PMID(sorted descending)
compounds affecting mosquito oviposition: structure-activity relationships and concentration effects.evidence is reviewed for a dose-dependent reversal of response in mosquito oviposition, in which a compound that attracts or stimulates oviposition may repel or deter oviposition at a higher concentration. on the basis of a review of structure-activity relationships in compounds affecting mosquito oviposition, 5 hexanoic acid derivatives were selected for field tests with aedes aegypti ssp. formosus in kenya. egg counts were increased most by methyl hexanoic acid and 5-methyl-2-hexanone, and the ...19911675257
deletion by in vivo recombination shows that the 28-kilodalton cytolytic polypeptide from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is not essential for mosquitocidal activity.the cyta gene encoding the 28-kda polypeptide of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis crystals was disrupted in the 72-mda resident plasmid by in vivo recombination, thus indicating that homologous recombination occurs in b. thuringiensis. the absence of the 28-kda protein in b. thuringiensis did not affect the crystallization of the other toxic components of the parasporal body (68-, 125-, and 135-kda polypeptides). the absence of the 28-kda protein abolished the hemolytic activity of b. t ...19911675212
n,n-diethylphenylacetamide in treated fabrics as a repellent against aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).the efficacy of fabrics impregnated with n,n-diethylphenylacetamide (depa), a new repellent, was studied in the laboratory and field against aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say. depa-treated polyester cotton and cotton fabrics provided repellency for 30 and 36 d and had a half-life of 11 and 5 d, respectively. the repellent could not be applied at a rate of greater than 15% of fabric weight. depa-treated fabric patches were found to be a practical and novel approach and were effect ...19911674544
in vitro development of brugia pahangi and brugia malayi in cultured mosquito vitro cultivation of brugia pahangi and subperiodic brugia malayi one-day old larvae to infective stage larvae (l3) within thoraces excised from aedes aegypti (black eye, liverpool) and anopheles quadrimaculatus was attempted. the mosquito thoraces were excised under aseptic conditions, 24 h after a blood meal on either b. pahangi- or b. malayi-infected jirds. the excised thoraces were washed aseptically and inoculated into a diphasic media. a nutrient agar base was overlaid with either grace ...19911671619
genetic selection of a flavivirus-refractory strain of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.two inbred (isofemale) aedes aegypti mosquito lines were derived that manifested a resistant or susceptible phenotype following ingestion of yellow fever virus; lack of virus movement from the midgut defined the resistant phenotype. other flaviviruses, including dengue 1-4, uganda s, and zika, viruses behaved in a similar fashion in the two mosquito lines. crosses between the two lines produced progeny that were of intermediate susceptibility, indicating codominance; f2 backcrosses to the parent ...19911659238
dibutyryl camp activates bumetanide-sensitive electrolyte transport in malpighian tubules.the effects of dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (dbcamp) and bumetanide (both 10(-4) m) on transepithelial na+, k+, cl-, and fluid secretion and on tubule electrophysiology were studied in isolated malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti. peritubular dbcamp significantly increased na+, cl-, and fluid secretion but decreased k+ secretion. in dbcamp-stimulated tubules, bumetanide caused na+, cl-, and fluid secretion to return to pre-camp control rates and k+ sec ...19911653525
[experimental research on the effect of biologically active substances on the susceptibility of mosquitoes to the causative agent of malaria. 3. algae, fertilizers].on a model pair aedes aegypti--plasmodium gallinaceum in has been shown that changes in the conditions of larvae development caused by the addition into the water medium of the live culture of synochocystis sp. cyanobacteria or green seaweeds chlorella vulgaris, acetone extracts from the live culture precipitate or chlorella powder, as well as nitrogen-containing fertilizer--ammonium chloride did not lower the sensitivity of the imago flying to malaria parasites. the results of the experiments a ...19911648659
induced polypeptides associated with filarial worm refractoriness in aedes aegypti.brugia malayi and wuchereria bancrofti are mosquito-borne parasitic nematodes responsible for lymphatic filariasis in approximately 90 million people. the genetic control of the susceptibility of aedes aegypti mosquitoes to b. malayi was well defined 30 years ago, but no data have since been provided regarding the gene products responsible for susceptibility or refractoriness or both. we addressed this problem by assessing polypeptide synthesis in thoracic tissue, the developmental site of this ...19921631149
reproductive and metabolic differences between aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus (diptera: culicidae).aedes albopictus (skuse) females were more likely to develop eggs after they ingested small blood meals than were aedes aegypti (l.) when both species were maintained under the same suboptimal adult nutritional regimen. the longevity of adult female ae. albopictus under conditions of starvation was also significantly greater than that of ae. aegypti. analyses of total body proteins, lipids, and glycogen indicated that the increased reproductive efficiency of ae. albopictus may be a result of its ...19921625295
aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) vision: response to stimuli from the optical environment.although aedes aegypti (l.) are capable of some wavelength discrimination, behavioral experiments demonstrated that color was not a stimulus to which they responded. optical stimuli that did affect ae. aegypti behavior were luminous reflectance, vertical contrast, and movement. stationary objects of low reflectance and solid color were the most attractive to males and females.19921625292
first reported outbreak of classical dengue fever at 1,700 meters above sea level in guerrero state, mexico, june outbreak of classical dengue fever occurred from march to august 1988 in the city of taxco, guerrero state, mexico. taxco is at an elevation of 1,700 meters above sea level, and this study represents the highest altitude at which an outbreak of dengue has been documented. an investigation was conducted to obtain serologic confirmation of dengue infection, determine the extent of the outbreak, and identify risk factors for dengue illness. toxorhynchites cell lines were used for viral isolation ...19921621889
results of a community-based aedes aegypti control program in merida, yucatan, mexico.this report describes the results of a community-based aedes aegypti control program in merida, yucatan, mexico. baseline surveys concerning knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 577 women and a larval survey of 616 house lots were carried out in october 1989. following development of a public health communication intervention from this data, the program was implemented in six communities. evaluation used an untreated control group design with pretest and two post-tests, one at completion and one ...19921621887
