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experimental assessment of bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti formosus) as vectors of human immunodeficiency virus.in vitro experiments were conducted to assess whether bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti formosus) could act as vectors of hiv. these insects engorged through a membrane on a blood-virus mixture. female bedbugs were larger than males and took larger blood-meals when fed to repletion. it was determined that the full blood-meal of a female bedbug contained 0.09 x 10(5) tissue culture infectious doses (tcid) of virus and a male 0.07 x 10(5) tcid, while pa ...19872450552
brugia malayi microfilariae share epitopes with aedes aegypti.shared antigens between brugia malayi and aedes aegypti were studied. the experiments carried out with sera from infected mastomys natalensis indicated that an immunological response against a. aegypti antigens (mr 185, 35, 32 kda) appeared often when animals became microfilaraemic and increased progressively in intensity during the time-course of infection. sera of animals immunized with b. malayi reacted with the crude extract of mosquitoes and conversely, antibodies from animals immunized wit ...19882462205
evaluation of slow-release formulations of temephos (abate) and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of aedes aegypti in puerto rico.formulations of temephos (abate) and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (b.t.i.) on corncob and dried coconut husk carriers were tested for slow-release insecticide properties against aedes aegypti larvae in puerto rico. granular formulations of 5% and 10% temephos gave continuous larval control in used automobile tires for 27 to 124 days and 34 to 162 days, respectively. temephos on radial sections of corncob and coconut husk chips gave good larval control in tires for 27 to 63 and 61 to 1 ...19852466106
a salivary gland-specific, maltase-like gene of the vector mosquito, aedes aegypti.genomic and cdna clones of a gene expressed specifically in the salivary glands of adult aedes aegypti have been isolated and sequenced. this gene encodes an abundant mrna that is transcribed throughout the male salivary gland but only in the cells of the proximal lateral lobes of the female gland. the deduced protein has many basic amino acids, several possible sites for n-glycosylation, and displays striking similarities with the products of a yeast maltase gene and three previously unidentifi ...19892470653
aedes aegypti and aedes aegypti-borne disease control in the 1990s: top down or bottom up. charles franklin craig lecture. 19892472746
[analysis of the results of the eradication campaign against the aedes aegypti mosquito in the municipality of consolación del sur].this report examines the results of the campaign of eradication of the mosquito aedes aegypti in the consolación del sur district in pinar del rio, in the period ranging from august 1, 1981, to december 28, 1984, which included the intensive stage and the first 18 cycles of the consolidation stage. data was tabulated and statistically elaborated. a significant decrease in the number of aedes aegypti foci was found from the intensive stage on, and in this stage the largest figure of foci for this ...19892486218
hemocyte monophenol oxidase activity in mosquitoes exposed to microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis.monophenol oxidase (mpo) activity in hemocytes collected from aedes aegypti liverpool strain and aedes trivittatus intrathoracically inoculated with saline alone, inoculated with dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff), or from uninoculated mosquitoes was compared using a radiometric tyrosine hydroxylation assay. hemocyte mpo activity in mff-inoculated (= immune-activated) mosquitoes was significantly increased at 24 hr postinoculation (pi) in a. aegypti and at 6, 12, and 24 hr pi in a. trivitta ...19892493084
faeriefungin: a new broad-spectrum antibiotic from streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus.faeriefungin, a polyol polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic, was isolated from the mycelium of streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus, msu-32058/atcc 53668, collected from the soil sample of a fairy ring in an old lawn in lansing, michigan. faeriefungin has some properties similar to the previously reported polyene macrolides, mycoticin and flavofungin, but possesses different physiochemical and biological properties. aspergillus, fusarium, microsporum, trichophyton, and alternaria spp. were co ...19892509636
permethrin-impregnated bednets: behavioural and killing effects on mosquitoes.permethrin-treated pieces of netting and simulated bednets were evaluated against anopheles gambiae giles and aedes aegypti (l.) in the laboratory. when female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on a human arm through pieces of impregnated netting fastened at the end of tubes, doses above 2 g/m2 were required to stop blood-feeding of both an. gambiae and ae. aegypti. a much lower dose prevented ae. aegypti from feeding on mice through impregnated netting. when mosquitoes were released in a room and ...19892519686
genetic variation and microevolution of dengue 2 virus in southeast asia.dengue 2 (den 2) virus strains collected from dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) patients and aedes aegypti mosquitoes in thailand, burma, and vietnam over a 25-year period have been analyzed by computer assisted t1-rnase-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. fifty-seven den 2 virus strains of the thailand topotype were separated into four major clusters by phylogenetic analysis of 97 unique oligonucleotides identified in a common well-resolved region of the fingerprints. similarities in the 57 ...19892529700
transformation of bacillus thuringiensis by electroporation.plasmids were transformed by electroporation into various strains of bacillus thuringiensis with frequencies of up to 10(5) transformants/micrograms. pc 194 transformed all strains tested at a high frequency and cells could be stably transformed with pc194 and pub110 simultaneously by electroporation with a frequency of 10(2) pc194+ pub110 transformants/micrograms dna. low transformation frequencies observed with some plasmids, especially those grown initially in escherichia coli, could be incre ...19892545517
brugia malayi and brugia pahangi: inherent difference in immune activation in the mosquitoes armigeres subalbatus and aedes aegypti.the inherent ability of brugia malayi and brugia pahangi (nematoda) to establish successful relationships with the mosquitoes armigeres subalbatus and aedes aegypti liverpool strain was evaluated. brugia pahangi microfilariae (mff) avoided the immune response and developed normally in a. subalbatus exposed to the parasite by an infective bloodmeal, whereas nearly 85% of b. malayi were destroyed by the immune response. because a. aegypti supports the development of both filarial worm species but ...19892563767
laboratory evaluation of controlled-release repellent formulations on human volunteers under three climatic regimens.six controlled-release personal-use topical insect/arthropod repellent formulations of diethylmethylbenzamide (deet) were evaluated in an environmental chamber on volunteers for repellency against the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and ae. taeniorhynchus under three climatic regimens: basic variable high humidity (tropical environment), basic constant high humidity (forested and wet environment) and basic hot (hot-dry environment). the best protection under all the climatic regimens was provided by th ...19892565368
