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first report of the oriental mosquito aedes albopictus on the west african island of bioko, equatorial guinea.the invasive oriental mosquito aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae) was detected on bioko island for the first time in november 2001. it was found to be well established breeding in artificial containers at planta, near malabo, the capital of equatorial guinea. associated species of mosquito larvae were aedes aegypti (l.), ae. africanus (theobald), culex near decens theobald, cx. duttoni theobald, cx. quinquefasciatus say, cx. tigripes de grandpré & de charmoy, eretmapodites ...200312941021
enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus in peru.the prevailing paradigm of yellow fever virus (yfv) ecology in south america is that of wandering epizootics. the virus is believed to move from place to place in epizootic waves involving monkeys and mosquitoes, rather than persistently circulating within particular locales. after a large outbreak of yfv illness in peru in 1995, we used phylogenetic analyses of virus isolates to reexamine the hypothesis of virus movement. we sequenced a 670-nucleotide fragment of the prm/e gene region from 25 p ...200312967489
aedes aegypti ferritin.diseases transmitted by hematophagous (blood-feeding) insects are responsible for millions of human deaths worldwide. in hematophagous insects, the blood meal is important for regulating egg maturation. although a high concentration of iron is toxic for most organisms, hematophagous insects seem unaffected by the iron load in a blood meal. one means by which hematophagous insects handle this iron load is, perhaps, by the expression of iron-binding proteins, specifically the iron storage protein ...200312950250
insecticide susceptibility tests of anopheles minimus s.l., aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus in northern thailand.the susceptibility of anopheles minimus s.l., aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus to insecticide in northern thailand was monitored by using the who standard susceptibility test. one- to two-day old female mosquitos, which were reared from wild caught females or immature stages, were exposed to discriminating dosages of insecticides for recommended exposure periods, and the 24-hour mortality recorded. the results revealed that, in general, an. minimus s.l. was still suscept ...200312971519
diversity of bacillus thuringiensis strains from latin america with insecticidal activity against different mosquito species.the characterization of selected bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from different latin america countries is presented. characterization was based on their insecticidal activity against aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus, and anopheles albimanus larvae, scanning electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and plasmid profiles as well as pcr analysis using novel general and specific primers for cry and cyt genes encoding proteins active against mosquit ...200312957913
introduction of culex toxicity into bacillus thuringiensis cry4ba by protein engineering.bacillus thuringiensis mosquitocidal toxin cry4ba has no significant natural activity against culex quinquefasciatus or culex pipiens (50% lethal concentrations [lc(50)], >80,000 and >20,000 ng/ml, respectively). we introduced amino acid substitutions in three putative loops of domain ii of cry4ba. the mutant proteins were tested on four different species of mosquitoes, aedes aegypti, anopheles quadrimaculatus, c. quinquefasciatus, and c. pipiens. putative loop 1 and 2 exchanges eliminated activ ...200312957922
aedes aegypti in south vietnam: ecology, genetic structure, vectorial competence and resistance to insecticides.in vietnam, dengue hemorrhagic fever has been detected since the 1950s. in southeast asia, urban centers expanded rapidly in an uncontrolled and unplanned way. the aedes aegypti populations and dengue viruses thrived in these new ecological and demographic settings. the result of these changes was a greatly extended geographic distribution, increased densities of ae. aegypti and the maintenance of the four dengue serotypes leading to a dramatic increase in dengue transmission. to assess the role ...200312971518
control of malaria in mauritius; eradication of anopheles funestus and aedes aegypti. 195313077717
studies on the intake of microfilariae by their insect vectors, their survival, and their effect on the survival of their vectors. i. dirofilaria immitis and aëdes aegypti. 195313080982