phenol oxidase activity in hemolymph compartments of aedes aegypti during melanotic encapsulation reactions against microfilariae.monophenol oxidase (mpo) and diphenol oxidase (dpo) activity was assessed in hemocytes, cell-free plasma and complete hemolymph collected from aedes aegypti liverpool strain, intrathoracically inoculated with saline alone, immune activated by the inoculation of dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff), and uninoculated. enzyme activities between groups were compared using a radiometric hydroxylation assay (mpo) and a high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection assay (dpo). ...19921618354
digestibility by and pathogenicity of the protozoa tetrahymena pyriformis to larvae of aedes aegypti. 19921607672
a novel bioassay system for evaluating the toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against mosquito larvae.a bioassay system employing acutely toxic concentrations of a spore-crystal mixture of bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis against fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti (l.) is described. individual larvae are separately exposed to toxin in glass-lined miniature wells or scintillation vials. this method is free from the deaths due to predation among larvae. such larval deaths are commonly encountered in bioassay groups of 25 larvae as currently specified in the world health organizatio ...19921607671
digestion of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis spores by larvae of aedes aegypti.the larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against mosquitoes and the blackfly is included in parasporal crystalline bodies which are produced during sporulation. following ingestion, the crystals are solubilized in the larval midgut and induce death within a short time; the spores germinate in the dead larvae and complete a growth cycle. the fate of the spores in surviving live larvae was elucidated by using a nonlarvicidal b. thuringiensis var. israelensis mutant. when ...19921607667
biological control of culicidae with the copepod mesocyclops aspericornis and larvivorous fish (poeciliidae) in a village of french polynesia.the copepod mesocyclops aspericornis daday and the larvivorous fishes gambusia affinis (b. & g.) and poecilia reticulata r. & b., were released into mosquito breeding sites in tuherahera village, tikehau atoll, french polynesia, to control larvae of aedes aegypti (l.), ae.polynesiensis marks, culex annulirostris skuse and cx quinquefasciatus say. treatments were completed within a week, in january 1990. fish quickly eliminated mosquito larvae from the open breeding sites (ponds, wells). the impa ...19921600235
selection of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti for cheap and easy maintenance without bloodmeals. 19921600234
the role of the mosquito peritrophic membrane in bloodmeal digestion and infectivity of plasmodium species.secretion and luminal formation of the peritrophic membrane (pm) were induced in female anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti by feeding the mosquitoes on a warmed suspension of latex particles in ringer's solution. the pm in a. stephensi was produced from apical secretion vesicles stored in the midgut epithelial cells and secreted into the lumen during feeding. in a. aegypti, the pm was formed de novo. when the latex feeding was followed 24 hr later by a meal of lyophilized pig blood, the 2 mos ...19921597785
developmentally regulated infectivity of malaria sporozoites for mosquito salivary glands and the vertebrate host.sporozoites are an invasive stage of the malaria parasite in both the mosquito vector and the vertebrate host. we developed an in vivo assay for mosquito salivary gland invasion by preparing plasmodium gallinaceum sporozoites from infected aedes aegypti mosquitoes under physiological conditions and inoculating them into uninfected female ae. aegypti. sporozoites from mature oocysts were isolated from mosquito abdomens 10 or 11 d after an infective blood meal. salivary gland sporozoites were isol ...19921588284
on the infectivity of early third-stage brugia larvae isolated from the abdomen of aedes aegypti.third-stage larvae (l3) of wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi and b. pahangi are known to be recovered not only from the head and thorax but also from the abdomen of dissected vector mosquitoes. for epidemiological reasons, was of interest to determine whether l3 larvae from the abdomen of the vector would be infectious for the final host. early abdominal l3 larvae of b. pahangi isolated as early as on day 7 post-infection (p.i.) from aedes aegypti were injected s.c. into five male meriones ung ...19921584752
invasion of cemeteries in florida by aedes albopictus.aedes albopictus has been found in 53 of the 67 florida counties. the initial discoveries in 11 of these counties were made in cemeteries. at several locations, ae. albopictus became well-established in cemeteries before appearing in nearby accumulations of waste tires. the recycling of plastic floral baskets may be aiding the spread of ae. albopictus. mosquitoes were commonly found in all types of flower-holding containers in cemeteries, except bronze vases. in the laboratory, most aedes aegypt ...19921583479
blood vessel location time by anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae).probing behavior of anopheles stephensi liston is characterized by the following: the first probe is longer than subsequent ones, the probability of blood location rises initially and then falls, and blood vessel location is deterministic. the overall probing behavior of an. stephensi, therefore, is similar to that of aedes aegypti (l.); i.e., differences between them were quantitative and may be accounted for by different levels of salivary apyrase and different experimental vertebrate hosts.19921552520
infectivity and pathogenicity of ascogregarina culicis (eugregarinida: lecudinidae) to aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the susceptibility of three strains of aedes aegypti (l.) to four strains of ascogregarina culicis were studied under laboratory conditions. the parasite was found to be pathogenic to the mosquito; although pathogenicity varied among geographical strains of a. culicis and susceptibility varied among geographical strains of ae. aegypti. in addition to affecting the survival of the mosquito larvae, infection with the parasite was found to shorten larval development time. selected strains of a. cul ...19921552514
dengue fever: a resurgent risk for the international traveler.the incidence of dengue fever, an acute febrile illness transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito, is on the rise. high fever, severe headache, skin rash and a variety of constitutional symptoms are hallmarks of classic dengue fever. dengue hemorrhagic fever, a severe manifestation associated with secondary infection, most often occurs in children. treatment of classic dengue fever is supportive, whereas urgent rehydration therapy is often required in more severe forms. community-based and perso ...19921543101
brugia malayi: ivermectin inhibits the exsheathment of microfilariae.brugia malayi-infected microfilaremic jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were treated with ivermectin at a single dose of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight injected subcutaneously. susceptible aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on treated jirds 24 hours later. mosquitoes fed on untreated jirds served as controls. infected mosquitoes were dissected at 1, 3, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after the blood meal, and differential counts of sheathed microfilariae, exsheathed microfilariae, and cast sheaths were perfo ...19921539753
