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characterization of the bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from taiwan.over 100 bacillus thuringiensis (bt) isolates which produced phase bright inclusions have been isolated from soil samples from different areas in taiwan. three types of crystal proteins were visualized by phase contrast microscopy. among these isolates, only 14 different types of plasmid profiles have been observed. they all possess a variety of plasmids ranging from a few kb to around 250 kb in size. with respect to the crystal protein profiles, the plasmid profiles, and the shapes of crystal p ...19902274596
determination by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) bloodmeal size.a method is described for using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (nirs) to quantify the amount of blood present in mosquitoes without killing insect. nirs is a nonconsumptive, instrumental method for fast, accurate, and precise evaluation of chemical composition of material with little or no preparation. the nirs method accurately predicted bloodmeal size and bloodmeal disappearance in aedes aegypti (l.) and ae. sierrensis (ludlow) mosquitoes.19902299659
dengue 3 virus infection of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti: comparison of parent and progeny candidate vaccine viruses.den-3 parent (strain ch53489) and progeny candidate vaccine (clone 24/28) viruses were compared in their abilities to interact with aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus. the parent and progeny virus were equivalent in their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by both species of mosquitoes. the candidate vaccine den-3 clone was temperature sensitive and had small plaque morphology. these phenotypic markers remained stable during mosquito passage. thus, temperature sensitivity an ...19902301711
transfer of the toxin protein genes of bacillus sphaericus into bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.the genes encoding the toxic determinants of bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. in both cases, the b. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of b. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. b. thuringiensis transformants expressing b. sphaericus and b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against aedes aegypti, ...19902306087
immune competence of aedes trivittatus hemocytes as assessed by lectin binding.hemocytes were perfused from uninoculated, saline-inoculated, and dirofilaria immitis microfilariae-inoculated aedes trivittatus and assessed for their capacity to bind wheat germ agglutinin (wga). approximately one-fourth of perfused hemocytes were wga positive in all groups of mosquitoes at all time periods tested. results suggest a. trivittatus has a larger inherent population of immune-competent hemocytes as compared with aedes aegypti and, therefore, is faster and more effective in killing ...19902319432
comparison of ground and aerial ultra-low volume applications of malathion against aedes aegypti in santo domingo, dominican republic.efficacy of ground and aerial ultra-low volume (ulv) applications of 91% malathion at 438 ml/ha against aedes aegypti in the dominican republic was evaluated using indoor collections, oviposition trapping and adult sentinel mortality rates. ground compared to aerial ulv applications in this study were found to have a greater effect on ae. aegypti when measured by the described sampling techniques. neither application method provided the level of ae. aegypti suppression believed necessary for con ...19902324712
aedes aegypti surveillance in tobago, west indies (1983-88).during 1983-88 aedes aegypti were collected using larval surveys and ovitraps in tobago, w.i. the main artificial containers used by ae. aegypti were drums (35.4%) and small miscellaneous containers (23.4%). from a total of 15,600 ovitraps exposed, 183 ovitraps (1.3%) were positive, with 25 containing ae. aegypti eggs and 158 with haemagogus equinus eggs. no aedes albopictus eggs were detected in tobago during this study.19902324721
transmission of plasmodium gallinaceum by adult aedes aegypti infected as larvae.transmission of plasmodium gallinaceum to chickens by adult mosquitoes eclosed from larvae that consumed infected adult mosquitoes was investigated. no malarial infections were observed in chicks fed on by mosquitoes that eclosed from larvae that had consumed crushed infected adult mosquitoes. where cadavers with noncrushed thoraces were used, 3 of 4 chicks fed on by adult mosquitoes developed parasitemias ranging from 6 to 11% infected erythrocytes.19902324722
incidence and diel pattern of oviposition outdoors of the mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in trinidad, w.i. in relation to solar aspect.the incidence and diel patterns of oviposition of domestic aedes aegypti in trinidad, west indies during the middle of the wet season (july and august) was compared, using modified ovitraps, in unshaded peridomestic outdoor sites facing east or west. sites close to each other along a transect differed greatly in the total eggs they received, 18.2% of sites receiving 50.6% of the eggs. sites receiving most eggs were close to other breeding sites. the incidence of oviposition in sites facing west, ...19902331177
diel patterns of oviposition indoors of the mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in trinidad, w.i.: a preliminary study.diel patterns of oviposition of domestic aedes aegypti were monitored early in the dry season in two situations indoors in trinidad, west indies. in kitchens, a large, well defined peak of oviposition (comprising more than 56% of eggs laid) occurred two to four hours before sunset and a smaller peak (about 16% of eggs laid) occurred within the two hours after sunrise. in living rooms, the afternoon peak was better defined and larger (more than 86% of eggs laid) and occurred later, within the two ...19902331178
susceptibility of anopheles quadrimaculatus (diptera: culicidae) to subperiodic brugia malayi and brugia pahangi (nematoda: filarioidea) adapted to nude mice and jirds.anopheles quadrimaculatus and aedes aegypti (black-eyed liverpool strain) were fed on jirds and nude mice (jird-jird infection, jird-mouse infection, and mouse-jird infection) infected with subperiodic brugia malayi and b. pahangi. microfilariae of b. malayi from jird-mouse and mouse-jird infections developed normally in an. quadrimaculatus, whereas those from jird-jird infections did not develop. microfilariae of both species from jirds and nude mice developed normally in ae. aegypti and those ...19902332882
[distribution pattern of dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in peripheral blood of a dog and their intake by mosquitoes].experiments were made in which aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed on a dog infected with dirofilaria immitis, in order to determine the distribution pattern of microfilariae (mf) in the dog's periphery blood and the number of mf taken by the mosquitoes. mosquitoes fed on an anesthetized dog at some 50 shaved skin spots and they were weighed immediately before and after feeding. this enabled us to examine not only the mf number taken by each mosquito but also the mf intake density in terms of mf number ...19902333443
