora].aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, yellow fever, zika and chikungunya viruses, and culex quinquefasciatus is the vector of st. louis and west nile encephalitis viruses.201729161479
[spatial distribution of potential and positive aedes aegypti breeding sites].the spatial distribution of aedes aegypti is heterogeneous, and the interaction between positive and potential breeding sites located both inside and outside homes is one of the most difficult aspects to characterize in vector control programs.201729161478
[spatial distribution of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in the rural area of two municipalities of cundinamarca, colombia].it is difficult to adapt or create new strategies for dengue control in rural areas due to the dispersion of homes and the lack of knowledge about the presence and behavior of the vector in these areas. spatial data analysis could help understand time and space dynamics related to the transmission of vector-borne diseases in rural areas and, thus, contribute to the prevention and control of dengue.201729161476
alternative control of aedes aegypti resistant to pyrethroids: lethal and sublethal effects of monoterpenes bioinsecticides.the mosquito aedes aegypti is intensely controlled because it is vector of viruses that cause innumerous diseases, especially in tropical regions. due to the indiscriminate use of insecticides, populations from different regions have been resistant to pyrethroids. here, we analyzed the lethal and sublethal effects of essential oil of aristolochia trilobata and its major compounds on a. aegypti from susceptible and pyrethroid resistant populations.201729160036
upregulation of aedes aegypti vago1 by wolbachia and its effect on dengue virus replication.dengue infection along with its related disease conditions poses a significant threat to human health. the pathogen responsible for this infection is dengue virus (denv) which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of aedes aegypti mosquitoes. unavailability of a potent vaccine has recently sparked renewed research endeavours aimed at vector control. to date, wolbachia as an endosymbiotic bacterium has shown promise as a novel biocontrol agent to restrict denv replication in the ve ...201729157676
a call to introduce structured zika surveillance in india.india has the climatic conditions conducive to year-round transmission of zika virus, and a structured disease surveillance program should be implemented to prevent an outbreak. such a program should (i) start screening before an outbreak arises; (ii) collect baseline data to assess future disease risk and monitor potential birth defects; and (iii) provide new insights into the ecology of the disease and inform public health policy following the one health concept.201729153262
effective population sizes of a major vector of human diseases, aedes aegypti.the effective population size (ne ) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that determines the relative strength of selection and random genetic drift, the effect of migration, levels of inbreeding, and linkage disequilibrium. in many cases where it has been estimated in animals, ne is on the order of 10%-20% of the census size. in this study, we use 12 microsatellite markers and 14,888 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) to empirically estimate ne in aedes aegypti, the major vecto ...201729151858
vectors, hosts, and control measures for zika virus in the americas.we examine zika virus (zikv) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the americas. we assess (1) the role of wildlife in zikv disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in zikv transmission in the old world; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or t ...201729150828
the introduction of dengue follows transportation infrastructure changes in the state of acre, brazil: a network-based analysis.human mobility, presence and passive transportation of aedes aegypti mosquito, and environmental characteristics are a group of factors which contribute to the success of dengue spread and establishment. to understand this process, we assess data from dengue national and municipal basins regarding population and demographics, transportation network, human mobility, and ae. aegypti monitoring for the brazilian state of acre since the first recorded dengue case in the year 2000 to the year 2015. d ...201729149175
baccharis reticularia dc. and limonene nanoemulsions: promising larvicidal agents for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) control.baccharis reticularia dc. is a plant species from the asteraceae family that is endemic to brazil. despite the great importance of baccharis genus, no study has been carried out regarding either the phytochemical composition of b. reticularia or the evaluation of its larvicidal potential. considering the intrinsic immiscibility of essential oils, this study shows larvicidal nanoemulsions containing the b. reticularia phytochemically characterized essential oil and its main constituent against ae ...201729149027
[dengue fever : symptoms, epidemiology, entomology, pathogen diagnosis and prevention].dengue infections are among the most frequent causes of febrile disease in tropical climates. infections are caused by a flavivirus transmitted by the aedes mosquito. aedes aegypti mosquitos are the main transmitters of dengue viruses. since these insects are both diurnal and container breeders, particular prevention and control measures are required. symptom severity varies and can range from a mild, flu-like clinical picture to severe hemorrhage and shock. the most common symptoms experienced ...201729147722
development and physiological effects of an artificial diet for wolbachia-infected aedes aegypti.the endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia spreads rapidly through populations of aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and strongly inhibits infection with key human pathogens including the dengue and zika viruses. mosquito control programs aimed at limiting transmission of these viruses are ongoing in multiple countries, yet there is a dearth of mass rearing infrastructure specific to wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. one example is the lack of a blood meal substitute, which accounts for the wolbachia-specific ph ...201729146940