amplification of arbovirus transmission by mosquito intradermal probing and interrupted feeding.probing is the crucial phase for the successful intake of the blood by a mosquito female, saliva being ejected during the intradermal probing period. when tahyna virus (california group, family bunyaviridae) carrying and transmitting aedes aegypti mosquito was allowed to feed on 3 suckling white mice for 4 hr, 66.7% of the 162 exposed mice became infected. when one infected mosquito was put in contact with 5 mice, 53.6% of the 250 exposed mice became infected. multiple transmission of the virus ...19892565675
purification and properties of a 28-kilodalton hemolytic and mosquitocidal protein toxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73-e10-2.the mosquitocidal crystal of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73-e10-2 was purified, bioassayed against third-instar aedes aegypti larvae (50% lethal concentration, 7.5 micrograms/ml), and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealing polypeptides of 125, 50, 47, and 28 kilodaltons (kda). when solubilized and proteolytically activated by insect gut proteases or proteinase k, the crystal was cytotoxic to insect and mammalian cells in vitro and was h ...19892566594
variation in binding of bacillus sphaericus toxin and wheat germ agglutinin to larval midgut cells of six species of mosquitoes.bacillus sphaericus toxin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate was readily ingested by culex pipiens, aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi, anopheles gambiae, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and anopheles albimanus larvae. fluorescent toxin bound to the luminal cell surface in discrete regions of the posterior midgut and gastric caecum in c. pipiens. in anopheles spp., toxin bound in a variable pattern to these structures and central and anterior midgut as well. the toxin did not bind to midgut cell ...19892566636
correlation between wing length and protein content of mosquitoes.wing length and protein content were compared in individual specimens of male and nonbloodfed, nongravid female mosquitoes. the following groups were tested: field-collected and colonized aedes aegypti, field-collected culex nigripalpus and aedes vexans, and colonized culex quinquefasciatus and psorophora columbiae. the correlation coefficient varied from 0.91 in ae. aegypti males to 0.98 in ae. vexans females, and in each group the p value was less than 0.001. this close correlation suggests th ...19892568393
suppression of larval aedes aegypti populations in household water storage containers in jakarta, indonesia, through releases of first-instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae.weekly releases of first-instar toxorhynchites splendens larvae were made in household water storage containers in a neighborhood in jakarta, indonesia, between april 1987 and april 1988. a single larva was placed in each container surveyed. forty-one percent of all containers in the treatment area were treated each week and the average container was treated once every 2.4 weeks. aedes aegypti populations were suppressed but not controlled by treatment. it is hypothesized that first-instar toxor ...19892568397
haemogregarina sp. (apicomplexa: adeleorina) from the gecko tarentola annularis in the sudan: fine structure and life-cycle trials.the ubiquitous gecko tarentola annularis in the area around khartoum, sudan, was found to be infected with haemogregarina sp., with merogonic stages in its pulmonary endothelial cells and gamonts in its erythrocytes. the fine structure of haemogregarina meronts, merozoites and gamonts revealed great conformity with the micromorphology of similar stages of other apicomplexan parasites. the unsuccessful transmission of haemogregarina gamonts to the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus ...19892569195
[evaluation of the action of ivermectin on blood-sucking mosquitoes].the effect of ivomec, a formulation of ivermectin administered by various routes: through biological membrane and feeder animal was assessed. higher insecticidal effect was obtained by feeding mosquitoes with blood containing ivermectin through biological membrane. anopheles stephensi females were the most sensitive of 3 species under study. their total death after feeding was observed at 1 ppm, while for aedes aegypti the lethal dose was 2.5 ppm and for an. sacharovi, 50 ppm. subcutaneous injec ...19892571066
breeding habitats of mosquitoes in goa.studies carried out in goa from 1986 to 1987 revealed immature stages of 43 species of mosquitoes. breeding habitats were divided into three categories, viz., (i) ground water habitats consisting of ground pools and tanks, rocky pools, paddy fields and stream beds, yielding 30 species; (ii) plant habitats consisting of tree holes and fallen coconut shells and leaf sheaths yielding 20 species; and (iii) domestic/peridomestic habitats consisting of cement tanks, glass, earthen, metallic containers ...19892572463
oviposition habitat preferences of toxorhynchites moctezuma mosquitoes in four types of tropical forest in trinidad.1. oviposition of the mosquito toxorhynchites moctezuma dyar & knab was investigated in four types of tropical forest in trinidad, west indies, using surrogate and natural ovitraps. larvae of tx. moctezuma are obligate predators that might be useful for the biological control of aedes aegypti (l). 2. significantly more oviposition occurred in seasonal-deciduous forest than in either montane or evergreen-seasonal forest. 3. oviposition in surrogate containers (black-painted polystyrene cups, 90 m ...19892577518
dibutyryl-camp increases basolateral sodium conductance of mosquito malpighian tubules.dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (camp) stimulates fluid secretion in isolated malpighian tubules of the mosquito aedes aegypti. in the present study the effects of camp on the basolateral membrane were studied with conventional microelectrodes. membrane conductances were evaluated from the changes of the basolateral membrane potential (vbl) consequent to ion changes in the bath. under control conditions, vbl measured -65.2 +/- 1.5 mv [83 impalements, 67 tubules]. a fivefold decreas ...19852579589
relative suitability of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti in north carolina to support development of dirofilaria immitis.the relative suitability of two colonies established from local strains of aedes albopictus (wilmington and rockingham) and a local (raleigh) and laboratory (liverpool) strain of ae. aegypti to support development of dirofilaria immitis was investigated. high levels of mortality occurred 1-2 days after mosquitoes fed on a heavily microfilaremic (28,617 microfilariae/ml) dog but not when mosquitoes were fed on a dog exhibiting a moderate microfilaremia (3,300 microfilariae/ml). at 15-16 days post ...19892584971