interaction of insect trypanosomatids with mosquitoes, sand fly and the respective insect cell lines.interaction experiments between hematophagous insects and monoxenous trypanosomatids have become relevant, once cases of human infection involving these protozoa have been reported. moreover, investigations related to the interaction of insects with trypanosomatids that harbour an endosymbiotic bacterium and thereby lack the paraflagellar rod structure are important to elucidate the role of this structure in the adhesion process. in this work, we compared the interaction of endosymbiont-bearing ...200313129523
oviposition activity and seasonal pattern of a population of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in subtropical argentina.monthly oviposition activity and the seasonal density pattern of aedes aegypti were studied using larvitraps and ovitraps during a research carried out by the public health ministry of salta province, in tartagal, aguaray and salvador mazza cities, in subtropical argentina. the a. aegypti population was active in both dry and wet seasons with a peak in march, accordant with the heaviest rainfall. from may to november, the immature population level remained low, but increased in december. ae. aeg ...200312973534
are vectors able to learn about their hosts? a case study with aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the way in which vectors distribute themselves amongst their hosts has important epidemiological consequences. while the role played by active host choice is largely unquestioned, current knowledge relates mostly to the innate response of vectors towards stimuli signalling the presence or quality of their hosts. many of those cues, however, can be unpredictable, and therefore prevent the incorporation of the appropriate response into the vector's behavioural repertoire unless some sort of associ ...200312973535
resistance of aedes aegypti from the state of são paulo, brazil, to organophosphates insecticides.since the reintroduction of aedes aegypti in the state of s o paulo, in the middle of the 1980-decade, organophosphate insecticides are being used to control the dengue vector. in 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. some of the results of this monitoring program are presented. ae. aegypti populations from ten localities have been submitted to bioassays with the diagnostic dose of temephos and fenitrothion. only two (mar li ...200312973541
studies on the north american arthropod-borne encephalitides. vii. estimation of amount of eastern equine encephalitis virus inoculated by infected aedes aegypti. 195413207100
the yellow fever situation in africa.while the twentieth century has produced great developments in the epidemiology of yellow fever and in techniques for its control in urban areas, the essential method of control has not changed: it is still the elimination of the urban vector, aëdes aegypti. the aim of those responsible for yellow fever control in africa should be the eradication of this vector from all urban communities in the endemic area. in the case of sylvan yellow fever, complete control of the vectors is not yet possible, ...195413209300
observation on the biology of west nile virus, with special reference to its behaviour in the mosquito aëdes aegypti. 195413149118
the transmission of semliki forest virus by aedes aegypti. 195413212871
studies on the intake of microfilariae by their insect vectors, their survival, and their effect on the survival of their vectors. vii. further observations on the intake of the microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis by aedes aegypti in laboratory conditions: the pattern of the intake of a group of flies. 195513239083
the comparative morphological and physiological effects of various drugs on the sporogonous cycle of plasmodium gallinaceum in aedes aegypti. 195513271507
[development of dirofilaria immitis leidy 1856 in aedes (stegomyia) aegypti lin. orlando (florida) strain]. 195713489447
biological variations in anopheles darlingi and anopheles gambiae; their effect on practical malaria control in the neotropical region.a remarkable range of variation has been demonstrated in the biting habits of a. darlingi in south america. at the centre of its area of distribution, the species comprises both anthropo-endophilic and zoo-exophilic individuals, but the anthropophilic tendencies increase progressively towards the periphery of its distributional area. conditions of travel and migration, imposed by the south american rain forest, have probably favoured the development of a specialized anthropophilic strain on a ge ...195613404433
[the significance of odor & sweat in the attraction of aedes aegypti to man]. 195713469577