behavioral, climatic, and environmental risk factors for zika and chikungunya virus infections in rio de janeiro, brazil, 2015-16.the burden of arboviruses in the americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by zika virus infection (zikv) and arthritis caused by infection with chikungunya virus (chikv). we aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. we screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of rio de ...201729145452
zika virus: an updated review of competent or naturally infected mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that recently caused outbreaks in the americas. over the past 60 years, this virus has been observed circulating among african, asian, and pacific island populations, but little attention has been paid by the scientific community until the discovery that large-scale urban zikv outbreaks were associated with neurological complications such as microcephaly and several other neurological malformations in fetuses and newborns. this paper is a ...201729145400
shifting the paradigm in dirofilaria immitis prevention: blocking transmission from mosquitoes to dogs using repellents/insecticides and macrocyclic lactone prevention as part of a multimodal approach.this study assessed the influence of a topical ectoparasiticide (dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen, dpp, vectra® 3d, ceva animal health) combined with a macrocyclic lactone (milbemycin oxime, mbo, interceptor®, virbac) on transmission of heartworm l3 from mosquitoes to dogs and subsequent development of worms in treated dogs exposed to infected mosquitoes.201729143678
blocking the transmission of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) to mosquitoes (aedes aegypti) by weekly exposure for one month to microfilaremic dogs treated once topically with dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen.this study assessed the influence of a topical ectoparasiticide (dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen, dpp, vectra®3d, ceva animal health) on the acquisition of heartworm microfilariae by mosquitoes exposed to microfilaremic dogs weekly for 1 month.201729143651
corrigendum: rna-seq comparison of larval and adult malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti reveals life stage-specific changes in renal function.[this corrects the article on p. 283 in vol. 8, pmid: 28536536.].201729142533
molecular detection and characterization of wolbachia pipientis from culex quinquefasciatus collected from lahore, pakistan.the gram-negative, pleomorphic endosymbiont wolbachia is known to infect a large number of insects and other arthropods naturally. this bacterium modifies the host biology, mainly causing reproductive alterations including feminization, death of male, parthenogenesis, and importantly cytoplasmic incompatibility. wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility results in nonviable offspring and vector population suppression. in addition, this bacterium rapidly spreads and propagates within the host ...201829141766
potential role for flubendazole in limiting filariasis transmission: observations of microfilarial sensitivity.flubendazole (flbz) is a potent and efficacious macrofilaricide after parenteral administration. studies in animal models and one trial in patients infected with onchocerca volvulus revealed that flbz elicits minimal effects on microfilariae (mf). severe complications after ivermectin (ivm) treatment of patients with high loa loa microfilaraemia are of great concern. we examined the potential of flbz to rapidly kill l. loa mf, the phenomenon proposed to underlie the complications. mf of l. loa w ...201829141764
designing ecofriendly bionanocomposite assembly with improved antimicrobial and potent on-site zika virus vector larvicidal activities with its mode of action.dialyzed natural polymer, fibroin, from bombyx mori was used to synthesize biocompatible silver and gold nanoparticles in-situ in dispersion form. the films of pure fibroin (pf), fibroin-silver nanocomposite (fsnc) and fibroin-gold nanocomposite (fgnc) were fabricated by drop casting method. the characterization of the resultant dispersion and films was performed by visual color change, uv-vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. the dispersions of pf, fsnc and fgnc were tested for antibact ...201729138496
germline cas9 expression yields highly efficient genome engineering in a major worldwide disease vector, aedes aegypti.the development of crispr/cas9 technologies has dramatically increased the accessibility and efficiency of genome editing in many organisms. in general, in vivo germline expression of cas9 results in substantially higher activity than embryonic injection. however, no transgenic lines expressing cas9 have been developed for the major mosquito disease vector aedes aegypti here, we describe the generation of multiple stable, transgenic ae. aegypti strains expressing cas9 in the germline, resulting ...201729138316
functional characterization of a serine protease inhibitor modulated in the infection of the aedes aegypti with dengue virus.during feeding with blood meal, female aedes aegypti can transmit infectious agents, such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika viruses. dengue virus causes human mortality in tropical regions of the world, and there is no specific treatment or vaccine with maximum efficiency being used for these infections. in the vector-virus interaction, the production of several molecules is modulated by both mosquitoes and invading agents. however, little information is available about these molecul ...201829133118
zika virus: what we need to know?zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. it is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and west nile viruses. it was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. large outbreaks were reported on yap islands in 2007. now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. major vector for virus transmission is aedes aegypti mosquito. zikv infection is mostly asymptomatic but ...201829131357
behavior of detoxifying enzymes of aedes aegypti exposed to girgensohnine alkaloid analog and cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil.because mosquito control depend on the use of commercial insecticides and resistance has been described in some of them, there is a need to explore new molecules no resistant. in vivo effects of girgensohnine analog 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)acetonitrile dppa and cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil cfeo, on the detoxifying enzymes acetylcholinesterase (ache), glutathione-s-transferase (gst), nonspecific esterases (α- and β-), mixed function oxidases (mfo) and p-npa esterases were ...201829129589
