[potential of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis berliner for controlling aedes aegypti].the importance of the entomopathogenic bacterium bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the control of aedes aegypti is presented. the use and potential of b. thuringiensis israelensis against the mosquito vector of dengue fever is described. other aspects such as insect's resistance development against chemicals and advantages and constraints of using microbial control are discussed. emphasis is given to the importance of the use of this bacterium in brazil, which could contribute significantly ...200314666315
cry29a and cry30a: two novel delta-endotoxins isolated from bacillus thuringiensis serovar medellin.two novel crystal protein genes from a highly mosquitocidal bacillus thuringiensis serovar medellin strain were cloned and sequenced. the corresponding proteins, cry29a and cry30a, were nontoxic when tested individually against the mosquito species bioassayed (aedes aegypti, culex pipiens and anopheles stephensi). however, cry29a synergized the toxicity of cry11bb against aedes aegypti by a four-fold factor.200314666976
raised houses reduce mosquito bites.background: in many parts of continental africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. in contrast, many houses in são tomé, 140 km off the coast of gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age comp ...200314667242
an external loop region of domain iii of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein is involved in serotype-specific binding to mosquito but not mammalian cells.dengue virus (dv) is a flavivirus and infects mammalian cells through mosquito vectors. this study investigates the roles of domain iii of dv type 2 envelope protein (eiii) in dv binding to the host cell. recombinant eiii interferes with dv infection to bhk21 and c6/36 cells by blocking dengue virion adsorption to these cells. inhibition of eiii on bhk21 cells was broad with no serotype specificity; however, inhibition of eiii on c6/36 cells was relatively serotype specific. soluble heparin comp ...200414671119
genetic differentiation of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), the major dengue vector in 2000, brazil reported 180,137 cases of dengue, approximately 80% of the total in the americas. however, little is known about gene flow among the vector populations in brazil. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) was used to study the genetic structure of aedes aegypti in 15 populations from five states, with a range extending 2,800 km. an analysis of 47 polymorphic rapd loci estimated gene flow at the macro- (different states) and micro- (different cities) geographical levels. genetic pol ...200314680106
field evaluation of a lethal ovitrap for the control of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in 1999 and 2000 we evaluated a lethal ovitrap (lo) for the control of aedes aegypti (l.) in three villages in ratchaburi province, thailand. two blocks of 50 houses (a minimum of 250 m apart) served as treatment and control sites in each village, with each house in the treatment area receiving 10 los. thirty houses in the center of each treatment and control block were selected as sampling sites, with larval and adult mosquito sampling initiated when los were placed. sampling was conducted week ...200314680111
olfactometric evaluation of spatial repellents for aedes aegypti.the spatial repellency responses of aedes aegypti (l.) to deet, dehydrolinalool and linalool were evaluated using a dual port olfactometer. in the absence of human attractant mixture, each of the three chemicals resulted in activation and/or orientation of mosquitoes to the chemical source. linalool was the most attractive compound. in the presence of human attractant mixture, activation and/or orientation of mosquitoes to each of the three chemicals was reduced. we compared reductions in mosqui ...200314680112
a simple parafilm m-based method for blood-feeding aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).a simple device for blood-feeding aedes (stegomyia) mosquitoes is described. parafilm m is stretched and pressed into fiberglass window screen to form a packet for holding warmed blood. the method has been used successfully to maintain aedes albopictus colonies for >2 yr. in typical blood-feeding trials, 53 +/- 0.8% (+/-se) of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and 31 +/- 6% of ae. albopictus (skuse) fed to repletion.200314680132
characteristics of the spatial pattern of the dengue vector, aedes aegypti, in iquitos, peru.we determine the spatial pattern of aedes aegypti and the containers in which they develop in two neighborhoods of the amazonian city of iquitos, peru. four variables were examined: adult ae. aegypti, pupae, containers positive for larvae or pupae, and all water-holding containers. adults clustered strongly within houses and weakly to a distance of 30 meters beyond the household; clustering was not detected beyond 10 meters for positive containers or pupae. over short periods of time restricted ...200314695086
microevolution and virulence of dengue viruses.the evolution of dengue viruses has had a major impact on their virulence for humans and on the epidemiology of dengue disease around the world. although antigenic and genetic differences in virus strains had become evident, it is mainly due to the lack of animal models of disease that has made it difficult to detect differences in virulence of dengue viruses. however, phylogenetic studies of many different dengue virus samples have led to the association between specific genotypes (within serot ...200314696333
aedes aegypti in brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses.aedes aegypti was eliminated from brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in brazil after 1986. urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. a population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of susceptibility to both yellow fever and dengue 2 viruses was conducted among 23 a. aegypti samples from 13 brazilian ...200414702837
genetic relationships among populations of aedes aegypti in taiwan by using phenotypic and random amplified dna-polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene flow was conducted among collections of aedes aegypti from 7 localities along the southwestern and southeastern coasts in taiwan. markers include 7 types of scaling patterns and 23 random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) loci amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. differences in scaling pattern and in the frequencies of rapd markers were detected among populations and cluster analyses revealed 2 main groups on each side of the central mountain range. regression analysis ...200314710733
age-dependent bloodfeeding of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus on artificial and living order to quantify age-dependent acquisition of a bloodmeal, we compared bloodfeeding patterns of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus starting from the time of first responsiveness to a bloodmeal up to 15 days postemergence. in separate experiments, cohorts of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus of known age were offered their first bloodmeal from a silicon-membrane system or a restrained chicken. for cohorts ranging from 3 to 15 days old, the proportions feeding were significantly affected by speci ...200314710735