the effects of single exposures of aedes aegypti larvae and pupae to plagiorchis noblei cercariae in the laboratory.the mortality of aedes aegypti pre-imagos harboring metacercariae of plagiorchis noblei park, 1936, is governed by the stage of development of the host at the time of infection and the location of the parasite in the insect body. first and second instar larvae generally succumbed to infection, regardless of site. infections of the head and thorax of third and fourth instar larvae were generally lethal or gave rise to imparied adults. however, older instars frequently survived abdominal infection ...19902352060
anti-tick antibodies: an epidemiologic tool in lyme disease research.in 1988, antibodies to arthropod (ixodes dammini, dermacentor variabilis, and aedes aegypti) salivary gland proteins and to borrelia burgdorferi were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 53 high-risk outdoor workers from the new jersey department of environmental protection. lyme disease seropositives had significantly higher anti-i. dammini antibody levels than seronegative controls (p = 0.006). anti-b. burgdorferi antibody (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and anti-i. dammini ant ...19902356814
a survey on indoor resting mosquito species in phnom penh, kampuchea.indoor resting mosquitoes were collected in 7 localities (250 houses) of phnom penh at various periods. the mosquitoes were collected for 8 min in every house by means of an aspirator and net. a total of 16 species of mosquitoes resting in houses were found, one of them for the first time in kampuchea. culex quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in 6 of the localities observed; its predominance in houses was more or less evident; aedes aegypti prevailed in one locality. the percentage of ...19902370029
structure of the aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) populations in the houses of phnom penh (kampuchea).sex ratio and engorged females ratio were studied in the main mosquito species populations (aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus and partially anopheles vagus) in the houses of phnom penh. collections were carried out in 7 different localities, including area from the centre of the town to the periphery. in ae. aegypti and c. quinquefasciatus populations females were dominant in 5 localities, while males were dominant in 2 localities. engorged females were predominant over unfed ones in all cas ...19902370030
effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of aedes aegypti against microfilariae.the effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of aedes aegypti black eye liverpool strain against inoculated dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (pi). mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137cs source (shepard mark i irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. these mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemerge ...19902376661
comparative functional morphology of the mouth brushes of mosquito larvae (diptera: culicidae).structural and morphological features of the feeding brushes of fourth instars of four species of mosquitoes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopes. the fine structure of the elements of the lateral palatal brushes, anteromedian palatal brushes, mandibular brushes and combs, and maxillary brushes of each species was investigated and related to feeding behavior. the movement of the mouth brushes in living larvae was observed by stereomicroscopy under laboratory conditions. mou ...19902388219
applicability of presence-absence and sequential sampling for ovitrap surveillance of aedes (diptera: culicidae) in chiang mai, northern thailand.applicability of presence or absence sampling for ovitrap surveillance of aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) was examined for data collected in chiang mai, northern thailand. distribution of eggs per trap was contagious but did not fit the negative binomial distribution with a common k. the relationship between the mean number of eggs per trap and the proportion of positive traps was described using gerrard & chiang's model, which does not assume particular distribution patterns. us ...19902388225
substitute blood meal for investigating and maintaining aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).a defined substitute blood meal has been developed for feeding aedes aegypti (l.), a mosquito that normally requires a vertebrate blood meal to produce eggs. this substitute blood meal is a simple mixture of proteins, with salts and adenosine triphosphate added to induce gorging. protein appears to be the only nutritional requirement. the mixture consists of gamma-globulins to initiate the hormonal responses necessary for normal egg development, hemoglobin as a visual marker of feeding, and albu ...19902388248
age dependence of salivary bacteriolytic activity in adult mosquitoes.1. bacteriolytic activity in the salivary glands of adult aedes aegypti female mosquitoes starts from a low level upon emergence, increases 6-fold over the first 3 days, then levels off. 2. mosquitoes start sugar-feeding after 2 days, when lytic activity is one-half of the peak level. 3. bacteriolytic activity in salivary gland extracts is not influenced by removal of corpora allata.19902390862
mosquito oostatic factor: a novel decapeptide modulating trypsin-like enzyme biosynthesis in the midgut.a peptide that inhibits egg development in mosquitoes (oostatic factor) has been purified from the ovaries of female aedes aegypti. the factor is a decapeptide with a molecular mass of 1047.6. the primary sequence has been determined as nh2-tyr-asp-pro-ala-pro-pro-pro-pro-pro-pro-cooh from mass spectra recorded on a quadrupole fourier transform instrument. the amino acid sequence exhibits sequence correlation to mammalian, plant, and several viral proteins. injection of synthetic analogs into mo ...19902394318
evaluation of the control of mosquitoes with insect growth regulators.in this study, the effectiveness of eight insect growth regulators (igrs) (chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, el-494, flufenoxuron, teflubenzuron, juglone, plumbagin and methoprene) against five mosquito vectors (armigeres subalbatus, aedes albopictus, aedes aegypti, culex tritaeniorhynchus, and culex quinquefasciatus) was investigated in the laboratory. the ec50s of chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, el-494, flufenoxuron, teflubenzuron, and methoprene against the five mosquitoes ranged from 0.0001 to 0 ...19902402025
[preliminary study on the biological control of dengue vectors by fish in liouchyou prefecture, pingtung county, taiwan].an investigation made in may 1989 with questionnaires to 2,480 families in liouchyou prefecture, pingtung county, showed that there were about 6,533 water containers in the whole village, of which 49.83% were used to store water for drinking, and the remaining 50.17% were used for washing clothes and watering plants. 32.42% of the residents volunteered to rear fish in the family water containers to control the mosquito population. during the period from april to october 1989, there was a total a ...19902402027