adult longevity of certain mosquito species after larval and pupal exposure to sublethal concentration of an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron.longevity of the adults of three vector species, culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi, and aedes aegypti was drastically reduced when they were exposed at larval and pupal stages to sublethal concentrations of an insect growth regulator hexaflumuron. when the three species were exposed to 0.05 mg/l at the pupal stage, males and females of cx. quinquefasciatus suffered a more shortened life span than other species. among the females whose feeding activity was adversely affected by igr trea ...20061523463
genetic and molecular evidence for a trans-acting regulatory locus controlling glutathione s-transferase-2 expression in aedes aegypti.the amount of glutathione s-transferase-2 (gst-2) protein and enzyme activity in a mutant strain (strain gg) of the yellow fever mosquito (aedes aegypti) is approximately 25-fold higher than in the wild-type (++) strain. the mode of inheritance of the gg phenotype was studied in f1 and backcross progeny using gst enzyme assays, isozyme-specific antisera, and northern blot analysis. enzyme assay of parental and f1 progeny showed that the ++ phenotype was dominant to the gg phenotype. this was tru ...19921508145
the mosquitocidal activity of conidia of tolypocladium tundrense and tolypocladium terricola.tolypocladium tundrense and t. terricola uv-irradiated conidia exhibited acute toxicity to aedes aegypti larvae in concentrations of 5 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(6) ml-1, respectively. substances deposited on the surface of conidia following sporulation appear to be responsible for rapid intoxication and killing of mosquito larvae. treatment of larvae with dried methanolic extract of the spores also induced a high level of mortality accompanied by the same histological changes, including vacuolization a ...19921505208
effect of the repellent deet on the antennal chemoreceptors for oviposition in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the insect repellent, n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet), interferes with detection of the host attractant, lactic acid (la), by la-excited neurons on the antennae of female aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes. in the current laboratory behavioral experiment, the attraction of gravid female mosquitoes to a source of ethyl propionate, an oviposition attractant, was reduced by a factor of two when deet was present. similarly, when deet was presented together with ethyl propionate in electrophysiological exp ...19921495074
in vivo and in vitro biosynthesis and metabolism of methyl farnesoate, juvenile hormone iii, and juvenile hormone iii acid in the mosquito aedes aegypti.biosynthesis and metabolism of juvenile hormone (jh) iii in vivo and in vitro were studied in female aedes aegypti (l.). [12-3h]methyl farnesoate was used to follow the synthesis and [12-3h]-(10r)-jh iii to study metabolism. the rate of biosynthesis of [12-3h]jh iii in vivo after adult eclosion increased from 9 fmol/h per female at 1 h to 22 fmol/h per female at day 6. the rate of biosynthesis by exposed corpora allata (ca) in vitro was 23 fmol/h per ca during the 1st d after adult eclosion, the ...19921495071
laboratory evaluation of brazilian mesocyclops (copepoda: cyclopidae) for mosquito laboratory tests, four different strains of mesocyclops aspericornis (daday) collected in or near fortaleza, brazil, showed potential as biological control agents of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito larvae but were not as effective against anopheles or culex. in contrast, the larger m. longisetus (thiebaud), collected at fortaleza, killed 100% of ae. aegypti and anopheles farauti (laveran) (no. 1) at larval densities of 200/liter and culex quinquefasciatus (say) at 25/liter. in cage simulations wi ...19921495067
multiple transmission of plasmodium gallinaceum (eucoccida: plasmodiidae) during serial probing by aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) on several hosts.mosquitoes salivate before ingesting blood, and sporozoites are transmitted during this phase of feeding. in the laboratory, malaria-infected aedes aegypti were allowed to probe on a series of three chicks during a 5-min period. probing on each host was interrupted after 10 s. our results demonstrate that up to three hosts can be serially infected with avian malaria during a 5-min period.19921495052
in vitro assay for the biosynthesis and metabolism of juvenile hormone by exposed corpora allata of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).a technique has been developed to study jh iii biosynthesis in vitro by removing the head and thorax of aedes aegypti (l.) and exposing the corpora allata (ca). exposed ca were incubated with [12-3h]methyl farnesoate, and the newly synthesized jh iii and jh iii metabolites were followed using c18 reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and preparative gas chromatography. the rate of synthesis of [12-3h]jh iii by exposed ca from newly emerged adult ae. aegypti was 23 fmol/ca ...19921495050
aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) vision: spectral sensitivity and other perceptual parameters of the female eye.from measurements of the mean ommatidial diameter (17.2 microns) and mean interommatidial angle (6.2 degrees) of the eye of female ae. aegypti (l.), a minimum resolvable angle of 12.3 degrees and an eye parameter of 1.6 microns were calculated. the eye had relatively poor acuity but high overall sensitivity to light. electroretinographs revealed spectral sensitivity ranging from ultraviolet (323 nm) to orange-red (621 nm), with sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (lambda max323-345 nm) and gree ...19921495042
further evidence that the genes controlling susceptibility of aedes aegypti to filarial parasites function independently.comparisons were made of in vivo labeled polypeptides from aedes aegypti strains refractory to either brugia malayi or dirofilaria immitis. there does not seem to be a generalized "anti-parasite" polypeptide response that mosquitoes refractory to filarial worm infection produce following bloodfeeding. instead, it seems that any response produced by these mosquitoes is localized to the tissue in which the filarial parasite develops.19921491306
evaluation of emd vaporizers and bioallethrin vaporizing mats against mosquito vectors.different electric-mat-device (emd) vaporizers and bioallethrin impregnated mats were evaluated for the knockdown and mortality in the adults of culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti. percentage knockdown of 80-100 was recorded throughout the test period of 11 hours. however, the percentage mortality observed was not appreciable in all types of emd vaporizers. device "a" was found to be effective only against ae. aegypti. devices "c" and "d" showed moderate effects agains ...19921488702