immunoblot analysis of allergens in crude mosquito extracts.whole body extracts of aedes albopictus (aal), aedes aegypti (aae) and culex quequectates (cqu) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) analysis. at least 28, 37 and 26 polypeptides, molecular weights (mws) ranging from 16 to 120 kilodaltons (kd), respectively, were visible following commassie brilliant blue staining. sera of two mosquito-sensitive patients were examined for ige binding to mosquito proteins by immunoblotting. sera from both patients ...19892592115
virological study of a dengue type 1 epidemic at rio de janeiro.a dengue outbreak started in march, 1986 in rio de janeiro and spread very rapidly to other parts of the country. the great majority of cases presented classical dengue fever but there was one fatal case, confirmed by virus isolation. dengue type 1 strains were isolated from patients and vectors (aedes aegypti) in the area by cultivation in a. albopictus c6/36 cell line. the cytopathic effect (cpe) was studied by electron microscopy. an igm capture test (mac-elisa) was applied with clear and rep ...19882593823
scale pattern variations of aedes aegypti in chiang mai, northern thailand.abdominal tergal scale pattern variations of aedes aegypti were studied in chiang mai, northern thailand for specimens reared from eggs laid in ovitraps set monthly both indoors and outdoors in urban and rural areas. the populations predominantly consisted of the dark type form, regardless of macrohabitats (urban vs. rural), microhabitats (indoor vs. outdoor) or seasons (dry vs. rainy). among 6,003 specimens, no individuals had pale-scales continuing from the tergal base to its apex on the third ...19892614402
urban yellow fever epidemic in western nigeria, 1987.a large epidemic of urban yellow fever occurred in april and may 1987 in oyo state, western nigeria. the principal vector was aedes aegypti, breeding in domestic water containers. the 1987 outbreak followed an epidemic of sylvatic yellow fever in eastern nigeria the previous year, and probably resulted from introduction of the virus by viraemic travellers. the outbreak in oyo state ended in early july, by which time 805 cases and 416 deaths had been officially notified. however, surveys of 3 vil ...19892617590
epidemic yellow fever caused by an incompetent mosquito vector.arbovirus epidemics in a geographic region are believed to depend on the presence of susceptible or "competent" arthropod vectors. we demonstrate that an urban, aedes aegypti-borne, epidemic of yellow fever occurred in 1987 although the mosquito vector was relatively resistant to infection and transmitted the virus inefficiently. twenty-six percent of the experimental mosquitoes from the epidemic area that ingested yellow fever virus became infected and only 7% of these transmitted the virus. in ...19892623418
[the effect of the conditions for the development of aedes aegypti l. mosquitoes on their infectivity with plasmodium gallinaceum brumpt].relationship between the conditions of larvae development and mosquito infection with malaria agent was studied. using the plasmodium gallinaceum--aedes aegypti l. model, it was stated that alteration in temperature, number of specimens, and quantity of forage do not change the index of specimen morbidity. worsening conditions in respect of every one of the enumerated factors lead to a decrease in quantity of agents in carrier.19892628716
[aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in brazil]. 19892638025
lectin-binding sites in the midgut of the mosquitoes anopheles stephensi liston and aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae).the presence and distribution of binding sites for eight different lectins, con a, dba, hpl, lfa, rca i, sba, uea i, and wga, were compared in the midguts of plasmodium gallinaceum-infected aedes aegypti and plasmodium berghei-infected anopheles stephensi. lectins with high specificity for n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac) exhibited high binding preference for the peritrophic membrane and microvillar glycocalyx of ae. aegypti; the same structures were preferentially labeled by n-acetyl-d-galactosa ...19892649879
[epidemiology of dengue fever in taiwan].dengue fever, a tropical communicable disease, is caused by an infectious viral disease. it is also known as break bone fever. there have been a number of epidemics over the last century in taiwan. following an islandwide epidemic in 1942, dengue fever had not been presented on the island for about forty years. in 1981, an outbreak of dengue occurred in liuchiu hsiang, a small off-shore island of pingtung county. the estimated attack rate was 80%. den-2 was isolated during that outbreak. another ...19892659810
[the value of an immunocapture method for the study of serum igm in the surveillance of dengue in martinique].the use of igm capture elisa for surveillance of dengue in martinique is described. this only pathogenic for human population arbovirus infection, which the transmission is caused by bites of haematophagous diptera like aedes (aedes aegypti principally) show an active circulation in martinique. clinical evolution was always benign among the adults and the children. to date no case of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (the world health organization criteria) was not reported in mart ...19892663212
the reemergence of dengue in china.in 1978, dengue was reported in china for the first time in 32 years. since then, epidemics involving hundreds of thousands of people have occurred in guangdong and guangxi provinces and on hainan island. these epidemics were caused by all four types of dengue virus. aedes aegypti was the vector in coastal areas, while aedes albopictus was the vector in inland regions. during these epidemics, case rates were very high (greater than 50%) in some areas. case-fatality rates were generally less than ...19892665017
aedes bahamensis: its invasion of south florida and association with aedes aegypti.the exotic mosquito, aedes bahamensis, is now well-established in south florida, where it is widely distributed throughout dade and southern broward counties in both urban and rural areas east of the everglades. when discarded automobile tires were sampled in areas near human habitation, larvae and pupae of ae. bahamensis were frequently found in association with immature ae. aegypti. elsewhere, however, ae. bahamensis generally occurred in the absence of ae. aegypti. the persistence of ae. baha ...19892708981
leucokinins, a new family of ion transport stimulators and inhibitors in insect malpighian tubules.leucokinins are octapeptides isolated from heads of the cockroach leucophaea maderae. in the cockroach they increase motility of the isolated hindgut. surprisingly, synthetic leucokinins have biological activity in a different insect and in a different tissue. in isolated malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti, leucokinins depolarize the transepithelial voltage. this effect on voltage is dependent on extracellular cl. one leucokinin, lk-8, the effects of which were studied ...19892716471
development of edhazardia aedis (kudo, 1930) n. g., n. comb. (microsporida: amblyosporidae) in the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae).a microsporidium of the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.), identified as nosema aedis kudo, 1930, was found to be a heterosporous species with 3 sporulation sequences. usually, 1 sequence developed in a parental generation host individual that was infected per os as a larva and the other 2 developed concurrently in a filial host larva that was infected transovarially. under some conditions there were deviations from the parental host-filial host alternation. the 1st sporulation sequence was diplokaryo ...19892724178