susceptibility of italian populations of aedes albopictus to temephos and to other insecticides.we evaluated larval and adult susceptibility to 5 insecticides commonly used for control of aedes albopictus, by using 15 field-collected populations from northern and central italy, and we compared these data, collected in 2002, with those from evaluations conducted in 1992-93, 1996, and 1998-99. larvae were tested for susceptibility to temephos and to the conventional diagnostic dosages of chlorpyrifos and fenthion proposed by the world health organization for aedes aegypti. adults were expose ...200314710746
assessing fitness costs for transgenic aedes aegypti expressing the gfp marker and transposase genes.the development of transgenic mosquitoes that are refractory to the transmission of human diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever has received much interest due to the ability to transform a number of vector mosquito species with transposable elements. transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been generated with molecular techniques that exhibit a reduced capacity to transmit pathogens. these advancements have led to questions regarding the fitness of transgenic mosquitoes and the abilit ...200414711992
comparative susceptibility to oral infection with dengue viruses among local strains of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) collected at different seasons of the year.the vector competence of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes, collected during the hot, rainy and cool seasons from different localities in thailand, was tested for a correlation with a seasonal cyclic pattern of dengue incidence. under laboratory conditions, some groups of mosquitoes exhibited differences in susceptibility to oral infection but showed no correlation to dengue cases that peak during the rainy season. thus, the environmental conditions of each season, although they might affect a tempo ...200314714664
seasonal prevalence and container preferences of aedes albopictus in santo domingo city, dominican republic.the seasonal prevalence and container preferences of aedes albopictus (skuse) were studied in the park, parque mirador del norte in santo domingo city, dominican republic, from january to december 1994. tire ovitraps were set along a transect through the park and monitored weekly while two larval surveys were conducted in both the park and surrounding houses using standard entomological methodology. no seasonal pattern of oviposition was observed with similar numbers of positive tire traps colle ...200314714670
dengue-1 virus isolation during first dengue fever outbreak on easter island, chile.dengue virus was detected for the first time in chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on easter island. the virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1.200314718094
global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. while climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are o ...200414726459
epidemiological and entomological surveillance of the co-circulation of den-1, den-2 and den-4 viruses in french guiana.we surveyed the disease epidemiology of dengue in french guiana after the first dengue haemorrhagic fever epidemic from 1991 to 1993 and during an endemic period from 1993 to 1995. den-1, den-2 and den-4 viruses were isolated from patients and den-4 was also isolated from aedes aegypti mosquitoes. cases of dengue were reported from all over the country, not only from urban areas, but also from rural areas and isolated human settlements, indicating widespread circulation of the viruses. the mosqu ...200414728605
characterization of an aedes aegypti bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library and chromosomal assignment of bac clones for physical mapping quantitative trait loci that influence plasmodium susceptibility.previous studies have confirmed a genetic basis for susceptibility of mosquitoes to plasmodium parasites. here we describe our efforts to characterize a bacterial artificial chromosome genomic library for the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, and to identify bac clones containing genetic markers that define quantitative trait loci (qtl) for plasmodium gallinaceum susceptibility. this library (ndl) was prepared from the ae. aegypti liverpool strain and consists of 50 304 clones arrayed in 384 ...200414728665
development of a new sindbis virus transducing system and its characterization in three culicine mosquitoes and two lepidopteran species.alphavirus transducing systems (atss) are alphavirus-based tools for expressing genes in insects. here we describe an ats (5'dsmre16ic) based entirely on sindbis mre16 virus. gfp expression was used to characterize alimentary tract infections and dissemination in three culicine and two lepidopteran species. following per os infection, 5'dsmre16ic-egfp efficiently infected aedes aegypti and culex tritaeniorhynchus, but not culex pipiens pipiens. ae. aegypti clearly showed accumulation of green fl ...200414728670
human transportation influences aedes aegypti gene flow in southeast asia.estimates of population genetic organization and gene flow of aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue viruses, have provided insights into dengue epidemiology. to assess the role of the vector in the changing pattern of dengue in southeast asia, extensive studies on the genetic differentiation of aedes aegypti have been carried out. among them, vector differentiation has been estimated for cambodia, thailand and south vietnam using microsatellite markers. analysis showed that there was less gen ...200414739019
comparative delta-endotoxins of bacillus thuringiensis against mosquito vectors (aedes aegypti and culex pipiens).pure crystals of seven bacillus thuringiensis field isolates from the lower silesia region (poland) were tested against larvae of aedes aegypti l. and culex pipiens l. (culicidae, diptera). the crystals of opq3 phylloplane isolate (belonging to the first biochemical type of b. thuringiensis subsp. japonensis, yoso, jinghongiensis) killed from 68 +/- 7% to 84 +/- 7% of the fourth instar larvae of a. aegypti. the crystals of two other strains (kpf3 and kpc1) of this group caused mortality between ...200314743982
allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the african malaria vector anopheles gambiae.background: removal of exhaled air from total body emanations or artificially standardising carbon dioxide (co2) outputs has previously been shown to eliminate differential attractiveness of humans to certain blackfly (simuliidae) and mosquito (culicidae) species. whether or not breath contributes to between-person differences in relative attractiveness to the highly anthropophilic malaria vector anopheles gambiae sensu stricto remains unknown and was the focus of the present study. methods: the ...200414748930