the insecticide-resistance problem: a review of developments in 1956 and 1957.the author reviews the growth of the insecticide-resistance problem throughout the world during the period between july 1956 and november 1957, and the developments in research on the subject during the same period.three new resistant species have been discovered-anopheles subpictus, chrysomyia putoria and rhipicephalus sanguineus-and eight new types of resistance in already resistant species have been observed. moreover, the geographical area covered by certain resistant insect populations has ...195813536795
notes on the encapsulation of dirofilaria immitis in the mosquito aëdes aegypti. 195613362800
arthropod transmission of rabbit papillomatosis.the virus of rabbit papillomatosis, a neoplastic disease studied intensively in relation to cancer because of its tendency toward malignant transformation, has been successfully transmitted by aedes aegypti, rhodnius prolixus, and triatoma infestans from papillomas induced in cottontail rabbits, and by the first species mentioned, from papillomas induced in domestic rabbits. this was accomplished by interrupted feeding, feeding after an interval of several days from the infective meal, or by app ...195813549638
nitrogen partition in excreta of three species of mosquitoes.adults of three species of mosquitoes, aedes aegypti, anopheles quadrimaculatus and culex pipiens, showed essentially similar patterns of nitrogen output as judged by their excretion of total nitrogen and by their excretion of nitrogen as uric acid, urea, ammonia, amino acid, and protein. about 80 percent of their total nitrogen has been accounted for. substances that seem on analysis to be like glycoprotein have been found in the excreta of the three species.195913658962
outbreak of dengue fever in palau, western pacific: risk factors for infection.between january and june 1995, an outbreak of dengue fever occurred in palau, an island nation of 32,000 inhabitants in the western pacific. to determine the magnitude of this outbreak and to determine modifiable risk factors to guide control strategies, we established active surveillance at the national hospital and private clinics, reviewed available clinical records, and conducted serologic and entomologic surveys. between january 1 and july 1, 1995, 817 case-patients with acute febrile illne ...200313677368
enhancement of the efficacy of a combination of mesocyclops aspericornis and bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis by community-based products in controlling aedes aegypti larvae in thailand.prolonged efficacy of a combination of bacteria (bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis [bti] and copepods (mesocyclops aspericornis) in controlling immature forms of aedes aegypti in peridomestic water containers was achieved by adding various products from local villages as supplementary food for copepods. in all experiments, 100 first-instar larvae were added into the breeding containers every day for eight weeks. combinations of biological control agents and each local supplementary food we ...200313677377
physiological effects of carbohydrates in the nutrition of a mosquito, aedes aegypti and two flies, sarcophaga bullata and musca domestica. 195713491649
[analysis of the course of infection of plasmodium gallinaceum in the intestine of aedes aegypti]. 195713497814
[attraction effect of olfactory substance secreted by man on aedes aegypti l]. 195813581960
comparison of natural and artificial infection of aedes aegypti l. with semliki forest virus. 196013729957
aedes aegypti as an experimental vector of brugia malayi. 196013739286
experimental transmission of borrelia anserina (sakharoff 1891) by aedes aegypti. 196113742160
the effect of atmospheric pressure on aedes aegypti exposed to dirofilaria immitis and on glossina morsitans exposed to trypanosoma rhodesiense or t. congolense. 195913844915
susceptibility tests in trinidad with anopheles aquasalis curry, aedes aegypti (l.) and culex pipiens fatigans wiedemann, using the standard who mosquito adult test kit.malaria, yellow fever and filariasis eradication programmes in many parts of the world have in recent years become largely dependent on the use of ddt, dieldrin, gamma-bhc and organophosphorus insecticides. it is of vital importance for the success of such programmes, often costly when undertaken on a nation-wide basis, that the insecticides being used are effective against the vectors of these diseases.during 1958 and 1959, susceptibility tests carried out in trinidad using the standard world h ...196113730936
trans-stadial passage of st. louis encephalitis virus in aedes aegypti mosquitoes. 196213880621
the susceptibility of fourth-stage larvae of anopheles gambiae, aedes aegypti and culex pipiens fatigans to some phosphoric acid esters. 196013783589
transmission of yellow fever virus by aged aedes aegypti and comments on some other mosquitovirus relationships. 196213943133
the development of dirofilaria immitis in the mosquito aedes aegypti. 196013775556
