promoter sequences of the putative anopheles gambiae apyrase confer salivary gland expression in drosophila melanogaster.the saliva of blood-feeding arthropods contains an apyrase that facilitates hematophagy by inhibiting the adp-induced aggregation of the host platelets. we report here the isolation of a salivary gland-specific cdna encoding a secreted protein that likely represents the anopheles gambiae apyrase. we describe also two additional members of the apyrase/5'-nucleotidase family. the cdna corresponding to the agapyl1 gene encodes a secreted protein that is closely related in sequence to the apyrase of ...200010801886
genetic isolation by distance among aedes aegypti populations along the northeastern coast of mexico.a population genetic analysis of gene flow was conducted among 10 aedes aegypti collections from seven cities along the northeastern coast of mexico. four collections were made from monterrey to examine local patterns of gene flow. markers included 60 random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) loci amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of variation in a 387-basepair region of the nadh dehydrogenase subunit 4 from the mitochondrial dna (mtdna ...200010813474
aedes aegypti in tahiti and moorea (french polynesia): isoenzyme differentiation in the mosquito population according to human population density.genetic differences at five polymorphic isoenzyme loci were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis for 28 aedes aegypti samples. considerable (i.e., high fst values) and significant (i.e., p values >10(-4)) geographic differences were found. differences in ae. aegypti genetic structure were related to human population densities and to particularities in mosquito ecotopes in both tahiti and moorea islands. in highly urbanized areas (i.e., the papeete agglomeration), mosquitoes were highly structu ...200010813476
recombinant chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus is immunogenic and protective in nonhuman primates.a chimeric yellow fever (yf)-dengue type 2 (dengue-2) virus (chimerivax-d2) was constructed using a recombinant cdna infectious clone of a yf vaccine strain (yf 17d) as a backbone into which we inserted the premembrane (prm) and envelope (e) genes of dengue-2 virus (strain puo-218 from a case of dengue fever in bangkok, thailand). the chimeric virus was recovered from the supernatant of vero cells transfected with rna transcripts and amplified once in these cells to yield a titer of 6.3 log(10) ...200010823852
bacillus thuringiensis soil populations naturally occurring in the ryukyus, a subtropic region of japan.of 809 soil samples collected from the seven islands of the ryukyus, japan, 107 samples (13.2%) contained bacillus thuringiensis. the frequency of b. thuringiensis among the b. cereus group was 1.1% (235/21842) on the average. the b. thuringiensis soil populations of the ryukyus consisted of more than 22 h serogroups. the predominant h serotype was the h5ac/21 (serovar canadensis/colmeri), followed by the h3ad (serovar sumiyoshiensis) and h16 (serovar indiana). geographically, most widely distri ...200010830895
anopheles gambiae pilot gene discovery project: identification of mosquito innate immunity genes from expressed sequence tags generated from immune-competent cell lines.together with aids and tuberculosis, malaria is at the top of the list of devastating infectious diseases. however, molecular genetic studies of its major vector, anopheles gambiae, are still quite limited. we have conducted a pilot gene discovery project to accelerate progress in the molecular analysis of vector biology, with emphasis on the mosquito's antimalarial immune defense. a total of 5,925 expressed sequence tags were determined from normalized cdna libraries derived from immune-respons ...200010841561
permeability and disruption of the peritrophic matrix and caecal membrane from aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae mosquito mosquito larvae, the peritrophic matrix (pm) separates the gut contents from the intestinal epithelium. this report describes a new in vivo assay for estimating pm permeability. the assay also allows for assessment of the permeability of the caecal membrane, a structure that separates each caecum from the gut lumen. permeability was estimated by the appearance of fluorescently-labeled dextrans (size range 4,400 to 2 million da) within the gastric caecae of mosquito larvae. while the intact pe ...200010844150
structure and location of a ferritin gene of the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.we have isolated and sequenced a genomic clone encoding the 24- and 26-kda ferritin subunits in the mosquito aedes aegypti (rockefeller strain). the a. aegypti gene differs from other known ferritin genes in that it possesses an additional intron and an unusually large second intron. the additional intron is located within the 5' untranslated region, between the cap site and the start codon. the second intron contains numerous putative transposable elements. in addition, unlike the human and rat ...200010849008
the abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 genes of brugia malayi encode stage-specific candidate vaccine antigens for filariasis.lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by the mosquito-borne nematodes brugia and wuchereria. about 120 million people are infected and at risk of lymphatic pathology such as acute lymphangitis and elephantiasis. vaccines against filariasis must generate immunity to the infective mosquito-derived third-stage larva (l3) without accentuating immunopathogenic responses to lymphatic-dwelling adult parasites. we have identified two highly expressed genes, designated abundant larval t ...200010858234
contribution of fatty acids to olfactory host finding of female aedes aegypti.single carbon to 18 carbon n-aliphatic carboxylic acids were tested for their attractive effects on female aedes aegypti in a y-tube olfactometer. each acid was tested over a wide range of concentrations together with l-(+)-lactic acid, the indispensable synergist for other attractive components emitted from human hosts. the attractiveness of lactic acid was significantly augmented when combined with fatty acids of chain length c(1)-c(3), c(5)-c(8) and c(13)-c(18), respectively. the addition of ...200010866990