convergent habitat segregation of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in southeastern brazil and florida.during the rainy season of 2001, the incidence of the dengue vectors aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus was examined in different habitats of two cities (rio de janeiro and nova iguaçu) in rio de janeiro state, brazil, and in two cities (palm beach and boca raton) in florida. oviposition trap collections were performed in urban, suburban, and rural habitats in both areas. our hypothesis that the abundances and frequencies of occurrence of ae. aegypti and ae albopictus are affected in opposite ways ...200314765654
contact toxicity and residual activity of different permethrin-based fabric impregnation methods for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), and lepisma saccharina (thysanura: lepismatidae).the effectiveness and residual activities of permethrin-impregnated military battle dress uniforms were evaluated by comparing a new company-manufactured ready-to-use polymer-coating method with two "dipping methods" that are currently used to treat uniforms. residual permethrin amounts and remaining contact toxicities on treated fabrics before and after up to 100 launderings were tested against aedes aegypti (l.), ixodes ricinus (l.), and lepisma saccharina (l.). the residual amount of permethr ...200314765673
enhanced vector competence of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from the torres strait compared with mainland australia for dengue 2 and 4 viruses.australian aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes colonized from the torres strait and three mainland localities (charters towers, townsville, and cairns) were fed on blood suspensions containing dengue virus type 2 (den-2) or dengue virus type 4 (den-4). variation was found in oral susceptibility to den-2 (59 -99% infection) and den-4 (28-79% infection) among ae. aegypti assayed for virus at 8, 12, 16, or 20 d after ingestion of infected blood. torres strait ae. aegypti were the most susceptible to den- ...200314765675
[a game as an educational strategy for the control of aedes aegypti in venezuelan schoolchildren].to assess the value of a game known as jugando en salud: dengue [playing for health: dengue] as a teaching/learning tool leading to the incorporation of schoolchildren enrolled in secondary school in the control of aedes aegypti and dengue prevention activities in the municipality of girardot, aragua state, venezuela.200314769156
a method of infecting aedes aegypti with plasmodium gallinaceum from chick embryos. 195014795205
studies on plasmodium gallinaceum. i. characteristics of the infection in the mosquito, aedes aegypti. 195114846794
studies on plasmodium gallinaceum. iv. a comparison of the susceptibility of aedes aegypti, anopheles quadrimaculatus and anopheles freeborni. 195214933391
the mechanism of the transmission of myxomatosis in the european rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) by the mosquito aedes aegypti. 195214934625
"plus-c" odorant-binding protein genes in two drosophila species and the malaria mosquito anopheles gambiae.olfaction plays a crucial role in many aspects of insect behaviour, including host selection by agricultural pests and vectors of human disease. insect odorant-binding proteins (obps) are thought to function as the first step in molecular recognition and the transport of semiochemicals. the whole genome sequence of the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster has been completed and a large number of genes have been annotated as obps, based on the presence of six conserved cysteine residues and a conser ...200414960367
genotoxic evaluation of the organophosphorous pesticide temephos.the chemical compound temephos (0,0,0',0'-tetrametyl-0,0'-thiodi-p-phenylene phosphorothioate) is an organophosphorous pesticide that has been used in brazil since 1967 in control campaigns against the mosquito aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever. we used single cell gel electrophoresis (scge), sos/umu and ames/salmonella assays to test the toxicity and mutagenicity of temephos. temephos was genotoxic in the scge assay, inducing severe dna lesions (type iv lesions) at doses abov ...200214963843
analysis of the replication kinetics of the chimerivax-den 1, 2, 3, 4 tetravalent virus mixture in aedes aegypti by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.the vector competence of mosquitoes for chimeric viruses being developed as vaccines to protect against dengue (den) virus infection were evaluated in a cooperative agreement with acambis, inc. chimeric viruses have been constructed that contain the premembrane (prm) and envelope (e) genes of each of the wild-type (wt) den virus serotypes, den-1, den-2, den-3, and den-4, in the yellow fever (yf) vaccine virus (strain 17d) yf-vax backbone. it was previously shown that the replication profile of c ...200414971704
genetic, biochemical, and structural characterization of a new densovirus isolated from a chronically infected aedes albopictus c6/36 cell line.we report the isolation, sequencing, biochemical, and structural characterization of a previously undescribed virus in a chronically infected aedes albopictus c6/36 cell line. this virus is identified as a new densovirus under the densovirinae subfamily of the parvoviridae based on its biological and morphologic properties as well as sequence homologies, and is tentatively designated a. albopictus c6/36 cell densovirus (c6/36 dnv). analysis of the 4094 nt of the c6/36 dnv genome revealed that th ...200414972541
efficacy of vectobac (bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis) formulations for mosquito control in australia.laboratory bioassays were conducted on the efficacy of a water-dispersible granule (wg) formulation of bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (vectobac wg; active ingredient [ai]: 3,000 bti international toxic units [itu]/mg) against third instars of six common australian mosquito species, aedes aegypti (l.), ochlerotatus vigilax (skuse), ochlerotatus notoscriptus (skuse), culex sitiens wiedemann, culex annulirostris skuse, and culex quinquefasciatus say. the normal model for log-linear mort ...200314977116
triatoma infestans apyrases belong to the 5'-nucleotidase family.apyrases are nucleoside triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases (ec present in a variety of organisms. the apyrase activity found in the saliva of hematophagous insects is correlated with the prevention of adp-induced platelet aggregation of the host during blood sucking. purification of apyrase activity from the saliva of the triatomine bug triatoma infestans was achieved by affinity chromatography on oligo(dt)-cellulose and gel filtration chromatography. the isolated fraction includes five n ...200414985353
intraspecific dna variation in nuclear genes of the mosquito aedes aegypti.single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) are an abundant source of genetic variation among individual organisms. to assess the usefulness of snps for genome analysis in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, we sequenced 25 nuclear genes in each of three strains and analysed nucleotide diversity. the average frequency of nucleotide variation was 12 snps per kilobase, indicating that nucleotide variation in ae. aegypti is similar to that in other organisms, including drosophila and the malaria v ...200314986924