[molecular cloning and identification of 130kd mosquitocidal protein gene of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti)].the location of 130kd mosquitocidal protein gene of bti 4q5 strain on its 75md plasmid was confirmed by southern hybridization using a 18-base oligonucleotide probe. the crystal protein containing the component of 130kd toxic protein was purified. the crystal protein exhibiting the mosquitocidal activity against larvae of aedes aegypti was shown by bioassay. the purified 75md plasmid dna of bti 4q5 strain was completely digested with hindiii restriction enzyme, ligated with the vector puc18 and ...19921481529
reduction in the susceptibility of aedes aegypti to brugia malayi infection after treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate.the susceptibility to brugia malayi infections of f2 and f4 progenies of aedes aegypti (black eye strain) treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (ems) was tested. both 3-day-old males and females were treated with 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.10% ems. control and treated females were then mated with normal or treated males to recover f1 progeny. f2 offspring were derived from sibling intercrosses, and 3 lines were established by further intercross matings to generate the f4. susceptibility in the 0.02 ...19921474390
a simple method for cultivating freshwater copepods used in biological control of aedes aegypti.a simple method for indoor and outdoor cultivation of mesocyclops aspericornis, macrocyclops albidus and mesocyclops n. sp. copepods is presented. this method utilizes chilomonas sp., paramecium caudatum and fresh lettuce as food sources for copepod cultures. steps for initiating and maintaining copepod cultures are provided.19921474389
mosquito size and multiple transmission of avian malaria in the laboratory.probing mosquitoes salivate before ingesting blood, and malaria sporozoites are transmitted during this phase of feeding. large and small aedes aegypti infected with plasmodium gallinaceum were allowed to probe briefly on a series of 3 naive chicks. large mosquitoes were more infective overall, but there was no difference in the ability of either size class to infect the first host. large mosquitoes were more likely than small mosquitoes to infect more than one host during serial feeding.19921474384
infection of adult mosquitoes by the entomopathogenic fungus erynia conica (entomophthorales: entomophthoraceae).the infection of adult mosquitoes by the entomopathogenic fungus erynia conica is presented for the first time. adult aedes aegypti were exposed to conidial showers from field-collected chaoborid, tipulid and chironomid cadavers for 24 h under conditions of 100% rh and 15 degrees c. up to 24% of the adults were killed by the mycosis. cadavers of ae. aegypti produced conidia that were infective to other adult ae. aegypti; however, rates of infection were never more than 12%. nevertheless, ae. aeg ...19921474381
use of genetic polymorphisms detected by the random-amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) for differentiation and identification of aedes aegypti subspecies and populations.amplification of random regions of genomic dna using 10-base primers in the random-amplified polymorphic dna polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) was used to differentiate and identify mosquito populations based on genetic variation. genomic dna was extracted from individual mosquitoes from 11 geographic populations of aedes aegypti and amplified in pcr reactions using single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. discriminant analysis of the population frequencies of rapd fragments produced ...19921471745
the xxth century dengue pandemic: need for surveillance and the last decade of the xxth century aedes aegypti and the 4 dengue viruses had spread to nearly all countries of the tropical world. some 2 billion persons live in dengue-endemic areas with tens of millions infected annually. dengue pandemics were also documented in the xviiith and xixth centuries; they were contained by organized anti-aedes aegypti campaigns and urban improvements. the xxth century dengue pandemic has brought with it the simultaneous circulation of multiple serotypes and in ...19921462664
variation in the efficiency of vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus by strains of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).five geographical strains of aedes albopictus (skuse) were compared for their ability to transmit vertically a dengue-1 isolate from jamaica. the oahu strain of ae. albopictus and a strain of aedes aegypti (l.) from the united states were included as controls. the offspring of orally infected females were assayed individually for vertical infection. vertical transmission rates among strains ranged from 11 to 41%, and filial infection rates of strains ranged from 0.5 to 2.9%. filial infection rat ...19921460640
food ingestion and digestive enzymes in larval aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus (diptera: culicidae).frequency of the labral brush movements of first, second, and fourth instars of aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) was studied comparatively in the laboratory. a frequency of 197 strokes per min for the first and second instars was observed in the former species compared to 118 strokes per min in the latter species. a faster ingestion rate of algal cells also was observed in first and second instars of ae. aegypti (mean 57.5 cells per s) compared with first and second instars of ae. ...19921460635
failure of dengue viruses to replicate in culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).culex quinquefasciatus (say) and aedes aegypti (l.) were parenterally infected with dengue viruses and virus replication was monitored at intervals after infection in each species. dengue viruses replicated rapidly in ae. aegypti, reaching a peak titer of 10(6)-10(7) mosquito infectious dose 50 (mid50) per mosquito. in cx. quinquefasciatus, however, dengue virus replication did not occur. we conclude that this mosquito species is refractory to infection with dengue viruses and, therefore, does n ...19921460627
female aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in thailand rarely feed on sugar.female aedes aegypti (l.) of two different body sizes and provided with different diets (20% sucrose, water only, or 20% sucrose + human blood) were marked and released together in a rural thai village. recaptured marked and unmarked (wild) adults were tested for fructose by the cold-anthrone reaction. both released and wild females showed a low frequency of sugar feeding in nature; both small-bodied and large-bodied individuals failed to sugar feed significantly. marked females released with su ...19921460619
binding of bacillus sphaericus binary toxin to a specific receptor on midgut brush-border membranes from mosquito larvae.the presence of specific receptors for bacillus sphaericus binary toxin on brush-border membrane fractions (bbmf) from culex pipiens larvae midgut cells was demonstrated by an in vitro binding assay. both activated and radiolabelled polypeptides from the 51-kda and 42-kda binary toxin of b. sphaericus 1593 specifically bound to bbmf. direct binding and homologous competition experiments indicated a single class of b. sphaericus toxin receptors, with a dissociation constant (kd) of approximately ...19921459140
