PMID(sorted descending)
molecular cloning of the 130-kilodalton mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin gene of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in bacillus sphaericus.a 3.7-kilobase (kb) xbai fragment harboring the cryivb gene (l. thorne, f. garduno, t. thompson, d. decker, m. a. zounes, m. wild, a. m. walfield, and t. j. pollock, j. bacteriol. 166:801-811, 1986) which encoded a 130-kilodalton (kda) mosquitocidal toxin from a 110-kb plasmid of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 4q2-72 was cloned into puc12 and transformed into escherichia coli. the clone with a recombinant plasmid (designated pbt8) was toxic to aedes aegypti larvae. the fragment (3.7 k ...19902200339
effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of aedes aegypti and ae. taeniorhynchus for ockelbo virus.studies were conducted to determine the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of aedes aegypti and ae. taeniorhynchus to transmit ockelbo (ock) virus. temperatures tested were 10 degrees c, 17 degrees c, 24 degrees c, and a cyclic (10-24 degrees c, mean = 17 degrees c) regimen designed to mimic continuously temperatures to which a mosquito might be exposed in july and august in central sweden. both species were highly susceptible to oral infection, with no consistent association bet ...19902173434
toxicity of protease-resistant domains from the delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti bioassays.the mosquitocidal glycoprotein endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was digested with chymotrypsin to yield protease-resistant domains which were then separated from smaller protease digestion products by high-performance liquid chromatography. once purified, the domains no longer bound wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin which binds n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) and glcnac oligomers. purified protease-resistant domains were as toxic for culex quinquefasciatus larvae as intact solub ...19902155575
[methods for evaluating aedes aegypti populations and insecticide treatment in a town of trinidad, west indies].a. aegypti populations in four neighborhoods of flanigan town, trinidad, were evaluated for 32 weeks by means of egg-laying traps, capture with human bait, and larva searches. the egg-laying traps were more effective for evaluating the mosquito population (p less than 0.001) than capture with human bait or larva searches. during weeks 12 to 15, treatments were applied using different combinations of insecticides and spraying strategies: focal and perifocal (fpfs), house (hs), and ultra-low volum ...19902149637
electrochemical determination of diphenol oxidase activity using high-pressure liquid chromatography.a quantitative assay for the diphenol oxidase activity of tyrosinase (ec using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection is described. the assay is based on the observation (m. sugumaran, 1986, biochemistry 25, 4489-4492) that tyrosinase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid to 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. the substrate and product were readily separated on a reverse-phase column equilibrated with 0.1 m citrate buffer, ph 3.2, con ...19902127163
studies on prophenoloxidase activation in the mosquito aedes aegypti l.this study, the first of its kind in a mosquito vector species, demonstrates the feasibility of studying prophenoloxidase activation in an insect containing not more than a few microliters of hemolymph. mosquito phenoloxidase was found to be in an inactive proenzyme form, prophenoloxidase. mosquito prophenoloxidase required bivalent cation for its activation; ca2+ was found to be the most efficient for activation. concomitant amidase activity was also observed prior to phenoloxidase activity. th ...19902110057
[a study on transovarial transmission of dengue type 1 virus in aedes aegypti].the main purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of transovarial transmission of dengue type 1 virus, which was isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever during the 1987 dengue epidemic in southern taiwan, in aedes aegypti of kaohsiung strain (kh). parent female mosquitoes were inoculated with dengue 1 virus by intrathoracic inoculation technique. the f1 offspring adults collected from three sequential ovarian cycles were pooled to become 51, 13 and 14 pools, respectiv ...19902100728
[changes in the susceptibility of the recipient aedes aegypti to brugia pahangi after passive transfer of haemolymph].observations were carried out on the changes in the susceptibility of aedes aegypti (refm) to brugia pahangi after receiving haemolymph from both refractory (reprr) and susceptible (refm) aedes aegypti that were previously inoculated with microfilariae plus tc199 (tissue culture 199) or tc199 respectively. the melanization rates of microfilariae in the recipient mosquitoes were determined by dissecting the mosquitoes on day 3, 4 and 5 after haemolymph transfer. in the recipients receiving haemol ...19902099252
efficacy of encapsulated lagenidium giganteum (oomycetes: lagenidiales) against culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti larvae in artificial containers.presporangial mycelia of lagenidium giganteum cultured on sunflower seed extract were encapsulated in calcium alginate and added once (july 18) to outdoor (raleigh, nc) caged tires, wood and concrete containers populated with first instars of culex quinquefasciatus or aedes aegypti. first instars were added twice weekly (for 10 wk) to simulate natural oviposition. the fungus persisted for 10 wk and recycled in the mosquito larvae of both species. the overall reductions of cx. quinquefasciatus an ...19902098480
genetic analysis of rock hole and domestic aedes aegypti on the caribbean island of anguilla.genetic variation was characterized at 11 enzyme coding loci in aedes aegypti collected from 3 rock hole and 4 domestic sites on the island of anguilla, west indies. the pattern of gene frequency variation suggests that these mosquito samples do not constitute a single panmictic population, but there are no large consistent differences between rock hole and domestic forms to parallel the east african sylvan-domestic dichotomy. with the exception of one of the domestic populations, two loci did h ...19902098468
development & evaluation of controlled release formulations of depa, an insect repellent.three controlled release formulations of the insect repellent depa (n, n-diethyl phenylacetamide), depa-a, depa-b and depa-c have been developed and tested on human subjects against aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes for repellency and the results were compared to those of a solution of depa (depa-0). the increase in the protection time of the formulations, as compared to depa-0 was compared. depa-b was found to be effective with a protection time of 7.13 and 6.15 h and percentage increase in protec ...19902091992
virulence of entomogenous fungus metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae to aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus larvae. 19902091906
[analysis of the surveillance system of larval traps in the municipality of mariel (1984-1987)].an analysis is done of the species of culicides captured by the surveillance system of aedes aegypti, with larvitraps, at the mariel municipality, during 1984-1987 period. the study shows an increased presence of aedes mediovittatus in the system of larvitraps during the working period, demonstrating it the usefulness of sing larvitraps in the surveillance programmes of dengue in order to detect other species besides aedes aegypti.19902089508