[community participation in the control of aedes aegypti: opinions of the population in one section of havana, cuba].to analyze opinions on community participation held by residents of one section of the city of havana, cuba, in order to identify key criteria to use in preparing a participatory strategy for controlling the aedes aegypti mosquito.200414987454
entomological investigations in a focus of dengue transmission in cairns, queensland, australia, by using the sticky ovitraps.sticky ovitraps (patent pending) were used to sample female aedes aegypti (l.) weekly in a focus of dengue activity in cairns, queensland, australia. in february 2003, transmission of dengue virus serotype 2 began in the suburb of parramatta park, peaking in mid-march 2003. this suburb features many older, unscreened houses with high populations of ae. aegypti. highest densities (2-3.5 females per trap per week) were obtained during peak dengue transmission (january and february) before mosquito ...200414989339
comparison of the transmission potential of two genetically distinct sindbis viruses after oral infection of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).within mosquitoes, arboviruses encounter barriers to infection and dissemination that are critical determinants of vector competence. the molecular mechanisms responsible for these barriers have yet to be elucidated. the prototype sindbis (sin) strain, ar339, and viruses derived from this strain, such as tr339 virus, have limited infection and transmission potential in the medically important arthropod vector, aedes aegypti (l.). however, the malaysian sin virus strain, mre16, disseminates in ne ...200414989352
interferon-dependent immunity is essential for resistance to primary dengue virus infection in mice, whereas t- and b-cell-dependent immunity are less critical.dengue virus (den) causes dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, which are major public health problems worldwide. the immune factors that control den infection or contribute to severe disease are neither well understood nor easy to examine in humans. in this study, we used wild-type and congenic mice lacking various components of the immune system to study the immune mechanisms in the response to den infection. our results demonstrate that alpha/beta interferon (ifn-al ...200414990690
evaluation of the sensitivity of aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to two insect repellents: deet and kbr 3023.we conducted laboratory tests to assess the sensitivity to the insect repellent 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, 1-methylpropylester (known as kbr 3023 or picaridin, trade name bayrepel) of west african strains of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti and of malaria vectors of the anopheles gambiae complex, in comparison with the standard repellent n,n-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (deet). test mosquitoes were exposed according to a 'separate arms' protocol to logarithmic dose in ...200414996361
toxicity of vectolex (bacillus sphaericus) products to selected australian mosquito and nontarget species.laboratory and field bioassay studies were conducted in southeast queensland, australia, on the efficacy of vectolex control granule (cg; active ingredient [ai]:50 bacillus sphaericus [b.s.] international toxic units [itu]/mg) and vectolex water dispersible granule (wdg) (ai: 650 b.s. itu/mg) formulations against third-instar larvae of culex annulirostris skuse, culex quinquefasciatus say, culex sitiens wiedemann, ochlerotatus rigilax (skuse), ochlerotatus. notoscriptus (skuse), and aedes aegypt ...200414998127
reconstruction of bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis cry11a endotoxin from fragments corresponding to its n- and c-moieties restores its original biological activity.subtilisin hydrolyzes cry11a endotoxin (of 70 kd) produced by bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis to fragments of 33- and 36-kd, which correspond to n- and c-terminal halves of the endotoxin molecule. thermitase (a serine protease from thermoactinomyces vulgaris) and insect gut proteases from diptera and lepidoptera exhibit the same hydrolytic effect on cry11a. hydrolyzates maintain high toxicity with respect to larvae of aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi, and culex pipiens. the 33- and 36- ...200415000685
inhibition of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in mosquitoes: effect of allatostatic head factors, piscf- and yxfgl-amide-allatostatins.we investigated the role of head factors and allatostatins (ass) on the regulation of juvenile hormone (jh) synthesis in female adult mosquito. the biosynthetic activity of the aedes aegypti corpora allata (ca) in vitro was inhibited by factors present in the head. disconnecting the ca from the brain resulted in a significant increase in the rate of jh biosynthesis. inhibition was not dependent on intact nervous connections; co-incubation of ca with brains or brain extracts resulted in a signifi ...200415003834
physiology and nutrition of treponema primitia, an h2/co2-acetogenic spirochete from termite hindguts.treponema primitia strains zas-1 and zas-2, the first spirochetes to be isolated from termite hindguts (j. r. leadbetter, t. m. schmidt, j. r. graber, and j. a. breznak, science 283:686-689, 1999), were examined for nutritional, physiological, and biochemical properties relevant to growth and survival in their natural habitat. in addition to using h(2) plus co(2) as substrates, these strains were capable of homoacetogenic growth on mono- and disaccharides and (in the case of zas-2) methoxylated ...200415006747
the naturally derived insecticide spinosad is highly toxic to aedes and anopheles mosquito larvae.spinosad is a naturally derived biorational insecticide with an environmentally favourable toxicity profile, so we investigated its potency against mosquito larvae (diptera: culicidae). by laboratory bioassays of a suspension concentrate formulation of spinosad (tracer), the 24 h lethal concentration (lc50) against aedes aegypti (l.) third and fourth instars was estimated at 0.025 p.p.m. following logit regression. the concentration-mortality response of third- and fourth-instar anopheles albima ...200415009445
isonicotinic acid hydrazide: an anti-tuberculosis drug inhibits malarial transmission in the mosquito gut.we studied the transmission-blocking effect of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (inh), a widely used anti-tuberculosis drug, against plasmodium gallinaceum and plasmodium berghei. inh-treatment of infected animals did not inhibit parasite development in the blood of the vertebrate host, but did inhibit exflagellation, ookinete formation, and oocyst development in the mosquito. oocyst development was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. the ed(50) in the p. gallinaceum/chicken/aedes aegypti model and ...200415013786