the diversity, structure, and function of heritable adaptive immunity sequences in the aedes aegypti genome.the aedes aegypti mosquito transmits arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus. understanding the mechanisms underlying mosquito immunity could provide new tools to control arbovirus spread. insects exploit two different rnai pathways to combat viral and transposon infection: short interfering rnas (sirnas) and piwi-interacting rnas (pirnas) [1, 2]. endogenous viral elements (eves) are sequences from non-retroviral viruses that are inserted into the mosquito genome and can act a ...201729129531
biosurfactants produced by scheffersomyces stipitis cultured in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as new green larvicides for the control of aedes aegypti, a vector of neglected tropical diseases.biosurfactants are microbial metabolites with possible applications in various industrial sectors that are considered ecofriendly molecules. in recent years, some studies identified these compounds as alternatives for the elimination of vectors of tropical diseases, such as aedes aegypti. the major bottlenecks of biosurfactant industrial production have been the use of conventional raw materials that increase production costs as well as opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria, which restrict the ap ...201729125845
infection of a french population of aedes albopictus and of aedes aegypti (paea strain) with zika virus reveals low transmission rates to these vectors' saliva.disease caused by the zika virus (zikv) is a public health emergency of international concern. recent epidemics have emerged in different regions of the world and attest to the ability of the virus to spread wherever its vector, aedes species mosquitoes, can be found. we have compared the transmission of zikv by ae. aegypti (paea strain originating from tahiti) and by a french population of ae. albopictus to better assess their competence and the potential risk of the emergence of zikv in europe ...201729125545
evaluation of sticky traps for adult aedes mosquitoes in malaysia: a potential monitoring and surveillance tool for the efficacy of control strategies.the present study compared the performance of sticky traps in order to identify the most effective and practical trap for capturing aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. three phases were conducted in the study, with phase 1 evaluating the five prototypes (models a, b, c, d, and e) of sticky trap release-and-recapture using two groups of mosquito release numbers (five and 50) that were released in each replicate. similarly, phase 2 compared the performance between model e and the classi ...201729125255
the distribution of mosquitoes across an altitudinal gradient in the galapagos islands.an avian malaria parasite (genus plasmodium) has been detected consistently in the galapagos penguin (spheniscus mendiculus) and less frequently in some passerines. we sampled three resident mosquito species (aedes taeniorhynchus, culex quinquefasciatus, and aedes aegypti) using cdc light and gravid traps on three islands in 2012, 2013, and 2014. we sampled along altitudinal gradients to ask whether there are mosquito-free refugia at higher elevations as there are in hawaii. we captured both ae. ...201729125252
ecological characterization of aedes aegypti larval habitats (diptera: culicidae) in artificial water containers in girardot, colombia.the establishment of habitats for immature ae. aegypti is regulated by biotic and abiotic factors and interactions between these factors. this study aimed to determine the effects of physico-chemical variables and planktonic algae on immature ae. aegypti habitats in 101 water tanks (50 of them containing ae. aegypti pupae and/or larvae) in girardot, colombia. physical data were collected from the water tanks (volume, capacity, material, detritus, and location), along with the physico-chemical va ...201729125250
first record of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in thirteen panhandle region counties of texas, u.s.a. 201729125249
whatch'em: a weather-driven energy balance model for determining water height and temperature in container habitats for aedes aegypti.the mosquito virus vector aedes (ae.) aegypti exploits a wide range of containers as sites for egg laying and development of the immature life stages, yet the approaches for modeling meteorologically sensitive container water dynamics have been limited. this study introduces the water height and temperature in container habitats energy model (whatch'em), a state-of-the-science, physically based energy balance model of water height and temperature in containers that may serve as development sites ...201629123363
incidence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in mosquitoes and human patients in border provinces of vietnam.dengue virus remains a major threat in vietnam, while chikungunya virus is expected to become one. surveillance was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in vietnam to assess the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in patients hospitalized with acute fever in five vietnam provinces neighboring lao pdr and cambodia. surveillance was extended to mosquitoes present in the vicinity of the patients' households.201729121985
environmentally benign nanometric neem-laced urea emulsion for controlling mosquito population in environment.the increasing risk of vector-borne diseases and the environmental pollution in the day-to-day life due to the usage of the conventional pesticides makes the role of nanotechnology to come into the action. the current study deals with one of the applications of nanotechnology through the formulation of neem urea nanoemulsion (nune). nune was formulated using neem oil, tween 20, and urea using the microfluidization method. prior to the development of nanoemulsion, the ratio of oil/surfactant/urea ...201829116538
the impact of temperature and wolbachia infection on vector competence of potential dengue vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the transmission of dengue virus serotype 1 in southern taiwan.we evaluated the impact of temperature and wolbachia infection on vector competence of the local aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus populations of southern taiwan in the laboratory.201729116011