functional relationships between free amino acids in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae of the mosquito aedes aegypti (diptera, culicidae) as a basis for toxicological studies.characteristic correlations reflecting particular metabolic interactions between free amino acids have been pointed out and used as a sensitive test for the detection of biochemical intoxication symptoms in fourth instar larvae of the mosquito aedes aegypti exposed for 0-8, 12, 24, and 36 hr to various doses of bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg liter-1. in a first pool, serine was negatively correlated with glycine while cystine and alanine were positively correlat ...19892738416
biology and distribution of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti in madagascar.the biology and distribution of the 2 malagasy stegomyia species, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, is updated and reported. aedes aegypti is present in the western and southern regions and ae. albopictus in the east and on the high plateau. some unusual locations are noted. the ranges of ae. albopictus and ae. aegypti on madagascar overlap only slightly. aedes aegypti is present in the west and in the south, while the ae. albopictus distribution area is in the east and on the central high pla ...19892746207
[current situation of the aedes aegypti mosquito in the metropolitan area of panama city].ae. aegypti was reintroduced into panama in 1985; control was unsuccessful and by 1988 ae. aegypti larvae were detected in every borough of panama metropolitan area. only 3% of the panama city population has dengue antibody (against den 2) and virtually no one is immune to other serotypes. the relative risk of the introduction of dengue virus into panama is discussed.19892762596
laboratory study of competition between united states strains of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).mosquito abatement workers in houston, tex., and new orleans, la., have observed that the recent introduction of aedes albopictus (skuse) has been accompanied by a decline and virtual disappearance of ae. aegypti (l.). this suggests competitive displacement but contradicts the direction of displacement observed in native habitats of ae. albopictus. the paper reports a series of laboratory studies on competition between u.s. strains of the two species. larval survivorship, size, and development t ...19892769704
immunoblot analysis of digestion of human and rodent blood by aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the digestion of human and rodent blood by aedes aegypti (l.) was investigated by immunoblot analysis, using polyclonal antisera produced against serum proteins. rates and patterns of digestion of the principal proteins in serum (albumin and immunoglobulin g) appeared to differ depending on the source of blood. overall, most intact proteins disappeared 24-48 h after blood ingestion by ae. aegypti, and albumin and immunoglobulin g appeared to be the most persistent proteins, irrespective of the s ...19892769707
[the repellent action of the mannich bases of phenol methoxy derivatives for aedes aegypti mosquitoes and xenopsylla cheopis fleas].repellent effect of the mannich bases (methoxyphenol derivatives) on aedes aegypti mosquitoes and xenopsylla cheopis fleas was revealed under laboratory and field conditions. the mannich base l-methoxy-2-hydroxy-3-(dibutylaminomethyl) benzene turned to the most effective among the substances tested.19892779494
characterization of the mammalian toxicity of the crystal polypeptides of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.solubilized crystal polypeptide preparations of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) were fractionated by immunoaffinity chromatography using a bound monoclonal antibody formed against the 28k crystal polypeptide. the 28k polypeptide was confirmed to be hemolytic and to possess low mosquitocidal activity against aedes aegypti larvae. by comparison, the 28k polypeptide was more potent than the solubilized bti crystals in male swiss webster mice, as the ld50 values were (p less than 0.0 ...19892792598
laboratory evaluation of face paint repellent formulation using human volunteers under three climatic regimens.a new combination of repellent with camouflage face paint was evaluated on volunteers against the mosquitoes aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles stephensi (liston) in an environmental chamber under three climatic regimens: tropical open, tropical forested, and hot dry environments. the duration of protection varied significantly among different climates. the camouflage face paint with diethylmethylbenzamide (deet) provided 95% protection from mosquitoes for 4 h, except under tropical open climate, ...19892795618
the glycoprotein toxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis indicates a lectinlike receptor in the larval mosquito gut.the mosquito-active protein crystals produced by bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis contain covalently attached aminosugars which are critical for their larvicidal activity. the 50% lethal concentrations toward aedes aegypti larvae were increased up to 10-fold by mild periodate treatment, up to 40-fold by forming the protein crystals in the presence of tunicamycin, and up to 7-fold by the presence during the mosquito bioassays of n-acetylglucosamine or its trimer, triacetylchitotriose. pe ...19872827571
susceptibility & transmissibility of aedes aegypti to four strains of chikungunya virus. 19872828232
cloning and expression of two homologous genes of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis which encode 130-kilodalton mosquitocidal proteins.two homologous genes encoding 130-kilodalton (kda) mosquitocidal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis have been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli or bacillus subtilis or both. one of these genes, ppc130, was expressed as a lacz transcriptional fusion in e. coli at a level sufficient to produce phase-bright inclusions, which were purified and shown to be toxic to aedes aegypti larvae. the second gene, pch130, was expressed at a low level in recombinant e. coli cells and wa ...19882828321
analysis of the molecular basis of insecticidal specificity of bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin.the mechanism of action and receptor binding of a dual-specificity bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai icl delta-endotoxin was studied using insect cell culture. the native protoxin was labelled with 125i, proteolytically activated and the affinity of the resulting preparations for insect cell-membrane proteins was studied by blotting. the active preparations obtained by various treatments had characteristic specificity associated with unique polypeptides, and showed affinity for different membr ...19872829819