a highly conserved candidate chemoreceptor expressed in both olfactory and gustatory tissues in the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.anopheles gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito responsible for the majority of malaria transmission in africa. the biting and host preference behavior of this disease vector is largely influenced by its sense of smell, which is presumably facilitated by g protein-coupled receptor signaling [takken, w. & knols, b. (1999) annu. rev. entomol. 44, 131-157]. because of the importance of host preference to the mosquitoes' ability to transmit disease, we have initiated studies intended to elucid ...200415037749
haematozoan parasites of the lizard ameiva ameiva (teiidae) from amazonian brazil: a preliminary note.three different haematozoan parasites are described in the blood of the teiid lizard ameiva ameiva linn. from north brazil: one in the monocytes and the other two in erythrocytes. the leucocytic parasite is probably a species of lainsonia landau, 1973 (lankesterellidae) as suggested by the presence of sporogonic stages in the internal organs, morphology of the blood forms (sporozoites), and their survival and accumulation in macrophages of the liver. one of the erythrocytic parasites produces en ...200315049092
reassessing the role of defensin in the innate immune response of the mosquito, aedes aegypti.defensin is the predominant inducible immune peptide in aedes aegypti. in spite of its activity against gram-positive bacteria in vitro, defensin expression is detected in mosquitoes inoculated with gram-positive or negative bacteria, or with filarial worms. defensin transcription and expression are dependent upon bacterial dose; however, translation is inconsistent with transcription because peptide is detectable only in mosquitoes inoculated with large doses. in vitro translation assays provid ...200415056359
dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity.dengue is an expanding public health problem, and an effective vaccine remains elusive. this review discusses how the significant influence of sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes on the severity of disease can be viewed in terms of beneficial and detrimental effects of heterologous immunity. a more complete understanding of these effects is likely to be critical for predicting optimal vaccine-induced immune responses.200415057297
in vivo binding of the cry11bb toxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin to the midgut of mosquito larvae (diptera: culicidae).bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kda known as cry11bb, has mosquitocidal activity. the mode of action of the cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. in this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the cry11bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species anopheles albimanus, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. spodopte ...200415057351
emerging infectious diseases.human population growth, technological advances, and changing social behaviors lead to the selection of new microbial pathogens. antimicrobial drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments for emerging infectious diseases must be developed. the selective forces that drive the emergence of new infectious diseases, and the implications for our survival, are just beginning to be understood.200415067308
rna interference, arthropod-borne viruses, and mosquitoes.rna interference (rnai) probably functions as an antiviral mechanism in most eukaryotic organisms. variations in the activity of this antiviral pathway in mosquitoes could explain, in part, why some mosquitoes are competent vectors of medically important, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and others are not. there are three lines of evidence that show the rnai pathway exists in aedes species that transmit arboviruses. the first is that recombinant sindbis viruses expressing a rna fragment fr ...200415068882
plasmodium ookinete-secreted proteins secreted through a common micronemal pathway are targets of blocking malaria transmission.the mosquito midgut ookinete stage of the malaria parasite, plasmodium, possesses microneme secretory organelles that mediate locomotion and midgut wall egress to establish sporogonic stages and subsequent transmission. the purpose of this study was 2-fold: 1) to determine whether there exists a single micronemal population with respect to soluble and membrane-associated secreted proteins; and 2) to evaluate the ookinete micronemal proteins chitinase (pgcht1), circumsporozoite and trap-related p ...200415069061
comparative genome analysis of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti with drosophila melanogaster and the malaria vector mosquito anopheles in silico comparative genomics approach was used to identify putative orthologs to genetically mapped genes from the mosquito, aedes aegypti, in the drosophila melanogaster and anopheles gambiae genome databases. comparative chromosome positions of 73 d. melanogaster orthologs indicated significant deviations from a random distribution across each of the five a. aegypti chromosomal regions, suggesting that some ancestral chromosome elements have been conserved. however, the two genomes also r ...200415073225
dengue vector prevalence and virus infection in a rural area in south india.we conducted a 2-year (1997-1999) longitudinal, entomological and virological study in three dengue endemic villages in vellore district, tamil nadu, to understand the dynamics of dengue transmission. aedes aegypti (linn.), ae. albopictus (skuse) and ae. vittatus (bigot) were the prevalent vector species. aedes aegypti was breeding throughout the year with a breteau index ranging from 9.05 to 45.49. aedes albopictus and ae. vittatus were prevalent mainly in the rainy season. small water holding ...200415078269
identification of chimpanzee fab fragments by repertoire cloning and production of a full-length humanized immunoglobulin g1 antibody that is highly efficient for neutralization of dengue type 4 virus.a safe and effective dengue vaccine is still not available. passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies from humans or nonhuman primates represents an attractive alternative for the prevention of dengue virus infection. fab monoclonal antibodies to dengue type 4 virus (denv-4) were recovered by repertoire cloning of bone marrow mrnas from an immune chimpanzee and analyzed for antigen binding specificity, v(h) and v(l) sequences, and neutralizing activity against denv-4 in vitro. fabs 5a7, 3c ...200415078949
safety and efficacy of chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus tetravalent vaccine formulations in nonhuman construct chimeric yf/den viruses (chimerivax-den), the premembrane (prm) and envelope (e) genes of yellow fever (yf) 17d virus were replaced with those of each wild-type (wt) dengue (den) virus representing serotypes 1 to 4. chimerivax-den1-4 vaccine viruses were prepared by electroporation of vero cells with rna transcripts prepared from viral cdna (f. guirakhoo, j. arroyo, k. v. pugachev, c. miller, z.-x. zhang, r. weltzin, k. georgakopoulos, j. catalan, s. ocran, k. soike, m. ratteree, an ...200415078958