relative potency of lambdacyhalothrin and cypermethrin applied as thermal fogs for the control of houseflies (musca domestica) and mosquitos (aedes aegypti).two highly active synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, lambdacyhalothrin and cypermethrin, were evaluated as thermal fogs against houseflies (musca domestica linnaeus) and mosquitos (aedes aegypti linnaeus). lambdacyhalothrin (oms 3021) showed an average of 2.5 times more knockdown activity and over 5 times more adulticidal activity than cypermethrin against musca domestica and aedes aegypti. these results demonstrate that lambdacyhalothrin is highly effective at very low rates as a thermal fog ag ...19902402678
preliminary isolation of mosquito natriuretic factor.a natriuretic factor that triggers diuresis in isolated malpighian tubules of the mosquito was isolated from the head of the yellow-fever mosquito aedes aegypti by passing a saline extract of mosquito heads through low-pressure and then high-pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) columns. three fractions with biologic activity eluted during a reverse-phase hplc linear acetonitrile gradient run. fraction i depolarized the transepithelial voltage (vt) of isolated perfused malpighian tubules but did ...19852413779
chromosome banding homologies in three species of aedes (stegomyia).the chromosome complements of the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, aedes mascarensis, and aedes albopictus, belonging to the subgenus stegomyia, gave a uniform response to the q-, h-, and r-banding techniques. of the three homomorphic chromosome pairs, only the shortest or sex pair (i) showed a consistent banding pattern. in the three species, a bright yellow intercalary band was present on one arm of both chromosomes of the sex pair after heat treatment and staining with acridine orange. the rest of t ...19862424581
heterochromatin diversity and cyclic responses to selective silver staining in aedes aegypti (l.).in interphase cells of aedes aegypti (l.) (2n = 4+ xx/xy), only the nucleolus responded to selective silver staining. the secondary constriction on chromosome 3 remained unresponsive at all times but the six centromeres were identified throughout mitosis from early prophase as well as those stages of meiosis subsequent to diplotene. the centromeric blocks were not synonymous with the pericentric heterochromatin revealed by c-banding. x chromosomes without an intercalary c-band were newly discove ...19872438099
microcarriers as a culturing system of insect cells and insect viruses.there is an increasing interest in culturing of insect cells, which are host for arthropod-born (arbo) viruses. the potential applications of arbo viruses are in the following two main fields: 1. medical applications (e.g. preparation of viral vaccines and viral antigens for diagnostic purposes). 2. as bioinsecticides in pest control in horticulture, agriculture and forestry. one of the potential cell substrates for these applications is an anchorage-dependent-mosquito cell line established from ...19872438174
experimental assessment of bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti formosus) as vectors of human immunodeficiency virus.in vitro experiments were conducted to assess whether bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti formosus) could act as vectors of hiv. these insects engorged through a membrane on a blood-virus mixture. female bedbugs were larger than males and took larger blood-meals when fed to repletion. it was determined that the full blood-meal of a female bedbug contained 0.09 x 10(5) tissue culture infectious doses (tcid) of virus and a male 0.07 x 10(5) tcid, while pa ...19872450552
brugia malayi microfilariae share epitopes with aedes aegypti.shared antigens between brugia malayi and aedes aegypti were studied. the experiments carried out with sera from infected mastomys natalensis indicated that an immunological response against a. aegypti antigens (mr 185, 35, 32 kda) appeared often when animals became microfilaraemic and increased progressively in intensity during the time-course of infection. sera of animals immunized with b. malayi reacted with the crude extract of mosquitoes and conversely, antibodies from animals immunized wit ...19882462205
evaluation of slow-release formulations of temephos (abate) and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of aedes aegypti in puerto rico.formulations of temephos (abate) and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (b.t.i.) on corncob and dried coconut husk carriers were tested for slow-release insecticide properties against aedes aegypti larvae in puerto rico. granular formulations of 5% and 10% temephos gave continuous larval control in used automobile tires for 27 to 124 days and 34 to 162 days, respectively. temephos on radial sections of corncob and coconut husk chips gave good larval control in tires for 27 to 63 and 61 to 1 ...19852466106
in-vivo staining of aedes vigilax, aedes aegypti and culex annulirostris larvae with giemsa and other vital dyes.of 11 stains tested in the laboratory with larval aedes aegypti, giemsa at dosages of 6 mg/liter for 24 hr and 21 mg/liter for 3 hr proved most satisfactory for in-vivo staining. at these rates, giemsa caused some mortality especially in first instars of ae. vigilax, ae. aegypti and culex annulirostris but effectively was retained in all adults examined up to 3 days posteclosion. the method was deemed satisfactory for investigations of larval movement of ae. vigilax, cx. sitiens and ae. alternan ...19862466952
a salivary gland-specific, maltase-like gene of the vector mosquito, aedes aegypti.genomic and cdna clones of a gene expressed specifically in the salivary glands of adult aedes aegypti have been isolated and sequenced. this gene encodes an abundant mrna that is transcribed throughout the male salivary gland but only in the cells of the proximal lateral lobes of the female gland. the deduced protein has many basic amino acids, several possible sites for n-glycosylation, and displays striking similarities with the products of a yeast maltase gene and three previously unidentifi ...19892470653
aedes aegypti and aedes aegypti-borne disease control in the 1990s: top down or bottom up. charles franklin craig lecture. 19892472746
[analysis of the results of the eradication campaign against the aedes aegypti mosquito in the municipality of consolación del sur].this report examines the results of the campaign of eradication of the mosquito aedes aegypti in the consolación del sur district in pinar del rio, in the period ranging from august 1, 1981, to december 28, 1984, which included the intensive stage and the first 18 cycles of the consolidation stage. data was tabulated and statistically elaborated. a significant decrease in the number of aedes aegypti foci was found from the intensive stage on, and in this stage the largest figure of foci for this ...19892486218