assessment of achyranthes aspera induced toxicity and molecular analysis of rapd-pcr profiles of larval genomic dna of aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae).current studies investigated the anti-mosquito potential of achyranthes aspera against the dengue vector, aedes aegypti. the stems and leaves of a. aspera were extracted in hexane and evaluated for their toxicity against early fourth instars of a. aegypti. the larvicidal efficacy of the extract was validated as per who protocol. the mortality counts were made after 24 h and lc values were calculated at different levels. the adverse impact of extracts was also explored on the larval genomic dna. ...201729114143
a blood meal enhances innexin mrna expression in the midgut, malpighian tubules, and ovaries of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause diseases of medical and veterinary importance. female mosquitoes transmit these pathogens while taking a blood meal, which most species require to produce eggs. the period after a blood meal is a time of extreme physiological change that requires rapid coordination of specific tissues. gap junctions (gj) are intercellular channels that aid in the coordination of cells within tissues via the direct transfer of certain small molecules and ions between ...201729113099
aedes aegypti molecular responses to zika virus: modulation of infection by the toll and jak/stat immune pathways and virus host factors.zika (zikv) and dengue virus (denv) are transmitted to humans by aedes mosquitoes. however, the molecular interactions between the vector and zikv remain largely unexplored. in this work, we further investigated the tropism of zikv in two different aedes aegypti strains and show that the virus infection kinetics, tissue migration, and susceptibility to infection differ between mosquito strains. we also compare the vector transcriptome changes upon zikv or denv infection demonstrating that 40% of ...201729109710
surveillance of intensity level and geographical spreading of dengue outbreak among males and females in punjab, pakistan: a case study of 2011.dengue fever is viral disease which spreads due to the bite of the aedes aegypti mosquito. in recent years, it has affected around 40% population of the world. its endemic flow has led to a large disease burden, in terms of human and financial resources.201729103928
functional characterization of the dual allatostatin-a receptors in mosquitoes.the neuropeptide allatostatin-a (asta) and its cognate receptors (astars) are involved in the modulation of feeding behavior, which in hematophagous insects includes the regulation of the disease vector-related behaviors, host seeking and blood feeding. in mosquitoes and other dipterans, there are two copies of astar, contrasting with the single copy found in other insects. in this study, we identified and cloned the dual astar system of two important disease vectors aedes aegypti and culex quin ...201829103918
the bacterium wolbachia exploits host innate immunity to establish a symbiotic relationship with the dengue vector mosquito aedes aegypti.a host's immune system plays a central role in shaping the composition of the microbiota and, in return, resident microbes influence immune responses. symbiotic associations of the maternally transmitted bacterium wolbachia occur with a wide range of arthropods. it is, however, absent from the dengue and zika vector mosquito aedes aegypti in nature. when wolbachia is artificially forced to form symbiosis with this new mosquito host, it boosts the basal immune response and enhances the mosquito's ...201829099491
using phage display technology to obtain crybodies active against non-target insects.the insecticidal cry toxins produced by bacillus thuringiensis (bt) are increasingly important in the biological control of insect pests and vectors of human disease. markets for bt products and transgenic plants expressing their toxins are driven by their specificity, safety and the move away from chemical control agents. however, the high specificity of cry toxins can also prove to be a limitation when there is no known cry toxin active against a particular target. novel activities can be disc ...201729097681
efficiency of two larval diets for mass-rearing of the mosquito aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (sit). larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for sit programs. we compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an international atomic energy agency (iaea) diet, developed for rearing ae. albopictus, and a standardized laboratory rodent diet (lrd), under a 14:10 h (light:dark) photoperiod ("light" treatment) or co ...201729095933
detection and serotyping of dengue viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) collected in surabaya, indonesia from 2008 to 2015.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary vectors, respectively, of dengue, the most important arboviral disease in the world. the aim of this study was to detect and serotype dengue viruses (denv) in the vectors ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus in surabaya, indonesia. between 2008 and 2015, 16,605 aedes mosquitoes were collected in 15 sub-districts of surabaya. ae. aegypti was dominant (90.9%), whereas few ae. albopictus were collected (9.1%). a total of 330 pools of adult ...201829093315
gold nanoparticles - against parasites and insect vectors.nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (au nps) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. here, i reviewed curr ...201829092797
functional analysis of glycosylation of zika virus envelope protein.zika virus (zikv) infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and guillain-barré syndrome. the zikv envelope (e) protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. like other flaviviruses, the zikv e protein is glycosylated at amino acid n154. to study the function of e glycosylation, we generated a recombinant n154q zikv that lacks the e glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. in mouse models, the mutant ...201729091758
darker eggs of mosquitoes resist more to dry conditions: melanin enhances serosal cuticle contribution in egg resistance to desiccation in aedes, anopheles and culex vectors.mosquito vectors lay their white eggs in the aquatic milieu. during early embryogenesis water passes freely through the transparent eggshell, which at this moment is composed of exochorion and endochorion. within two hours the endochorion darkens via melanization but even so eggs shrink and perish if removed from moisture. however, during mid-embryogenesis, cells of the extraembryonic serosa secrete the serosal cuticle, localized right below the endochorion, becoming the third and innermost eggs ...201729084225