activation of a cryptic crystal protein gene of bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki by gene fusion and determination of the crystal protein insecticidal specificity.dna hybridization with the insecticidal crystal protein gene crylla (formerly crybl) of bacillus thuringiensis supspecies kurstaki has shown that subspecies kurstaki contains a crylla-related sequence in addition to the crylla gene (donovan et al., 1988a). we have cloned the crylla-related sequence and have determined that the sequence, which has been designated cryllb, is 89% identical to the crylla gene. recombinant b. thuringiensis cells harbouring the cloned cryllb gene produced very little ...19902089222
[comparative study of dengue 2 virus replication and isoenzymes in two strains of aedes aegypti].this study, dealing with two strains of aedes aegypti from vietnam and french guiana, shows the variability of the genes coding for 11 isoenzymatic systems and the replication of the dengue 2 virus in parenterally infected mosquitoes. slight differences are observed in the characteristics of viral replication. no clear correlation is shown with enzymatic patterns which appear widely different from one strain to the other with four of the enzymes studied.19902085909
development of mansonella perstans in the surrogate vector aedes aegypti.the biology of the human filaria mansonella perstans has been poorly studied due in part to the lack of experimental animal models in which its life-cycle could be reproduced. in nature culicodes spp. (and probably simuliids) are the vectors involved in disease transmission. in the present work aedes aegypti black-eyed strain was experimentally infected with m. perstans microfilariae by intrathoracic inoculation of 8 to 15 parasites contained in 0.4-0.6 microliters of rpmi 1640. concentration of ...19902075386
[the possibility of using a mass of aedes aegypti pupae and imagoes for determining the amount of blood they consume].a close correlation between the mass of mosquito chrysa1ises, imago and the amount of the consumed blood makes it possible to determine the latter parameter using any other one according to the formulas presented in the article, the accuracy of determination depending on the accuracy of the weighing technique. the method can be used with mosquitos of any age and warm-blooded donors. the use of an indirect method determining the amount of the consumed blood (by the mass of mosquitos or chrysalise ...19912067464
structural diversity of trypsin from different mosquito species feeding on vertebrate blood.mosquito trypsin was purified using a combination of ion exchange and affinity chromatography with the ligand soybean trypsin inhibitor. three aedes and three anopheles species were tested, all of which are specialized in the digestion of vertebrate blood. amino-terminal sequences of hplc-purified trypsins from aedes aegypti and anopheles quadrimaculatus revealed homologies of 30-40% with vertebrate and other invertebrate proteases previously identified as serine-proteases. the purified mosquito ...19912065758
characterization of mosquitocidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis crystal proteins.the mosquitocidal crystals of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis were isolated and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of two mosquito species. the 50% lethal concentration values of the crystals to aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus were 4.1 and 2.9 micrograms/ml, respectively. in addition, the solubilized crystals had hemolytic activity; 50 micrograms/ml was the lowest detectable level. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the cryst ...19912059032
nutritional factors and antimicrobials on development of infective larvae of subperiodic brugia malayi (nematoda: filarioidea) in anopheles quadrimaculatus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the effects of nutritional factors and antimicrobials on the development of infective larvae of subperiodic brugia malayi in susceptible anopheles quadrimaculatus say and aedes aegypti (l.) were investigated. larvae of both species of mosquitoes were reared on brewers yeast or a 1:1 brewers yeast-liver powder mixture. after emergence, one-half of the adults from each rearing condition were maintained on a 10% sucrose solution and the other half on a 10% sucrose solution containing 0.1% p-aminobe ...19912056511
spiroplasma (mollicutes: spiroplasmataceae) pathogenic for aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae).intrathoracic inoculation with the mosquito spiroplasma, spiroplasma taïwanense abalain-colloc et al., was found to reduce significantly the survival of adult male and female aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles stephensi liston. this spiroplasma also reduced significantly the flight capacity of adult female ae. aegypti 5-8 d after inoculation and adult female an. stephensi 4 d after inoculation. adult female an. stephensi were incapable of flight 5 d after inoculation. as such, s. taïwanense joins ...19912056503
isolation and characterization of the gene expressing the major salivary gland protein of the female mosquito, aedes aegypti.we have undertaken a molecular analysis of the salivary glands of hematophagous insects in order to better understand their role in blood feeding and in the transmission of infectious diseases. to that end, genomic and cdna clones of a gene designated d7, expressed abundantly in the adult female salivary glands of the vector mosquito aegypti, have been isolated and characterized. this gene encodes a mrna shown by northern analysis and in situ hybridization to tissue sections to be specifically t ...19912052024
enhancement of the cdc ovitrap with hay infusions for daily monitoring of aedes aegypti ovitrap containing hay infusion and a second ovitrap adjacent to it containing a 10% dilution of the infusion in tap water together yielded 8 times more aedes aegypti eggs than single cdc ovitraps containing tap water. these "enhanced pairs" were significantly more attractive than pairs with other combinations of infusion, water or methyl propionate, and have proven useful for daily monitoring of ae. aegypti populations. our results shed light on the oviposition behavior of ae. aegypti in the ...19912045808
the first epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the people's republic of china.the first epidemic of dengue in china associated with significant severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease which met the world health organization case definition occurred on hainan island in 1985-1986. the epidemic began in zhan county in september 1985, spread throughout the coastal areas, and ultimately involved 13 counties and cities of the island in 1986. the mosquito vector was aedes aegypti. the morbidity associated with dengue infection on hainan island was 1,913 per 100,000 residents, with ...19912042704
transmission of viable mycobacterium leprae by aedes aegypti from lepromatous leprosy patients to the skin of mice through interrupted feeding.female aedes aegypti which took partial blood meals from the skin lesions of untreated lepromatous leprosy (ll) patients were then allowed to continue feeding on 72-96-hr-old swiss albino suckling mice (rockefeller strain). the bitten portion of skin was removed, divided into two parts and processed for the extraction of bacilli by two different methods using chloroform and petroleum ether. the proboscis of some of the fed mosquitoes was dissected out and examined for viable bacilli (stained by ...19912034021
outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas of parbhani district of maharashtra (india).outbreak of dengue fever in chikalthana, pimpalgaon and waloor villages in parbhani district of maharashtra (india) were investigated. clinically, the illness was typical of dengue fever except for the absence of maculopapular rash. a total of 42 acute, 14 late acute, 73 convalescent and 19 sera from contacts were collected. of the 15 virus isolates, 12 were identified as dengue virus type 2 and 1 as dengue virus type 1. serological tests confirmed the etiological role of dengue virus in the out ...19912022403
the peritrophic membrane as a barrier: its penetration by plasmodium gallinaceum and the effect of a monoclonal antibody to ookinetes.we studied the point at which a monoclonal antibody (mab c5) to a surface protein (pgs25) on plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes blocked the infection of aedes aegypti mosquitoes. the antibody did not block the development of zygotes to ookinetes in vitro. development of ookinetes to oocysts in the mosquito was blocked to the same extent whether zygotes grew to ookinetes in the presence of mab c5 or the antibody was added after the ookinetes had reached full development. when ookinetes developed in ...19912009919
plagiorchis noblei (plagiorchiidae) in aedes aegypti: parasite acquisition and host mortality in trickle infections.the prevalence and intensity of experimental infections of aedes aegypti with the digenean plagiorchis noblei increased significantly with the level of trickle exposure to cercariae. daily exposure to doses of 16 cercariae/day yielded a mean infection intensity of 13.0 metacercariae; doses of 1 cercaria/day resulted in only 2.4 metacercariae per infected mosquito larva. the prevalence of infection rose from 46% at an exposure of 1 cercaria/day to 99% at 16 cercariae/day. host mortality rose conc ...19911992081
culiseta minnesotae and further notes on aedes aegypti in rhode island.culiseta minnesotae is reported as a state record in rhode island. follow-up surveys for aedes aegypti after its initial isolation in 1985 have failed to recover additional specimens.19901983024
insecticidal activity of carbosulfan (oms 3022) and pyraclofos (oms 3040) against mosquitoes.carbosulfan (oms 3022), a carbamate and pyraclofos (oms 3040), an organophosphate were evaluated for their biological activity against vector mosquitoes, both in laboratory and field conditions. carbosulfan (25% ec), was found to be active against adults and immatures of culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti. the ld values for adults were 6.65, 5.19 and 8.35 micrograms/cm2 and lc 50values for immatures were 5.4 x 10(-5), 1.6 x 10(-4 and 5.4) x 10(-4) 50mg/1 respectively. ...19901983012
fate of ingested immunoglobulin g in the mosquito aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the amount of bloodmeals ingested by aedes aegypti was estimated to be 3.00 +/- 1.05 mg (2.84 +/- 0.99 microliters) in average. the feeding time of a mosquito was not necessarily associated with the quantity of the bloodmeal. nevertheless, the number of egg laid after bloodfeeding was apparently dependent on the volume of ingested bloodmeals. the change of immunoglobulin g (igg) in the ingested bloodmeals of aedes aegypti was also evaluated by elisa. to detect the survival of ingested igg, 5-day ...19901979823
[evaluation of larvicide susceptibility of culicidae in french polynesia].larval tests on 4th-stage aedes aegypti, aedes polynesiensis and culex quinquefasciatus of french polynesia, according to the who method, demonstrate susceptibility of these species to organophosphorous compounds and less susceptibility to insect growth regulators.19901976447
[the pathogens of taiwan mosquitoes--coelomomyces species].a brief mention was made of the history of world studies on the coelomomyces fungi, the life cycle of the fungi, their importance as biological agents for mosquito control, and the known ecological information concerning the taiwan mosquitoes parasitized by the fungi. special accounts were made of the results of experiments infecting four mosquito species, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, ae. triseriatus and tripteroides aranoides with coelomomyces stegomyiae var. chapmani, using the copepod, phyl ...19901976138
resistance of permethrin to weathering in fabrics treated for protection against mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).two different methods of treating cotton and nylon-cotton fabrics with permethrin were evaluated for protection from mosquito bites after laboratory weathering. cotton fabric treated by the individual dynamic absorption method provided consistently better protection than cotton fabric treated by the aerosol method. the nylon-cotton fabric provided similar protection regardless of the treatment method. after weathering, the toxic effects of both types of permethrin-treated fabrics treated by both ...19901974929
comparative organophosphorus insecticide susceptibility in caribbean populations of aedes aegypti and toxorhynchites moctezuma.aedes aegypti larvae from antigua, jamaica, puerto rico, st. lucia, trinidad and union island and predatory larvae, toxorhynchites moctezuma, from trinidad were tested for susceptibility to temephos, malathion, fenthion, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos. there was some organophosphorus resistance in all strains of ae. aegypti, in the approximate order: antigua greater than jamaica greater than puerto rico greater than st. lucia greater than trinidad greater than union island. toxorhynchites moctezu ...19901973450
[clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia, a new anaerobic bacterium pathogen to mosquito and blackfly larvae].a strain of clostridium bifermentans individualized as serovar malaysia (c.b.m.) according to its specific h antigen is toxic to mosquito and blackfly larvae when given orally. the toxicity occurs in sporulated cells which contain, in addition to spores, proteinic parasporal inclusion bodies and feather-like appendages; the amino acid content of the inclusion bodies is similar to that of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (b.t.i.) and b. sphaericus crystals. the toxicity to anopheles ste ...19901972899
development of mutants of the mosquitocidal bacterium bacillus thuringiensis subspecies morrisoni (pg-14) toxic to lepidopterous or dipterous insects.the parasporal body of the mosquitocidal isolate (pg-14) of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (btm) contains five major proteins with molecular masses of, respectively, 27.3, 65, 128, 135, and 144 kda. proteins corresponding in mass to the first four of these also occur in the mosquitocidal strain, b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti), and it is thought therefore that the mosquitocidal activity of both strains is due to these four proteins. in other studies it has been shown that each ...19901969828
comparison of development of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and bacillus sphaericus in mosquito larvae.immunofluorescent staining was used with thin sections of paraffin-embedded specimens to detect the development of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and bacillus sphaericus in the gut of mosquito larvae. the third- and fourth-instar larvae of aedes aegypti, anopheles maculatus, and culex quinquefasciatus were fed either vegetative cells or spores of the bacteria. spore germination, multiplication, and sporulation were studied in the larvae of each species. the spores of b. thuringiensis va ...19901969455