observations on the irritability of mosquitos to ddt in uganda.the need for new investigations on the effect of insecticides on the behaviour of mosquitos was recently stressed by the who expert committee on insecticides, which recommended a provisional method for the determination of the irritability of mosquitos to insecticides for trials in the field and the laboratory. one such trial, carried out in uganda under what can be termed typical field conditions, is reported in the present paper.two strains of anopheles gambiae, one of anopheles funestus, one ...196214024193
studies with a pathogenic and an attenuated strain of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes. 196213936867
serological identification of the natural hosts of aedes aegypti (l.) and some other mosquitoes (diptera, culicidae) caught resting in vegetation in kenya and uganda. 196314042652
the transmission of semliki forest virus by aedes aegypti l. 195913845839
[eradication in the americas of the african invaders, aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae]. 196314042709
observations on the chemosterilant effect of an alkylating agent, thio-tepa, on wild-caught anopheles gambiae var. melas (theo.) in gambia, west africa, and on laboratory-bred a. g. gambiae giles and aedes aegypti (l.). 196314065754
larval development of brugia ceylonensis jayewardene, 1962, in aedes aegypti, with a brief comparison of the infective larva with those of brugia spp., dirofilaria repens and artionema digitata. 196314077666
the effects of tepa on plasmodium gallinaceum in aedes aegypti. 196314012339
dengue types 1 and 4 viruses in wild-caught mosquitoes in south india.three strains of type 1 dengue virus and two strains of type 4 dengue virus have been isolated from aedes aegypti collected in vellore, india.196414075719
a preliminary cross-over value between the gene fm (filarial susceptibility, brugia malayi) and the sex locus in aedes aegypti. 196314101937
the survival of semliki forest virus in infected aedes aegypti mosquitoes stored at low temperatures. 196314085687
genetics of insecticide-resistance and several visible mutants in aedes aegypti. 196414165062
failure to obtain experimental transovarian transmission of west nile virus by aedes aegypti. 196314101931
further studies on a strain of aedes aegypti susceptible to infection with sub-periodic brugia malayi. 196314101936
transmission of plasmocium gallinaceum brumpt to chicks by aedes aegypti (l.) sterilised by an alkylating agent, thiotepa. 196414132528
the influence of the gene fm (filarial susceptibility, brugia malayi) on the susceptibility of aedes aegypti to seven strains of brugia, wuchereria and dirofilaria. 196514297358
the effects of age and feeding on the susceptibility to insecticides of adult female, anopheles gambiae, aedes aegypti and culez pipiens fatigans. 196514297361
transmission of sindbis virus by aedes aegypti to a chick embryo cell culture system. 196514264544
studies on mosquitoes and their natural enemies in bangkok. 2. insecticide susceptibility of the larvae of culex pipiens fatigans, aedes aegypti and the mosquito-eating fish lebistes reticulatus. 196514326223
histochemical observations on aedes aegypti infected with larvae of brugia malayi. 196514347467
[infectibility of aedes aegypti from chicks infected with plasmodium gallinaceum in incubation stage]. 195414355424
viruses associated with epidemic hemorrhagic fevers of the philippines and thailand.epidemiologic, clinical, and etiologic studies were carried out on a newly recognized, frequently fatal, pediatric disease syndrome which occurred in urban areas infested with aedes aegypti mosquitoes. four types of dengue virus (two of which are new), chikungunya virus, and another virus yet to be identified were isolated from the blood of patients. dengue viruses, types 2 and 3, were isolated from the mosquitoes. ample serologic confirmation was obtained of concurrent hemorrhagic fever and inf ...196014399343
maintenance of aedes aegypti in the insectary in mexico city. 196414272444
partial suppression of malaria parasites, and of the transmission of malaria, in aedes aegypti (l.) doubly-infected with semliki forest virus and plasmodium gallinaceum brumpt.laboratory experiments were undertaken with aedes aegypti infected with both semliki forest virus (sfv) from infant mice and plasmodium gallinaceum from fowls to determine if such double infection of mosquitos suppressed their ability to transmit the malaria parasite, a possibility suggested to explain reduction in malaria transmission in uganda in 1960 when anopheles funestus and anopheles gambiae were transmitting both malaria and o'nyongnyong virus to the african population. in general, trans ...196414278005
