PMID(sorted ascending)
phylogenetic analysis of dengue-2 serotypes circulating in mangroves in northern cordoba, this study, we aimed to identify denv-2 subtypes in aedes aegypti pools collected between 2011 and 2017 in a rural area of northern cordoba, colombia ("la balsa").201931188919
sustained wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus isolates following serial passage in aedes aegypti cell culture.wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont of insects that inhibits the replication of a range of pathogens in its arthropod hosts. the release of wolbachia into wild populations of mosquitoes is an innovative biocontrol effort to suppress the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) to humans, most notably dengue virus. the success of the wolbachia-based approach hinges upon the stable persistence of the 'pathogen blocking' effect, whose mechanistic basis is poorly understood. evid ...201931191980
surveys of arboviruses vectors in four cities stretching along a railway transect of burkina faso: risk transmission and insecticide susceptibility status of potential vectors.background: a severe outbreak of dengue occurred in burkina faso in 2016, with the most cases reported in ouagadougou, that highlights the necessity to implement vector surveillance system. this study aims to estimate the risk of arboviruses transmission and the insecticide susceptibility status of potential vectors in four sites in burkina faso. methods: from june to september 2016, house-to-house cross sectional entomological surveys were performed in four cities stretching along a southwest-t ...201931192232
entomo-virological surveillance strategy for dengue, zika and chikungunya arboviruses in field-caught aedes mosquitoes in an endemic urban area of the northeast of brazil.aedes spp. are considered the main vectors of dengue (denv), zika (zikv) and chikungunya (chikv) viruses in the world. arbovirus detection in aedes mosquitoes can alert authorities to possible outbreaks, reducing the impact of these diseases. the purpose of this study was to perform an operational strategy for virological surveillance of denv, zikv and chikv in adult aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes captured at different key-sites in an endemic urban area of the northeast region of ...201931194961
the mosquito immune system and the life of dengue virus: what we know and do not know.flaviviruses are largely transmitted to humans by their arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes or ticks. the dengue virus (denv) is one of the members of the family flaviviridae and is the causative agent of dengue fever. in the mosquito vector, denv enters through viremic blood meal and replicates in the mid-gut. newly formed virion particles circulate to various mosquito organs and get transmitted to the next host in subsequent bites. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus have intricate immune cont ...201931200426
frequent sugar feeding behavior by aedes aegypti in bamako, mali makes them ideal candidates for control with attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb).current tools and strategies are not sufficient to reliably address threats and outbreaks of arboviruses including zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. hence there is a growing public health challenge to identify the best new control tools to use against the vector aedes aegypti. in this study, we investigated ae. aegypti sugar feeding strategies in bamako, mali, to determine if this species can be controlled effectively using attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb).201931206547
conservation of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel protein within the insecta.the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (vssc) is essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials. vssc kinetics can be modified by producing different splice variants. the functionality of vssc depends on features such as the voltage sensors, the selectivity filter and the inactivation loop. mutations in vssc conferring resistance to pyrethroid insecticides are known as knockdown resistance (kdr). we analysed the conservation of vssc in both a broad scope and a narrow scope by th ...202031206812
live calcium imaging of aedes aegypti neuronal tissues reveals differential importance of chemosensory systems for life-history-specific foraging strategies.the mosquito aedes aegypti has a wide variety of sensory pathways that have supported its success as a species as well as a highly competent vector of numerous debilitating infectious pathogens. investigations into mosquito sensory systems and their effects on behavior are valuable resources for the advancement of mosquito control strategies. numerous studies have elucidated key aspects of mosquito sensory systems, however there remains critical gaps within the field. in particular, compared to ...201931208328
asymptomatic dengue virus infections, cambodia, 2012-2013.we investigated dengue virus (denv) and asymptomatic denv infections in rural villages of kampong cham province, cambodia, during 2012 and 2013. we conducted perifocal investigations in and around households for 149 denv index cases identified through hospital and village surveillance. we tested participants 0.5-30 years of age by using nonstructural 1 rapid tests and confirmed denv infections using quantitative reverse transcription pcr or nonstructural 1-capture elisa. we used multivariable po ...201931211672
inferring who-infected-whom-where in the 2016 zika outbreak in singapore-a spatio-temporal model.singapore experienced its first known zika outbreak in 2016. given the lack of herd immunity, the suitability of the climate for pathogen transmission, and the year-round presence of the vector- aedes aegypti-zika had the potential to become endemic, like dengue. guillain-barré syndrome and microcephaly are severe complications associated elsewhere with zika and the risk of these complications makes understanding its spread imperative. we investigated the spatio-temporal spread of locally transm ...201931213175
oviposition preferences of the mosquito aedes aegypti linnaeus, 1762 (culicidae): an urban environment bioassay.the establishment of an invasive species depends on reproductive success and dispersion capability in the new environment. one of the striking examples of invasion in urban environments is the mosquito aedes aegypti linnaeus, 1762 (culicidae). the success of this species is primarily attributed to its ability to colonize urban environments, and some of the important adaptive strategies associated with this ability is the preference for humans as a blood source and intense occupation of residenti ...201931213206
mosquitocidal chips containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for control of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti were exposed to water treated with mosquitocidal chips containing the insecticide pyriproxyfen in a polymer formulation. chips were tested under different conditions; different water volumes, in containers made of different material, and in water with different levels of organic matter. treated chips caused 100% mortality of ae. aegypti during their pupal stage independent of size or type of container, and the mount of organic matter contained in the water to which the mosquito lar ...201931216627