blood-feeding in mosquitoes: probing time and salivary gland anti-haemostatic activities in representatives of three genera (aedes, anopheles, culex).mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) face their hosts' haemostatic mechanisms when attempting to feed on blood. accordingly, they antagonize haemostasis by salivary agents that include anti-clotting, anti-platelet and vasodilatory compounds. because haemostasis is a complex and redundant physiological response that varies between vertebrates, it is to be expected that haematophagous animals have a salivary armoury that most efficiently counteracts their preferred hosts. the mosquito culex quinquefasc ...200010872858
determination of mosquito bloodmeal ph in situ by ion-selective microelectrode measurement: implications for the regulation of malarial gametogenesis.malarial gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host as developmentally arrested intra-erythrocytic cells, which only resume development into gametes when ingested into the bloodmeal of the female mosquito vector. the ensuing development encompasses sexual reproduction and mediates parasite transmission to the insect. in vitro the induction of gametogenesis requires a drop in temperature and either a ph increase from physiological blood ph (ca ph 7.4) to about ph 8.0, or ...200010874717
malaria parasite development in a drosophila model.malaria is a devastating public health menace, killing over one million people every year and infecting about half a billion. here it is shown that the protozoan plasmodium gallinaceum, a close relative of the human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum, can develop in the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster. plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes injected into the fly developed into sporozoites infectious to the vertebrate host with similar kinetics as seen in the mosquito host aedes aegypti. in the f ...200010875925
cloning and characterization of a bacillus thuringiensis serovar higo gene encoding a novel class of the delta-endotoxin protein, cry27a, specifically active on the anopheles mosquito.a novel gene encoding a 98-kda mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin protein, designated cry27a, was cloned from a bacillus thuringiensis serovar higo strain. the cry27a protein contained the five sequence blocks of amino acids commonly conserved in most b. thuringiensis cry proteins. relatively high homologies, ranging from 43.0% to 84.4%, existed between the cry27a protein and several established classes of mosquitocidal cry proteins (cry4a, cry10a, cry19a, cry19b, and cry20a) in the sequence of 51 n- ...200010879975
[a dengue epidemic in ipupiara and prado, bahia. a seroepidemiologic survey].serologic studies in brazil have indicated a 25% to 56% prevalence of dengue virus infections. however, these studies were carried out in populations of middle-sized and larger cities. the present study describes two epidemics of classic dengue fever in two small cities in the state of bahia. the first occurred in 1987, in ipupiara and was caused by dengue serotype-1 (den-1), the second occurred in 1995, in prado and was caused by dengue serotype-2 (den-2). the laboratory diagnosis was made by t ...200010881120
first isolation of dengue 1 virus from aedes aegypti in federal district, brazil.dengue is present in the federal district since 1991 and virological studies of the vector began in 1998. two strains of den1 were isolated from 9 pools of female aedes aegypti (78 mosq.), collected in april in gama county, where the breteau index was 5.4, and 32 autochtonous human cases were notified.200010881127
mobility assays confirm the broad host-range activity of the minos transposable element and validate new transformation and reliable methods for assessing the mobility of the transposable element minos have been developed. these methods are based on the detection of excision and insertion of minos transposons from and into plasmids which are co-introduced into cells. excision is detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with appropriate primers. transposition is assayed by marker rescue in escherichia coli, using a transposon plasmid that carries a tetracycline resistance gene and a target plasmid carrying ...200010886410
a novel member of the ring-finger gene family associated with reproductive tissues of the mosquito, aaedes aegypti.the ring finger is a zinc-binding domain that is found in proteins from viruses, plants and animals. here we report the characterization and tissue-specific expression of a mosquito gonadal protein gene, mgp, from the mosquito, aedes aegypti. the putative gene product, mgp, contains two ring fingers, a b-box, and a hydrophobic core. these mosquito mgp structural motifs are highly conserved in proteins found in mouse and nematode. northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization demonstrated the ...200010886414
[ecologic indexes in the surveillance system of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in cuba].the ecological indexes called diversity (h') and equitability (j') of the mosquito species were determined in six of the most common reservoirs of the urban ecosystem in the plaza de la revolución municipality, city of havana. data analysis showed that according to the values of these indexes, the most dangerous reservoirs were tyres, larvitraps and artificial reservoirs in general. reference is also made on the use of larvitraps in the surveillance system of aedes aegypti and the detection and ...199910887564
[levels of insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in a strain of aedes aegypti of santiago de cuba].as a result of the most recent dengue outbreak in santiago de cuba province, a strain of this vector was studied to determine the levels of sensitivity and/or resistance to organophosphate and pyrethoid insecticides. the results of bioassays showed low levels of resistance to fention, malathion and deltametrine, moderate levels of resistance to temephos, metyl-pirimifos and cipermetrine and high levels of resistance to chlorpirifios. according to the results obtained from the use of s.s.s. phosp ...199910887565