hemocyte monophenol oxidase activity in mosquitoes exposed to microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis.monophenol oxidase (mpo) activity in hemocytes collected from aedes aegypti liverpool strain and aedes trivittatus intrathoracically inoculated with saline alone, inoculated with dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff), or from uninoculated mosquitoes was compared using a radiometric tyrosine hydroxylation assay. hemocyte mpo activity in mff-inoculated (= immune-activated) mosquitoes was significantly increased at 24 hr postinoculation (pi) in a. aegypti and at 6, 12, and 24 hr pi in a. trivitta ...19892493084
faeriefungin: a new broad-spectrum antibiotic from streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus.faeriefungin, a polyol polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic, was isolated from the mycelium of streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus, msu-32058/atcc 53668, collected from the soil sample of a fairy ring in an old lawn in lansing, michigan. faeriefungin has some properties similar to the previously reported polyene macrolides, mycoticin and flavofungin, but possesses different physiochemical and biological properties. aspergillus, fusarium, microsporum, trichophyton, and alternaria spp. were co ...19892509636
genetic transformation of the mosquito aedes aegypti by micro-injection of dna.we report the successful introduction of heterologous dna sequences into embryos of the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) by microinjection. the injected dna carried p transposable element sequences, derived from and known to facilitate transformation in drosophila melanogaster. two plasmids, one of which carried a dominant selectable marker, were introduced into the posterior of embryos prior to pole cell formation and subsequently taken up into the germ line of transformed individuals. stable transf ...19892519641
the effects of allatectomy and juvenile hormone replacement on the development of host-seeking behaviour and lactic acid receptor sensitivity in the mosquito aedes aegypti.host-seeking behaviour in newly emerged aedes aegypti (l.) females is not expressed immediately after adult eclosion but develops gradually over a period of approximately 3-4 days. this development is accompanied by an apparent maturation of the antennal chemosensory afferent neurons involved in the detection of the airborne host attractant lactic acid. since these events coincide in time with juvenile hormone-dependent previtellogenic ovarian growth and since the expression of other reproductio ...20082519647
permethrin-impregnated bednets: behavioural and killing effects on mosquitoes.permethrin-treated pieces of netting and simulated bednets were evaluated against anopheles gambiae giles and aedes aegypti (l.) in the laboratory. when female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on a human arm through pieces of impregnated netting fastened at the end of tubes, doses above 2 g/m2 were required to stop blood-feeding of both an. gambiae and ae. aegypti. a much lower dose prevented ae. aegypti from feeding on mice through impregnated netting. when mosquitoes were released in a room and ...19892519686
genetic variation and microevolution of dengue 2 virus in southeast asia.dengue 2 (den 2) virus strains collected from dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) patients and aedes aegypti mosquitoes in thailand, burma, and vietnam over a 25-year period have been analyzed by computer assisted t1-rnase-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. fifty-seven den 2 virus strains of the thailand topotype were separated into four major clusters by phylogenetic analysis of 97 unique oligonucleotides identified in a common well-resolved region of the fingerprints. similarities in the 57 ...19892529700
selective expression of phosphodiesterase ii during ovarian development in aedes aegypti. 19892541933
transformation of bacillus thuringiensis by electroporation.plasmids were transformed by electroporation into various strains of bacillus thuringiensis with frequencies of up to 10(5) transformants/micrograms. pc 194 transformed all strains tested at a high frequency and cells could be stably transformed with pc194 and pub110 simultaneously by electroporation with a frequency of 10(2) pc194+ pub110 transformants/micrograms dna. low transformation frequencies observed with some plasmids, especially those grown initially in escherichia coli, could be incre ...19892545517
brugia malayi and brugia pahangi: inherent difference in immune activation in the mosquitoes armigeres subalbatus and aedes aegypti.the inherent ability of brugia malayi and brugia pahangi (nematoda) to establish successful relationships with the mosquitoes armigeres subalbatus and aedes aegypti liverpool strain was evaluated. brugia pahangi microfilariae (mff) avoided the immune response and developed normally in a. subalbatus exposed to the parasite by an infective bloodmeal, whereas nearly 85% of b. malayi were destroyed by the immune response. because a. aegypti supports the development of both filarial worm species but ...19892563767
impact of new insect growth regulators and their formulations on mosquito larval development in impoundment and floodwater habitats.four insect growth regulators were evaluated in the laboratory and field. in the laboratory, ac-291898 showed excellent activity, inducing 90% mortality in culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti at 0.5-0.7 ppb. the ec formulation of xrd-473 was slightly more active than the technical material with an lc90 of 0.84 ppb and 0.92 ppb against ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. in the field, ac-291898 at the rates of 0.005 and 0.01 lb ai/acre caused 85 and 100% inhibition of adult e ...19892565363
laboratory evaluation of controlled-release repellent formulations on human volunteers under three climatic regimens.six controlled-release personal-use topical insect/arthropod repellent formulations of diethylmethylbenzamide (deet) were evaluated in an environmental chamber on volunteers for repellency against the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and ae. taeniorhynchus under three climatic regimens: basic variable high humidity (tropical environment), basic constant high humidity (forested and wet environment) and basic hot (hot-dry environment). the best protection under all the climatic regimens was provided by th ...19892565368
amplification of arbovirus transmission by mosquito intradermal probing and interrupted feeding.probing is the crucial phase for the successful intake of the blood by a mosquito female, saliva being ejected during the intradermal probing period. when tahyna virus (california group, family bunyaviridae) carrying and transmitting aedes aegypti mosquito was allowed to feed on 3 suckling white mice for 4 hr, 66.7% of the 162 exposed mice became infected. when one infected mosquito was put in contact with 5 mice, 53.6% of the 250 exposed mice became infected. multiple transmission of the virus ...19892565675