comparison of the in vivo and in vitro activity of the delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis var. morrisoni (hd-12) and two of its constituent proteins after cloning and expression in escherichia coli.the insecticidal crystal delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis var. morrisoni hd-12 contains at least five polypeptides in the range 126-140 kda. immune blotting revealed that individual proteins in this complex share homology with a range of other b. thuringiensis delta-endotoxins. in vivo the native hd-12 crystal killed a lepidopteran larva (pieris brassicae) and a dipteran larva (anopheles gambiae), but not the related dipteran aedes aegypti. in vitro the solubilized activated crystal lys ...19882832170
common features of bacillus thuringiensis toxins specific for diptera and lepidoptera.the complete nucleotide sequence of a cloned gene encoding a 130-kda crystal protein of bacillus thuringiensis (b.t.) subspecies israelensis has been determined. the recombinant protein (bt8) was purified and shown to be a mosquito-specific toxin with a lc50 value of 43 ng/ml to third-instar larvae of aedes aegypti. bt8 is processed by proteases or midgut extracts of mosquito larvae into toxic fragments of 68-78 kda. deletion mapping indicated that the active fragment of bt8 is localized in the ...19882833395
a bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis gene encoding a 125-kilodalton larvicidal polypeptide is associated with inverted repeat sequences.a gene encoding a 125-kilodalton (kda) mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin was cloned from the 72-mda resident plasmid of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. this gene is similar in its 3' region to the gene encoding the 135-kda protein previously cloned (c. bourgouin, a. klier, and g. rapoport, mol. gen. genet. 205:390-397, 1986). escherichia coli recombinant clones harboring the 125-kda gene were toxic to larvae of the three mosquito species aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi, and culex pipie ...19882841292
vector competence of aedes albopictus from houston, texas, for dengue serotypes 1 to 4, yellow fever and ross river viruses.a combination of virus infection and transmission experiments showed that a houston, texas strain of aedes albopictus is a competent vector for dengue (den), yellow fever (yf) and ross river (rr) viruses. however, at 14 days incubation, den virus infection rates in a puerto rican strain of aedes aegypti were significantly higher for each of the four den serotypes, except den-1, than in houston ae. albopictus fed simultaneously on the same virus suspensions. the degree of correlation between diss ...19872849638
induction of salivation in biting midges and mosquitoes, and demonstration of virus in the saliva of infected insects.culicoides biting midges and aedes aegypti (linnaeus) mosquitoes were induced to salivate by the topical application of pilocarpine, neostigmine, malathion and dimethoate; of these, malathion was the most effective. drops of saliva produced by virus-infected midges and mosquitoes were shown to contain virus. the method could be used to demonstrate transmission in insects infected with a variety of pathogens.19872856508
comparative susceptibility of mosquito species and strains to oral and parenteral infection with dengue and japanese encephalitis viruses.thirty-four strains of asian and pacific mosquitoes belonging to 22 species of 7 genera were compared for oral and/or parenteral susceptibility to infection with 1 or more strains of each of the 4 dengue serotypes. surprisingly, several species of common man-biting aedes were much more susceptible to oral infection with each of the 4 dengue serotypes than was aedes aegypti. these species included aedes albopictus and members of the scutellaris group of the subgenus stegomyia found on south pacif ...19852860816
disease-bearing insects brought in by international aircraft into singapore.fifty-seven (17.3%) of 330 incoming aircraft landing at changi international airport were found to harbour mosquitoes and other insects on board. the frequency of insects detected in aircraft from the southeast asian countries varied from 7.1% to 32.2%. live insects were found in 5 (6.1%) of 82 aircraft disinsectized by the "block away" method. the species of mosquitoes brought in were: culex quinquefasciatus (96), culex tritaeniorhynchus (1), aedes albopictus (2) and aedes aegypti (1). none of ...19852862709
arboviruses and lemurs in madagascar: experimental infection of lemur fulvus with yellow fever and west nile viruses.in previous serological surveys of lemurs in madagascar, antibodies against flaviviruses were frequently detected. to examine the epidemiological role of lemur fulvus, experimental infections with yellow fever (yf) virus and west nile (wn) virus were performed. yf and wn infections were clinically unapparent. a 3 to 4-day-long viremia, with moderate levels was observed with yf virus. wn virus, especially the strain isolated in madagascar, provoked a 4 to 6-day-long viremia sufficient to infect a ...19852862804
experimental study of the reproduction of karshi virus (togaviridae, flavivirus) in some species of mosquitoes and ticks.the strain kaz-816 of karshi virus was isolated in 1976 from h. asiaticum ticks collected in the north of central asia (alma-ata region of the kazakh soviet socialist republic). both ticks and mosquitoes can be vectors of karshi virus as proved experimentally by reproduction of the virus in hyalomma asiaticum and dermacentor daghestanicus ticks and culex pipiens molestus, anopheles atroparvus an aedes aegypti mosquitoes as well as by transmission to newborn mice by the bite of infected mosquitoe ...19852864824
variable infectivity of third-stage larvae of brugia malayi.infectivity of third-stage larvae of brugia malayi was assessed following intraperitoneal inoculation into jirds, meriones unguiculatus. larvae were of two ages and were derived from two sites in aedes aegypti mosquitoes, i.e., specimens collected from the thorax 11 days after infection and from the head on day 14. larvae from the thorax had just completed the second moult and measured 990 to 1100 micron in length. only 6% of these specimens developed to adult worms in jirds. larvae that migrate ...19852866213
variations of four aedes aegypti mosquito strains in their susceptibility to and transmissibility of tahyna virus.aedes aegypti mosquitoes originating from different colonies were infected with tahyna virus by sucking on viraemic newborn mice (peak titre 10(2) x 5 mouse i.c. ld50/0.01 ml). the mosquitoes of laboratory strain "london" proved most susceptible (infection rate 74.2%, transmission rate 60%), while mosquitoes of the laboratory strain "basel" and strain "bangkok" (southeast asia) were less susceptible (infection rate 23.7 and 17.6%, respectively, transmission rate 6.0 and 10.0%, respectively). mos ...19852866696
[abundance of larvae of urban mosquitoes during the campaign of the eradication of aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) and of dengue in cuba (1981-82)]. 19852870540
transovarial transmission of tahyna virus by aedes aegypti mosquitoes (strain bangkok) 19862873736
[effect of delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis israëlensis on biochemical functional relationships in diptera aedes aegypti].a study of the action of very low doses of the delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis israëlensis on the larvae of aedes aegypti (diptera) gave evidence for peculiar properties of the dose/effect relations based on the variations of the regression slopes of functional relationships between the pairs cysteine/serine and fatty acids/histidine, by contrast with the pair fatty acids/glucose which exhibited a classical shaped relation. this indicates "crypto-toxicological" processes, not lethal by ...19862876759