development of cs-tpp-dsrna nanoparticles to enhance rnai efficiency in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.mosquito-borne diseases are a major threat to human health and are responsible for millions of deaths globally each year. vector control is one of the most important approaches used in reducing the incidence of these diseases. however, increasing mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides presents challenges to this approach. therefore, new strategies are necessary to develop the next generation vector control methods. because of the target specificity of dsrna, rnai-based control measures are ...201931217512
community composition and year-round abundance of vector species of mosquitoes make miami-dade county, florida a receptive gateway for arbovirus entry to the united states.vector-borne diseases are a heavy burden to human-kind. global warming and urbanization have a significant impact on vector-borne disease transmission, resulting in more severe outbreaks, and outbreaks in formerly non-endemic areas. miami-dade county, florida was the most affected area in the continental united states during the 2016 zika virus outbreak. miami is an important gateway and has suitable conditions for mosquitoes year-round. therefore, it was critical to establish and validate a sur ...201931217547
how do trait-mediated non-lethal effects of predation affect population-level performance of mosquitoes?non-lethal, trait-mediated effects of predation impact prey behavior and life-history traits. studying how these effects in turn influence prey demography is crucial to understand prey life-history evolution. mosquitoes are important vectors that claim several million lives every year worldwide by transmitting a range of pathogens. several ecological factors affect life-history traits of both larval and adult mosquitoes, creating effects that cascade to population-level consequences. few studies ...201931218216
lichen parmelia sulcata mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles: an eco-friendly tool against anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti.the gold nanoparticles (aunps) were synthesized using the lichen parmelia sulcata extract (pse) and characterized. the peaks of ultraviolet spectrophotometer and fourier transmission infrared confirmed the formation of nanoparticles and the bioactive compounds of the lichen being responsible for reducing and capping of the particles. the face-centered cubic particles were determined by xrd peaks at 111, 200, 220, and 311. the elemental composition and spherical shape of aunps were confirmed by e ...201931218582
linking nutrient stoichiometry to zika virus transmission in a quality and quantity serve as the basis for cycling of key chemical elements in trophic interactions; yet the role of nutrient stoichiometry in shaping host-pathogen interactions is under appreciated. most of the emergent mosquito-borne viruses affecting human health are transmitted by mosquitoes that inhabit container systems during their immature stages, where allochthonous input of detritus serves as the basal nutrients. quantity and type of detritus (animal and plant) were manipulated i ...201931227906
assessment of hymenoptera and non-hymenoptera insect bite and sting allergy among patients of tropical region of west bengal, india.west bengal, india, is inhabited by abundance and variety of insects that triggers sensitization in some humans to inhalant allergens and/or insect stings/venoms. lack of research on this topic prevented accurate diagnosis and proper follow-up treatments to patients suffering from insect-induced allergies. the aim of our study was to identify the allergy-causing insects and evaluate resulting sensitization among a study population in west bengal, india. the skin prick test (spt) evaluated sensit ...202031228205
insecticide resistance in aedes aegypti: an impact from human urbanization?in the city of magelang, indonesia, the distribution of dengue haemorhagic fever (dhf) cases tend to be clustered, ever changing along with human urbanization from 2014 to 2017. although dhf cases have been less reported in the city of magelang for the past 5 years, vector control measures by using insecticide space spraying, particularly permethrin, have been continuously performed. current study aimed to detect kdr mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in ae. aegypti and to study pos ...201931233517
larvicidal compounds extracted from helicteres velutina k. schum (sterculiaceae) evaluated against aedes aegypti l.helicteres velutina k. schum (sterculiaceae), a member of malvaceae sensu lato, is a brazilian endemic plant that has been used by the indigenous tribe pankarare as an insect repellent. a previous study has reported the isolation of terpenoids, flavonoids and pheophytins, in addition to the larvicidal activity of crude h. velutina extracts derived from the aerial components (leaves, branches/twigs, and flowers). the present study reports the biomonitoring of the effects of fractions and isolated ...201931234501
rna interference-mediated knockdown of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde synthase affects larval development and adult survival in the mosquito aedes aegypti.the cuticle is an indispensable structure that protects the mosquito against adverse environmental conditions and prevents pathogen entry. while most cuticles are hard and rigid, some parts of cuticle are soft and flexible to allow movement and blood-feeding. it has been reported that 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (dopal) synthase is associated with flexible cuticle formation in aedes aegypti. however, the molecular function of dopal synthase in the ontogenesis of mosquito remains largely unk ...201931234914
reflections from an old queenslander: can rear and release strategies be the next great era of vector control?in this perspective, i discuss the great eras of vector control, centring on aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue, zika and several other viruses. since the discovery and acceptance of the role of mosquitoes as vectors of disease agents, several significant strategies have been developed and deployed to control them and the diseases they transmit. environmental management, insecticides and, to a lesser extent, biological control have emerged as great eras of vector control. in the past de ...201931238839
cloning, expression and activity of atp-binding protein in bacillus thuringiensis toxicity modulation against aedes aegypti.bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (bti) is a widely used mosquitocidal microbial pesticide due to its high toxicity. atp-binding proteins (abp) are prevalently detected in insects and are related to reaction against bti toxins. however, the function of abp in mosquito biocontrol is little known, especially in aedes aegypti. therefore, this study aimed to clarify the function of abp in ae. aegypti against bti toxin.201931238963
synergistic terpene combinations as larvicides against the dengue vector aedes aegypti linn.most of the essential oils (eo) known for mosquitocidal activity contain terpenes as part of their chemical constituents. in this study, four monoterpenes namely γ-terpinene (t), r-(+)-limonene (l), carvacrol (c), and trans-anethole (a) were screened against late third instar aedes aegypti linn. larvae singly and in combination to find out the synergistic interaction. the monoterpenes γ-terpinene, r-(+)-limonene, trans-anethole, and carvacrol showed larvicidal activity with lc50 values of 9.76, ...201931241777