[proportional abundance of culicidae in the urban ecosystem of havana city].proportional abundance of the four most common mosquito species was determined in six types of breeding places located in plaza de la revolución municipality, city of havana from 1993-1996. culex quinquifasciatus exhibited values over 0.60 except in tyres and larval traps in 1993 and 1994 whereas aedes mediovittatus showed similar values in low tanks and artificial reservoirs in 1994 (0.43 and 0.56 respectively). it was also observed that this species prefers larval traps. aedes aegypti and cule ...199910887585
[development of immunizing agents against dengue].the four serotypes of dengue flaviviruses are transmitted mainly by the aedes aegypti mosquito, and some epidemics have been attributed to ae. albopictus, ae. polynesiensis, and various species of the ae. scutellaris complex. the risk factors involved in dengue mortality and morbidity are related to the human host (genetic characteristics of infected persons; lifestyles, immune status, and health conditions of people; basic sanitation of dwellings; and water supply) and to the virus (genetic var ...200010893968
integrated control of the dengue vector aedes aegypti in liu-chiu village, ping-tung county, taiwan.because of an inadequate supply of potable water, villagers of small liu-chiu isle, ping-tung county, taiwan, store water in containers supporting a large population of aedes aegypti. in 1989-96, integrated control measures against ae. aegypti were implemented on the basis of community participation. these measures included release of mosquito larvivorous fish in the drinking water storage facilities, application of larvicides to the water storage facilities in vegetable gardens, removal of disc ...200010901632
people's knowledge and practice about dengue, its vectors, and control means in brasilia (df), brazil: its relevance with entomological south america, the epidemiology and ecology of dengue fever are strongly associated with human habits because the vector aedes aegypti is strictly urban. thus, the evaluation of people's knowledge and practice (pkp) is of great importance to improve integrated control measures. a pkp evaluation has been done in a suburb of brasilia. thirty questions were submitted to 130 habitants about income level, education, sources of information, specific knowledge about dengue, vector biology, and contr ...200010901634
comments on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and control of dengue.dengue is currently the most important viral disease transmitted to man by arthropods, whether measured by the number of cases or number of deaths. prevalence of the disease is highest in tropical asia, intermediate in tropical america, and lowest in tropical africa. four distinct dengue viruses have been identified. types 2 and 3 appear to be more pathogenic on the average than types 1 and 4, but all four can cause severe or fatal dengue syndromes. infection with any of the four viruses confers ...199910901853
toxicity of euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.the toxicity of euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (ncl) to target snails (biomphalaria glabrata and biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h lc(50), mg/l: b. glabrata, 0.12; b. tenagophila, 0.09; helisoma duryi, 0.10). latex was less toxic (48-h lc(50) or ec(50), mg/l) to oligochaeta (tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (daphnia similis, 0.38; c. dubia, 1 ...200010903832
influence of the copepod mesocyclops longisetus (crustacea: cyclopidae) on the survival of vibrio cholerae o1 in fresh an experimental microcosm, an analysis was performed of the influence exerted by freshwater mesocyclops longisetus copepods on the survival of vibrio cholerae o1 serovar inaba. in the state of ceará, copepods are used in the control of aedes aegypti larvae. the system consisted of water with a salinity of 0.27 per 10,000 habitants and ph 7.5, which after sterilizing filtration was distributed into seven flasks with a volume of 400 ml; in each of six flasks, 10 live copepods were inoculated al ...199610904360
engineering blood meal-activated systemic immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.progress in molecular genetics makes possible the development of alternative disease control strategies that target the competence of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. we tested the regulatory region of the vitellogenin (vg) gene of aedes aegypti for its ability to express potential antipathogen factors in transgenic mosquitoes. hermes-mediated transformation was used to integrate a 2.1-kb vg-promoter fragment driving the expression of the defensin a (defa) coding region, one of the major insect ...200010908672
laboratory and field evaluation of polymerase chain reaction-based forensic dna profiling for use in identification of human blood meal sources of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).we modified polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based forensic dna profiling for field studies on the feeding behavior of aedes aegypti, the principal mosquito vector of dengue virus. human dna was extracted from oral swabs of human subjects and from blood-engorged mosquitoes, dna was quantified by slot blot, and alleles at variable number tandem repeats and three short tandem repeats loci were amplified by pcr. alleles were separated electrophoretically and then visualized by silver staining. a cus ...200010916289
behavior of resting aedes aegypti (culicidae: diptera) and its relation to ultra-low volume adulticide efficacy in panama city, panama.the resting behavior of aedes aegypti (l.) adults was investigated in 14 districts of panama city, panama, in relation to ground ultra-low volume (ulv) applications of malathion. adults primarily rested inside the premises (75.1%) at a distance > 6 m from the street (86.4%). both sexes rested mainly in bedrooms, living rooms, and bathrooms. the small ulv aerosol droplets (2-4 microns) penetrated all indoor resting sites of ae. aegypti, but in low amounts. because of the low amount of insecticide ...200010916294
failure of dengue-2 virus antibody to interfere with the isolation of dengue-2 virus from aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).when isolating dengue virus (den) from mosquitoes collected in endemic areas, pools may contain both anti-dengue antibodies from freshly engorged females and virus from den infected females. to determine if these antibodies may interfere with virus isolation, we simulated the isolation procedure using aedes aegypti (l.) that we infected with the 16,681 strain of dengue type 2 virus by intrathoracic inoculation. at 7 d postinfection, we allowed females to engorge on immunized or normal mouse bloo ...200010916310