assessing the population at risk of zika virus in asia - is the emergency really over?on november 18, 2016, the who ended its designation of the zika virus (zikv) epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern (pheic). at the same time, zikv transmission continues in asia, with the number of asian countries reporting zika cases increasing over the last 2 years. applying a method that combines epidemiological theory with data on epidemic size and drivers of transmission, we characterised the population at risk of zikv infection from aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 15 c ...201729082009
culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes do not support replication of zika virus.the rapid spread of zika virus (zikv) in the americas raised many questions about the role of culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in transmission, in addition to the key role played by the vector aedes aegypti. here we analysed the competence of cx. quinquefasciatus (with or without wolbachia endosymbionts) for a zikv isolate. we also examined the induction of rna interference pathways after viral challenge and the production of small virus-derived rnas. we did not observe any infection nor such s ...201729076805
voltage-sensitive sodium channel mutations s989p + v1016g in aedes aegypti confer variable resistance to pyrethroids, ddt and oxadiazines.aedes aegypti is a vector of several important human pathogens. control efforts rely primarily on pyrethroid insecticides for adult mosquito control, especially during disease outbreaks. a. aegypti has developed resistance nearly everywhere it occurs and insecticides are used. an important mechanism of resistance is due to mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (vssc) gene. two mutations, in particular, s989p + v1016g, commonly occur together in parts of asia.201729064635
asymmetrical competition between aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) coexisting in breeding sites.aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus are mosquito vectors for several tropical diseases that represent a current public health problem. the ecological requirements for each species are different, however, both species show high biological adaptability, which promotes their coexistence in the same breeding sites. the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of larval association between ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus under different laboratory conditions of food supply and tempera ...201729064390
assessment of the insecticidal activity of afoxolaner against aedes aegypti in dogs treated with nexgard®.twelve healthy dogs were studied in this parallel group, blinded, randomised, and negative controlled efficacy study. on day -1, the 12 dogs included were ranked within sex in descending order of individual pre-treatment (day -5) fed mosquito counts and randomly allocated by blocks of two dogs to the untreated control group or the afoxolaner-treated group. nexgard® (merial, now part of boehringer ingelheim animal health) was administered orally on day 0 in accordance with the european label inst ...201729063828
synthesis and chemometrics of thymol and carvacrol derivatives as larvicides against aedes aegypti.thymol and carvacrol have previously demonstrated larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). in view of this fact, it was of our interest to obtain synthetic derivatives and evaluate their larvicidal activity on ae. aegypti larvae.201729062856
evaluation of larvicidal activity of essential oil from leaves of coccinia grandis against three mosquito species.to study the chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of coccinia grandis against three mosquito species.201729062847
use of a recombinant mosquito densovirus as a gene delivery vector for the functional analysis of genes in mosquito larvae.in vivo microinjection is the most commonly used gene transfer technique for analyzing the gene functions in individual mosquitoes. however, this method requires a more technically demanding operation and involves complicated procedures, especially when used in larvae due to their small size, relatively thin and fragile cuticle, and high mortality, which limit its application. in contrast, viral vectors for gene delivery have been developed to surmount extracellular and intracellular barriers. t ...201729053694
sublethal exposure to deltamethrin reduces the abilities of giant water bugs to prey upon aedes aegypti larvae.freshwater ecosystems provide environmental conditions for many arthropod species, including pests like mosquitoes and beneficial insects. giant water bugs, belostoma anurum (hemiptera: belostomatidae), are aquatic insects that provide biological control of mosquitoes and small vertebrates in freshwater environments. however, the application of insecticides aiming to control mosquitoes can lead to insecticide exposures of aquatic predators that can result in their death or significant reductions ...201829049958
comparative efficacy of commercial mosquito coils against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in malaysia: a nationwide report.this study was conducted using the glass chamber method to determine the susceptibility status of the dengue vector, aedes aegypti (l.) from 11 states in malaysia to commercial mosquito coils containing four different active ingredients, namely metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin. aedes aegypti exhibited various knockdown rates, ranging from 14.44% to 100.00%, 0.00% to 61.67%, 0.00% to 90.00%, and 0.00% to 13.33% for metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and pra ...201729048583
evaluation of embryotoxic and embryostatic effects of the aqueous extract of rhizophora mangle and tannic acid on eggs and larvae of aedes aegypti.rhizophora mangle is an abundant plant in mangroves and tannic acid is a polyphenol produced by the secondary metabolism of plants. the aim of the study was to evaluate the embryotoxic and embriostatic effects of the aqueous extract of r. mangle and synthetic tannic acid on eggs and larvae of aedes aegypti. a. aegypti eggs were exposed in duplicate at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml of extract and tannic acid for a period of 14 days. mineral water was used as a negative control. t ...201729044325