anti-mosquito antibodies reduce the susceptibility of aedes aegypti to arbovirus infection.aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to infection with ross river virus and murray valley encephalitis virus when they were fed on a blood-virus mixture containing rabbit antibodies to mosquito midgut components. presence of the antibodies did not demonstrably affect virus titres in infected mosquitoes, nor the transmission of virus from infected mosquitoes to vertebrates.19901966777
an extraovarian protein accumulated in mosquito oocytes is a carboxypeptidase activated in embryos.we report a phenomenon previously unknown for oviparous animals; in aedes aegypti mosquitoes a serine carboxypeptidase is synthesized extraovarially and then internalized by oocytes. the cdna encoding mosquito vitellogenic carboxypeptidase (vcp) was cloned and sequenced. the vcp cdna hybridizes to a 1.5-kilobase mrna present only in the fat body of vitellogenic females. the deduced amino acid sequence of vcp shares significant homology with members of the serine carboxypeptidase family. binding ...01961751
aedes aegypti: characterization of hemocyte polypeptide synthesis during wound healing and immune response to inoculated microfilariae.hemocytes from adult, female aedes aegypti, intrathoracically inoculated with microfilariae (mf) of the nematode dirofilaria immitis, were compared to saline-inoculated and uninoculated controls using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), 125i-labeling, and wheat germ agglutinin (wga) binding techniques. activation of wound healing and/or melanotic encapsulation responses by the inoculation of saline or mf into the host hemocoel induced alterations in the hemocyte ...19911959574
formulation of a flowable liquid concentrate of bacillus thuringiensis serotype h-14 spores and crystals as mosquito larvicide.bacillus thuringiensis serotype h-14 spores and crystals, produced in 51 fermenters, were centrifuged and resuspended in emulsified palm olein to give 3.2 x 10(11) colony forming units (cfu)/ml. the suspension was mixed with a cassava-molasses-palm olein-charcoal (cmpc-2) mixture which served as the carrier, adhesive, dispersant and protectant. the final concentration of the formulation was 3.2 x 10(9) cfu/ml. the lethal concentrations capable of killing 50% of the test population (lc50) of cmpc ...19911955414
[dengue in the americas. a problem of regional health].the aedes aegypti was almost eradicate from the americas in the early sixties but reinfested the region a few years later, and dengue transmission has become a major health problem. the americas have been affected by dengue epidemics since the 1970s and hemorrhagic fever is becoming a threat for millions of people living in the tropical and subtropical areas of the continent. resources to cope with the increasing transmission of different serotypes in the region are scarce. therefore a regional ...19911948410
a field trial on the comparative effectiveness of malathion and resigen by ulv application on aedes aegypti.field trials were conducted in two residential areas of petaling jaya municipality to test the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of malathion 96% tg and resigen on aedes aegypti. malathion is the currently used insecticide in malaysia for the control of dengue. the leco hd ulv machine was used throught the trials. for malathion the flow rate was 90 ml/minute at a vehicle speed of 8kph and for resigen the flow rate was 200 ml/minute at the same vechicle speed. malathion was more effective giving ...19911948249
flp-mediated recombination in the vector mosquito, aedes aegypti.the activity of a yeast recombinase, flp, on specific target dna sequences, frt, has been demonstrated in embryos of the vector mosquito, aedes aegypti. in a series of experiments, plasmids containing the flp recombinase under control of a heterologous heat-shock gene promoter were co-injected with target plasmids containing frt sites into preblastoderm stage mosquito embryos. flp-mediated recombination was detected between (i) tandem repeats of frt sites leading to the excision of specific dna ...19911945877
effect of ivermectin on the ovarian development of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the effect of ivermectin (0.1 microgram/ml) on blood digestion, ovarian development, and ovipositional attributes of aedes aegypti was studied using standard morphological and histological techniques. uncoordinated movements and paralysis were observed in most ivermectin-treated females within 1 h after ingestion of blood containing the chemical. eight days after the blood meal, 23.5% of the treated females had died, whereas no mortality occurred in controls. formation of the peritrophic membran ...19911941939
ribosomal dna structure in aedes mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and their cell lines.the molecular organization of the ribosomal dna repeat unit in laboratory colonies of aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (l.) and in continuous cell lines derived from these species was examined using restriction enzyme mapping and southern blotting techniques. in the rrna coding regions, restriction enzyme sites were conserved in ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus. in particular, sites that had been mapped in rdna cloned from the mauritius strain of ae. albopictus mosquitoes were confirmed ...19911941931
evaluation of australian mesocyclops (cyclopoida: cyclopidae) for mosquito control.six of seven species of mesocyclops copepods, collected from northeastern australia, showed potential as biological control agents of aedes mosquitoes. methods of laboratory evaluation included predation trials at different larval mosquito densities, population growth rates at different temperatures, and laboratory cage simulations. the predation efficacy of mesocyclops aspericornis, m. australiensis, and m. mb1 from southern queensland, and m. darwini, m. mb2, m. notius and m. mb3 from northern ...19911941928
influence of larval and adult nutrition on biting persistence in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).biting persistence was measured for aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes given different levels of larval and adult nutrition. persistence was measured as the total number of times during a 60-min trial that a mosquito returned to land on a defensive host after being disturbed and dislocated from the host, and as the rate of decline of landings over the 60 min test (pattern of persistence). large females were significantly more persistent than smaller females, regardless of whether the females were pro ...19911941913
analysis of inheritance of oral susceptibility of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to dengue-2 virus using isofemale lines.isofemale lines were compared to determine possible genetic variation in oral susceptibility within the fare strain of aedes aegypti (l.) to dengue-2 (den-2) virus. three groups of 12 isofemale lines each were tested statistically using the sas catmod procedure of analysis of variance. the "isofemale line" effect was highly significant, demonstrating genetic variability in oral susceptibility among females. the length of time eggs were stored before hatching influenced the oral susceptibility of ...19911941912