aedes aegypti (l) in port blair, andaman and nicobar islands-distribution and larval ecology.a comprehensive survey was carried out in the port blair town in andaman and nicobar islands, in order to study the distribution and relative prevalence of aedes aegypti during the monsoon (july'1997-october'1997) season using larval survey and adult collection methods. ae. aegypti was found in all 21 localities surveyed. spatial variations in distribution was evident which was closely related to population density. the nature of the larval habitats was observed to be similar in all the localiti ...199910916616
use of mycelial suspension and metabolites of paecilomyces lilacinus (fungi: hyphomycetes) in control of aedes aegypti larvae.mycelial suspension of possible was assessed to examine its paecilomyces lilanicus, a fungus, detrimental effects on fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti. the immature stages suffered 64-68% mortality with 0.5-1% mycelial suspension. there was 12-16% adult emergence which was statistically significant (p < 001). czapeckdox and pyg media metabolites were used against the third instar larvae in various concentrations. the effects were evaluated on several parameters like mortality, mean survival ...199910916617
etiology of interepidemic periods of mosquito-borne disease.dengue viruses and malaria protozoa are of increasing global concern in public health. the diseases caused by these pathogens often show regular seasonal patterns in incidence because of the sensitivity of their mosquito vectors to climate. between years in endemic areas, however, there can be further significant variation in case numbers for which public health systems are generally unprepared. there is an acute need for reliable predictions of within-year and between-year epidemic events. the ...200010922081
use of water drums by humans and aedes aegypti in trinidad.this report documents the results of a countrywide survey by county for aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes found breeding in drums in trinidad, west indies. the island-wide mean number of positive drums was 8.1 +/- 2.9 per county and the mean number of positive drums per house was 3.0 +/- 0.7 and ranged from 1.6 in st. george east to 4.9 in st. andrew/st. david. the breteau index varied from 6.2 in st. andrew/st. david to 52.5 in victoria east, with the median figure of 29.5. the most common location ...200010925795
susceptibility of geographically distinct aedes aegypti l. from florida to dirofilaria immitis (leidy) the present study, five geographically distinct populations of aedes aegypti l. from various regions of florida were compared for their susceptibilities to dirofilaria immitis (leidy) infection. the populations were from gainesville (north central), jacksonville (north eastern), naples (south western), sarasota (west central), and vero beach (east central). mosquitoes of all the populations had fewer parasites in their malpighian tubules 6 and 13 days after blood feeding compared to the numbe ...200010925796
field evaluation of deltamethrin/s-bioallethrin/piperonyl butoxide and cyfluthrin against dengue vectors in malaysia.deltacide (s-bioallethrin 0.71% w/v, deltamethrin 0.5% w/v, piperonyl butoxide 8.9% w/v excipients to 100% w/v) and solfac ul 015 (cyfluthrin 1.5% w/v) were evaluated against the sentinel sugar-fed adults and 4th-instar larvae of aedes aegypti at 17 storey high-rise apartments in malaysia using ulv applications. the impact of both insecticides on field populations of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus larvae was monitored weekly using bottle containers. both deltacide and solfac ul 015 showed adulti ...200010925801
[comparative study between larval surveys and ovitraps to monitor populations of aedes aegypti].this study compares two techniques for detecting the presence of aedes aegypti: larval surveys and the oviposition trap. in two areas of the municipality of salvador, bahia, brazil were investigated 5,026 households. larval surveys and oviposition traps were used simultaneously in these households. different positivity levels (larvae and/or eggs) were detected between and within the two areas. however, only the use of the oviposition trap detected a significant statistical difference between the ...200010936947
cloning of an aquaporin-like cdna and in situ hybridization in adults of the mosquito aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).a cdna encoding a putative water channel protein, aquaporin, was cloned from a cdna library of aedes aegypti malpighian tubules. the cdna encodes a 26.11 kda protein similar to insect aquaporins from haematobia irritans exigua (diptera) and cicadella viridis (homoptera), and to mammalian aquaporin 4. localization of the messenger rna (mrna) was performed by in situ hybridization of malpighian tubules and analysed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy. the mrna was localized in tracheolar cells ...200010971718
recombinant yellow fever viruses are effective therapeutic vaccines for treatment of murine experimental solid tumors and pulmonary metastases.we have genetically engineered an attenuated yellow fever (yf) virus to carry and express foreign antigenic sequences and evaluated the potential of this type of recombinant virus to serve as a safe and effective tumor vaccine. live-attenuated yf vaccine is one of the most effective viral vaccines available today. important advantages include its ability to induce long-lasting immunity, its safety, its affordability, and its documented efficacy. in this study, recombinant live-attenuated (strain ...200010982366
the incrimination of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti as the vector of dirofilaria repens in nigeria.six local species of culicides were identified as the common mosquitoes in zaria, out of 15 species captured using various adult and larval collection methods. these common culicides are culex pipiens fatigans, anopheles gambiae grp., mansonia africana, culex pipiens pipiens, aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and aedes vittatus. they were each fed directly on a local dog naturally infected with dirofilaria repens to evaluate their refractoriness/susceptibility to dirofilarial infection. in a number of d ...200010996744