cell-fusing agent virus reduces arbovirus dissemination in aedes aegypti mosquitoes in vivo.aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance, such as the flaviviruses dengue virus (denv) and zika virus (zikv). mosquitoes are also the natural hosts of a wide range of viruses that are insect specific, raising the question of their influence on arbovirus transmission in nature. cell-fusing agent virus (cfav) was the first described insect-specific flavivirus, initially discovered in an a. aegypti cell line and subsequentl ...201931243123
a t164s mutation in the dengue virus ns1 protein is associated with greater disease severity in mice.dengue viruses cause severe and sudden human epidemics worldwide. the secreted form of the nonstructural protein 1 (sns1) of dengue virus causes vascular leakage, a hallmark of severe dengue disease. here, we reverse engineered the t164s mutation of ns1, associated with the severity of dengue epidemics in the americas, into a dengue virus serotype 2 mildly infectious strain. the t164s mutant virus decreased infectious virus production and increased sns1 production in mammalian cell lines and hum ...201931243154
mosquito larvicidal potential of hydroxy-2-methyl-4h-pyran-4-one (maltol) isolated from the methanol root extract of senecio laetus edgew. and its in-silico the present study, hydroxy-2-methyl-4h-pyran-4-one was isolated from the methanol root extract of senecio laetus and was identified by ft-ir, 1h, 13c nmr and gc-ms. the larvicidal potential of the compound 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4h-pyran-4-one was evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus at concentrations ranging from 20 to 1.25 ppm under laboratory conditions. the compound showed 100% mortality at 20 ppm against all the tested mosqu ...201931244340
pcr-based bloodmeal analysis of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) in st. george parish, grenada.blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes affect the transmission and maintenance of arboviral diseases. in the caribbean, aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes are the dominant mosquito species in developed areas. however, no information is available on the bloodmeal hosts of these invasive vectors in grenada, where arboviral pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses cause significant human suffering. to this end, ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes w ...201931245825
the basic plan of the adult heart is conserved across different species of adult mosquitoes, but the morphology of heart-associated tissues varies.the heart is a pivotal organ in insects because it performs a number of different tasks, such as circulating nutrients, hormones, and excreta. in this study, the morphologies of the heart and associated tissues, including pericardial cells (pcs) and alary muscles (ams), in the hematophagous mosquitoes anopheles aquasalis curry (diptera: culicidae), aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae), and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae), and the phytophagous toxorhynchites theobaldi dyar & knab ...201931245826
the taste of water.female mosquitos require a specific ion-channel protein to sense the presence of fresh water in which they can lay their eggs.201931246169
wolbachia prevalence, diversity, and ability to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in protect humans and domestic animals from mosquito borne diseases, alternative methods to chemical insecticides have to be found. pilot studies using the vertically transmitted bacterial endosymbiont wolbachia were already launched in different parts of the world. wolbachia can be used either in incompatible insect technique (iit), to decrease mosquito population, or to decrease the ability of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. not all mosquito species are naturally infected with wolbachia: whi ...201931247412
estimating past, present, and future trends in the global distribution and abundance of the arbovirus vector aedes aegypti under climate change scenarios.background:aedes aegypti is the principal vector for several important arbovirus diseases, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika. while recent empirical research has attempted to identify the current global distribution of the vector, the seasonal, and longer-term dynamics of the mosquito in response to trends in climate, population, and economic development over the twentieth and the twenty-first century remains to be elucidated. methods: in this study, we use a process-based ma ...201931249824
transcriptomic analysis of aedes aegypti innate immune system in response to ingestion of chikungunya virus.aedes aegypti (l.) is the primary vector of emergent mosquito-borne viruses, including chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and zika viruses. to understand how these viruses interact with their mosquito vectors, an analysis of the innate immune system response was conducted. the innate immune system is a conserved evolutionary defense strategy and is the dominant immune system response found in invertebrates and vertebrates, as well as plants. rna-sequencing analysis was performed to compare targe ...201931252518
general visual and contingent thermal cues interact to elicit attraction in female aedes aegypti mosquitoes.female aedes aegypti mosquitoes use multiple sensory modalities to hunt human hosts and obtain a blood meal for egg production. attractive cues include carbon dioxide (co2), a major component of exhaled breath [1, 2]; heat elevated above ambient temperature, signifying warm-blooded skin [3, 4]; and dark visual contrast [5, 6], proposed to bridge long-range olfactory and short-range thermal cues [7]. any of these sensory cues in isolation is an incomplete signal of a human host, and so a mosquito ...201931257144
pluripotency of wolbachia against arboviruses: the case of yellow fever.background: yellow fever outbreaks have re-emerged in brazil during 2016-18, with mortality rates up to 30%. although urban transmission has not been reported since 1942, the risk of re-urbanization of yellow fever is significant, as aedes aegypti is present in most tropical and sub-tropical cities in the world and still remains the main vector of urban yfv. although the yfv vaccine is safe and effective, it does not always reach populations at greatest risk of infection and there is an acknowle ...201931259313
combinations of plant essential oil based terpene compounds as larvicidal and adulticidal agent against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).insecticidal plant-based compound(s)in combinations may show synergistic or antagonistic interactions against insect pest. considering the rapid spread of the aedes borne diseases and increasing resistance among aedes population against conventional insecticides, twenty-eight combinations of plant essential oil-based terpene compounds were prepared and tested against larval and adult stages ofaedes aegypti. initially five plant essential oils (eos) were assessed for their larvicidal and adultici ...201931263222
inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes by the methylation inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin a (dznep).juvenile hormone (jh), synthesized by the corpora allata (ca), controls development and reproduction in mosquitoes through its action on thousands of jh-responsive genes. these jh-dependent processes can be studied using tools that increase or decrease jh titers in vitro and in vivo. juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (jhamt) is a critical jh biosynthetic enzyme. jhamt utilizes the methyl donor s-adenosyl-methionine (sam) to methylate farnesoic acid (fa) into methyl farnesoate (mf), releas ...201931265905