evaluation of surveillance devices for monitoring aedes aegypti in an urban area of northeastern this study, we assessed the efficacy of the american biophysics corporation standard professional (abc-pro) light trap, the omni-directional fay-prince trap (with and without co2), and the centers for disease control and prevention wilton trap as a means of evaluating populations of adult aedes aegypti in an urban area of northeastern peru. efficacies of collections from each of the trap types were compared to backpack-aspirator collections and human-landing collections. collections were cond ...200415088699
procedures for the evaluation of field efficacy of slow-release formulations of larvicides against aedes aegypti in water-storage thailand, water-storage jars, barrels, drums, pails, and tanks constitute vast developmental sites for aedes aegypti in urban, semiurban, and rural areas. earthen water jars, cement jars, and concrete tanks constitute the greatest proportion of artificial containers where ae. aegypti breed. this species is a major vector of the causal agents of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, and vector control by larviciding is one of the main approaches to disease control. at present, temephos sand gra ...200415088706
studies on dengue in rural areas of kurnool district, andhra pradesh, india.a dengue case was reported for the 1st time in a rural area of kurnool district, andhra pradesh, india. entomological and serological investigations were carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue vectors and dengue virus. aedes aegypti was recorded for the 1st time in rural areas of andhra pradesh. breeding of ae. aegypti was observed only in containers with nonpotable water. cement cisterns and tanks, stone tubs, and clay pots were the major breeding habitats of ae. aegypti. larval indi ...200415088710
effect of temperature stress on immature stages and susceptibility of aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus.a high temperature stress of 44.5 degrees c for 10 minutes on the larval stages was found to affect the susceptibility of adult aedes aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya virus. at this temperature, the mortality of the mosquito larvae was found to be approximately 95%, whereas a temperature greater than 45 degrees c for 10 minutes was found to be lethal. a temperature tolerant (tt) strain was developed by exposing the larvae to a temperature of 44.5 degrees c for 10 minutes at every generation for ...200415100445
is new zealand prepared to deal with arboviral diseases?to now, new zealand has been spared arboviral diseases, except for the odd imported infection. however, two exotic vector mosquitoes (ochlerotatus camptorhynchus and ochlerotatus notoscriptus) have become established in new zealand and the routine arrival of infected people from overseas may soon lead to local arboviral transmission. large populations of wild wallabies and brushtail possums could serve as reservoirs of ross river virus and other arboviruses. several other exotic mosquito species ...200415108743
acute spotted fever rickettsiosis among febrile patients, cameroon.although potential arthropod vectors are abundant in cameroon, acute febrile illnesses are rarely evaluated for arboviral or rickettsial infections. serum samples from 234 acutely febrile patients at clinics in tiko and buea, cameroon, were examined for antibodies to rickettsia africae and african alphaviruses and flaviviruses. these serum samples did not contain antibodies against typhoid, and blood malarial parasites were not detected. serum samples of 32% contained immunoglobulin m antibodies ...200415109409
the antibacterial innate immune response by the mosquito aedes aegypti is mediated by hemocytes and independent of gram type and pathogenicity.previous mosquito studies showed that the hemocyte-mediated innate immune response against gram- escherichia coli is phagocytosis, but against gram+ micrococcus sp., is melanization. we examined the immune responses mounted by aedes aegypti towards gram- enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and salmonella typhimurium, and gram+ bacillus cereus, enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus, and staphylococcus epidermidis. using light microscopy, electron microscopy ...200415109959
the plant virus tomato spotted wilt tospovirus activates the immune system of its main insect vector, frankliniella occidentalis.tospoviruses have the ability to infect plants and their insect vectors. tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), the type species in the tospovirus genus, infects its most important insect vector, frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips (wft). however, no detrimental effects on the life cycle or cytopathological changes have been reported in the wft after tswv infection, and relatively few viral particles can be observed even several days after infection. we hypothesized that tswv infect ...200415113877
larval habitats and distribution patterns of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and aedes albopictus (skuse), in thailand.this study was conducted to survey larval breeding habitats and to obtain larval abundance during the dry period covering all 5 geographical zones of thailand. our results indicated aedes aegypri is prevalent all over the country, whereas aedes albopictus is more restricted to the remote area of the south. water storage containers, especially water jars, served as a main larval breeding habitats of ae. aegypti, whereas broken cans and plastic containers are considered primary breeding sites for ...200315115122
genetic heterogeneity of the dengue vector aedes aegypti in martinique, aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue viruses has been the target of insecticide control for more than 35 years. despite significant control efforts, dengue has become a major disease of public health concern. we conducted a population genetic analysis based on isoenzyme variations combined with an estimation of infection rate to a dengue virus among 26 ae. aegypti samples. aedes aegypti samples could be differentiated for their susceptibility to dengue infection (infection rates ra ...200415117302
biolarvicides in vector control: challenges and prospects.biolarvicides, based on mosquitocidal toxins of certain strains of bacillus sphaericus and bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis h-14 (bti) are highly effective against mosquito larvae at very low doses and safe to other non-target organisms. during past two decades various biolarvicide formulations produced in india and abroad have been tested at malaria research centre and some formulations have undergone large-scale operational trials. biolarvicide formulations of b. sphaericus are useful in ...200315119068
variation over space and time of aedes aegypti in phnom penh (cambodia): genetic structure and oral susceptibility to a dengue virus.we studied spatial and temporal variation in 20-23 aedes aegypti samples collected in phnom penh and its suburbs to estimate the population genetic structure using allozymes and the susceptibility to a dengue-2 virus. based on seven allozyme systems, we detected low levels of genetic exchanges (i.e. high, significant f(st) values) between populations collected in the city centre, and different patterns of genetic structure for samples collected in the suburbs, depending on the type of environmen ...200315134196