[paul-louis simond and yellow fever].p.l. simond participated in the pasteur institute mission sent to rio de janeiro from 1901 to 1905 to investigate yellow fever and was to make an important contribution to the knowledge of the disease. at that time, the aetiologic agent of yellow fever was still unknown, and its transmission by mosquitoes was controversial. several authors had observed apparent differences in the susceptibility to the illness between african and european populations. otherwise, the soundness of epidemic control ...199911000946
[transmission and conservation of the amaril virus in nature].the yellow fever virus is a monkey flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. the transmission cycles and vectors vary from western to eastern africa and in south america. there are two types of endemic areas where the virus is maintained: humid forests and emerging zones and areas where intermediary and urban epidemics occur. on both continents, the virus circulates in forest areas by moving epizooties from one region to another among non immune monkeys. the virus can also be maintained in an enzoot ...199911000958
vector competence of aedes aegypti, culex sitiens, culex annulirostris, and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) for barmah forest virus.aedes aegypti (l.), culex sitiens weidemann, culex annulirostris skuse, and culex quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes colonized at the queensland institute of medical research, brisbane australia, were fed on blood containing barmah forest virus (bf). only cx. annulirostris was susceptible to infection, with a median cell culture infectious dose (ccid50) of 10(3.36) per mosquito. ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus were infected experimentally, but at rates of < 9%. cx. sitiens did not become infec ...200011004776
robust gut-specific gene expression in transgenic aedes aegypti mosquitoes.genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of mosquito vectors of human disease requires promoters capable of driving gene expression with appropriate tissue and stage specificity. we report on the characterization in transgenic aedes aegypti of two mosquito gut-specific promoters. a 1.4-kb dna fragment adjacent to the 5' end of the coding region of the ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase (aecp) gene and a corresponding 3.4-kb dna fragment at the 5' end of the anopheles gambiae carboxypeptidase (ag ...200011005862
quantitative trait loci that control vector competence for dengue-2 virus in the mosquito aedes aegypti.quantitative trait loci (qtl) affecting the ability of the mosquito aedes aegypti to become infected with dengue-2 virus were mapped in an f(1) intercross. dengue-susceptible a. aegypti aegypti were crossed with dengue refractory a. aegypti formosus. f(2) offspring were analyzed for midgut infection and escape barriers. in p(1) and f(1) parents and in 207 f(2) individuals, regions of 14 cdna loci were analyzed with single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis to identify and orient linkage g ...200011014816
nuclear factors bind to a conserved dna element that modulates transcription of anopheles gambiae trypsin genes.the anopheles gambiae trypsin family consists of seven genes that are transcribed in the gut of female mosquitoes in a temporal coordinated and mutually exclusive manner, suggesting the involvement of a complex transcription regulatory mechanism. we identified a highly conserved 12-nucleotide motif present in all a. gambiae and anopheles stephensi trypsin promoters. we investigated the role of this putative trypsin regulatory element (ptre) in controlling the transcription of the trypsin genes. ...200111016929
characterization of a bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin which is toxic to insects in three orders.we report here the first bacillus thuringiensis (bt) toxin which is toxic to insects from three insect orders (diptera, coleoptera, and lepidoptera). an oligonucleotide probe based on the delta-endotoxin n-terminal sequence was used to detect the gene. a 23-kb bamhi fragment containing the intact gene was identified and cloned from bt strain ybt-226 plasmid dna into the vector pbluescript ii. through a series of dna manipulations the size of this fragment was reduced and the gene sequenced. the ...200011023737
molecular strategies for interrupting arthropod-borne virus transmission by mosquitoes.arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections cause a number of emerging and resurgent human and veterinary infectious diseases. traditional means of controlling arbovirus diseases include vaccination of susceptible vertebrates and mosquito control, but in many cases these have been unavailable or ineffective, and so novel strategies for disease control are needed. one possibility is genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors to render them unable to transmit arboviruses. this review describes rece ...200011023962
invasion in vitro of mosquito midgut cells by the malaria parasite proceeds by a conserved mechanism and results in death of the invaded midgut cells.using an in vitro culture system, we observed the migration of malaria ookinetes on the surface of the mosquito midgut and invasion of the midgut epithelium. ookinetes display constrictions during migration to the midgut surface and a gliding motion once on the luminal midgut surface. invasion of a midgut cell always occurs at its lateral apical surface. invasion is rapid and is often followed by invasion of a neighboring midgut cell by the ookinete. the morphology of the invaded cells changes d ...200011027351
no contributes to proliferative suppression in a murine model of filariasis.infection of balb/c mice with microfilariae (mf) of brugia pahangi leads to the suppression of antigen (ag)-specific proliferative responses in the spleen. the proliferative defect is dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) activity, since inhibition of inos with either l-n-monomethyl arginine (l-nmma) or aminoguanidine reversed defective proliferation. splenocytes from mf-infected animals produce high levels of gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) upon in vitro restimulation with ag, and ex ...200011035712