a salivary protein of aedes aegypti promotes dengue-2 virus replication and transmission.although dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans, no effective medication or vaccine is presently available. previous studies suggested that mosquito salivary proteins influence infection by the dengue virus (denv) in the mammalian host. however, the effects of salivary proteins on denv replication within the aedes aegypti mosquito remain largely unknown. in this study, we investigated the effect of a specific salivary protein (named aasg34) on denv serotype 2 (denv2 ...201931265906
aedes vector surveillance in the southeastern united states reveals growing threat of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus.mosquito-borne diseases are on the rise globally, and have the potential to thrive along the gulf coast of the united states, where subtropical conditions may facilitate the introduction or movement of mosquito vectors. despite surveillance efforts, aedes aegypti (l.) had not been detected in the gulf state of alabama for nearly three decades. the detection of ae. aegypti in alabama may suggest remnant or reemergent populations of this vector. we conducted adult sampling between may and august o ...201931268136
insecticide resistance status of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes in papua new guinea.aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are important vectors of infectious diseases, especially those caused by arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and zika. aedes aegypti is very well adapted to urban environments, whereas ae. albopictus inhabits more rural settings. pyrethroid resistance is widespread in these vectors, but limited data exist from the southwest pacific region, especially from melanesia. while aedes vector ecology is well documented in australia, where incursion of ae. albopictus ...201931269965
spatial distribution of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses.areas at risk of transmission of arboviruses have been monitored using ovitraps. this study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of aedes aegypti in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses and assess the influence of climatic conditions on the infestation of these culicids.201931271613
using genetic variation in aedes aegypti to identify candidate anti-dengue virus genes.transcriptomic profiling has generated extensive lists of genes that respond to viral infection in mosquitoes. these gene lists contain two types of genes; (1) those that are responsible for the insect's natural antiviral defense mechanisms, including some known innate immunity genes, and (2) genes whose change in expression may occur simply as a result of infection. as genetic modification tools for mosquitoes continue to improve, the opportunities to make refractory insects via allelic replace ...201931272403
vertical transmission of zika virus (flaviviridae, flavivirus) in amazonian aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) delays egg hatching and larval development of progeny.zika virus (zikv) has emerged as a globally important arbovirus and has been reported from all states of brazil. the virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) or aedes albopictus (skuse, 1895). however, it is important to know if zikv transmission also occurs from ae. aegypti through infected eggs to her offspring. therefore, a zikv and dengue virus (denv) free colony was established from eggs collected in manaus and maintained until ...201931278737
intercepted mosquitoes at new zealand's ports of entry, 2001 to 2018: current status and future concerns.mosquito vectors are extending their range via international travel and trade. climate change makes new zealand an increasingly suitable environment for less tropically adapted exotic mosquito vectors to become established. this shift will add a multiplier effect to existing risks of both the establishment of new species and of resident exotic species extending into new areas. we describe trends in the border interceptions of exotic mosquitoes and evaluate the role of imported goods as a pathway ...201931284464
a mosquito workshop and community intervention: a pilot education campaign to identify risk factors associated with container mosquitoes in san pedro sula, honduras.dengue poses a significant public health threat and results in ~96 million clinical cases every year. central america is a region burdened by neglected tropical diseases, including dengue. the primary vectors of dengue, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, are widely distributed in honduras. additionally, sustained and consistent mosquito control is lacking in the country. successful control of container mosquitoes relies heavily on participation from community leaders, stakeholders, and the comm ...201931284544
development of the major arboviral vector aedes aegypti in urban drain-water and associated pyrethroid insecticide resistance is a potential global health challenge.aedes aegypti were found developing in the water in open public drains (drain-water, dw) in jaffna city in northern sri lanka, a location where the arboviral diseases dengue and chikungunya are endemic.201931287014
location, seasonal and functional characteristics of water-holding containers with juvenile aedes albopictus in urban southern taiwan: a cross-sectional study.urban kaohsiung city (kc), in southern taiwan, has experienced annual dengue epidemics for decades despite considerable vector control efforts. substantial research has been undertaken to characterize aedes aegypti breeding habitats, but no systematic assessment has been completed for aedes albopictus present in kc.201931294804
tracking genetic invasions: genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal the source of pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) incursions at international ports.biological invasions are increasing globally in number and extent despite efforts to restrict their spread. knowledge of incursion pathways is necessary to prevent new invasions and to design effective biosecurity protocols at source and recipient locations. this study uses genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) to determine the origin of 115 incursive aedes aegypti(yellow fever mosquito) detected at international ports in australia and new zealand. we also genotyped mosquitoes at th ...201931297145
eucalyptus camaldulensis properties for use in the eradication of infections.eucalyptus camaldulensis (e. camaldulensis), called the eucalyptus has so many characteristics such as antimicrobial features. common names include red gum, red chewing gum, river chewing gum, red chewing gum. its class is eucalyptus, which is comprised of 800 species worldwide, but three or four species are found in australia. this tree generally grows on the edge of rivers with continuous or seasonal water. most of the gray clay soils run along the riverside and are exposed to frequent floods, ...201931300120
ai- modelling of molecular identification and feminization of wolbachia infected aedes aegypti.the genetic control strategies of vector borne diseases includes the replacement of a vector population by "disease-refractory" mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes with a gene to control the vector's reproduction rates. wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are found in arthropods and nematodes. wolbachia infected male mosquitos have been used in different experimental trials around the world to suppress the target population of aedes aegypti and this genetic control strategy has ...201931302148