purification and properties of a 28-kilodalton hemolytic and mosquitocidal protein toxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73-e10-2.the mosquitocidal crystal of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73-e10-2 was purified, bioassayed against third-instar aedes aegypti larvae (50% lethal concentration, 7.5 micrograms/ml), and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealing polypeptides of 125, 50, 47, and 28 kilodaltons (kda). when solubilized and proteolytically activated by insect gut proteases or proteinase k, the crystal was cytotoxic to insect and mammalian cells in vitro and was h ...19892566594
variation in binding of bacillus sphaericus toxin and wheat germ agglutinin to larval midgut cells of six species of mosquitoes.bacillus sphaericus toxin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate was readily ingested by culex pipiens, aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi, anopheles gambiae, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and anopheles albimanus larvae. fluorescent toxin bound to the luminal cell surface in discrete regions of the posterior midgut and gastric caecum in c. pipiens. in anopheles spp., toxin bound in a variable pattern to these structures and central and anterior midgut as well. the toxin did not bind to midgut cell ...19892566636
culicidae (diptera) mortality resulting from insecticide aerosols compared with mortality from droplets on sentinel cages.the mortality of female aedes aegypti exposed to an ultralow-volume (ulv) aerosol for 15 min and then transferred to clean cages was compared to the mortality of females exposed to the contaminated sentinel exposure cages. ulv aerosol sprays of fenitrothion (50% ai) were dispersed at 180 and 205 ml/min, and ulv aerosol sprays of bendiocarb (18.87% ai) were dispersed at 90 and 120 ml/min in an open field. at 24 h after exposure, the mean percentage of mortality of ae. aegypti in cages previously ...19892566687
effects of weathering on fabrics treated with permethrin for protection against mosquitoes.permethrin-impregnated and untreated fabrics were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti after both types of fabrics were subjected to accelerated weathering for 9 weeks, under a simulated wet/tropical environment. the toxic (knockdown) effect of permethrin-impregnated fabrics against both species of mosquitoes diminished rapidly after 1 week compared to the repellent effect. after 6 weeks of weathering, the remaining low amounts of permethr ...19892568392
correlation between wing length and protein content of mosquitoes.wing length and protein content were compared in individual specimens of male and nonbloodfed, nongravid female mosquitoes. the following groups were tested: field-collected and colonized aedes aegypti, field-collected culex nigripalpus and aedes vexans, and colonized culex quinquefasciatus and psorophora columbiae. the correlation coefficient varied from 0.91 in ae. aegypti males to 0.98 in ae. vexans females, and in each group the p value was less than 0.001. this close correlation suggests th ...19892568393
suppression of larval aedes aegypti populations in household water storage containers in jakarta, indonesia, through releases of first-instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae.weekly releases of first-instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae were made in household water storage containers in a neighborhood in jakarta, indonesia, between april 1987 and april 1988. a single larva was placed in each container surveyed. forty-one percent of all containers in the treatment area were treated each week and the average container was treated once every 2.4 weeks. aedes aegypti populations were suppressed but not controlled by treatment. it is hypothesized that first-instar toxor ...19892568397
haemogregarina sp. (apicomplexa: adeleorina) from the gecko tarentola annularis in the sudan: fine structure and life-cycle trials.the ubiquitous gecko tarentola annularis in the area around khartoum, sudan, was found to be infected with haemogregarina sp., with merogonic stages in its pulmonary endothelial cells and gamonts in its erythrocytes. the fine structure of haemogregarina meronts, merozoites and gamonts revealed great conformity with the micromorphology of similar stages of other apicomplexan parasites. the unsuccessful transmission of haemogregarina gamonts to the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus ...19892569195
[evaluation of the action of ivermectin on blood-sucking mosquitoes].the effect of ivomec, a formulation of ivermectin administered by various routes: through biological membrane and feeder animal was assessed. higher insecticidal effect was obtained by feeding mosquitoes with blood containing ivermectin through biological membrane. anopheles stephensi females were the most sensitive of 3 species under study. their total death after feeding was observed at 1 ppm, while for aedes aegypti the lethal dose was 2.5 ppm and for an. sacharovi, 50 ppm. subcutaneous injec ...19892571066
breeding habitats of mosquitoes in goa.studies carried out in goa from 1986 to 1987 revealed immature stages of 43 species of mosquitoes. breeding habitats were divided into three categories, viz., (i) ground water habitats consisting of ground pools and tanks, rocky pools, paddy fields and stream beds, yielding 30 species; (ii) plant habitats consisting of tree holes and fallen coconut shells and leaf sheaths yielding 20 species; and (iii) domestic/peridomestic habitats consisting of cement tanks, glass, earthen, metallic containers ...19892572463
the ribosomal genes of the mosquito, aedes aegypti.the characterisation of the ribosomal genes of the mosquito, aedes aegypti, is described. preliminary experiments using a cloned drosophila ribosomal dna (rdna) repeat to probe southern transfers of ae. aegypti genomic dna has indicated that the rdna repeat of ae. aegypti is 9.0 kb in length and that individual rdna repeats exhibit a high degree of homogeneity with respect to length and the position of restriction enzyme recognition sites within the rdna. the preliminary mapping data together wi ...19892573528
structure-activity relationships in diphenyl ethers for insect growth regulating activity against mosquitoes.out of the 30 substituted diphenyl ethers synthesized and tested for insect growth regulating (igr) activity against mosquitoes, three compounds viz., dpe-16, 19 and 28 showed promising igr activity. while dpe-16 and 19 were found to be effective against all three vector species tested viz., culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi, with the respective ei50 values of 0.1485, 0.3650, 0.2225 mg/l and 0.1474, 0.1392, 0.1145 mg/l, dpe-28 was found to be highly effective against ...19892576420
a laboratory investigation of mosquito larval predation by toxorhynchites moctezuma on aedes aegypti.1. functional responses of predatory toxorhynchites moctezuma (dyar & knab) larvae feeding on aedes aegypti (l.) larvae (diptera: culicidae) were found to be type ii of holling (1959) and rogers (1972). 2. estimates of searching rate were generally higher for later instar predators. the search rate of second instar predators declined as prey instar increased, but fourth instar tx. moctezuma had the highest search rate for second instar ae. aegypti. 3. prey handling times were higher for early in ...19892577517