diurnal temperature range and chikungunya virus infection in invasive mosquito vectors.climate strongly influences the geographic distribution and timing of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. environmental temperature affects phenotypic traits of mosquitoes including vector competence for arboviruses mediated by changes in infection, extrinsic incubation period and in rates of transmission. most experiments, however, are done at constant temperatures. in nature, mosquitoes are more likely to experience daily fluctuations in temperature. here we compare disseminated infection (leg i ...201829040730
the effect of insecticidal stress on reproductive output of susceptible and field strains of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the phenomenon of high egg reproduction when mortality risk rises is common in mosquitoes. however, the phenomenon may vary between insecticide susceptible and field-collected strains, due to the latter's decreased energy allocation in reproduction in the presence of insecticide resistance. in this study, we evaluated the effect of chlorpyrifos (cp) and temephos (tp) exposure on the oviposition and survival of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) (diptera: culicidae) using a susceptible strain (khsm) and tw ...201829040719
characterization of the zika virus induced small rna response in aedes aegypti cells.rna interference (rnai) controls arbovirus infections in mosquitoes. two different rnai pathways are involved in antiviral responses: the piwi-interacting rna (pirna) and exogenous short interfering rna (exo-sirna) pathways, which are characterized by the production of virus-derived small rnas of 25-29 and 21 nucleotides, respectively. the exo-sirna pathway is considered to be the key mosquito antiviral response mechanism. in aedes aegypti-derived cells, zika virus (zikv)-specific sirnas were pr ...201729040304
patchy dna forms of the zika virus rna genome are generated following infection in mosquito cell cultures and in mosquitoes.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and has historically been reported to cause mild symptomatic diseases during human infections. more recently, the explosion of microcephaly among infants born to zikv-infected women has made zikv a global public health concern. while zikv causes acute human diseases, infections of vector mosquitoes are basically non-pathogenic, allowing persistent infections and conferring lifelong ability to transmit the virus. recent studies have revealed that d ...201729039731
lure-and-kill yeast interfering rna larvicides targeting neural genes in the human disease vector mosquito aedes aegypti.new mosquito control strategies are vitally needed to address established arthropod-borne infectious diseases such as dengue and yellow fever and emerging diseases such as zika and chikungunya, all of which are transmitted by the disease vector mosquito aedes aegypti. in this investigation, saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) was engineered to produce short hairpin rnas (shrnas) corresponding to the aedes aegypti orthologs of fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 2 (fez2) and leukocyte ...201729038510
the effect of larval diet on adult survival, swarming activity and copulation success in male aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).control of aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. the success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. however, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in aedes mosquitoes. in the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of differ ...201829029298
modeling the environmental suitability for aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in the contiguous united states.the mosquitoes aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.)(diptera:culicidae) and ae. (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) (diptera:culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the united states where they are established. to complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit clim ...201729029153
combined toxicity of three essential oils against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) larvae.essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against aedes aegypti (l.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemic ...201729029151
effect of climatic conditions and water bodies on population dynamics of the dengue vector, aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the population of mosquitoes is mainly influenced by the biotic and abiotic factors. although aedes aegypti was reported until 1960's in the punjab, pakistan, the population has increased dramatically since 2009 and caused severe epidemics in 2011 due to heavy floods and rains. thus, this study was carried out to know the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the population of aedes aegypti.201729026852
central nervous system effects of intrauterine zika virus infection: a pictorial review.relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. one such agent is the zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the americas since 2015. the zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the aedes aegypti mosquito. this virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. ultrasonography (us) ...201729019762
a multiplex pcr for detection of knockdown resistance mutations, v1016g and f1534c, in pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti.mutation of the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene, or knockdown resistance (kdr) gene, is an important resistance mechanism of the dengue vector aedes aegypti mosquitoes against pyrethroids. in many countries in asia, a valine to glycine substitution (v1016g) and a phenylalanine to cysteine substitution (f1534c) are common in ae. aegypti populations. the g1016 and c1534 allele frequencies have been increasing in recent years, and hence there is a need to have a simple and inexpensive tool ...201729017613