expression of bacillus thuringiensis toxin cyt2ba in the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana increases its virulence towards aedes mosquitoes.the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana has been widely used to kill mosquito larvae and adults in the laboratory and field. however, its slow action of killing has hampered its widespread application. in our study, the b. bassiana fungus was genetically modified to express the bacillus thuringiensis (bt) toxin cyt2ba to improve its efficacy in killing mosquitoes.201931306427
natural vertical transmission of zika virus in larval aedes aegypti populations, morelos, mexico.we characterized natural vertical transmission of zika virus in pools of aedes aegypti larvae hatched from eggs collected in jojutla, morelos, mexico. of the 151 pools analyzed, 17 tested positive for zika virus rna; infectious zika virus was successfully isolated from 1 of the larvae pools (31n) in c6/36 cells. real-time quantitative pcr and indirect immunofluorescence assays confirmed the identity of the isolate, named zika virus isolate 31n; plaque assays in vero cells demonstrated the isolat ...201931310224
agbr1 antibodies delay lethal aedes aegypti-borne west nile virus infection in mice.west nile virus (wnv) is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause severe disease, including meningoencephalitis. agbr1 is a mosquito salivary protein that enhances aedes aegypti mosquito-borne zika virus pathogenesis in mice. here, we show that agbr1 antibodies reduce the initial west nile viral load and delay lethal infection after feeding by an infected aedes aegypti mosquito. targeting agbr1 may therefore be incorporated into strategies to prevent mosquito-transmitted west nile virus infection ...201931312526
evaluation of inflammatory skin infiltrate following aedes aegypti bites in sensitized and non-sensitized mice reveals saliva-dependent and immune-dependent phenotypes.during probing and blood feeding, haematophagous mosquitoes inoculate a mixture of salivary molecules into their vertebrate hosts' skin. in addition to the anti-haemostatic and immunomodulatory activities, mosquito saliva also triggers acute inflammatory reactions, especially in sensitized hosts. here, we characterize the oedema and the cellular infiltrate following aedes aegypti mosquito bites in the skin of sensitized and non-sensitized balb/c mice by flow cytometry. ae. aegypti bites induced ...201931315156
mosquito vectors of arboviruses in french polynesia.the circulation of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) throughout the pacific is no exception in french polynesia (fp). we review here the mosquito vectors involved or potentially involved in the transmission of arboviruses in fp. we highlight aedes aegypti and aedes polynesiensis; species that are widely distributed in fp and whose ability to transmit dengue, zika and chikungunya viruses is well known. in addition, we discuss the contribution of those species and the abundant culex annulirost ...201931316821
hydrophobic nanoprecipitates formed by benzoylphenylureas and β-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds: synthesis, characterization and toxicity against aedes aegypti larvae.the aim of this work was to synthesize and characterize the inclusion compounds formed by the complexation of β-cyclodextrin (βcd) with insecticides from the class of benzoylphenylureas (bpus), named novaluron (nov) and diflubenzuron (dif), beyond evaluate their larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti larvae. solid state characterization by ftir showed changes in the main peaks of bpus and βcd, suggesting the formation of inclusion compounds in solid phase. dta and tga thermal analysis showed ...201931321326
too "sexy" for the field? paired measures of laboratory and semi-field performance highlight variability in the apparent mating fitness of aedes aegypti transgenic strains.evaluating and improving mating success and competitive ability of laboratory-reared transgenic mosquito strains will enhance the effectiveness of proposed disease-control strategies that involve deployment of transgenic strains. two components of the mosquito rearing process, larval diet quantity and aquatic environment - which are linked to physiological and behavioural differences in adults - are both relatively easy to manipulate. in mosquitoes, as for many other arthropod species, the quali ...201931324262
mosquito host-seeking regulation: targets for behavioral control.female aedes aegypti mosquitoes require protein from blood to develop eggs. they have evolved a strong innate drive to find and bite humans and engorge on their blood. decades of research have revealed that attraction to hosts is suppressed for days after blood-feeding. during this time, females coordinate complex physiological changes, allowing them to utilize blood protein to develop eggs: clearing excess fluid, digesting protein, and egg maturation. how do mechanosensation, nutrient consumpti ...201931326312
visual-olfactory integration in the human disease vector mosquito aedes aegypti.mosquitoes rely on the integration of multiple sensory cues, including olfactory, visual, and thermal stimuli, to detect, identify, and locate their hosts [1-4]. although we increasingly know more about the role of chemosensory behaviors in mediating mosquito-host interactions [1], the role of visual cues is comparatively less studied [3], and how the combination of olfactory and visual information is integrated in the mosquito brain remains unknown. in the present study, we used a tethered-flig ...201931327719
susceptibility and alterations by diflubenzuron in larvae of aedes aegypti.benzoylphenyl ureas inhibit chitin synthesis and interfere with the molting process in arthropods. in this study, the effect of diflubenzuron on third-instar larvae of aedes aegypti was evaluated. the susceptibility to the product was determined, and the alterations generated were shown through light and electron microscopy. lc50 and lc90 were 0.23 and 0.47 ppm, respectively. the main alterations observed were the incapacity to complete the molt, a reduction of mobility, the fragmentation of the ...201931328823
'swimming mosquitoes': a key stepping stone to prevent dengue, zika and chikungunya: an educative experience in colima, mexico.dengue, zika and chikungunya arboviruses (dzc), mainly transmitted by mosquito aedes aegypti, are global health public issues affecting 390 million people each year. in most endemic countries, vector control strategies have been focused on reducing breeding sites and adult mosquito populations. most health communication strategies have pointed out adult mosquito as the main responsible of the transmission, persuading people to eliminate domestic containers. however, it is not clear how should pe ...201931329869
a novel densovirus isolated from the asian tiger mosquito displays varied pathogenicity depending on its host species.mosquito-borne viral diseases (mbvds) continue to pose a significant global public health burden. mosquito control remains a core intervention strategy in integrated mosquito management (imm) programs to reduce the transmission of mbvds. mosquito densoviruses (mdvs) are mosquito-specific entomopathogenic viruses, and their attractive biological and pathogenic characteristics make mdvs potential biological control agents as alternatives to traditional chemical pesticides. however, different viral ...201931333635