oviposition habitat preferences of toxorhynchites moctezuma mosquitoes in four types of tropical forest in trinidad.1. oviposition of the mosquito toxorhynchites moctezuma dyar & knab was investigated in four types of tropical forest in trinidad, west indies, using surrogate and natural ovitraps. larvae of tx. moctezuma are obligate predators that might be useful for the biological control of aedes aegypti (l). 2. significantly more oviposition occurred in seasonal-deciduous forest than in either montane or evergreen-seasonal forest. 3. oviposition in surrogate containers (black-painted polystyrene cups, 90 m ...19892577518
dibutyryl-camp increases basolateral sodium conductance of mosquito malpighian tubules.dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (camp) stimulates fluid secretion in isolated malpighian tubules of the mosquito aedes aegypti. in the present study the effects of camp on the basolateral membrane were studied with conventional microelectrodes. membrane conductances were evaluated from the changes of the basolateral membrane potential (vbl) consequent to ion changes in the bath. under control conditions, vbl measured -65.2 +/- 1.5 mv [83 impalements, 67 tubules]. a fivefold decreas ...19852579589
relative suitability of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti in north carolina to support development of dirofilaria immitis.the relative suitability of two colonies established from local strains of aedes albopictus (wilmington and rockingham) and a local (raleigh) and laboratory (liverpool) strain of ae. aegypti to support development of dirofilaria immitis was investigated. high levels of mortality occurred 1-2 days after mosquitoes fed on a heavily microfilaremic (28,617 microfilariae/ml) dog but not when mosquitoes were fed on a dog exhibiting a moderate microfilaremia (3,300 microfilariae/ml). at 15-16 days post ...19892584971
interspecific mating between louisiana strains of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti in the field and laboratory.interspecific mating between aedes albopictus males and ae. aegypti females was detected in the field using mark-release-recapture techniques. by 3 days after the release of virgin ae. aegypti females into a field site containing only ae. albopictus, 100% of the captured females were inseminated. laboratory investigations indicated that male ae. albopictus were very proficient at inseminating ae. aegypti females and that ae. aegypti males rarely inseminated ae. albopictus females, especially if ...19892584975
interspecific competition among aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and ae. triseriatus (diptera: culicidae): larval development in mixed cultures.interactions among the larvae of aedes aegypti (l.), ae. albopictus (skuse), and ae. triseriatus (say) were studied in trispecific and bispecific mixed populations under laboratory and field conditions. competitive stress (as evidenced by the average time to first, 50, and 75% pupation and the total pupation periods for mixed populations of each species in comparison with their single species controls) was more pronounced in mixed cultures reared in glass jars in the laboratory than in tires und ...19892585456
immunoblot analysis of allergens in crude mosquito extracts.whole body extracts of aedes albopictus (aal), aedes aegypti (aae) and culex quequectates (cqu) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) analysis. at least 28, 37 and 26 polypeptides, molecular weights (mws) ranging from 16 to 120 kilodaltons (kd), respectively, were visible following commassie brilliant blue staining. sera of two mosquito-sensitive patients were examined for ige binding to mosquito proteins by immunoblotting. sera from both patients ...19892592115
virological study of a dengue type 1 epidemic at rio de janeiro.a dengue outbreak started in march, 1986 in rio de janeiro and spread very rapidly to other parts of the country. the great majority of cases presented classical dengue fever but there was one fatal case, confirmed by virus isolation. dengue type 1 strains were isolated from patients and vectors (aedes aegypti) in the area by cultivation in a. albopictus c6/36 cell line. the cytopathic effect (cpe) was studied by electron microscopy. an igm capture test (mac-elisa) was applied with clear and rep ...19882593823
scale pattern variations of aedes aegypti in chiang mai, northern thailand.abdominal tergal scale pattern variations of aedes aegypti were studied in chiang mai, northern thailand for specimens reared from eggs laid in ovitraps set monthly both indoors and outdoors in urban and rural areas. the populations predominantly consisted of the dark type form, regardless of macrohabitats (urban vs. rural), microhabitats (indoor vs. outdoor) or seasons (dry vs. rainy). among 6,003 specimens, no individuals had pale-scales continuing from the tergal base to its apex on the third ...19892614402
urban yellow fever epidemic in western nigeria, 1987.a large epidemic of urban yellow fever occurred in april and may 1987 in oyo state, western nigeria. the principal vector was aedes aegypti, breeding in domestic water containers. the 1987 outbreak followed an epidemic of sylvatic yellow fever in eastern nigeria the previous year, and probably resulted from introduction of the virus by viraemic travellers. the outbreak in oyo state ended in early july, by which time 805 cases and 416 deaths had been officially notified. however, surveys of 3 vil ...19892617590
epidemic yellow fever caused by an incompetent mosquito vector.arbovirus epidemics in a geographic region are believed to depend on the presence of susceptible or "competent" arthropod vectors. we demonstrate that an urban, aedes aegypti-borne, epidemic of yellow fever occurred in 1987 although the mosquito vector was relatively resistant to infection and transmitted the virus inefficiently. twenty-six percent of the experimental mosquitoes from the epidemic area that ingested yellow fever virus became infected and only 7% of these transmitted the virus. in ...19892623418
[the effect of the conditions for the development of aedes aegypti l. mosquitoes on their infectivity with plasmodium gallinaceum brumpt].relationship between the conditions of larvae development and mosquito infection with malaria agent was studied. using the plasmodium gallinaceum--aedes aegypti l. model, it was stated that alteration in temperature, number of specimens, and quantity of forage do not change the index of specimen morbidity. worsening conditions in respect of every one of the enumerated factors lead to a decrease in quantity of agents in carrier.19892628716
[aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in brazil]. 19892638025
lectin-binding sites in the midgut of the mosquitoes anopheles stephensi liston and aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae).the presence and distribution of binding sites for eight different lectins, con a, dba, hpl, lfa, rca i, sba, uea i, and wga, were compared in the midguts of plasmodium gallinaceum-infected aedes aegypti and plasmodium berghei-infected anopheles stephensi. lectins with high specificity for n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac) exhibited high binding preference for the peritrophic membrane and microvillar glycocalyx of ae. aegypti; the same structures were preferentially labeled by n-acetyl-d-galactosa ...19892649879