optimised expression in escherichia coli and purification of the functional form of the bacillus thuringiensis cry4aa delta-endotoxin.achieving high-level expression of the bacillus thuringiensis cry4aa mosquito-larvicidal protein was demonstrated. the 130-kda cry4aa protoxin was overexpressed as an inclusion body in escherichia coli under the control of the tac promoter together with the cry4ba promoter. the solubility of the toxin inclusions in carbonate buffer, ph 10.0, was markedly enhanced at a cultivation temperature of 30 degrees c. elimination of the tryptic cleavage site at arg-235 in the loop between helices 5 and 6 ...200415135419
characterization of a sterol carrier protein 2/3-oxoacyl-coa thiolase from the cotton leafworm (spodoptera littoralis): a lepidopteran mechanism closer to that in mammals than that in dipterans.numerous invertebrate species belonging to several phyla cannot synthesize sterols de novo and rely on a dietary source of the compound. scpx (sterol carrier protein 2/3-oxoacyl-coa thiolase) is a protein involved in the trafficking of sterols and oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. we have isolated scpx protein from spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm) and have subjected it to limited amino acid sequencing. a reverse-transcriptase pcr-based approach has been used to clone the cdna (1.9 ...200415149283
mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts.arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. the consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences.200415151700
stage-specific expression of two actin genes in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.abstract the expression patterns of two muscle-specific actin genes were studied in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. the coding sequence of aeact-2 exhibits between 82 and 85% similarity with coding sequences of the drosophila melanogaster and predicted anopheles gambiae actin genes. the transcription of the aeact-2 gene was differentially regulated during developmental stages with higher levels of expression in larvae and lower levels in pupae and adults. the aeact-2 gene is mainly exp ...200415157225
nodamura virus nonstructural protein b2 can enhance viral rna accumulation in both mammalian and insect cells.during infection of both vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines, the alphanodavirus nodamura virus (nov) expresses two nonstructural proteins of different lengths from the b2 open reading frame. the functions of these proteins have yet to be determined, but b2 of the related flock house virus suppresses rna interference both in drosophila cells and in transgenic plants. to examine whether the nov b2 proteins had similar functions, we compared the replication of wild-type nov rna with that of mut ...200415163762
enhancement of cry19aa mosquitocidal activity against aedes aegypti by mutations in the putative loop regions of domain ii.improvements in the mosquitocidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis cry19aa were achieved by protein engineering of putative surface loop residues in domain ii through rational design. the improvement of aedes toxicity in cry19aa was 42,000-fold and did not affect its toxicity against anopheles or culex.200415184189
comparative resistance of anopheles albimanus and aedes aegypti to n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide (ai3-37220) in laboratory human-volunteer repellent assays.the insect repellents n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and the racemate and 1s,2's stereoisomer of 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (ai3-37220) were tested against anopheles albimanus wiedemann and aedes aegypti (l.) in laboratory human-volunteer assays. estimated skin doses of deet or racemic ai3-37220 required to reduce biting by 95% in ae. aegypti were 2.3 and 3.5 x 10(-2) micromol/cm2 skin, respectively, whereas estimated doses for 95% bite reduction of an. albimanus in an ...200415185944
laboratory and simulated field evaluation of a new recombinant of bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and bacillus sphaericus against culex mosquito larvae (diptera: culicidae).in the laboratory, three microbial mosquito larvicidal products consisting of bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis de barjac (bti), bacillus sphaericus (neide) (bsph) (strain 2362), and the university of california riverside (ucr) recombinant (producing toxins of both bacillus sphaericus and bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis) were bioassayed against larvae of culex quinequefasciatus say (susceptible and resistant to bsph 2362), and aedes aegypti (l.). bti proved highly effective against ...200415185945
ectopic expression of a cecropin transgene in the human malaria vector mosquito anopheles gambiae (diptera: culicidae): effects on susceptibility to plasmodium.genetically altering the disease vector status of insects using recombinant dna technologies is being considered as an alternative to eradication efforts. manipulating the endogenous immune response of mosquitoes such as the temporal and special expression of antimicrobial peptides like cecropin may result in a refractory phenotype. using transgenic technology a unique pattern of expression of cecropin a (ceca) in anopheles gambiae was created such that ceca was expressed beginning 24 h after a ...200415185949
evaluation of a sampling methodology for rapid assessment of aedes aegypti infestation levels in iquitos, epidemic of dengue during 2001 in northwestern peru reemphasized the need for efficient, accurate, and economical vector surveillance. between november 1998 and january 1999, we carried out extensive entomological surveys in two neighborhoods of approximately 600 contiguous houses located in the amazonian city of iquitos, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the aedes aegypti (l.) rapid assessment survey strategy. based on pan american health organization recommendations, this strategy ...200415185957
key premises, a guide to aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) surveillance and control.the population densities of aedes aegypti linneaus in four towns in trinidad were studied using standard house-to-house inspections of all water-holding containers to determine whether persistently positive containers and premises existed over a three-month period in the wet season, from may to july 2002. from a total of 1503 houses inspected, 223 were positive with 41 persistently positive over the three month period and classified as 'key premises'. the definition of the term key premises is d ...200415191621
identification of a chemosensory receptor from the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, that is highly conserved and expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs.aedes aegypti is a highly anthropophilic mosquito responsible for the transmission of dengue and yellow fever around the world. like other mosquitoes, the biting and host preference behaviors of this disease vector are largely influenced by its sense of smell, which is presumably facilitated by g protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades. here, we report the identification and characterization of aaor7, the first candidate odorant receptor from ae. aegypti. this receptor displays extremely hig ...200415201207