temporal distribution and insecticide resistance profile of two major arbovirus vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in yaoundé, the capital city of cameroon.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are the major epidemic vectors of several arbovirus diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, zika and chikungunya worldwide. both aedes vectors are presents in cameroon; however, knowledge on the dynamic of the distribution of these species across cities and their resistance profile to insecticide are limited. here, we assessed the current distribution of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus in yaoundé, the capital city, established the resistance profile to insecticides ...201729017606
control of stegomyia fasciata (ædes ægypti) mosquitoes in indian country craft by a mosquito-proof metal cap (bennett pattern) for drinking-water receptacles. 193829014217
a practical way of dealing with ædes ægypti (stegomyia fasciata) mosquito breeding in country craft. 193629013069
a practical way of dealing with ædes ægypti (stegomyia fasciata) mosquito breeding in country craft. 193629012997
hydrogen peroxide resistance in strigomonas culicis: effects on mitochondrial functionality and aedes aegypti interaction.reactive oxygen species (ros) are toxic molecules involved in several biological processes such as cellular signaling, proliferation, differentiation and cell death. adaptations to oxidative environments are crucial for the success of the colonization of insects by protozoa. strigomonas culicis is a monoxenic trypanosomatid found in the midgut of mosquitoes and presenting a life cycle restricted to the epimastigote form. among s. culicis peculiarities, there is an endosymbiotic bacterium in the ...201728993269
evaluation of gamma radiation-induced dna damage in aedes aegypti using the comet assay.the study was undertaken to evaluate gamma radiation-induced dna damage in aedes aegypti. the comet assay was employed to demonstrate the extent of dna damage produced in adult male a. aegypti exposed to seven different doses of gamma radiation, ranging from 1 gy to 50 gy. dna damage was measured as the percentage of comet tail dna. a significant linear increase in dna damage was observed in all samples; the extent of damage being proportional to the dose of gamma radiation the organism received ...201728992792
how does competition among wild type mosquitoes influence the performance of aedes aegypti and dissemination of wolbachia pipientis?wolbachia has been deployed in several countries to reduce transmission of dengue, zika and chikungunya viruses. during releases, wolbachia-infected females are likely to lay their eggs in local available breeding sites, which might already be colonized by local aedes sp. mosquitoes. therefore, there is an urgent need to estimate the deleterious effects of intra and interspecific larval competition on mosquito life history traits, especially on the duration of larval development time, larval mor ...201728991902
zika and chikungunya virus detection in naturally infected aedes aegypti in ecuador.the wide and rapid spread of chikungunya (chikv) and zika (zikv) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. the early detection of chikv and zikv in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. this study was done to detect zikv and chikv viruses i ...201828982578
duplex real-time pcr assay distinguishes aedes aegypti from ae. albopictus (diptera: culicidae) using dna from sonicated first-instar larvae.aedes aegypti (l.) and ae. albopictus (skuse) are important arbovirus vectors in the united states, and the recent emergence of zika virus disease as a public health concern in the americas has reinforced a need for tools to rapidly distinguish between these species in collections made by vector control agencies. we developed a duplex real-time pcr assay that detects both species and does not cross-amplify in any of the other seven aedes species tested. the lower limit of detection for our assay ...201728981691
pyrethroid susceptibility has been maintained in the dengue vector, aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), in queensland, australia.although pesticide resistance is common in insect vectors of human diseases, the evolution of resistance might be delayed if management practices are adopted that limit selection of resistance alleles. outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in queensland, australia, since the late 1800s, leading to ongoing attempts to control the mosquito vector, aedes aegypti (l.). since the 1990s, pyrethroid insecticides have been used for this purpose, but have been applied in a strategic manner with a varie ...201728981684
resistance status and resistance mechanisms in a strain of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from puerto rico.puerto rico (pr) has a long history of vector-borne disease and insecticide-resistant aedes aegypti (l.). defining contributing mechanisms behind phenotypic resistance is critical for effective vector control intervention. however, previous studies from pr have each focused on only one mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. this study examines the contribution of p450-mediated enzymatic detoxification and sodium channel target site changes to the overall resistance phenotype of ae. aegypti collecte ...201728981681
cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever: observations from an outbreak at a tertiary care hospital in southeast rajasthan, india.chikungunya fever is caused by chikungunya virus which is transmitted by the bite of infected aedes aegypti and a. albopictus mosquitoes.201728979866
infection rate of aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue virus depends on the interaction between temperature and mosquito genotype.dengue fever is the most prevalent arthropod-transmitted viral disease worldwide, with endemic transmission restricted to tropical and subtropical regions of different temperature profiles. temperature is epidemiologically relevant because it affects dengue infection rates in aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the major vector of the dengue virus (denv). aedes aegypti populations are also known to vary in competence for different denv genotypes. we assessed the effects of mosquito and virus genotype on d ...201728978730
identification of surveillance and control priority areas for dengue and other arboviruses transmitted by aedes aegypti in natal-rn, brazil: experience report.to report the vigi@dengue experience, held in the municipality of natal-rn, brazil, from october/2015 to may/2016.201728977187