a genetical study of ddt-resistance in the trinidad strain of aedes aegypti l.previous genetical investigations on the trinidad ddt-resistant strain of aedes aegypti, involving mass crosses with susceptible strains, had indicated that a single major semi-dominant gene controlled resistance to ddt. the present study, in which single-pair matings were made, indicates that the genetic control of resistance is, in fact, more complex. the considerable variation observed could not be interpreted in terms of normal segregation at a single locus. at least three genetic factors ap ...196514315724
the intake of brugia malayi by different strains of aedes aegypti. 196114455352
the development of brugia malayi in aedes aegypti. 196114490050
novel fermentation media for production of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.the production of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (debarjac) (bti) as a biopesticide is not cost-effective using existing fermentation technology. in this study, we explored the use of several less expensive alternative culture media (potato, common sugar, and bengal gram) for the growth and production of bti. growth was obtained in all tested media and was comparable to that obtained in conventional medium (luria-bertani). toxicity assays showed that the toxin produced from the novel ...200314503573
multiplication of vesicular stomatitis virus in aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes. 196214477586
isolation and serotyping of dengue viruses by mosquito inoculation technique from clinically suspected cases of dengue fever.dengue virus was isolated from 44 clinically suspected cases of dengue fever by mosquito inoculation technique using aedes aegypti mosquito in the department of virology, bsmmu in the year 2000. identification of dengue virus was done by direct fluorescent antibody technique using fitc conjugated anti-dengue monoclonal antibody and serotyping was carried out by indirect fluorescent antibody technique using serotype specific monoclonal anti-dengue antibody. the dengue virus isolation rate was 41. ...200214509382
enduring toxicity of transgenic anabaena pcc 7120 expressing mosquito larvicidal genes from bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.persistence of biological control agents against mosquito larvae was tested under simulated field conditions. mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic anabaena pcc 7120 expressing cry4aa, cry11aa and p20 from bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis was greater than b. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis primary powder (fun 89c06d) or wettable powder (wp) (bactimos products) when either mixed with silt or exposed to sunlight outdoors. reduction of bactimos primary powder toxicity was at least 10-fol ...200314510853
junonia coenia densovirus-based vectors for stable transgene expression in sf9 cells: influence of the densovirus sequences on genomic integration.the invertebrate parvovirus junonia coenia densovirus (jcdnv) shares similarities with terminal hairpins and nonstructural (ns) protein activities of adeno-associated virus (aav) despite their evolutionary divergence (b. dumas, m. jourdan, a. m. pascaud, and m. bergoin, virology, 191:202-222, 1992, and c. ding, m. urabe, m. bergoin, and r. m. kotin, j. virol. 76:338-345, 2002). we demonstrate here that persistent transgene expression in insect cells results from stable integration of transfected ...200314512554
a targeted approach to the identification of candidate genes determining susceptibility to plasmodium gallinaceum in aedes aegypti.the malaria parasite, plasmodium, has evolved an intricate life cycle that includes stages specific to a mosquito vector and to the vertebrate host. the mosquito midgut represents the first barrier plasmodium parasites encounter following their ingestion with a blood meal from an infected vertebrate. elucidation of the molecular interaction between the parasite and the mosquito could help identify novel approaches to preventing parasite development and subsequent transmission to vertebrates. we ...200314513362
following in soper's footsteps: northeast brazil 63 years after eradication of anopheles gambiae.sub-saharan africa has long suffered under the yoke of the anopheles gambiae mosquito, but for northeast brazil (figure 1) its arrival over 60 years ago was a new and horrifying experience. this african mosquito is an exceptionally effective malaria vector because it is well adapted to feeding upon people and to exploiting aquatic habitats associated with our daily activities. anopheles gambiae sensu lato probably accounts for most of the world's malaria deaths and socioeconomic burden. fortunat ...200314522266