[dengue vector density survey in liuchiu, pintung, taiwan].the first outbreak of dengue in taiwan in 35 years was recorded in the summer of 1981 in liuchiu, pintung, a small offshore island of southern taiwan. an investigation team visited the affected area during the period of 14-17 october 1981 and collected 8,641 mosquito larvae, of which 4,432 were aedes aegypti and 4,182 were ae. albopictus. the house index, container index and breteau index were 44.2, 23.9 and 73.0 for ae. aegypti and 41.3, 17.0 and 51.9 for ae. albopictus, respectively. both spec ...19862880696
efficacy of czechoslovak and soviet bacillus thuringiensis (serotype h-14) formulations against mosquito larvae.laboratory and field comparisons were made with two wettable powder formulations of bacillus thuringiensis serotype h-14 (b. t. h-14) prepared in czechoslovakia ("moskitur") and the ussr ("baktokulicid"). expressed in the international aedes aegypti toxic units (tu x mg-1) the potency of these two test formulations was greater than that of the institute pasteur standard ips-78 (= 1,000 tu x mg-1), i.e. moskitur had a potency of about 1,500 tu x mg-1 and the soviet baktokulicid 2,000 tu x mg-1. t ...19872883232
immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of pancreatic polypeptide in midgut epithelium of hematophagous dipterans.midguts of mosquitoes, aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi, and of the tsetse fly, glossina morsitans morsitans, as well as guinea pig pancreas, were prepared for electron microscopy by using low-temperature embedding in lowicryl k4m. rabbit antiserum to bovine pancreatic polypeptide (pp) crossreacted with secretory granules of pancreatic pp-producing cells and of the clear cells in mosquito gut. rabbit antiserum to human somatostatin crossreacted with the control tissue, guinea pig pancreas d ...19872885369
proteolysis in the gut of mosquito larvae results in further activation of the bacillus sphaericus toxin.gut proteases from the larvae of the mosquito culex pipiens convert the 43-kilodalton (kda) toxin from bacillus sphaericus 2362 to a 40-kda peptide. the 50% lethal concentration of this peptide for tissue culture-grown cells of culex quinquefasciatus was 1.0 microgram/ml (as determined by the intracellular atp assay), 54-fold less than that of the 43-kda peptide. gut proteases from anopheles gambiae and aedes aegypti, as well as bovine pancreatic trypsin, also converted the 43-kda protein to a 4 ...19872886104
cloning and expression of 130-kd mosquito-larvicidal delta-endotoxin gene of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in escherichia coli.five recombinant e. coli clones exhibiting toxicity to aedes aegypti larvae were obtained from a library of 800 clones containing xbai dna fragments of 110 kb plasmid from b. thuringiensis var. israelensis. all the five clones (pmu 14/258/303/388/679) had the same 3.8-kb insert and encoded a major protein of 130 kda which was highly toxic to a. aegypti larvae. three clones (pmu 258/303/388) transcribed the 130 kd a gene in the same direction as that of lac z promoter of puc12 vector whereas the ...19872890080
use of enzyme immunoassay and nucleic acid hybridization for detecting sindbis virus in infected mosquitoes.aedes aegypti mosquitoes were inoculated intrathoracically with prototype sindbis virus, held at 26.7 degrees c for from 0-95 h and placed at -70 degrees c. individual mosquitoes were tested for virus by plaque assay in vero cells, for viral rna by nucleic acid hybridization using a cloned cdna probe, and for viral protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. virus was detected by plaque assay as early as 8 h after infection. sindbis virus rna was detected by nucleic acid hybridization 18 h aft ...19872890652
the effectiveness of mosquito coils containing esbiothrin under laboratory and field conditions.tests were made to correlate the chemical content of mosquito coils with the knockdown and bite-inhibitory action of the smoke in the laboratory and with the protective effect in field use. smoke from a blank coil, containing no pyrethroid, gave no knockdown, 10% inhibition of biting in the laboratory using aedes aegypti, and 39% protection in field tests in village huts on the kenyan coast with a mixed population of mosquitoes including 71% anopheles gambiae. coils containing low experimental c ...19872891344
effects of azadirachtin on insect cytochrome p-450 dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.the effects of the insect growth and ecdysis inhibitor azadirachtin on ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity were examined in three insect species. homogenates of wandering stage third instar larvae of drosophila melanogaster, or abdomens from adult female aedes aegypti, or fat body or midgut from last instar larvae of manduca sexta were incubated with radiolabelled ecdysone and increasing concentrations of azadirachtin and the ecdysone 20-monoxygenase activity quantified by radioassay. azadirachti ...19882900005
[arboviroses in the region of nosy-bé, madagascar. serologic and entomologic data].since 1977, the pasteur institute of madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of nosy-be area, in the north-west of madagascar. 47.2% out of 271 human sera and 11.3% out of 151 sera of lemurs, tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. the results show an important prevalence of flaviviruses. west nile and dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. antibodies against sindbis and rift vall ...19882900082
biological characterization of plaque-size variants of yellow fever virus in mosquitoes and mice.we isolated plaque-size variants of a south american strain of yellow fever virus, and compared their ability to infect orally and be transmitted by vector aedes aegypti mosquitoes with that of the uncloned, parental virus. we analyzed the same clonal isolates in mouse virulence experiments. no significant differences could be demonstrated in the capacities of the variants to infect and be transmitted by mosquitoes or in mouse virulence tests. the 17d vaccine virus (derived from the african asib ...19882902770
specificity of action on mosquito larvae of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxins encoded by two different genes.a 135 kda protein gene and two open reading frames (orf1 and orf2) have been cloned from a large plasmid of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (bourgouin et al. 1986). the escherichia coli recombinant clones containing these genes were highly toxic to larvae of aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi and culex pipiens. from subcloning experiments it was deduced that the 135 kda polypeptide alone was responsible for the toxic activity on both a. aegypti and an. stephensi larvae. in contrast, the prese ...19882906402
tests of ultrasonic emissions on mosquito attraction to hosts in a flight chamber.five ultrasonic devices generating fundamental frequencies of 20-70 khz were tested for their efficacy in repelling mosquitoes. four species (anopheles quadrimaculatus, aedes aegypti, ae. triseriatus and haemagogus equinus), were used in a flight chamber in which females must fly upwind against the direction of the sound waves and around the ultrasonic devices to reach a trap downwind of a source of human breath and skin emanations. repellency was rated by the number of mosquitoes entering the t ...19852906666