effects of ivermectin (mk-933) on the reproductive rate of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti (l.) females were blood fed a single time on rabbits previously injected subcutaneously with ivermectin at 10 or 50 times the labeled dose recommended for cattle (0.2 mg [ai]/kg body weight). although adult mosquito survival was unchanged by the low dose, fecundity and hatch were depressed slightly. females fed on rabbits at the high dose exhibited reduced survival and egg production compared with females fed on control rabbits. eggs from these females also were less likely to hatc ...19911941909
entomological investigations during outbreaks of dengue fever in certain villages in maharashtra state.outbreaks of dengue (den) fever are reported from 22 villages in five districts in the state of maharashtra. den viral antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence test in 34 of 375 female aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from 8 villages. den types 2 and 3 were identified among the 16 strains that were isolated. none of the 64 male mosquitoes showed the presence of viral antigen; 281 males and 323 females reared from field collected larvae were also found negative. indoor spraying of dd ...19911937596
binding of vitellogenin to membranes isolated from mosquito ovaries.the presence of specific receptors for vitellogenin (vg) in ovary membranes of the mosquito, aedes aegypti, was demonstrated by an in vitro binding assay. the binding reaction, which is dependent on ph and ca2+, uses 4 micrograms membrane protein, 35s-vg labeled metabolically by fat body culture in vitro, and unlabeled vitellin (vn) for competition. at ph 7.0 and in the presence of 5 mm ca2+, the binding of vg to its receptor reaches equilibrium within 60-90 min at both 4 and 25 degrees c. the b ...19911932779
control of follicular epithelium development and vitelline envelope formation in the mosquito; role of juvenile hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone.using microsurgical manipulations, hormone applications, and transmission electron microscopy we have investigated the regulation of differentiation of the follicular epithelium and formation of the vitelline envelope (ve) in primary follicles in the ovary of the mosquito, aedes aegypti. during the first 3 days after eclosion, the primary follicle grows, and cells of the follicular epithelium differentiate, their content of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi complexes increases ...19911926140
a single amino acid change in the e2 glycoprotein of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus affects replication and dissemination in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.four monoclonal antibody-resistant variants (marvs) of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus were used to study mosquito-virus interactions. in vitro experiments using an aedes albopictus cell line, c6/36, demonstrated that an amino acid change in the glycoprotein e2h epitope (marv 1a3b-7) decreased virus growth when compared with the wild-type, trinidad donkey virus, and its vaccine derivative, tc-83. the marvs replicated as efficiently as the parent virus when inoculated into aedes aegypt ...19911919525
occurrence of aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera, culicidae) in houses of different constructions in phnom penh, kampuchea.the relation between the number of mosquito specimens of the most abundant species aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say and the construction of houses which they inhabited was studied. the effect of the building materials and of the height at which the floor was situated above the ground were assessed in five and four localities, respectively. it was found that in the localities having the character of a town the mosquitoes were most abundant in houses constructed from corrugated pl ...19911916534
larvicidal activity of tagetes minuta (marigold) toward aedes aegypti.the steam distilled oils of 3 species of marigold, tagetes patula, t. erecta and t. minuta, were tested for larvicidal activity toward third instar aedes aegypti; activity at 10 ppm was demonstrated only for t. minuta. the larvicidal property of the whole oil dispersed in water persisted for at least 9 days. the terpene, ocimenone, which is a part of the whole oil, was found to be larvicidal only at a higher concentration than the whole oil and to lose its activity within 24 h after dispersal in ...19911895085
mosquito host influences on development of filariae.a brief review is presented of the literature relating to factors which limit the capacity of filariae to develop in mosquitoes, with particular emphasis on immune mechanisms. most insects respond to bacterial infection by the production of potent antibacterial proteins, but little is known of this aspect of the immune response in mosquitoes or of the possible influence of immune proteins on the fate of filarial infections in mosquitoes. a summary account is given of recent experiments with the ...19911888212
rapid isolation of a neurohormone from mosquito heads by high-performance liquid chromatography.methods were developed for the isolation of the egg development neurosecretory hormone, ednh, from heads of the mosquito aedes aegypti. this hormone stimulates ecdysone production by ovaries. methods used for the successful isolation of insulin-like peptides from vertebrate tissues were modified to develop a four-step procedure involving extraction in acidified ethanol, precipitation by neutralization, followed by sequential separation on size-exclusion, ion-exchange and reversed-phase high-perf ...19771880189
infection of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue parent and progeny candidate vaccine viruses: a possible marker of human attenuation.dengue (den-1) and den-4 parent (p) and progeny candidate vaccine (cv) viruses were compared in their abilities to infect and to replicate in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. the den cv clones were temperature sensitive (ts) and had small plaque morphology. the den-1 and den-4 cv viruses differed in their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by mosquitoes. the den-1 cv virus was not attenuated for the vector mosquitoes; oral infection rates with the cv virus we ...19911877715
effects of medium alterations on in vitro development of brugia malayi larvae in cultured mosquito thoraces.a recent study showed that 1-day-old, intracellularly lodged larvae of brugia species develop in vitro to the infective third-stage larvae (l3) in excised thoraces of susceptible mosquitoes in the diphasic insect tissue culture medium containing a nutrient agar base overlaid with a 1:1 mixture of schneider's drosophila medium and grace's insect cell culture medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (fbs) and antimicrobial agents. in the present investigation, the diphasic culture medium wa ...19911865265
isolation and laboratory evaluation of an indigenous strain of bacillus sphaericus (9001).an indigenous strain of bacillus sphaericus h5a (9001), possessing high insecticidal properties, was isolated from diseased larvae of culex species. this strain in comparison with the known strains of b. sphaericus, i.e., 1593 and 2362, was found to be promising against the fourth instar larvae of anopheles culicifacies, an. stephensi, an. subpictus, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus. b. sphaericus 9001 is highly stable and virulent through 25 successive transfers and thus can be effectiv ...19911822451