surveillance for the dengue vector aedes aegypti in tobago, west indies.an island-wide house survey was conducted in january 2002 to determine the geographic distribution, container profile, and population density of the aedes aegypti in tobago, west indies. the results showed the ae. aegypti infestation levels were significantly different (p > 0.01) among the 4 districts, with greater infestation levels (p > 0.01) observed in the northern and windward districts than in the central and leeward districts. from the 50 towns in tobago, houses were found positive in del ...200314524540
observations on the development of setaria labiatopapillosa using new techniques for infecting aedes aegypti with this nematode. 196214478913
identification of two isoforms of aminopeptidase n in aedes aegypti larval midgut.the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis produces toxin inclusions that are deleterious to target insect larvae. these toxins are believed to interact with a specific receptor protein(s) that is present on the gut epithelial cells of the larvae. in various insect species (in particular those belonging to the lepidopteran class), aminopeptidase n (apn) is one of the two receptor proteins that are considered to be involved in toxin-receptor interactions. however, in mosquitoes, the nature and identity ...200314536036
culex pipiens pipiens: characterization of immune peptides and the influence of immune activation on development of wuchereria bancrofti.stimulating or augmenting the innate immune response of insect vectors has been shown to impede or disrupt the development and transmission of eukaryotic pathogens; however, the majority of such studies have utilized model systems and not natural parasite-vector systems. the culex pipiens complex of mosquitoes functions as a primary urban vector of wuchereria bancrofti, a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis. to test the effects of immune activation on this vector-parasite interaction, culex ...200314550895
artificial infection of aedes aegypti with semliki forest virus by intrahaemocoelic injection. 196114480780
role of gregarine parasite ascogregarina culicis (apicomplexa: lecudinidae) in the maintenance of chikungunya virus in vector mosquito.ascogregarina culicis and ascogregarina taiwanensis are common gregarine parasites of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes, respectively. these mosquito species are also known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. the sporozoites of these parasites invade the midgut epithelial cells and develop intracellularly and extracellularly in the gut to complete their life cycles. the midgut is also the primary site for virus replication in the vector mosquitoes. therefore, studies were car ...200314563178
repellency and efficacy of a 65% permethrin spot-on formulation for dogs against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes.a topically applied 65% permethrin spot-on (defend exspot treatment for dogs, schering-plough animal health) used for flea and tick control on dogs was evaluated for repellency and efficacy against the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, a vector of canine filariasis. six dogs were randomly assigned to receive a single application of 65% permethrin on day 0 (n=3) or to remain untreated as controls (n=3). dogs were anesthetized and exposed to 100 unfed, female mosquitoes in screened cages for 2 ...200314506589
infection of malaria (anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus against tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae) we investigated the potency of this fungus as a biological control agent for adult malaria and filariasis vector mosquitoes.200314565851
a family of genes clustered at the triplo-lethal locus of drosophila melanogaster has an unusual evolutionary history and significant synteny with anopheles gambiae.within the unique triplo-lethal region (tpl) of the drosophila melanogaster genome we have found a cluster of 20 genes encoding a novel family of proteins. this family is also present in the anopheles gambiae genome and displays remarkable synteny and sequence conservation with the drosophila cluster. the family is also present in the sequenced genome of d. pseudoobscura, and homologs have been found in aedes aegypti mosquitoes and in four other insect orders, but it is not present in the sequen ...200314573474
[centenary of the discovery of yellow fever virus and its transmission by a mosquito (cuba 1900-1901)].during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever has been an ordinary scourge in american cities. in the early part of the 20th century, a main discovery has been achieved in havana city, cuba, leading to direct consequences for tropical medicine, public health and virology. there, the u.s. army yellow fever commission headed by walter reed proved that yellow fever was a viral disease transmitted by a specific mosquito, stegomyia fasciata, in fact aedes aegypti l. the idea that vomito negr ...200314582304