the effect of tolypin in tolypocladium niveum crude extract against mosquito and blackfly larvae in the laboratory.the efficacy of tolypin against mosquito and blackfly larvae was studied under laboratory conditions. it was tested against culex molestus, aedes aegypti, anopheles maculipennis, simulium noelleri and odagmia ornata. a concentration 0.1 mg/ml caused 100% mortality in all species tested and a concentration 0.001 mg/ml caused 100% mortality only in the two species of blackflies used within 24 hours.19882906895
growth of three mosquitoes on two larval diets measured by protein accumulation.larval growth recorded as accumulation of protein was measured in aedes aegypti, culex nigripalpus and culex quinquefasciatus, raised on liver powder or dry brewer's yeast. in the early stages all 3 species grew faster on liver powder, but at pupation there was no significant difference in protein content between diets and among species. aedes aegypti pupated one day ahead of culex.19862906975
comparative studies of metarhizium anisopliae and tolypocladium cylindrosporum as pathogens of mosquito larvae.mosquito fungal pathogens, metarhizium anisopliae and tolypocladium cylindrosporum, were compared with regard to virulence against the larvae of aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi and culex pipiens. culex pipiens larvae were much more susceptible to m. anisopliae conidia than an. stephensi or ae. aegypti. but ae. aegypti and cx. pipiens larvae were equally susceptible to t. cylindrosporum propagules which weakly attack an. stephensi. using a high concentration conidial suspension (10(7) sp/ml) o ...19862906985
detection of yellow fever virus nucleic acid in infected mosquitoes by rna:rna in situ hybridization.an in situ hybridization technique was developed for the strand-specific detection of yellow fever virus (yfv) rna. an 35s-labeled, transcribed rna probe was used to detect positive-sense polarity yfv genomic rna in infected c6/36 (aedes albopictus) cells, dissected mosquito tissues, and sections of plastic-embedded, yfv-infected aedes aegypti mosquitoes. mosquito tissues fixed in buffered formalin retained morphological integrity. the low concentrations of probe used yielded high specific signa ...19882907776
two highly related insecticidal crystal proteins of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki possess different host range specificities.two genes encoding insecticidal crystal proteins from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki hd-1 were cloned and sequenced. both genes, designated cryb1 and cryb2, encode polypeptides of 633 amino acids having a molecular mass of ca. 71 kilodaltons (kda). despite the fact that these two proteins display 87% identity in amino acid sequence, they exhibit different toxin specificities. the cryb1 gene product is toxic to both dipteran (aedes aegypti) and lepidopteran (manduca sexta) larvae, whereas ...19892914879
ingestion, dissolution, and proteolysis of the bacillus sphaericus toxin by mosquito larvae.larvae of culex quinquefasciatus are much more susceptible to the toxin of bacillus sphaericus than are larvae of aedes aegypti. in the present study, the rate of ingestion, dissolution, and the cleavage by midgut proteases of the b. sphaericus toxin were compared in larvae of these species to determine whether these factors account for the differences in susceptibility. during filter feeding, larvae of both species removed significant quantities of b. sphaericus toxin from suspensions. filtrati ...19892915145
hemocyte population changes during the immune response of aedes aegypti to inoculated microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis.ultrastructural and lectin-binding studies have established that the melanotic encapsulation reaction of aedes aegypti liverpool strain against inoculated dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) is a hemocyte-mediated reaction. total hemocyte counts from mff-inoculated (= immune-activated), saline-inoculated, and uninoculated female a. aegypti were determined using a hemocoel perfusion technique. total hemocyte populations in uninoculated mosquitoes were significantly larger in younger mosquitoe ...19892918431
effects of the chitin synthetase inhibitor plumbagin and its 2-demethyl derivative juglone on insect ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity.the chitin synthetase inhibitor plumbagin and its 2-demethyl derivative juglone were found to inhibit in a dose-response fashion the cytochrome p-450 dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase activity associated with adult female aedes aegypti, wandering stage larvae of drosophila melanogaster, and fat body and midgut from last instar larvae of manduca sexta. the concentration of these naphthoquinones required to elicit a 50% inhibition of the steroid hydroxylase activity in all the insects was approx ...19882973991
evaluation of some adhesives for collecting musca domestica and chrysomya megacephala adults or mosquito larvae in sticky traps.1. seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of musca domestica l. and chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) or mosquito larvae (aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say). 2. adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. from the 'hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. with 24 h exposure to fourth instar ae.aegy ...19872979541
anti-mosquito antibodies decrease the reproductive capacity of aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti (l.) fed on rabbits immunized with mosquito antigens showed a reduction in fecundity in the first oviposition and decreased viability of the progeny. feeding behaviour of mosquitoes was not affected and no significant mortality was observed due to the presence of anti-mosquito antibodies in the bloodmeal. antibodies were detected in the oocytes of mosquitoes 48 h after the bloodmeal. the role of specific antibodies in influencing fecundity is discussed.19882980164
landing periodicity of the mosquito aedes aegypti in trinidad in relation to the timing of insecticidal space-spraying.diel landing periodicity (biting cycle) of domestic aedes aegypti (l.) in trinidad, west indies, was monitored using human bait during january-august 1980. the periodicity of females was predominantly diurnal (95.2% arriving during daylight or twilight) and bimodal, with consistent peaks at 06.00-07.00 and 17.00-18.00 hours. the diel periodicities at indoor and outdoor sites were virtually identical. larger numbers of adults were collected outside than inside houses. it is recommended that the t ...19882980173
effects of 'closed' houses on the aedes aegypti eradication programme in trinidad.the effects of closed (i.e. locked) houses on the efficiency of control measures against aedes aegypti (l.) were monitored weekly for 1 year (march 1981 to february 1982) using ovitraps in the towns of felicity and trincity, trinidad. regular anti-aegypti activities comprised source reduction, focal treatment with larvicidal 1% temephos sand granules and perifocal treatment with 40% wp fenthion. in felicity, only 6% of houses were closed and after each treatment cycle ovitrap indices showed 100% ...19882980174