[sampling study for larval density quantification of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the state of são paulo, brazil].the yellow fever and dengue vector control program developed by the superintendency for the control of endemic diseases in the state of s. paulo recommends aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus larval density monitoring in cities with domiciliar infestation. the sampling plan which has been applied in the countries of the presidente prudente region (sp- brazil) since 1987 is described. the infestation is measured by using the breteau index. a sample of buildings is drawn, monthly and independently, ...19911820612
global climate change and infectious diseases.the effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. these mosquitoes transmit dengue v ...19911820262
laboratory evaluation of bacillus thuringiensis h-14 against aedes aegypti larvae in the northeast region of thailand.laboratory bioassays using a preparation of bacillus thuringiensis h-14 (bt.h-14), namely skeetal were conducted to determine their effectiveness against late 3rd/early 4th instar larvae of aedes aegypti. the larvae were collected from municipal areas in 7 provinces, namely burirum, roi-et, khon kaen, ubol ratchatani, nakorn phanom, surin and nakorn ratchasima, in the northeast of thailand. it was found that for skeetal, lc50 ranged from 128 to 151 nl/l (average 143) and lc90 ranged from 254 to ...19911818396
susceptibility of adult aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera; culicidae) to ddt in kampuchea.the susceptibility to 4% ddt was tested in adult aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in houses in phnom penh (kampuchea). it was found that in spite of the fact that insecticide treatment had not been performed for many years, the populations of both species as a whole remained resistant. however, there were some differences in the susceptibility between males and females and between engorged and hungry females. possible causes of these differences are discussed in the ...19911808035
the aedes aegypti genome: complexity and organization.we describe the use of dna reassociation kinetics to determine the total genome size and complexity together with the individual complexity and copy number of the single copy, middle repetitive and highly repeated dna fractions of cell line and larval dna from the mosquito, aedes aegypti. the genome of ae. aegypti is both large and complex, being one third the size of the human genome, and exhibits a short period interspersed repeat pattern. the implications of patterns of sequence arrangement a ...19911802804
long-term effects of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on aedes aegypti.immediate (24 hours exposure) and long-term (until the emergence of the adults) effects of different doses of a primary powder of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (b.t.i.) against first and second instar aedes aegypti larvae were monitored. the long-term effect was dose-dependent and was materialized by a prolongation of the preimaginal development and continuous cumulative mortality until the emergence of the adults. mortality values were higher during the fourth larval instar and the ...19911802053
superoxide dismutase in the anal gills of the mosquito larvae of aedes aegypti: its inhibition by alpha-terthienyl.the anal gills of the mosquito larvae of aedes aegypti were shown to possess superoxide dismutase (ec activity, which increased with the maturation of the larvae from instar 1 to instar 4. this enzyme was highly inhibited upon treatment of the larvae with alpha-terthienyl (2,2':5,2"-terthiophene) and subsequent exposure to long-wave ultraviolet light. inhibition also occurred with treatment of the crude enzyme extract in a similar fashion. exposure of the enzyme to the ultraviolet ligh ...19911799676
the gonotrophic status of female aedes aegypti (l.) overnight at the oviposition site (diptera: culicidae).experimental observations made outdoors in trinidad provide additional support for the assumption that some gravid female aedes aegypti rest overnight close to the container in which each has laid part of her current complement of eggs the previous afternoon, and in which she may lay part or the rest of that complement the next morning. some females evidently take more than one blood-meal while developing a single batch of eggs.19911796890
effect of selected chemicals on mosquito larval orientation behaviour using a new apparatus was designed and fabricated for studying the effects of aromatic chemicals on the iv instar larvae of aedes aegypti (l.). the test chemicals (essential oils and monoterpenoids) were incorporated in agar along with yeast and dog biscuits which formed an attractant food source (bait). a fairly rapid decrease in the migration of larvae towards the bait cum chemical source was observed during the first hour after which a steady state was observed. minimum migration (9.67%) was seen with ...19911794875
vector immunity to filariasis: new potential for disease control?these experiments describe investigations into the mode of microfilarial killing in the haemocoel of immune aedes aegypti and simulium ornatum. antibody blocking experiments indicate that sarcotoxin iia-like and sarcolectin-like molecules maybe involved. the use of carbohydrate in the infecting blood meal indicates that gut lectins may be involved in preventing migration of brugia microfilariae into the haemocoel. this appears to be a strain factor linked to innate susceptibility. these physiolo ...19911793268
the fate of plasmodium gallinaceum in anopheles stephensi liston and possible barriers to transmission.plasmodium gallinaceum develops up to the ookinete stage in the non-compatible mosquito, anopheles stephensi, this development occurring over the same time period and with the same success as in the compatible vector, aedes aegypti. the slower digestive rate in an. stephensi, smaller blood-meal and lower enzyme activity than in aedes, and an acceleration of the formation of the peritrophic membrane (pm) do not inhibit the development of the parasite. however, the ookinetes are not able to penetr ...19911793266
controlled release repellent formulations on human volunteers under three climatic regimens.two controlled-release repellent formulations containing 33% (3m) and 42% (biotek) deet and an army repellent containing 75% deet were evaluated in 3 different climatic regimens (tropical forested, tropical open and basic hot environments). the 3 repellents provided similar protection for different time periods after application under all 3 climates against aedes aegypti, ae. taeniorhynchus and anopheles stephensi whereas there was no difference in protection period against an. albimanus.19911791462
replacement of aedes aegypti by aedes albopictus in mobile, alabama.aedes albopictus was first detected in mobile, al, in 1987 during a cdc sponsored ovitrap survey in the historic district. a comparison of ovitrap and larval surveys, done in 1957, 1984, 1987 and 1990, indicates that ae. albopictus had replaced aedes aegypti in urban mobile. possible explanations of this replacement, including displacement, are discussed.19911791461
efficacy assessment of quwenling, a mosquito repellent from china.quwenling, an insect repellent product of china derived from extracts of the lemon eucalyptus plant (eucalyptus maculata citriodon), was evaluated. laboratory tests compared quwenling with deet against anopheles albimanus, an. quadrimaculatus, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus and field tests with ae. taeniorhynchus. cloth treated with quwenling at greater than 2x the dosage of deet was effective against 2 of 4 species tested (ae. albopictus 29 days, an. quadrimaculatus 28 days). on the skin of volu ...19911791453