[epidemiology of dengue fever in taiwan].dengue fever, a tropical communicable disease, is caused by an infectious viral disease. it is also known as break bone fever. there have been a number of epidemics over the last century in taiwan. following an islandwide epidemic in 1942, dengue fever had not been presented on the island for about forty years. in 1981, an outbreak of dengue occurred in liuchiu hsiang, a small off-shore island of pingtung county. the estimated attack rate was 80%. den-2 was isolated during that outbreak. another ...19892659810
[the value of an immunocapture method for the study of serum igm in the surveillance of dengue in martinique].the use of igm capture elisa for surveillance of dengue in martinique is described. this only pathogenic for human population arbovirus infection, which the transmission is caused by bites of haematophagous diptera like aedes (aedes aegypti principally) show an active circulation in martinique. clinical evolution was always benign among the adults and the children. to date no case of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (the world health organization criteria) was not reported in mart ...19892663212
the reemergence of dengue in china.in 1978, dengue was reported in china for the first time in 32 years. since then, epidemics involving hundreds of thousands of people have occurred in guangdong and guangxi provinces and on hainan island. these epidemics were caused by all four types of dengue virus. aedes aegypti was the vector in coastal areas, while aedes albopictus was the vector in inland regions. during these epidemics, case rates were very high (greater than 50%) in some areas. case-fatality rates were generally less than ...19892665017
variation in four acid hydrolase activities in filarial-susceptible and -refractory genotypes of aedes aegypti. 19892695060
reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (diptera: culicidae) populations.male and female aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain rock were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total f1 proge ...19892708628
aedes bahamensis: its invasion of south florida and association with aedes aegypti.the exotic mosquito, aedes bahamensis, is now well-established in south florida, where it is widely distributed throughout dade and southern broward counties in both urban and rural areas east of the everglades. when discarded automobile tires were sampled in areas near human habitation, larvae and pupae of ae. bahamensis were frequently found in association with immature ae. aegypti. elsewhere, however, ae. bahamensis generally occurred in the absence of ae. aegypti. the persistence of ae. baha ...19892708981
leucokinins, a new family of ion transport stimulators and inhibitors in insect malpighian tubules.leucokinins are octapeptides isolated from heads of the cockroach leucophaea maderae. in the cockroach they increase motility of the isolated hindgut. surprisingly, synthetic leucokinins have biological activity in a different insect and in a different tissue. in isolated malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti, leucokinins depolarize the transepithelial voltage. this effect on voltage is dependent on extracellular cl. one leucokinin, lk-8, the effects of which were studied ...19892716471
development of edhazardia aedis (kudo, 1930) n. g., n. comb. (microsporida: amblyosporidae) in the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae).a microsporidium of the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.), identified as nosema aedis kudo, 1930, was found to be a heterosporous species with 3 sporulation sequences. usually, 1 sequence developed in a parental generation host individual that was infected per os as a larva and the other 2 developed concurrently in a filial host larva that was infected transovarially. under some conditions there were deviations from the parental host-filial host alternation. the 1st sporulation sequence was diplokaryo ...19892724178
more on recombination and selection in the modifier theory of sex-ratio distortion.g. maffi and s.d. jayakar suggested a model for the two-locus control of sex determination in the mosquito aedes aegypti (1981, theor. pop. biol. 19, 19-36). this model was extended to multiple alleles and analyzed in mathematical detail by s. lessard (1987, theor. pop. biol. 31, 339-358). the model supposes that males are "mm" and females "mm" but the transmission from males is controlled by a second gene with alleles ai. we show that in addition to the equilibrium in which mai in females, mai ...19892727954
the relationship between microfilarial density and uptake of foleyella candezi microfilariae by aedes aegypti.there was a linear regression in the square root of the numbers of microfilariae abstracted (square root of y) by aedes aegypti refm strain on the square root of the density of microfilariae in the infecting blood (square root of x). the linear regression is represented by the equation, square root of y = 0.080,59 square root of x + 4.556 (r = 0.627; p less than 0.01). - ae. aegypti abstracted microfilariae about 1.60 times that expected from the infecting blood meal. this value however decrease ...19892729645
functional relationships between free amino acids in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae of the mosquito aedes aegypti (diptera, culicidae) as a basis for toxicological studies.characteristic correlations reflecting particular metabolic interactions between free amino acids have been pointed out and used as a sensitive test for the detection of biochemical intoxication symptoms in fourth instar larvae of the mosquito aedes aegypti exposed for 0-8, 12, 24, and 36 hr to various doses of bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg liter-1. in a first pool, serine was negatively correlated with glycine while cystine and alanine were positively correlat ...19892738416
biology and distribution of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti in madagascar.the biology and distribution of the 2 malagasy stegomyia species, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, is updated and reported. aedes aegypti is present in the western and southern regions and ae. albopictus in the east and on the high plateau. some unusual locations are noted. the ranges of ae. albopictus and ae. aegypti on madagascar overlap only slightly. aedes aegypti is present in the west and in the south, while the ae. albopictus distribution area is in the east and on the central high pla ...19892746207
plagiorchis noblei in aedes aegypti: cercarial age and infectivity. 19892746212
[biological activity of precozen i on musca domestica and aedes aegypti].paper presents the results of the study of biological effect of precozen i--preparation with antijuvenile type of action on flies and mosquitoes. parenteral administration resulted in reduced rate of imago hatching, alterations in female reproductive system, hereditary sterility. treatment of flies' as well as mosquitoes' larvae caused various moult alterations: prologation of development stages, reduced chitinization. multiple effects of precozen i on insects, characteristic both of hormonal pr ...20092755407