ovitrap surveys of dengue vector mosquitoes in chiang mai, northern thailand: seasonal shifts in relative abundance of aedes albopictus and ae. aegypti.aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) were surveyed using ovitraps in residential areas in chiang mai, northern thailand. egg populations (both species inclusive) remained low in the dry season, but increased/decreased exponentially during the first/latter half of the rainy season, respectively. this seasonal pattern was similar to the seasonal distribution of dengue haemorrhagic fever cases in the area. during the dry season (november-march) ae.aegypti was dominant in urban and indoor ...19882980189
detection and localization of antibody ingested with a mosquito bloodmeal.mouse immunoglobulins were found to persist in aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito bloodmeals for 2-3 days after ingestion. immunoenzyme labelling revealed mouse antibody specifically bound to the mosquito midgut epithelium after ingestion; immunogold labelling of thin sections revealed mouse antibody within the cytoplasm of the microvilli on the midgut epithelium. ingested mouse antibody was not conclusively demonstrated bound to tissues outside the gut, though antibody was detected in mosquito haemoly ...19882980192
molecular cloning of the delta-endotoxin gene of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis.a transformant of bacillus megaterium, vb131, was isolated which carries a 6.3-kb xbai segment of the crystal toxin gene of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti) cloned in a vector plasmid pbc16 to yield pvb131. the chimeric plasmid dna from vb131 was introduced into a transformable bacillus subtilis strain by competence transformation. both the b. megaterium vb131 strain and the b. subtilis strain harboring the chimeric plasmid produced irregular, parasporal, phase-refractile, crystalli ...19852987085
baculovirus-mediated expression of bacterial genes in dipteran and mammalian cells.a recombinant baculovirus containing the escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene under the control of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter and the e. coli beta-galactosidase gene under the control of the very late baculoviral polyhedrin promoter was used to determine if autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, a baculovirus of lepidoptera, can enter and express viral dna in dipteran (drosophila sp.) and mammalian (mus sp.) cells that are considered ...19852993646
micro-lipid-droplet encapsulation of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis delta-endotoxin for control of mosquito larvae.the crystal delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is less toxic to larvae of anopheles freeborni than to larvae of aedes aegypti. however, when solubilized crystal was used, larvae from both species showed similar sensitivities. this effect presumably was due to the differences in feeding behavior between the two mosquito larvae when crystal preparations are used. a procedure is described whereby both crystal and solubilized b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxin were e ...19853002272
specificity of bacillus thuringiensis var. colmeri insecticidal delta-endotoxin is determined by differential proteolytic processing of the protoxin by larval gut proteases.the native crystal delta-endotoxin produced by bacillus thuringiensis var. colmeri, serotype 21, is toxic to both lepidopteran (pieris brassicae) and dipteran (aedes aegypti) larvae. solubilization of the crystal delta-endotoxin in alkaline reducing conditions and activation with trypsin and gut extracts from susceptible insects yielded a preparation whose toxicity could be assayed in vitro against a range of insect cell lines. after activation with aedes aegypti gut extract the preparation was ...19863009187
susceptibility of indonesia colonies of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes to experimental infection with chikungunya virus. 19863023740
bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis delta-endotoxin. cloning and expression of the toxin in sporogenic and asporogenic strains of bacillus subtilis.a plasmid-borne gene from bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis encoding a 27,340 mr insecticidal delta-endotoxin has been cloned on a bifunctional multicopy plasmid in a wild-type sporogenic strain and two asporogenic mutants of bacillus subtilis. the delta-endotoxin gene is expressed at a low level during vegetative growth in all three strains, but the synthesis of the toxin increases markedly during the third hour of stationary phase for both the sporogenic strain and an asporogenic mutant ...19863025453
structurally related bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins display major differences in insecticidal activity in vivo and in vitro.many strains within the 22 serotypes of bacillus thuringiensis produce crystal delta-endotoxins with slight differences in their insecticidal toxicity spectrum in vivo. since the basis of this specificity is unknown, we chose to compare the activity of delta-endotoxins from three strains: b. thuringiensis var. kurstaki hd-1, var. aizawai hd-249 and var. thuringiensis hd-350, both in vivo and on insect cell lines in vitro. immunoblotting with antisera to activated var. kurstaki p1 lepidopteran to ...19863027111
[biochemical manifestations of the poisoning of larvae of aedes aegypti (insecta, diptera) by the delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis. i. hemolymph carbohydrates].the glycemia of 4th instar larvae of aedes aegypti (diptera culicidae) was determined over a 30 min to 36 hrs period following their immersion in water containing 0.00-0.01-0.02-0.1-1.0 mg per liter of a 12,000 i. u. per mg preparation of the delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis. seven major carbohydrate fractions were separated in the haemolymph, among which glycogen, trehalose and glucose were identified; the most concentrated of the 4 remaining unknown fractions, exhibits a s ...19863030517
characterization of the genes encoding the haemolytic toxin and the mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.the crystalline parasporal inclusions (crystals) of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (bti), which are specifically toxic to mosquito and black fly larvae, contain three main polypeptides of 28 kda, 68 kda and 130 kda. the genes encoding the 28 kda protein and the 130 kda protein have been cloned from a large plasmid of bti. escherichia-coli recombinant clones containing the 130 kda protein gene were highly active against larvae of aedes aegypti and culex pipiens, while b. subtilis recombinant ...19863031426
[aedes aegypti (l.): importance of its bioecology in the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses. i].the bioecological parameters which are of special importance in the epidemiology of dengue, yellow fever, and other arboviruses are discussed. three levels are retained: the nature of aedes aegypti-man contacts, the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen and multiplication of the latter, and the transmission. the trophic preferences, the density variations, the daily survival rate, the egg diapause, and man influences are the main vector-dependent ecological factors. temperature and gene ...19883042180
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