using citizen science to enhance surveillance of aedes aegypti in arizona, 2015-17.vector surveillance is an essential component of vector-borne disease prevention, but many communities lack resources to support extensive surveillance. the great arizona mosquito hunt (gamh) was a collaborative citizen science project conducted during 2015-17 to enhance surveillance for aedes aegypti in arizona. citizen science projects engage the public in scientific research in order to further scientific knowledge while improving community understanding of a specific field of science and the ...201931334498
fractional-dose yellow fever vaccination: how much more can we do with less?climate change, deforestation, urbanization, and increased population mobility have made the risk of large outbreaks of yellow fever more likely than ever. yellow fever vaccine production barely meets demands. in this review, we address the causes of the recent yellow fever outbreaks, why fractional dose yellow fever vaccination works, the role of virus neutralizing antibodies in the protection against yellow fever, and the need for revaccination.201931335440
reduced effectiveness of repellents in a pyrethroid-resistant strain of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and its correlation with olfactory sensitivity.the mosquito, aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), is a vector of dengue fever, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses, and in many areas possesses significant levels of resistance to pyrethroids. behavioral performance was assessed in 15, 30, and 60 min exposures in a high throughput vapor phase spatial repellency assay to three contact repellent standards: n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet), ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino] propanoate (ir3535), and 2-undecanone, as well as pyrethrum extract, ...202031338960
ctlga9 interacts with alp1 and apn receptors to modulate cry11aa toxicity in aedes aegypti.the mosquito aedes aegypti is associated with the spread of many viral diseases in humans, including dengue virus (denvs), yellow fever virus (yfv), zika virus (zikv), and chikungunya virus (chikv). bacillus thuringiensis (bt) is widely used as a biopesticide, which produces cry toxins for mosquito control. the cry toxins bind mainly to important receptors, including alkaline phosphatase (alp) and aminopeptidase-n (apn). this work investigated the function of a c-type lectin, ctlga9, in a. aegyp ...201931339308
efficacy of heterorhabdits indica lpp35 against aedes aegypti in domiciliary oviposition sites.entomopathogenic nematodes have been evaluated for control of mosquito species for decades. depending on the nematode and mosquito involved, mortality rates of larvae (l) may reach 100% in vitro. nonetheless, nematode efficacy at oviposition sites has rarely been assessed. heterorhabditis indica lpp35 has been shown to kill over 75% of aedes aegypti l3/l4 in cups and bottles outdoors. to assess its efficacy in indoor oviposition sites, different types/sizes of floor drains and pot saucers, and 6 ...201931339672
correlation between cephalic circumference at birth and ocular alterations in patients with microcephaly potentially associated with zika virus infection.the zika virus (zikv) is an arbovirus isolated for the first time in 1947 and transmitted to humans by the aedes aegypti mosquito. in brasil, it was first detected in may 2015. since then, zikv has been identified as the etiological agent of acute exanthematous disease in brasil, and neuropediatricians of the recife warned about an epidemic of microcephaly, and the brazilian ministry of health confirmed the association between zikv and congenital malformations and neurological syndromes. the eye ...201931340324
corrigendum to: "screening aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) populations from pernambuco, brazil for resistance to temephos, diflubenzuron, and cypermethrin and characterization of potential resistance mechanisms". 201931340382
detection of wolbachia in field-collected aedes aegypti mosquitoes in metropolitan manila, philippines.recent reports reveal the presence of wolbachia in ae. aegypti. our study presents additional support for wolbachia infection in ae. aegypti by screening field-collected adult mosquitoes using two wolbachia-specific molecular makers.201931340862
autocidal gravid ovitraps protect humans from chikungunya virus infection by reducing aedes aegypti mosquito populations.public health responses to outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus have been stymied by the inability to control the primary vector, aedes aegypti mosquitos. consequently, the need for novel approaches to aedes vector control is urgent. placement of three autocidal gravid ovitraps (ago traps) in ~85% of homes in a community was previously shown to sustainably reduce the density of female ae. aegypti by >80%. following the introduction of chikungunya virus (chikv) to puerto rico, we cond ...201931344040
revisiting alkali metals as a tool to characterize patterns of mosquito dispersal and oviposition.mark-recapture methods constitute a set of classical ecological tools that are used to collect information on species dispersal and population size. these methods have advanced knowledge in disparate scientific fields, from conservation biology to pest control. gathering information on the dispersal of mosquito species, such as aedes aegypti, has become critical since the recognition of their role as vectors of pathogens. here, we evaluate a method to mark mosquitoes that exploits the rare alkal ...201931344901
monitoring indole alkaloid production by penicillium digitatum during infection process in citrus by mass spectrometry imaging and molecular mold, caused by penicillium digitatum, is the most destructive post-harvest disease in citrus. secondary metabolites produced by fungal phytopathogens have been associated with toxicity to their respective host through the interaction with a wide range of cell targets. natural products have also been described as important molecules for biocontrol and competition in their respective environment. for p. digitatum, the production of indole alkaloids, tryptoquialanines a and b, have been repo ...201931345413
effect of chlorine and temperature on larvicidal activity of cuban bacillus thuringiensis isolates.the efficacy of biolarvicides may be influenced by species of mosquito, larval age and density, temperature, water quality, bacterial formulation, and others. the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and chlorine on larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis cuban isolates against aedes aegypti.201931346534
odorant inhibition in mosquito chemical signals are integrated at the peripheral sensory system of insects is still an enigma. here we show that when coexpressed with orco in xenopus oocytes, an odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito, cquior32, generated inward (regular) currents when challenged with cyclohexanone and methyl salicylate, whereas eucalyptol and fenchone elicited inhibitory (upward) currents. responses of cquior32-cquiorco-expressing oocytes to odorants were reduced in a dose-dependent fashion by ...201931349189
in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of selenium nanoparticles with significant larvicidal and bacteriostatic the present study, we investigated the larvicidal and bacteriostatic activity of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles using aqueous berry extract of murraya koenigii (mk-se nps). the synthesized mk-se nps were characterized using uv-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (xrd), fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (tem), scanning electron microscopy (sem) and energy dispersive x-ray (edx) analysis. xrd analysis revealed the crystalline nature of m ...201931349432