microbial ecology of bacillus thuringiensis: fecal populations recovered from wildlife in korea.a total of 34 fecal samples, collected from 14 species of wild mammals in korea, were examined for the occurrence of bacillus thuringiensis. the organism was detected in 18 (53%) samples. among the three food-habit groups, herbivorous animals yielded the highest frequency (69%) of samples positive for b. thuringiensis, followed by omnivorous animals (50%). of the six fecal samples from carnivorous animals, only one sample contained b. thurin giensis. among 527 isolates belonging to the bacillus ...200314569287
rna interference-mediated knockdown of a gata factor reveals a link to anautogeny in the mosquito aedes aegypti.blood feeding tightly regulates the reproductive cycle in anautogenous mosquitoes. vitellogenesis (the synthesis of yolk protein precursors) is a key event in the mosquito reproductive cycle and is activated in response to a blood meal. before blood feeding, aedes aegypti is in a state of reproductive arrest during which the yolk protein precursor genes (ypps) are repressed. the regulatory region of the major ypp gene vitellogenin (vg) has multiple gata-binding sites required for the high expres ...200314595016
laboratory and field evaluations of the insect repellent 3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate) and deet against mosquito vectors in thailand.the insect repellents 3535 (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate or ir3535) and deet (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) were prepared as 20% solutions in absolute ethanol and evaluated for repellency against many mosquito species in thailand under laboratory and field conditions using human subjects. in the laboratory, 0.1 ml was applied per 30-cm2 of exposed area on a volunteer's forearm (0.66-0.67 mg active ingredient [ai]/ cm2), whereas in the field, volunteers' legs (from knee to ankle, with a surf ...200114529087
dengue 2 pdk-53 virus as a chimeric carrier for tetravalent dengue vaccine development.attenuation markers of the candidate dengue 2 (d2) pdk-53 vaccine virus are encoded by mutations that reside outside of the structural gene region of the genome. we engineered nine dengue virus chimeras containing the premembrane (prm) and envelope (e) genes of wild-type d1 16007, d3 16562, or d4 1036 virus within the genetic backgrounds of wild-type d2 16681 virus and the two genetic variants (pdk53-e and pdk53-v) of the d2 pdk-53 vaccine virus. expression of the heterologous prm-e genes in the ...200314557629
high efficiency, site-specific excision of a marker gene by the phage p1 cre-loxp system in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.the excision of specific dna sequences from integrated transgenes in insects permits the dissection in situ of structural elements that may be important in controlling gene expression. furthermore, manipulation of potential control elements in the context of a single integration site mitigates against insertion site influences of the surrounding genome. the cre-loxp site-specific recombination system has been used successfully to remove a marker gene from transgenic yellow fever mosquitoes, aede ...200314602940
inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus.dengue virus is a worldwide-distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive strand rna genome. its transcribed polyprotein is cleaved by host- and virus-encoded peptidases into 10 proteins, some of which are of unknown function. although dengue virus-infected cells seem to be resistant to the antiviral action of ifn, the viral products that mediate this resistance are unknown. therefore, we have analyzed the ability of the 10 dengue virus-encoded proteins to antagonize the ifn response. we ...200314612562
diagnosis of dengue virus infection by the visual and simple aubiodot immunoglobulin m capture system.the dengue igm capture elisa (mac-elisa) is the immunoenzymatic system recommended by the pan american health organization and the world health organization for the serological diagnosis of dengue virus infection due to its high sensitivity, ease of performance, and use of a single acute-phase serum sample. however, tests with this enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) system are time-consuming and require equipment for washing, incubation, and reading of the results. aubiodot is a multistep ...200314607869