lipophorin as a yolk protein precursor in the mosquito, aedes aegypti.we examined expression of the lipophorin (lp) gene, lipophorin (lp) synthesis and secretion in the mosquito fat body, as well as dynamic changes in levels of this lipoprotein in the hemolymph and ovaries, during the first vitellogenic cycle of females of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. lipophorin was purified by potassium bromide (kbr) density gradient ultracentrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). polyclonal antibodies were produced again ...200011044662
cloning and characterization of a chitin synthase cdna from the mosquito aedes aegypti.characterization of the enzymes involved in the chitin biosynthetic pathway in mosquitoes is critical due to the importance of chitin in the formation of the peritrophic matrix [pm] and its potential impact on vector competence. chitin is the homopolymer of the amino sugar n-acetyl-d glucosamine [glcnac]. the final step of incorporation of glcnac into the chitin polymer is catalyzed by the enzyme chitin synthase [cs]. cs is a membrane bound enzyme, but the mechanism of its action in the biosynth ...200011044667
atmospheric control of aedes aegypti populations in buenos aires (argentina) and its variability.the mosquito aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. the city of buenos aires, argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. the population abundance of ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. we calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. ...200011049004
silent spread of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever to coimbatore and erode districts in tamil nadu, india, 1998: need for effective surveillance to monitor and control the disease.dengue fever (df) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (dhf) has not previously been reported in coimbatore and erode districts in tamil nadu in india. in 1998, 20 hospitalized cases of fever tested positive for dengue virus igm and/or igg antibodies. all of them had dengue-compatible illness, and at least four had dhf. two of them died. sixteen cases were below 10 years of age. the cases were scattered in 15 distantly located villages and 5 urban localities that had a high aedes aegypti population. alt ...200011057977
rapid detection of west nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a taqman reverse transcriptase-pcr assay.the authors report on the development and application of a rapid taqman assay for the detection of west nile (wn) virus in a variety of human clinical specimens and field-collected specimens. oligonucleotide primers and fam- and tamra-labeled wn virus-specific probes were designed by using the nucleotide sequence of the new york 1999 wn virus isolate. the taqman assay was compared to a traditional reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr assay and to virus isolation in vero cells with a large number ( app ...200011060069
evaluation of six immunoassays for detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin m and g antibodies.the performance of six commercially available immunoassay systems for the detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg antibodies in serum was evaluated. these included two igm and igg enzyme immunoassays (eia) from mrl laboratories and panbio, a rapid immunochromatographic test (rit) from panbio, immunofluorescence assays (ifa) from progen, a dot blot assay from genelabs, and a dipstick eia from integrated diagnostics (indx). for this study a panel of 132 serum samples, inc ...200011063489
molecular interactions between anopheles stephensi midgut cells and plasmodium berghei: the time bomb theory of ookinete invasion of mosquitoes.we present a detailed analysis of the interactions between anopheles stephensi midgut epithelial cells and plasmodium berghei ookinetes during invasion of the mosquito by the parasite. in this mosquito, p. berghei ookinetes invade polarized columnar epithelial cells with microvilli, which do not express high levels of vesicular atpase. the invaded cells are damaged, protrude towards the midgut lumen and suffer other characteristic changes, including induction of nitric oxide synthase (nos) expre ...200011080150
vector competence of culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of brazil to dirofilaria immitis.the vector competence of culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in brazil to dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. females from each locality were fed on an infected dog ( approximately 6 microfilariae/microl blood). a sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. these results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito). fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rat ...200011080759
allozymic polymorphism in aedes aegypti populations from argentina, reinfestation with aedes aegypti was registered in 1986. at present, the mosquito is well established in 10 provinces, from buenos aires up to the country's northern frontiers. this paper presents estimates of genetic variability in ae. aegypti populations from central argentina and determinations of genetic distances among them. we analyzed allozymic frequencies at 11 loci in samples from 3 localities. the proportion of polymorphic loci varied between 27.3 and 63.6. expected mean ...200011081647
a wind tunnel bioassay system for screening mosquito repellents.a wind tunnel bioassay system to screen mosquito repellents is described. a wind tunnel is utilized to exploit the upwind flight response of host-seeking mosquitoes. mosquitoes within the wind tunnel are activated with human breath, fly upwind, and land on heated chick skins. this behavioral sequence results in a consistently high percentage of the test population approaching repellent or control stimuli. the bioassay system is calibrated with diethyl methylbenzamide against aedes aegypti and de ...200011081652
anopheles gambiae salivary gland proteins as putative targets for blocking transmission of malaria parasites.anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of human malaria in sub-saharan africa. invasion of anopheles salivary glands by plasmodium sporozoites is a necessary step in the transmission of malaria and is likely to be mediated by specific receptor-ligand interactions. we are interested in identifying putative an a. gambiae salivary gland receptor or receptors for sporozoite invasion as a possible target for blocking malaria transmission. by using monoclonal antibodies against female-specific a. gam ...200011087838