on the developmental velocity of wucheria bancrofti larvae in vector mosquitoes of different susceptibility to filarial infections.the developmental velocity of wucheria bancrofti larvae was investigated in mosquito strains with different susceptibility to this filarial species. high susceptibility of the vector strains favoured fast filarial development, e.g. between 17.1 and 25.9% of all discovered larvae on day 13 p.i. had already migrated to the head and mouth parts of the more and partly even highly susceptible anopheles gambiae, culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti, respectively, whereas between 0 and 3.4% ...19921456467
opposite influences of host anaemia on blood feeding rate and fecundity of mosquitoes.we tested a theoretical model based on the physics of capillary flow and confirmed that anaemia accelerates blood intake in the yellow-fever mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.). we also investigated the influence of anaemic blood on egg production of mosquitoes and found that it has a negative influence on fecundity. based strictly on egg production and the physics of fluid intake, we propose that although anaemia associated with blood-borne parasites may be detrimental to mosquitoes that can engorge t ...19921454415
variation in aedes aegypti mrna populations related to strain, sex, and development.translation products were used to monitor changes in gene expression between different strains and developmental stages of aedes aegypti. total rna was isolated from fourth stadium larvae, male and female pupae, and male and female adults collected at fixed time intervals following pupation and ecdysis. differences in rna populations were assessed by in vitro translation followed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. variations in gene expression betwee ...19921449211
synthesis of the orally macrofilaricidal and stable glycerolipidic prodrug of melphalan, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-(4'(bis(2''-chloroethyl)amino)phenylalaninoyl)gl ycerol.a new strategy is presented to develop macrofilaricidal compounds orally administered and able to concentrate in the lymphatic system. a diglyceride derivative of melphalan, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-(4'(bis(2''-chloroethyl)amino)phenylalaninoyl)gl y cerol, was synthesized. the esterification of melphalan by 1,3-dipalmitin allowed chemical stabilization of the alkylating agent in aqueous dispersion. no degradation of this prodrug was observed after a 3-month storage of an aqueous dispersion at 4 degrees ...19921445485
evaluation of synergism among bacillus thuringiensis toxins.a simple test for synergism among toxins is described and applied to previously reported data on independent and joint toxicities of insecticidal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis. the analysis shows synergism between a 27-kda (cyta) toxin and 130- or 65-kda (cryiv) toxins from b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis against aedes aegypti larvae. no positive synergism between 130- and 65-kda toxins or among three cryia toxins tested against seven species of lepidoptera occurred. comparisons with ...19921444368
dengue 1 epidemic in french polynesia, 1988-1989: surveillance and clinical, epidemiological, virological and serological findings in 1752 documented clinical epidemic of dengue 1 occurred in french polynesia in december 1988 and june 1989. this paper records (i) the trend of the outbreak and its surveillance and (ii) the clinical, epidemiological and virological data obtained from 1752 documented cases. the epidemic reached its peak in february in tahiti island, 7 weeks after its recognition. among 6034 suspect cases reported by sentinel physicians, 60.3% were < 20 years old. the illness was classical dengue. no fatality or case of dengue haemorrh ...19921440788
structure determination and toxicity of a new microcystin from microcystis aeruginosa strain 205.a new hepatotoxic microcystin was isolated from the cyanobacterium microcystis aeruginosa strain 205. its structure was found to be [dha7]microcystin-rr as determined by amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry and 1h nmr spectroscopy. ld50 value (i.p. mouse) of this toxin was 180 micrograms/kg. the 48 hr lethal concentration (48-hr-lc50) of the toxin for larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, was 14.9 micrograms/ml.19921440646
[the susceptibility of mosquitoes for plasmodium gallinaceum in the joint use of biologically active substances].making use of a model pair aedes aegypti--plasmodium gallinaceum, the authors assess the susceptibility of mosquito female survivors to malaria agent after treatment of larvae with various bioactive substances. eight binary combinations of 6 preparations have been tried: dimilin and uvemon, insect development regulators; fundosol and copper sulfate, fungicides; phytobacteriomicin (pbm), a larvicidal antibiotic; bactoculicide, a bacterial agent. combinations of pbm with compounds differing by the ...19921435576
variation in aedes aegypti larval indices over a one year period in a neighborhood of mérida, yucatán, méxico.surveys for aedes aegypti larvae were conducted to provide an estimate of the magnitude and timing of seasonal variations in larval indices in one colonia in mérida, yucatán, méxico, and to assess how the proportion of disposable and non-disposable containers as larval production sites varies. breteau indices exceeded 200 during the months of july and august, and disposable containers were important year-round larval production sites.19921431864
effect of per os edhazardia aedis (microsporida: amblyosporidae) infection on aedes aegypti mortality and body size.infection with edhazardia aedis uninucleate spores had less effect on aedes aegypti larval mortality and adult body size than did larval diet. larval mortality averaged 60-81% in starved larvae and 2-16% in well-fed larvae. no significant amounts of larval mortality could consistently be attributed to exposure to the parasite at dosages of 1.5 x 10(3) or 1.5 x 10(5) spores/ml. infection rates in adults surviving exposure to the parasites as larvae ranged from 30 to 59%. infected adults had signi ...19921431854
influence of temperature on developmental parameters of the parasite/host system edhazardia aedis (microsporida: amblyosporidae) and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).larvae of aedes aegypti, transovarially infected with edhazardia aedis, were reared between 20 and 36 degrees c to determine the influence of temperature on the development of the parasite and the infected host. development of the parasite was evaluated based on spore yield and size. the predicted optimum temperature for maximum spore production of e. aedis in a. aegypti was 30.8 degrees c. the results demonstrate that the e. aedis-a. aegypti system has a wide temperature tolerance; whereas spor ...19921431195
plasmodium gallinaceum: antibodies to circumsporozoite protein prevent sporozoites from invading the salivary glands of aedes aegypti.a circumsporozoite protein-specific monoclonal antibody (n2h6d5) was injected into malaria-infected mosquitoes to determine its effect on the sporogonic cycle. after injection of antibody into mosquitoes (100 ng each), positive immunofluorescence (measured on air-dried sporozoites) reactions in hemolymph extracts were observed at a dilution of 1:1000. at 72 hr postinjection the levels dropped to 1:10. sporozoites coinjected with antibody did not invade the salivary glands. in naturally infected ...19921426132