[application of one step rt-pcr assay for detection of flavivirus rna in mosquitoes].the conditions of one step rt-pcr method for detection of virus rna in field-collected mosquitoes, and preservation period of infected mosquitoes for one step rt-pcr were examined. we compared several virus rna extraction methods with artificially contaminated mosquito pools with dengue virus (dv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), and yellow fever virus (yfv) with a known amount of plaque forming unit (pfu) to establish the condition of one step rt-pcr. in this study, most effective rna extrac ...200314608915
acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever.dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, aedes aegypti. cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. however, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. we present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural hea ...200314636482
removal of wolbachia from brugia pahangi is closely linked to worm death and fecundity but does not result in altered lymphatic lesion formation in mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus).approximately 30 years ago, researchers reported intracellular bacteria in filarial nematodes. these bacteria are relatives of the arthropod symbiont wolbachia and occur in many filarial nematodes, including brugia pahangi and brugia malayi. wolbachia bacteria have been implicated in a variety of roles, including filaria development and fecundity and the pathogenesis of lymphatic lesions associated with filarial infections. however, the role of the bacteria in worm biology or filarial disease is ...200314638788
monoclonal antibody mg96 completely blocks plasmodium yoelii development in anopheles stephensi.in spite of research efforts to develop vaccines against the causative agent of human malaria, plasmodium falciparum, effective control remains elusive. the predominant vaccine strategy focuses on targeting parasite blood stages in the vertebrate host. an alternative approach has been the development of transmission-blocking vaccines (tbvs). tbvs target antigens on parasite sexual stages that persist within the insect vector, anopheline mosquitoes, or target mosquito midgut proteins that are pre ...200314638789
mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic anabaena pcc 7120 expressing toxin genes from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.genes encoding the mosquito larvicidal toxins cry4aa, cry11aa, cyt1aa and the regulatory p20 from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were introduced into the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacterium anabaena pcc 7120 for expression under control of two strong promoters p(psba) and p(a1). the clone prve4-adrc displayed toxicity against fourth-instar larvae of aedes aegypti, the highest ever achieved in cyanobacteria. it was about 2.5-fold more toxic than the respective clone without cyt ...200314592708
[dominance of aedes aegypti over aedes albopictus in the southeastern coast of brazil].to assess infestation of aedes aegypti and aedes albopiticus and describe their association with weather conditions and container colonization in urban areas.200314666302
[potential of bacillus thuringiensis israelensis berliner for controlling aedes aegypti].the importance of the entomopathogenic bacterium bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the control of aedes aegypti is presented. the use and potential of b. thuringiensis israelensis against the mosquito vector of dengue fever is described. other aspects such as insect's resistance development against chemicals and advantages and constraints of using microbial control are discussed. emphasis is given to the importance of the use of this bacterium in brazil, which could contribute significantly ...200314666315
cry29a and cry30a: two novel delta-endotoxins isolated from bacillus thuringiensis serovar medellin.two novel crystal protein genes from a highly mosquitocidal bacillus thuringiensis serovar medellin strain were cloned and sequenced. the corresponding proteins, cry29a and cry30a, were nontoxic when tested individually against the mosquito species bioassayed (aedes aegypti, culex pipiens and anopheles stephensi). however, cry29a synergized the toxicity of cry11bb against aedes aegypti by a four-fold factor.200314666976
the role of reactive oxygen species on plasmodium melanotic encapsulation in anopheles gambiae.malaria transmission depends on the competence of some anopheles mosquitoes to sustain plasmodium development (susceptibility). a genetically selected refractory strain of anopheles gambiae blocks plasmodium development, melanizing, and encapsulating the parasite in a reaction that begins with tyrosine oxidation, and involves three quantitative trait loci. morphological and microarray mrna expression analysis suggest that the refractory and susceptible strains have broad physiological difference ...200314623973
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