circulation of denv2 and denv4 in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes from praia, santiago island, cabo verde.arthropod-borne viruses, such as dengue (denv), chikungunya (chikv), and zika (zikv), pose a challenge to public health, due to their worldwide distribution and large-scale outbreaks. dengue fever is currently one of the most important diseases and it is caused by four serotypes of denv and is mainly transmitted by the mosquito aedes aegypti. it is estimated that 50-100 million cases are reported every year worldwide. more recently, chikv and zikv, which are also transmitted by ae. aegypti, have ...201728973490
positional stable isotope tracer analysis reveals carbon routes during ammonia metabolism of aedes aegypti mosquitoes.in aedes aegypti females, the ammonia released during blood meal digestion is partially metabolized to facilitate the disposal of excess nitrogen. in this study, we used low- and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (lc/ms) techniques to investigate the role of glucose during ammonia detoxification. mosquitoes were fed a blood meal supplemented with [1,2-13c2]glucose, and downstream metabolites were measured for 24 h. quantification of [13c] amino acids in the entire mosquito ...201828970248
laboratory evaluation of a novel lethal ovitrap for control of aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) are known to flourish in a variety of natural and residential habitats and are competent vectors of at least 22 different arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, and zika. their global distribution, anthropophilic nature, and vector competency make them species of interest for control. a novel durable dual-action lethal ovitrap (ddalo) with combined larviciding and adulticiding effects, as well as a slow-release polymer (isobutyl methacrylate), was des ...201728968892
transcription profiling for defensins of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) during development and in response to infection with chikungunya and zika viruses.aedes aegypti (l.) is a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses. these viruses encounter a variety of induced defense responses from the innate immune system of the mosquito. we cloned defensin a from ae. aegypti using laboratory populations originating from key west and orlando, florida. to characterize inducible immune defensin peptides, we examined the defensin a (defa) and defensin c (defc) expression through time course studies using quantitative real-time pcr. we obser ...201828968775
chikungunya virus dissemination from the midgut of aedes aegypti is associated with temporal basal lamina degradation during bloodmeal digestion.in the mosquito, the midgut epithelium is the initial tissue to become infected with an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that has been acquired from a vertebrate host along with a viremic bloodmeal. following its replication in midgut epithelial cells, the virus needs to exit the midgut and infect secondary tissues including the salivary glands before it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. the viral exit mechanism from the midgut, the midgut escape barrier (meb), is poorly understood ...201728961239
phylogenetic analysis of aedes aegypti based on mitochondrial nd4 gene sequences in almadinah, saudi arabia.aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue virus. this mosquito has become the major indirect cause of morbidity and mortality of the human worldwide. dengue virus activity has been reported recently in the western areas of saudi arabia. there is no vaccine for dengue virus until now, and the control of the disease depends on the control of the vector.201628959327
use of rhodamine b to mark the body and seminal fluid of male aedes aegypti for mark-release-recapture experiments and estimating efficacy of sterile male releases.recent interest in male-based sterile insect technique (sit) and incompatible insect technique (iit) to control aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus populations has revealed the need for an economical, rapid diagnostic tool for determining dispersion and mating success of sterilized males in the wild. previous reports from other insects indicated rhodamine b, a thiol-reactive fluorescent dye, administered via sugar-feeding can be used to stain the body tissue and seminal fluid of insects. here, we ...201728957318
the distribution of aedes aegypti (diptera, culicidae) in eight selected parks of lahore, using oviposition traps during rainy season.to investigate the seasonal distribution of immature habitat of aedes aegypti mosquito species and its association with environmental and climatic conditions.201728955062
oviposition preferences of dengue vectors; aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in sri lanka under laboratory settings.investigations on oviposition behaviour of dengue vectors are critical for effective controlling of vector breeding. therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the oviposition behaviour of dengue vectors, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in sri lanka. batches of 1000 adult mosquitoes (1 : 1, male: female ratio) housed in rearing cages were used for each experimental setup from ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus. oviposition responses with respect to the size of the ovitrap, colours o ...201728950922
extensive genetic differentiation between homomorphic sex chromosomes in the mosquito vector, aedes aegypti.mechanisms and evolutionary dynamics of sex-determination systems are of particular interest in insect vectors of human pathogens like mosquitoes because novel control strategies aim to convert pathogen-transmitting females into nonbiting males, or rely on accurate sexing for the release of sterile males. in aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and zika viruses, sex determination is governed by a dominant male-determining locus, previously thought to reside within a small, nonrecombining, se ...201728945882
growth inhibitory effect of phenolic extracts of ziziphus jujuba mill. in dengue vector aedes aegypti (l) in parent and f1 generation.to evaluate the lethal and emergence inhibitory effect of alkaloid, phenolic and terpenoid extracts of ziziphus jujuba (rhamnaceae) against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), and to explore the effect of the most effective fraction on developmental and biochemical parameters of the dengue vector.201728942827
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