development of specific ria and elisa to study trypsin modulating oostatic factor in mosquitoes.trypsin modulating oostatic factor (tmof), a decapeptide (h-ydpapppppp-oh) that signals the termination of trypsinlike enzyme biosynthesis in the mosquito midgut, was covalently bound to keyhole limpet hemocyanin using n-hydroxysuccinimide and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against this conjugate were used to develop specific ria and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect the peptide hormone in female aedes aegypti. tmof and its analogs tmof(b) (h- ...19921421442
experimental wuchereria bancrofti infection of culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti.laboratory-derived females of culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti were experimentally infected with wuchereria bancrofti by allowing the insects to feed on infected volunteers of known microfilariae density between 24.00 and 2.00 hours. of the 240 mosquitoes used for the experiments only 67 (55.8%) of c. quinquefasciatus and 83 (69.2%) of the ae.aegypti actually fed on the volunteers' blood. after 16 days post-infection period, 50 (74.62%) of the engorged c. quinquefasciatus harboured infec ...19921416219
unique electrophysiological effects of dinitrophenol in malpighian the course of electrophysiological studies of malpighian tubules of the mosquito aedes aegypti, we have found unusual effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol (dnp) that offer new insights into the electrogenic and conductive properties of the tubule. dnp (10(-4)m) depolarized the basolateral membrane voltage from -58.0 to -3.3 mv, and it depolarized the apical membrane voltage from 110.6 to 8.9 mv. in parallel the transepithelial electrical resistance increased from 11.4 to 16.8 k, and the frac ...19921415649
differences in male mating response and female flight sounds in aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti (l.) and ae. albopictus (skuse) showed similar rates and timing of insemination in the laboratory. laboratory attempts at interspecific mating were unsuccessful. because ae. aegypti males are known to locate females by flight sounds, male response to sound was compared in the two species. ae. aegypti males responded to female flight sounds with stereotypical orientation and mating behavior, whereas ae. albopictus males seldom responded. recorded flight sounds of females were sample ...19921404257
penetration of the mosquito (aedes aegypti) midgut wall by the ookinetes of plasmodium gallinaceum.we observed plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes in both intracellular and intercellular positions in the midgut epithelium of the mosquito aedes aegypti. after epithelial cell invasion intracellular ookinetes lacked a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane and were surrounded solely by their own pellicle. thus, the ookinete in the midgut epithelium of the mosquito differs from erythrocytic and hepatic stages in that the parasite in the vertebrate host is surrounded by a vacuole. the midgut epithelial cy ...19921403980
aedes albopictus and other mosquitoes imported in tires into durban, south africa.the results of surveillance for immature stages of mosquitoes in samples of wet tires in 5 consignments imported into durban from japan is reported. three of these consignments contained tires with immatures of aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus and uranotaenia n. novobscura. the proportions of all the wet tires calculated to contain mosquitoes were 189/1,488 (13%), 20/813 (2.5%) and 13/1,032 (1.3%) which emphasizes the need for effective mosquito control measures to prevent ae. albopictus escaping f ...19921402872
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--a second symposium.the second spanish language symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 58th annual meeting in corpus christi, tx in march 1992. the principal objective, as it was for the 1991 symposium, was to increase and stimulate greater participation in the amca by vector control specialists and public health workers from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 25 individual presentations that were given in spanish. the symposium included th ...19921402870
sublethal effects of larval methoprene exposure on adult mosquito longevity.larvae of aedes aegypti were exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insect growth regulator, methoprene, and the glycogen content of pupae and surviving adults was compared and effects on adult longevity determined. the glycogen reserves in both male and female ae. aegypti pupae were significantly reduced as a result of methoprene exposure. the longevity of adult females was also significantly reduced, but exposure affected neither the longevity nor the glycogen content of adult males. adult ...19921402867
seasonal incidence and horizontal distribution patterns of oviposition by aedes aegypti in an urban environment in trinidad, west indies.the oviposition patterns of aedes aegypti in ovitraps placed along 5 horizontal transects were monitored weekly for 52 wk (january to december 1988) in st. joseph, trinidad. of the 2,550 ovitraps exposed, 270 were lost and 1,177 (52%) out of 2,280 were used by gravid females, containing 38,118 eggs. during the dry season 43% (16,265 eggs) of the eggs were collected whereas during the wet season 57% (21,853 eggs) were collected. ovitraps exposed under eaves, under houses and in the open yard attr ...19921402866
comparative efficacy of aphid extracts and some juvenoids against the development of mosquitoes.comparative efficacy of natural juvenile hormones extracted from aphis craccivora and a. gosypii and 5 juvenoids, i.e., methoprene, neporex, oms 3007, oms 3019 and dpe-28 on the development of aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi and culex quinquefasciatus have been evaluated. oms 3007, oms 3019, dpe-28 and neporex show species specific related activities, while methoprene and aphid extracts do not show such activity against these mosquito species. treatment of mosquito eggs with an ec50 dose of t ...19921402861
larvicidal effects of penicillium citrinum spores and extracts upon aedes aegypti. 19921401991
relationship of hemolymph phenol oxidase and mosquito age in aedes aegypti.monophenol oxidase (mpo) and diphenol oxidase (dpo) activity in hemocytes and cell-free plasma perfused from 7-, 14-, 21-, and 28-day-old aedes aegypti mosquitoes were compared. a progressive decrease of enzyme activity was detected as mosquito age increased, and this decrease was significant in both hemocytes and cell-free plasma when mosquitoes were 28 days old as compared with that found in 7-day-old mosquitoes. there was no significant difference in total hemolymph protein as mosquito age in ...19921401989
mosquito repellent activity of oils from vitex negundo linn. leaves.oil obtained from stream distillate of v. negundo leaves was fractionated by column chromatography. mosquito repellence activity, as evaluated against aedes aegypti was mainly confined to the most polar fractions. the protection period against mosquito bites by polar fractions ranged between 1-3 h. however, the mean protection period values of these fractions did not show significant increase in the subsequent subfractions.19921398810