aedes aegypti infestation characteristics in several caribbean countries and implications for integrated community-based control.periodic larval surveys for aedes aegypti were conducted in 11 caribbean countries between 1983 and 1989. on average, there were 24 potential larval habitats per house including 4.9 which held water at the time of examination. breteau indices for the various islands ranged from 34.7 to 121.6. in descending order of importance, water storage drums, house plants, buckets, used tires and miscellaneous small discarded containers accounted for 84% of all foci. highest rates of infestation were found ...19911791448
seasonal incidence and vertical distribution patterns of oviposition by aedes aegypti in an urban environment in trinidad, w. i.the oviposition patterns of aedes aegypti were investigated using modified ovitraps placed along 4 vertical transects and monitored weekly for 52 wk in st. augustine, trinidad, w.i. from the 832 ovitraps exposed at ground level, 1.2, 3.0 and 4.6-m elevations, 43% (361) were found containing 20,114 ae. aegypti eggs. during the wet season, 52.7% of the eggs were collected whereas during the dry season only 47.3% were collected. egg populations were highest at the 1.2-m elevation. the implications ...19911791447
emergency control of aedes aegypti as a disease vector in urban areas.techniques for the emergency control of adult aedes aegypti populations and their development are reviewed. larviciding and environmental measures provide only delayed control of adult populations. large-scale field trials of the ultra-low volume application of insecticide concentrates in southeast asia, south america and africa, using aerial, ground, vehicle-mounted and hand-carried equipment, have, in most cases, resulted in satisfactory levels of control of adult populations. sequential or in ...19911791444
potential for dengue in south africa: mosquito ecology with particular reference to aedes aegypti.observations on prevalence, geographical distribution, utilization of artificial larval habitats and anthropophilism were made on diurnal mosquitoes at selected localities along the coast of natal and inland in the transvaal to identify potential vectors of dengue in south africa. larval collections made in artificial containers on the ground, the exposure of bamboo pots as ovitraps in trees and collection of mosquitoes biting man showed the following species as the most likely candidates for ve ...19911787403
permethrin and dimethyl phthalate as tent fabric treatments against aedes aegypti.tests were conducted to determine the persistence of compounds applied to tents to protect against mosquitoes. interiors of 2 camping tents were treated by the manufacturer--one with the repellent dimethyl phthalate (dmp) and one with the insecticide permethrin. a third tent was untreated. tents were set up outdoors and exposed to weathering for one year. weekly tests were conducted by releasing aedes aegypti into the tents, then recording knockdown (kd) and biting behavior during a 3-h period. ...19911787396
metabolic labeling of dirofilaria immitis third- and fourth-stage larvae and their excretory-secretory products.infective third-stage larvae of dirofilaria immitis were collected from aedes aegypti and cultured in vitro to the fourth stage. larval proteins were labeled metabolically using [35s]cysteine and methionine in different media and for different lengths of time. labeled proteins in the excretory-secretory component and the larval homogenates were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions and by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis ...19911779301
effect of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine on the migration of brugia pahangi microfilariae into the haemocoel of aedes aegypti.two strains of aedes aegypti (l.), differing in their susceptibility to brugia pahangi (buckley & edeson), were examined with regard to the effect on the proportion of microfilariae migrating from the mid-gut, of specific carbohydrate supplements in the infecting bloodmeal. n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac), a sugar also present on the microfilarial sheath, significantly increased the migration rate. this enhancement is greater for the refractory strain of ae.aegypti. the use of sucrose as a contr ...19911773126
cytotoxicity of a cloned bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cryivb toxin to an aedes aegypti cell line.a cloned cryivb toxin was purified from a cured strain of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) containing the cryivb gene on the recombinant plasmid cam135. solubilized protoxin was treated with aedes gut extract or trypsin for varying times and tested for toxicity in vitro on three dipteran and one lepidopteran cell line. treatment with the aedes extract but not trypsin, produced an active toxin which lysed only aedes aegypti cells out of those tested. this activation was time-dependent reaching a maxim ...19911769533
pathogenicity of spiroplasma taiwanense for larval aedes aegypti mosquitoes.helical replicative forms, but not the persistent non-replicative forms, of spiroplasma taiwanense abalain-colloc et al. (isolated from the mosquito anopheles sinensis wiedemann in taiwan) were shown to reduce significantly the survival of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito larvae reared in 10 ml of water with 0.3 ml of s.taiwanense suspensions added on days 0 and 3. the suspensions contained, respectively, helical forms at a concentration of 10(9) colour change units (ccu)/ml and persistent forms at 1 ...19911768913
a program for prevention and control of epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in puerto rico and the u.s. virgin islands.the ongoing resurgence of aedes aegypti in the americas--abetted by poor mosquito control, urbanization, and increased air travel--has led to dengue hyperendemicity, more frequent dengue epidemics, and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf). this article describes a program developed to cope with this situation that emphasizes disease prevention rather than general mosquito control measures.19911742570
susceptibility of aedes aegypti larvae to temephos and bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis in integrated control.the susceptibility of field collected aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated in terms of median lethal time (lt50) and final mortality, when treated with temephos, bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as well as mixtures of these two agents. third instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than early and late fourth instar ones to the entomopathogen. survival of some individuals when exposed to temephos suggest possible resistance. temporal synergism in early fourth instar larvae was detected ...19911726480
residual concentration and efficacy of three temephos formulations for control of larval aedes aegypti.the residual concentration and efficacy of abate 5cg (impregnated in celatom granules) and plaster pellets impregnated with either abate 4e or technical temephos were compared against late 3rd-instar aedes aegypti larvae. both plaster pellet formulations resulted in 100% larval mortality during the 6-wk test, compared with 2 wk for a similar level of mortality for the celatom formulation. the maximum temephos concentration in water treated with the celatom formulation occurred 30 min after treat ...19911716660