aedes aegypti tmof modulates ecdysteroid production by prothoracic glands of the gypsy moth, lymantria dispar.trypsin modulating oostatic factor (tmof) is a decapeptide that inhibits the biosynthesis of trypsin-like enzymes in the midgut of several insect species and, as such, serves as a dipteran oostatic hormone. in vitro incubation of lepidopteran prothoracic glands with aedes aegypti tmof revealed that this decapeptide, in the presence of brain extract, modulates ecdysteroid production. the modulatory effect was highly dependent on both the concentration of tmof and brain extract. typically, tmof wa ...200011093243
[entomological surveillance over aedes (s) aegypti and other culicids in ciudad de la habana, cuba 1991-1996].the results of the entomologic surveillance carried out from 1991 to 1996 in boyeros municipality, city of havana within the program for eradication of aedes aegypti were analyzed. data on mosquitoes fauna collected in the municipality by various sampling methods, larval survey, human bait, capture at rest and larval traps. culex quinquefasciatus, aedes mediovittatus and aedes aegypti species were the most found by the different methods. it was proved that water tanks, man-made deposits, other k ...200011107908
[the ecological succession of mosquito species in the town of boyeros, ciudad de la habana 1994-1996].an analysis was made on the incidence of culicidae in boyeros municipality, city of havana from 1994 to 1996 based on the requirements of the national program for eradication of aedes aegypti. a total of 13 species was detected in which aedes mediovittatus predominated during 3 years of study, followed by culex quinquefasciatus whereas for the first time aedes albopictus species was found in the territory. people's councils wajay, santiago de las vegas and armada exhibited the highest values of ...200011107909
a novel gata factor transcriptionally represses yolk protein precursor genes in the mosquito aedes aegypti via interaction with the ctbp anautogenous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis, the key event in egg maturation, requires a blood meal. consequently, mosquitoes are vectors of many devastating human diseases. an important adaptation for anautogenicity is the previtellogenic arrest (the state of arrest) preventing the activation of the yolk protein precursor (ypp) genes vg and vcp prior to blood feeding. a novel gata factor (aagatar) that recognizes gata binding motifs (wgatar) in the upstream region of the ypp genes serves as a tr ...200111113191
immunolocalization and possible effect of a moth allatotropin-like substance in a fly, phormia regina (diptera: calliphoridae).insect allatotropin upregulates the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones by the corpus allatum. we raised two rabbit antisera against the allatotropin of manduca sexta (mas at) using a synthetic, multiple-antigenic-peptide that contains a branching heptalysine core and eight mas at molecules. both antisera recognized specifically the same neurons in the larval brain, frontal ganglion and terminal abdominal ganglion of m. sexta as previously reported by others. immunoassay showed reactivity specific ...200111119769
immune activation upregulates lysozyme gene expression in aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture.after stimulation with heat-killed bacteria, cultured cells from the mosquito aedes aegypti (aag-2 cells) secreted an induced protein with a mass of approximately 16 kda that cross-reacted with antibody to chicken egg lysozyme. to investigate whether lysozyme messenger rna is induced in bacteria-treated cells, we used polymerase chain reaction-based approaches to obtain the complete lysozyme cdna from aag-2 cells. the deduced protein contained 148 amino acids, including a 23 amino acid signal se ...200011122464
wolbachia neither induces nor suppresses transcripts encoding antimicrobial peptides.wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited microorganisms that are associated with reproductive abnormalities such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (ci), feminization and parthenogenesis in the various arthropod species they infect. surveys indicate that these bacteria infect more than 16% of all insect species as well as isopods, mites and nematodes, making wolbachia one of the most ubiquitous parasites yet described. however, nothing is known about the interactions of this bacterium with t ...200011122472
epidemiological and entomological investigation in dengue outbreak area of ahmedabad district.epidemiological and entomological investigations conducted in seven affected villages of sanand and viramgam talukas of ahmedabad district revealed that all age groups and both the genders were affected. 33.33% blood samples of patients showed seropositivity suggesting dengue infection similarly, dengue virus antigen was detected in 7 females ae. aegypti out of 2 males and 26 females tested by indirect immunofluroscent technique. aedes aegypti population measured by various parameters i.e. premi ...200011129561
susceptibility of ten species of mosquito larvae to the parasitic nematode romanomermis iyengari and its development.ten species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from five genera were exposed to preparasites of the tropical mermithid nematode species romanomermis iyengari (welch) (nematoda: mermithidae), a strain isolated in 1978 from pondicherry. by exposing mosquito larvae during the second instar, nematode infection was invariably lethal, the rate being highest in culex sitiens wiedemann (95%) followed by cx. quinquefasciatus say (90%), aedes aegypti (l.) (79%), anopheles subpictus grassi (64%), ae. albop ...200011129707
plasmid transfer between bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strains in laboratory culture, river water, and dipteran larvae.plasmid transfer between strains of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was studied under a range of environmentally relevant laboratory conditions in vitro, in river water, and in mosquito larvae. mobilization of pbc16 was detected in vitro at a range of temperatures, ph values, and available water conditions, and the maximum transfer ratio was 10(-3) transconjugant per recipient under optimal conditions. transfer of conjugative plasmid pxo16::tn5401 was also detected under this range of ...200111133463