[current situation of the aedes aegypti mosquito in the metropolitan area of panama city].ae. aegypti was reintroduced into panama in 1985; control was unsuccessful and by 1988 ae. aegypti larvae were detected in every borough of panama metropolitan area. only 3% of the panama city population has dengue antibody (against den 2) and virtually no one is immune to other serotypes. the relative risk of the introduction of dengue virus into panama is discussed.19892762596
laboratory study of competition between united states strains of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).mosquito abatement workers in houston, tex., and new orleans, la., have observed that the recent introduction of aedes albopictus (skuse) has been accompanied by a decline and virtual disappearance of ae. aegypti (l.). this suggests competitive displacement but contradicts the direction of displacement observed in native habitats of ae. albopictus. the paper reports a series of laboratory studies on competition between u.s. strains of the two species. larval survivorship, size, and development t ...19892769704
immunoblot analysis of digestion of human and rodent blood by aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the digestion of human and rodent blood by aedes aegypti (l.) was investigated by immunoblot analysis, using polyclonal antisera produced against serum proteins. rates and patterns of digestion of the principal proteins in serum (albumin and immunoglobulin g) appeared to differ depending on the source of blood. overall, most intact proteins disappeared 24-48 h after blood ingestion by ae. aegypti, and albumin and immunoglobulin g appeared to be the most persistent proteins, irrespective of the s ...19892769707
[the repellent action of the mannich bases of phenol methoxy derivatives for aedes aegypti mosquitoes and xenopsylla cheopis fleas].repellent effect of the mannich bases (methoxyphenol derivatives) on aedes aegypti mosquitoes and xenopsylla cheopis fleas was revealed under laboratory and field conditions. the mannich base l-methoxy-2-hydroxy-3-(dibutylaminomethyl) benzene turned to the most effective among the substances tested.19892779494
characterization of the mammalian toxicity of the crystal polypeptides of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.solubilized crystal polypeptide preparations of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) were fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography using a bound monoclonal antibody formed against the 28k crystal polypeptide. the 28k polypeptide was confirmed to be hemolytic and to possess low mosquitocidal activity against aedes aegypti larvae. by comparison, the 28k polypeptide was more potent than the solubilized bti crystals in male swiss webster mice, as the ld50 values were (p less than 0.0 ...19892792598
a new black tarsomere allele in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from the island of grand comoros. 20032794474
the effects of host distributional patterns on parasite transmission: aedes aegypti larvae and plagiorchis noblei cercariae.the effects of distributional patterns of the host on the acquisition of plagiorchis noblei cercariae by aedes aegypti larvae were determined. mosquito larvae that were allowed to disperse were more susceptible to infection than confined larvae. because these mosquito larvae are known to aggregate in light and disperse in darkness, they are more likely to acquire p. noblei infections at night. the timing of cercarial emergence in relation to the distributional patterns of the mosquito host is di ...19892795386
laboratory evaluation of face paint repellent formulation using human volunteers under three climatic regimens.a new combination of repellent with camouflage face paint was evaluated on volunteers against the mosquitoes aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles stephensi (liston) in an environmental chamber under three climatic regimens: tropical open, tropical forested, and hot dry environments. the duration of protection varied significantly among different climates. the camouflage face paint with diethylmethylbenzamide (deet) provided 95% protection from mosquitoes for 4 h, except under tropical open climate, ...19892795618
hormone-controlled camp-mediated fluid secretion in yellow-fever mosquito.evidence is presented for hormone-controlled adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (camp)-mediated nacl diuresis in malpighian tubules of the blood-feeding yellow-fever mosquito aedes aegypti. studies in isolated malpighian tubules reveal that camp added to the peritubular bath selectively stimulates nacl secretion and not kcl secretion by increasing the na conductance of the basolateral membrane of primary cells. these effects are duplicated by forskolin and theophylline in parallel with increas ...19872825546
the glycoprotein toxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis indicates a lectinlike receptor in the larval mosquito gut.the mosquito-active protein crystals produced by bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis contain covalently attached aminosugars which are critical for their larvicidal activity. the 50% lethal concentrations toward aedes aegypti larvae were increased up to 10-fold by mild periodate treatment, up to 40-fold by forming the protein crystals in the presence of tunicamycin, and up to 7-fold by the presence during the mosquito bioassays of n-acetylglucosamine or its trimer, triacetylchitotriose. pe ...19872827571
susceptibility & transmissibility of aedes aegypti to four strains of chikungunya virus. 19872828232
cloning and expression of two homologous genes of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis which encode 130-kilodalton mosquitocidal proteins.two homologous genes encoding 130-kilodalton (kda) mosquitocidal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis have been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli or bacillus subtilis or both. one of these genes, ppc130, was expressed as a lacz transcriptional fusion in e. coli at a level sufficient to produce phase-bright inclusions, which were purified and shown to be toxic to aedes aegypti larvae. the second gene, pch130, was expressed at a low level in recombinant e. coli cells and wa ...19882828321
analysis of the molecular basis of insecticidal specificity of bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin.the mechanism of action and receptor binding of a dual-specificity bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai icl delta-endotoxin was studied using insect cell culture. the native protoxin was labelled with 125i, proteolytically activated and the affinity of the resulting preparations for insect cell-membrane proteins was studied by blotting. the active preparations obtained by various treatments had characteristic specificity associated with unique polypeptides, and showed affinity for different membr ...19872829819
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