effects of sublethal dosages of abate upon adult fecundity and longevity of aedes aegypti.sublethal concentrations of abate (temephos) were applied to f2 generation aedes aegypti larvae, and fecundity and longevity were recorded in the emerged adults. females exposed to abate oviposited only in the first 2 gonotrophic cycles, meanwhile control females laid a few eggs after taking the third blood meal. dosages of 0.009, 0.013 and 0.015 mg/liter of abate decreased the mean egg production per gonotrophic cycle 37, 47 and 69%, respectively, in relation to the control. females that were e ...19901711574
insecticide susceptibility of aedes aegypti from santo domingo, dominican republic.the insecticide susceptibility of aedes aegypti adults and larvae from santo domingo, dominican republic, was investigated using world health organization standard procedures. a field strain was more resistant to insecticides than a colony strain that originated from the same place. larvae produced from ovitrap-collected eggs were resistant to temephos (78.2% mortality on exposure to 0.025 mg/liter). mortality rates after exposure of adults to discriminating concentrations showed that wild popul ...19911710652
tralomethrin (oms-3048), a new synthetic pyrethroid against vector mosquitoes.tralomethrin (oms-3048) a synthetic pyrethroid, was tested for its insecticidal properties in the laboratory against normal strains of culex quinquefasciatus, cx. tritaeniorhynchus, cx. sitiens, anopheles stephensi, an. culicifacies, aedes aegypti and armigeres subalbatus and against strains of cx. quinquefasciatus resistant to fenthion and malathion. tralomethrin showed good larvicidal activity against all the species tested. lc50 ranged between 7.00 x 10(-6) and 9.10 x 10(-3) mg (ai)/l. resist ...19911688021
pathogenicity, host range and temperature tolerance of crypticola clavulifera (oomycetes: lagenidiales) in the laboratory.the oomycete fungus crypticola clavulifera was pathogenic for laboratory-reared and field-collected larval diptera, including the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, ae. notoscriptus, anopheles farauti no. 1 and 3, culex annulirostris, cx. quinquefasciatus and the chironomid midge chironomus tepperi. zoospores were produced in water held at 15, 20 and 25 degrees c and were pathogenic for ae. aegypti larvae, but at 30 and 35 degrees c zoospores were not produced.19911686451
organization of a cloned repetitive dna fragment in mosquito genomes (diptera: culicidae).the structure and genomic organization of a cloned 5.2-kb repetitive dna fragment, h-85, isolated from the aedes albopictus genome have been examined. in situ hybridization of the 3h-labeled h-85 dna to the meiotic and mitotic chromosome preparations of ae. albopictus shows that the sequences homologous to h-85 dna are dispersed throughout the length of all three pairs of chromosomes. a similar pattern of in situ hybridization appears in aedes seatoi, aedes flavopictus, and aedes aegypti. the st ...19911685722
the fate of hepatozoon species naturally infecting florida black racers and watersnakes in potential mosquito and soft tick vectors, and histological evidence of pathogenicity in unnatural host species.haemogregarine parasites, derived from the florida snakes coluber constrictor and nerodia fasciata and ingested by aedes aegypti, completed sporogony within the hemocoeles of nearly all fed mosquitoes in 14-18 days, and produced oocysts typical of hepatozoon. however, mortalities and morbidity were high in the culex which had fed on the coluber. oocysts were not found in any ornithodoros turicata (argasidae) which fed upon either snake host, but many sections of fed ticks had gametocyte-like cel ...19911683862
susceptibility of four species of mosquitoes to chandipura virus and its detection by immunofluorescence.susceptibility of culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. bitaeniorhynchus, cx. quinquefasciatus, and aedes aegypti to chandipura (chp) virus was compared after parental inoculation of the mosquitoes. virus detection was done by indirect immunofluorescence (if). chp antigen in head squashes of all the four species was seen at 24 hr post infection (p.i.). the mosquitoes supported the virus growth and transmission by bite to 2 days old suckling swiss albino mice. ae. aegypti which was found the most suscepti ...19911683113
comparison of four membranes for artificially bloodfeeding mosquitoes.four species of mosquitoes, aedes aegypti, ae. triseriatus, culex pipiens and cx. tarsalis, were allowed access to defibrinated rabbit blood via 4 different membranes and a standard membrane feeder. natural animal skins (mouse or quail) were the most effective. more than 50% of the aedes mosquitoes fed within 5 min and approximately 90% fed within 20 min on either mouse or quail skin. culex species fed best on quail skin, but the difference in feeding on quail skin and sheep intestine was not si ...19911680153
involvement of mono-oxygenases as a major mechanism of deltamethrin-resistance in larvae of three species of mosquitoes.role of mono-oxygenases as a mechanism of resistance to the synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin in the larvae of culex quinquefasciatus say, aedes aegypti l. and anopheles stephensi liston developed by laboratory selections with deltamethrin, ddt or deltamethrin and the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (pbo) in the ratio of 1:5, was investigated. there was a significant correlation with mono-oxygenase activity and larval lc50 to deltamethrin in various strains of all the three species. in addition, ...19911678732
metabolites of fungi & actinomycetes active against mosquito larvae.extracellular secondary metabolites from 350 fungi and 94 actinomycetes were screened for larvicidal activity against culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti. of them, 133 fungal metabolites and 35 from actinomycetes were active. two from streptomyces sp. and one from paecilomyces sp. were highly active with lc50 value of 1-3 microliters/ml. the metabolites were more toxic to c. quinquefasciatus than to a. stephensi or ae. aegypti larvae.19911677347
[the specific nature of the irritability to fenitrothion and malathion in blood-sucking mosquitoes].several populations of malaria mosquitos were previously discovered to have different irritability to two insecticides of the organophosphorous group, such as fenitrothion and malathion. individual comparison of fenitrothion and malathion irritability levels in laboratory colonies of anopheles stephensi, an. atroparvus, culex pipiens, aedes aegypti, and ae. togoi and in the natural population of an. martinius has shown that irritability to the two chemicals is specific in all the six species. th ...19911676826
effects of single introduction of toxorhynchites moctezuma upon aedes aegypti on a caribbean march 1989, first instar toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae were introduced into all potential aedes aegypti oviposition sites (n = 214) that contained water in the village of clifton on union island in st. vincent and the grenadines. one month after this introduction, the mean number of adult ae. aegypti collected with a backpack aspirator in houses in clifton dropped significantly. sixty-four percent fewer males and 80% fewer females were collected after introduction of the predator. in the un ...19911675259
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