mosquito-borne viruses and insect-specific viruses revealed in field-collected mosquitoes by a monitoring tool adapted from a microbial detection array.several mosquito-borne diseases affecting humans are emerging or reemerging in the united states. the early detection of pathogens in mosquito populations is essential to prevent and control the spread of these diseases. in this study, we tested the potential applicability of the lawrence livermore microbial detection array (llmda) to enhance biosurveillance by detecting microbes present in aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex mosquitoes, which are major vector species globally, including ...201931350319
larvicidal and enzymatic inhibition effects of annona muricata seed extract and main constituent annonacin against aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are vectors of arboviruses that cause dengue, zika and chikungunya. bioactive compounds from plants are environmentally sustainable alternatives to control these vectors and thus the arboviruses transmitted by them. the present study evaluated the larvicidal activity of an acetogenin-rich fraction (acerf) and its main constituent annonacin obtained from annona muricata seeds on ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus. the larvicidal assays were performed ...201931357557
serological data shows low levels of chikungunya exposure in senegalese nomadic pastoralists.the chikungunya virus (chikv) is spread by aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitos worldwide; infection can lead to disease including joint pain, fever, and rash, with some convalescent persons experiencing chronic symptoms. historically, chikv transmission has occurred in africa and asia, but recent outbreaks have taken place in europe, indonesia, and the americas. from september to october 2014, a survey was undertaken with nomadic pastoralists residing in the northeast departments of seneg ...201931357631
comparative evaluation of an improved test method for bioefficacy of insecticidal fabrics against dengue and malaria vectors.insecticidal fabrics are important personal protective measures against mosquitoes, ticks and other disease vectors. in the absence of internationally accepted guidelines, bioefficacy tests have been carried out using continuous exposure and three minutes exposure bioassay methods. recently, we have reported an improved method for bioefficacy testing of insecticidal fabrics, which involves continuous exposure of mosquitoes to the test fabrics. the present paper reports the comparative evaluation ...201931358045
the challenge of invasive mosquito vectors in the u.k. during 2016-2018: a summary of the surveillance and control of aedes albopictus.mosquito-borne diseases resulting from the expansion of two key vectors, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae), continue to challenge whole regions and continents around the globe. in recent years there have been human cases of disease associated with chikungunya, dengue and zika viruses. in europe, the expansion of ae. albopictus has resulted in local transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses. this paper considers the risk that ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus represent for ...201931361038
the ecological and epidemiological consequences of reproductive interference between the vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.vector ecology is integral to understanding the transmission of vector-borne diseases, with processes such as reproduction and competition pivotal in determining vector presence and abundance. the arbovirus vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus compete as larvae, but this mechanism is insufficient to explain patterns of coexistence and exclusion. inviable interspecies matings-known as reproductive interference-is another candidate mechanism. here, we analyse mathematical models of mosquito ...201931362626
no evidence of zika, dengue, or chikungunya virus infection in field-caught mosquitoes from the recife metropolitan region, brazil, 2015.background: the recife metropolitan region (rmr), north-eastern brazil, was the epicentre of the 2015 zika virus (zikv) epidemic, which was followed by a 2016 chikungunya virus (chikv) epidemic. it historically has amongst the highest incidence of dengue virus (denv) infections and is the only remaining focus of lymphatic filariasis (lf) in brazil. in early 2015, a molecular xenomonitoring surveillance project focused on culex (cx.) quinquefasciatus commenced to inform lf elimination activities. ...201931363498
spatial diffusion of the 2015-2016 zika, dengue and chikungunya epidemics in rio de janeiro municipality, brazil.different countries, especially brazil, that have faced recurrent dengue epidemics for decades and chikungunya epidemics since 2014, have had to restructure their health services to combat a triple epidemic of arboviruses - zika, dengue and chikungunya - transmitted by the same vector, mainly aedes aegypti, in 2015-2016. several efforts have been made to better understand these three arboviruses. spatial analysis plays an important role in the knowledge of disease dynamics. the knowledge of the ...201931364556
larvicidal activity of essential oil from vitex negundo and vitex trifolia on dengue vector mosquito aedes aegypti.the ability of vitex trifolia and vitex negundo essential oils to kill aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus larvae was evaluated.201931365621
infection and transmission of cache valley virus by aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti mosquitoes.cache valley virus (cvv; bunyavirales, peribunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus endemic in north america. although severe diseases are mainly observed in pregnant ruminants, cvv has also been recognized as a zoonotic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. human exposures to cvv and its related subtypes occur frequently under different ecological conditions in the new world; however, neurotropic disease is rarely reported. high prevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies hav ...201931366369
experimental assessment of zika virus mechanical transmission by aedes aegypti.the pandemic emergence of several mosquito-borne viruses highlights the need to understand the different ways in which they can be transmitted by vectors to human hosts. in this study, we evaluated the propensity of aedes aegypti to transmit mechanically zika virus (zikv) using an experimental design. mosquitoes were allowed to feed on zikv-infected blood and were then rapidly transferred to feed on zikv-free blood until they finished their meal. the uninfected blood meals, the mosquito abdomens ...201931370135
precopulatory acoustic interactions of the new world malaria vector anopheles albimanus (diptera: culicidae).anopheles albimanus is a malaria vector in central america, northern south america and the caribbean. although a public health threat, an. albimanus precopulatory mating behaviors are unknown. acoustics play important roles in mosquito communication, where flight tones allow males to detect and attract potential mates. the importance of sound in precopulatory interactions has been demonstrated in toxorhynchites brevipalpis, aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus and anopheles gambiae; convergence ...201931370863