[effect of sublethal concentrations of abate on biological parameters of aedes aegypti].the effect of abate (temephos) applied at the rate of 0.016, 0.020 and 0.025 mg/l on fourth stadium larvae and its effect upon pupae weight, adult weight, ingested blood weight and longevity of aedes aegypti were investigated. the insecticide was applied on f2 generation larvae that were fed an artificial diet under laboratory conditions, from larvae collected at urban level in monterrey, n.l., mexico. in relation to the adult, females were fed with a 10 per cent honey solution and rabbit blood ...19921380186
characterization of a vasodilator from the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.salivary gland homogenates and oil-induced saliva of the mosquito aedes aegypti dilate the rabbit aortic ring and contract the guinea pig ileum. the vasodilatory activity is endothelium-dependent, heat-stable, sensitive to both trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments, and both smooth muscle activities cross-desensitize to the tachykinin peptide substance p. both bioactivities co-elute when salivary gland homogenates are fractionated by reversed-phase hplc. molecular sieving chromatography indicates ...19921375258
expression and secretion of a functional scorpion insecticidal toxin in cultured mouse cells.we have expressed a synthetic gene encoding the insecticidal neurotoxin of scorpion androctonus australis (aait) in nih/3t3 mouse fibroblast cells under the transcriptional control of a murine retroviral long terminal repeat. the secretion of the toxin into the culture medium was directed by the signal peptide of human interleukin-2. the recombinant aait produced was selectively toxic to yellow-fever mosquito larvae and harmless to mice.19901366462
sequence and secondary structure comparisons of its rdna in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (its1 and its2) of the mosquito aedes aegypti, and the its2 of six related species, a. simpsoni, a. albopictus, a. vexans, a. triseriatus, haemagogus mesodentatus, and psorophora ferox are reported. intraspecific variation in a. aegypti its1 is 1.07% among four clones from three individuals, and in the its2 is 1.17% among 15 clones from four individuals. in a. simpsoni, intraspecific its2 variation is 0.46% among 10 clones from a single individual. a ...19921364170
[susceptibility of thirty-one species of mosquitoes to romanomermis yunanensis].a new species of mermithidae was found parasitizing the larvae of culex tritaeniorhynchus and culex fatigans in henan, china and then named romanomermis yunanensis. thirty-one species of mosquitoes involving six genera have been tested for susceptibility to r. yunanensis and culicinae mosquito have consistently been highly susceptible. at a 1:5 ratio of mosquito larvae to nematode juveniles, the parasitisms of aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, culex fatigans, culex tritaeniorhynchus, anopheles sine ...19921363920
evaluation of the residual efficacy of permethrin-impregnated screens used against mosquitoes in marigat, baringo district, kenya.insecticide-impregnated screens and bednets are gradually finding wider use in malaria control programmes. the efficacy of these devices is dependent on the method of application, the acceptability by the people and effectiveness of the insecticide used. the present studies were carried out to determine the duration of the effectiveness of a permethrin-impregnated wall cloth (mbu cloth) used in the marigat area of baringo district, kenya in order to ensure its effective use. cotton cloth impregn ...19921363445
cannibalism and carnivory in toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae).laboratory reared larvae of toxorhynchites splendens, which were previously starved for 24 hours, cannibalized eggs of their own kind or preyed upon the eggs of other species (aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi) present on the surface of water in small containers. second and third instars consumed eggs faster than first and fourth instars. the first instar consumed larvae of its own kind faster than the other instars, in the absence of other prey. however, when prey larvae were provided, ther ...19921362626
reduced mosquito production in cemetery vases with copper liners.water-holding stone vases were sampled in 4 central florida cemeteries to compare the prevalence of mosquitoes in containers with and without metallic liners. overall, immature mosquitoes were found in more than 60% of the vases lacking liners and in more than 50% of the vases with aluminum liners. significantly fewer vases with copper liners were positive for mosquitoes. high mortality and a lack of development were observed in a field test involving the introduction of aedes aegypti larvae int ...19921361942
beta-cyfluthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid for mosquito control.beta-cyfluthrin (oms 3051), a new synthetic pyrethroid and one of the stereoisomers of cyfluthrin, was studied for insecticidal activity against eight mosquito species. its larvicidal activity with lc50 values of 5.62 x 10(-5) and 1.19 x 10(-4) mg/l respectively for culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti was comparable with that of deltamethrin. this pyrethroid was more effective against the larvae of armigeres subalbatus (lc50 - 7.76 x 10(-7)) and the adults of anopheles culicifacies lt50 - 2 ...19921359650
suppression of aedes aegypti by predatory toxorhynchites moctezuma in an island habitat.larval populations of the mosquito aedes aegypti were suppressed by predatory toxorhynchites moctezuma mosquito larvae released systematically in a village on union island (saint vincent and the grenadines) during march-december 1988. eggs and larvae of tx.moctezuma were transported from trinidad and introduced into all semi-permanent and permanent water-holding containers in the experimental village at clifton. the semi-isolated village of ashton served as control. base-line ae.aegypti indices ...19921358269
effects of toxorhynchites moctezuma larval predation on aedes aegypti populations: experimental evaluation.predatory larvae of the mosquito toxorhynchites moctezuma were used experimentally to control a standing crop of larvae of the dengue vector mosquito ae.aegypti. each week, fifty ae.aegypti first instar larvae were introduced to each of five water-filled drums (220 litres) of the type commonly used for domestic water storage in caribbean dwellings. at the beginning of the fourth week, a certain number (0, 1, 2, 5 or 10) of first instar tx.moctezuma larvae were introduced to each drum and the dai ...19921358268
virus-dependent mortality in rift valley fever, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and chikungunya virus-inoculated mosquito (diptera: culicidae) larvae.the effect of inoculation of mosquito larvae with rift valley fever (rvf) virus on survival to the adult stage was evaluated in aedes aegypti (l.), ae. fowleri (charmoy), ae. mcintoshi huang, ae. taeniorhynchus (wiedemann), ae. triseriatus (say), eretmapodites quinquevittatus theobald, anopheles albimanus wiedemann, and culex pipiens l. pupation rates were similar for rvf virus-inoculated and diluent-inoculated larvae of all mosquito species tested except cx. pipiens. however, with the exception ...19921357176
diel sugar-feeding and host-seeking rhythms in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) under laboratory conditions.mosquito sugar-feeding and host-seeking rhythms were recorded in the laboratory using remote sensors. in all five species studied, the two rhythms were nearly synchronous. in anopheles quadrimaculatus say, culex quinquefasciatus say, and aedes triseriatus (say), host-seeking activity increased slightly earlier than sugar feeding in the evening. the evening sugar-feeding period was longer than the evening host-seeking period in aedes aegypti (l.), but the two periods were of similar duration in a ...19921357175