virulence reaction norms across a food interactions involve competition for nutritional resources between hosts and the parasites growing within them. consuming part of a host's resources is one cause of a parasite's virulence, i.e. part of the fitness cost imposed on the host by the parasite. the influence of a host's nutritional conditions on the virulence of a parasite was experimentally tested using the mosquito aedes aegypti and the microsporidian parasite vavraia culicis. a condition-dependent expression of virule ...200415209108
sequences of flavivirus-related rna viruses persist in dna form integrated in the genome of aedes spp. mosquitoes.flavivirus-related sequences have been discovered in the dsdna genome of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti mosquitoes, demonstrating for the first time an integration into a eukaryotic genome of a multigenic sequence from an rna virus that replicates without a recognized dna intermediate. in the aedes albopictus c6/36 cell line, an open reading frame (orf) of 1557 aa with protease/helicase and polyprotein processing domains characteristic of flaviviruses was identified. it is closely related to ...200415218182
longitudinal studies of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in thailand and puerto rico: population dynamics.aspiration collections of adult aedes aegypti (l.) were made weekly from inside and outside of houses for 3 yr in a rural thai village (n = 9,637 females and n = 11,988 males) and for 2 yr in a residential section of san juan, puerto rico (n = 5,941 females and n = 6,739 males). in thailand, temperature and rainfall fell into distinct seasonal categories, but only temperature was correlated with fluctuations in female abundance. average weekly temperature 6 wk before mosquitoes were collected an ...200015218910
longitudinal studies of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in thailand and puerto rico: blood feeding frequency.we used a histologic technique to study multiple blood feeding in a single gonotrophic cycle by engorged aedes aegypti (l.) that were collected weekly for 2 yr from houses in a rural village in thailand (n = 1,891) and a residential section of san juan, puerto rico (n = 1,675). overall, mosquitoes from thailand contained significantly more multiple meals (n = 1,300, 42% double meals, 5% triple meals) than mosquitoes collected in puerto rico (n = 1,156, 32% double meals, 2% triple meals). the por ...200015218911
analyses of cis -acting elements that affect the transposition of mos1 mariner transposons in vivo.the left (5') inverted terminal repeat (itr) of the mos1 mariner transposable element was altered by site-directed mutagenesis so that it exactly matched the nucleotide sequence of the right (3') itr. the effects on the transposition frequency resulting from the use of two 3' itrs, as well as those caused by the deletion of internal portions of the mos1 element, were evaluated using plasmid-based transposition assays in escherichia coli and aedes aegypti. donor constructs that utilized two 3' it ...200415221453
evaluation of olyset insecticide-treated nets distributed seven years previously in tanzania.insecticide-treated nets represent currently a key malaria control strategy, but low insecticide re-treatment rates remain problematic. olyset nets are currently one of two long-lasting insecticidal nets recommended by who. an assessment was carried out of the effect of olyset nets after seven years of use in rural tanzania.200415225349
the changing epidemiology of yellow fever and dengue, 1900 to 2003: full circle?yellow fever and dengue are old diseases, having caused major epidemics in centuries past. both were effectively controlled in the mid 1900s, yellow fever in francophone africa by vaccination and yellow fever and dengue in the americas by effective control of the principal urban vector of both viruses, aedes aegypti. in the last 25 years of the 20th century, however, there was a resurgence of yellow fever in africa, and of dengue worldwide. the factors responsible for this resurgence are discuss ...200415225982
mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (apium graveolens l.).when the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult aedes aegypti. the hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ed50) and ed95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. only this fraction, which was also found to provide pro ...200415228722
target of rapamycin-mediated amino acid signaling in mosquito anautogeny.mosquitoes generate an enormous burden on human health worldwide. disease-transmitting species use a reproductive strategy, termed anautogeny, that requires a blood meal to initiate egg maturation. whereas this strategy is important for driving disease transmission, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. the production of yolk protein precursors (ypps), a central event in egg maturation, is called vitellogenesis. ypps are synthesized in the fat body, the ...200415229322
chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (cinnamomum osmophloeum kaneh.) were compared. according to gc-ms and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. the larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of ind ...200415237942
influence of breeding sites features on genetic differentiation of aedes aegypti populations analyzed on a local scale in phnom penh municipality of cambodia.this study analyzed genetic differentiation of 20 aedes aegypti populations collected along a street in phnom penh municipality of cambodia. using allozyme and microsatellite variations, we demonstrated that populations were differentiated and the pattern of differentiation was dependent on the type of breeding sites. moreover, insecticide treatments with temephos mostly affect the population functioning of discarded containers. low gene flow detected could limit the natural diffusion of resista ...200415238693
[spatio-temporal variability in the transmission of dengue in buenos aires city].cases of dengue detected in buenos aires city between 1999 and 2000 confirmed the possibility of epidemic outbreaks. the activity of its vector aedes aegypi was monitored to study the spatial and temporal risk of dengue transmission. adult oviposition activity of aedes aegypti showed an heterogeneous spatio-temporal distribution pattern. it was detected between october and may. the vector was detected from spring to fall in the northern, western and southern areas of the city (periphery) and onl ...200415239537
using rna interference to develop dengue virus resistance in genetically modified aedes aegypti.diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses are significant public health problems, and novel methods are needed to control pathogen transmission. we hypothesize that genetic manipulation of aedes aegypti mosquitoes can profoundly and permanently reduce vector competence and subsequent transmission of dengue viruses (denv) to human hosts. we have identified rna interference (rnai) as a potential anti-viral, intracellular pathway in the vector that can be triggered by expression of virus-specific, ...200415242701
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