dengue cases in colombia: mathematical forecasts for 2018-2022.introduction dengue is a disease caused by any one of five virus serotypes and transmitted to humans by the aedes aegypti mosquito. climate change and health conditions have combined to make dengue a global public health problem. the situation is especially serious in colombia, where by week 36 of 2018, dengue incidence was 96 cases per 100,000 population, with a total of 111 deaths. different mathematical and statistical models have been proposed to understand the dynamics of transmission and c ...201931373583
aedes aegypti males as vehicles for insecticide delivery.aedes aegypti continues to spread globally and remains a challenge to control, in part due to its 'cryptic behavior' in that it often deposits eggs (oviposits) in larval habitats that are difficult to find and treat using traditional methods. auto-dissemination strategies target these cryptic breeding sites by employing mosquitoes to deliver lethal doses of insecticide. this report describes the initial field trials of an application known as autodissemination augmented by males (adam), utilizin ...201931374806
clti, a kunitz trypsin inhibitor purified from cassia leiandra benth. seeds, exerts a candidicidal effect on candida albicans by inducing oxidative stress and necrosis.cassia leiandra is an amazonian plant species that is used popularly for the treatment of mycoses. recently, a protease inhibitor, named clti, with insecticidal activity against aedes aegypti, was purified from the mature seeds of c. leiandra. in this work, we show that clti has antifungal activity against candida species and describe its mode of action towards candida albicans. this study is relevant because the nosocomial infections caused by candida species are a global public health problem ...201931376361
identification of a new type of haematopoietic progenitor kinase-interacting protein (hip-55) in aedes aegypti mosquito haemocytes and its involvement in immunity-like functions in mosquito: a molecular this study, we characterize the hip-55 protein in the mosquito aedes aegypti for the first time. hip-55 is a 55-kda hpk1-interacting protein that is also called sh3p7. hip-55 constitutively binds hpk1 'via' an hpk1 proline-rich motif 2(pr2) through its c-terminal sh3 domain. hip-55 critically interacts with zap-70, and this interaction was induced by tcr signalling. zap-70 phosphorylated hip-55 at tyr-334 and tyr-344 in vitro and in vivo. in our previous findings, aazap gene expression strong ...201931377908
human urban arboviruses can infect wild animals and jump to sylvatic maintenance cycles in south america.the present study shows that the most prominent human arboviruses worldwide (dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4, chikungunya virus, and zika virus) can infect wild animals and transfer from urban to sylvatic maintenance cycles in south america, as did the yellow fever virus (yfv) in the past. all these viruses are transmitted by the anthropophilic mosquito aedes aegypti and cause epidemics throughout brazil. the yfv is the oldest example of an urban arbovirus that became sylvatic in south america. cu ...201931380302
genetic characterization of chikungunya virus in field-caught aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected during the recent outbreaks in 2019, thailand.chikungunya virus (chikv) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus alphavirus. the virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female aedes mosquitoes, primarily aedes aegypti. chikv infection is spreading worldwide, and it periodically sparks new outbreaks. there are no specific drugs or effective vaccines against chikv. the interruption of pathogen transmission by mosquito control provides the only effective approach to the control of chikv infection. many studies have shown ...201931382507
ovicidal lectins from moringa oleifera and myracrodruon urundeuva cause alterations in chorionic surface and penetrate the embryos of aedes aegypti eggs.lectins from moringa oleifera seeds (wsmol), myracrodruon urundeuva bark (mubl), and heartwood (muhl) are larvicidal agents against aedes aegypti; in addition, wsmol is an ovicidal agent against this mosquito. in this work, we evaluated the ovicidal activity of mubl and muhl by determining the concentrations that reduce the hatching rates by 50% in 72 h (ec50 ). the effects of wsmol, mubl, and muhl on the ultrastructure of the eggs' surface were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (sem). in ...201931386279
evaluation of bioactivity of aqueous extracts of bougainvillea spectabilis, saraca asoca, and chenopodium album against immature forms of aedes aegypti.increasing rate of vector transmission of dengue has led to the exponential rise in the mortality and morbidity scales in the past five years. there are various natural and synthetic chemical agents available commercially as potent larvicides, but they are either highly toxic, difficult to obtain, have a high manufacturing cost, or show cross-resistance, hence do not suffice as ideal larvicides. the objective was to screen aqueous extracts of bougainvillea spectabilis (b. spectabilis), saraca as ...201931388235
the social face of aedes control: women take the floor in a suburban district of fortaleza, brazil.aedes aegypti is currently a critical disease agent and is responsible for viruses such as zika, chikungunya and dengue's four serotypes. this mosquito's relevance to the current social body has come to the fore and triggered urgent ecohealth investigations since this approach aims to articulate different theoretical fields to understand the historical linkages between nature, society and health. based on an ethnographic premise, this study considered the unequal and unfair conditions that make ...201931389545
efficacy of spinosad granules and lambda-cyhalothrin contrasts with reduced performance of temephos for control of aedes spp. in vehicle tires in veracruz, mexico.the present study examined the efficacy of λ-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and granular formulations of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae present in experimental tires in veracruz state, mexico in the period 2015-2016. both λ-cyhalothrin and spinosad granules provided control of larvae and pupae of aedesaegypti, ae. albopictus and culex spp. in used tires in veracruz state, mexico, over a 9-12 week period, although numbers of culex were low. the numbers of aedes larvae + pupae ...201931390780
[clinical and epidemiological profile of chikungunya infection in hospital patients in 2015 in mérida, mexicoperfil clínico-epidemiológico da infecção por chikungunya em casos hospitalares atendidos em 2015 em mérida, méxico].describe the epidemiological profile and analyze clinical manifestations by age group in chikungunya patients treated in 2015 in a mérida, mexico general hospital.201731391823
forecasting dengue fever in brazil: an assessment of climate conditions.local climate conditions play a major role in the biology of the aedes aegypti mosquito, the main vector responsible for transmitting dengue, zika, chikungunya and yellow fever in urban centers. for this reason, a detailed assessment of periods in which changes in climate conditions affect the number of human cases may improve the timing of vector-control efforts. in this work, we develop new machine-learning algorithms to analyze climate time series and their connection to the occurrence of den ...201931393908
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