host range of clostridium bifermentans serovar. malaysia, a mosquitocidal anaerobic bacterium.clostridium bifermentans serovar. malaysia (c.b.m.) is toxic to mosquito larvae. in this study, we quantified its toxicity to the mosquitoes, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, ae. caspius, ae. detritus, anopheles stephensi, an. gambiae, culex pipiens and cx. quinquefasciatus. anopheles larvae are the most susceptible, followed by ae. detritus and ae. caspius, then culex and other aedes larvae. according to mosquito species, the lc50 varies from 7 x 10(3) to 1.3 x 10(6) cells/ml. three concentration ...19921357087
infectivity and pathogenesis of iridescent virus type 22 in various insect hosts.this paper reports the results of a series of laboratory experiments to determine the infectivity and pathogenesis of iridescent virus type 22 (iv 22) for six species of mosquitoes, phlebotomine sand flies and triatomid bugs. following inoculation, iv 22 replicated in all of the species tested, without producing noticeable mortality within a 14 day observation period. examination of the infected insects by immunofluorescence demonstrated large amounts of viral antigen in many different organs. e ...19921355961
adulticidal effect of cyfluthrin against mosquitos of public health importance in malaysia.the efficacy of two formulations, wettable powder and emulsifiable concentrate, of cyfluthrin sprayed on plywood [10 mg (ai)/m2] was assessed against six species of mosquitos. the bioassay followed the who standard method, with some modification for the bioassay of insecticidal deposits on wall surfaces. the results indicated that these two formulations of cyfluthrin were effective against anopheles dirus and mansonia uniformis, moderately toxic to aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus in decreasing ...19921355928
comparison of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cryiva and cryivb cloned toxins reveals synergism in vivo.when the gene for the mosquitocidal protein cryiva was expressed in two strains of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) cured of their resident delta-endotoxin genes, the protein accumulated as large inclusions. the inclusions produced in the bt subsp. kurstaki recipient strain were twice as soluble at alkaline ph as the inclusions produced in bt subsp. israelensis. solubilized protoxins were activated by treatment with mosquito gut extracts or trypsin for varying lengths of time and tested for in vitro ...19921355748
identification of the abdominal-a homologue from aedes aegypti and structural comparisons among related genes. 01354853
[the efficacy of a combined preparation based on bacillus sphaericus and bac. thuringiensis h-14 against the larvae of blood-sucking mosquitoes].the optimal bactoculicide/sphaerolarvicide ratio in combination using against aedes aegypti larvae was established in laboratory by selection. the field trials of the selected bs/bt sample containing the ingredients in titer: bactoculicide-83, sphaerolarvicide-17 were conducted in the arid area of central asia. with 1 g/m2, complete mortality of culex, aedes and anopheles larvae was obtained with the residual larvicidal action of 15 days. it is recommended to carry out more large-scale trials of ...19921354836
laboratory colonization and maintenance of toxorhynchites moctezuma.a colony of toxorhynchites moctezuma was established at the caribbean epidemiology centre in trinidad in 1984. toxorhynchites moctezuma was maintained in cages with high humidities. eggs were deposited most frequently in a cut bicycle tire containing water. a minimum of 42 h was required for hatching, but 94% hatched between 43 and 51 h. aedes aegypti larvae were supplied as prey. larval development times varied with the quantity of prey offered, but when fed ad lib, peak developmental time was ...19921349915
a new serotype of bacillus thuringiensis from colombia toxic to mosquito larvae.during a survey conducted in colombia a new isolate of bacillus thuringiensis that showed toxicity toward culex quinquefasciatus, cx. pipiens, aedes aegypti, and anopheles stephensi larvae was isolated. parasporal crystals were spherical in shape and showed a great degree of similarity with those produced by the reference strain of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. supernatant fraction of the whole culture was not toxic, and heat-stable exotoxin production was negative. catalase, urease ...19921347310
isolation of getah virus from mosquitos collected on hainan island, china, and results of a isolate of getah virus was obtained from culex mosquitos collected in mao'an village, baoting county, hainan province, china, in 1964. the virus (strain m-1) replicated in laboratory-bred aedes aegypti and cx. fatigans (= quinquefasciatus), and was transmitted by laboratory-bred ae. albopictus to healthy newborn albino mice. skeletal muscles of newborn albino mice experimentally infected with the virus showed degeneration, atrophy, necrosis, and inflammatory changes of muscle fibers. antibody ...19921338481
[the action of phytobacteriomycin on the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells in the midgut of the mosquito aedes aegypti l]. 20091331734
enzymes in saliva from four parasitic arthropods.enzyme assays and sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were carried out on saliva and in some cases homogenates of salivary gland and gut from four parasitic arthropods (the cattle tick, boophilus microplus (canestrini); the mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.); non-parasitic adult and parasitic larval blowfly of sheep, lucilia cuprina (wiedemann); the buffalo fly, haematobia irritans exigua de meijere). saliva from all species showed large differences in the number and molecular weight of components, ...19921330086
the complete nucleotide sequence of cell fusing agent (cfa): homology between the nonstructural proteins encoded by cfa and the nonstructural proteins encoded by arthropod-borne flaviviruses.cell fusing agent (cfa) is an rna virus originally isolated from a line of aedes aegypti mosquito cells. although our characterization of the virus many years ago showed that it resembled the flaviviruses, there was no detectable serological cross-reaction with members of the genus flavivirus. furthermore, unlike the well-studied members of the genus flavivirus, cfa did not replicate in any of several vertebrate cell lines tested. we have now determined the nucleotide sequence of the cfa genome. ...19921322586
generation of superoxide anion radical by alpha-terthienyl in the anal gills of mosquito larvae aedes aegypti: a new aspect in alpha-terthienyl phototoxicity.the present study documents that the secondary plant metabolites, especially alpha-terthienyl, exert phototoxic action through inhibition of certain enzymes and generation of singlet oxygen. some of the reports have emerged exhibiting involvement of free radical generation in vitro by alpha-terthienyl. we provide evidence for the generation of a free radical viz., superoxide anion radical, by alpha-terthienyl employing spin-trapping techniques, probably due to the extension of the latter reactio ...19921318115
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