[stratification of a hyperendemic city in hemorrhagic dengue].any effort to control dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) faces a number of challenges. among these are the great environmental heterogeneity of homes and neighborhoods in urban centers where the primary dengue vector, aedes aegypti, breeds, as well as shortages of resources and of personnel trained in mosquito control. adequate epidemiological surveillance could serve as a basis to begin to stratify urban communities and identify the areas in them where control efforts should be focused. in this stu ...200011141964
dengue situation in brazil by year 2000.dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in brazil by the department of virology, instituto oswaldo cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. a successful continental aedes aegypti control program in the americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. dengue viruses were reintroduced in the american region and the infection became endemic in brazil, like in most central and south ...200011142711
yellow fever.with the infestation by aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever might already exist. this did not occur because of either the lacking of a sufficient contact between the diseased individual and the a. aegypti or perhaps because this, after sixty years without transmitting the virus, needs an adaptation phase to infecting again.200011142712
the use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in brazil.bacillus spp. based larvicides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. brazil was among the pioneers in adopting bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (b.t.i) to control black flies. however, the major current mosquito control programme in brazil, the programme for eradication of aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by b.t.i based larvicides, in the state of rio ...200011142716
current status of malaria and potential for control.malaria remains one of the world's worst health problems with 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths annually; these deaths are primarily among children under 5 years of age and pregnant women in sub-saharan africa. of significance, more people are dying from malaria today than 30 years ago. this review considers the factors which have contributed to this gloomy picture, including those which relate to the vector, the female anopheline mosquito; to human activity such as creating new mosquito breeding sites, ...200111148010
characterization of the structural gene promoter of aedes aegypti densovirus.aedes aegypti densonucleosis virus (aednv) has two promoters that have been shown to be active by reporter gene expression analysis (b. n. afanasiev, y. v. koslov, j. o. carlson, and b. j. beaty, exp. parasitol. 79:322-339, 1994). northern blot analysis of cells infected with aednv revealed two transcripts 1,200 and 3,500 nucleotides in length that are assumed to express the structural protein (vp) gene and nonstructural protein genes, respectively. primer extension was used to map the transcrip ...200111152505
eight novel families of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in the african malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae.eight novel families of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (mites) were discovered in the african malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae, by using new software designed to rapidly identify mite-like sequences based on their structural characteristics. divergent subfamilies have been found in two families. past mobility was demonstrated by evidence of mite insertions that resulted in the duplication of specific ta, taa, or 8-bp targets. some of these mites share the same target duplicat ...200111172014
[infestation of s. paulo state, brazil, by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus].to study the influence of the distance between infested and non-infested areas in the geographical spread of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictuspopulations in the state of s. paulo. regional patterns were also studied, considering the determinants related to soil occupation.200011175600
[susceptibility of aedes aegypti larvae to parasitism by romanomermis culicivorax in laboratory and field conditions in oaxaca, mexico].in june 1996 in the state of oaxaca, mexico, larvae of the mosquito species aedes aegypti were exposed to infective preparasites of the nematode romanomermis culicivorax, ross and smith, in the laboratory and in the field. for the laboratory experiments larvae in instars i-iv were used; they had been collected in natural reservoirs. the laboratory experiments were carried out in triplicate, with 100 larvae of each larval stage per experiment. three preparasite application dosage ratios were test ...200011190968
comparative development of brugia pahangi and variation in acid hydrolase enzyme titers in.the development of the filarial nematode brugia pahangi was monitored and compared in susceptible (black eye) and refractory (rock) strains of aedes aegypti. simultaneously, the activities of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, alpha-glucosidase, and n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase were measured. three- to five-day-old females of both strains were fed on infected and uninfected clawed jirds (meriones unguiculatus) then dissected or homogenized at 2 h, at 24-h intervals for 5 days, and at 8 and 1 ...200011198915
control of aedes aegypti breeding in desert coolers and tires by use of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation.three different formulations of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti) were evaluated for their efficacy against immature aedes aegypti in desert coolers and tires. three formulations, viz., vectobac tablets, vectobac granules, and bacticide powder, at the application rate of 0.75, 2, and 1 g per cooler, respectively, and vectobac tablets at 0.75 and 0.375 g per tire, were evaluated. in coolers and tires, 100% reduction in the abundance of late larval instars of ae. aegypti was observed f ...200011198918
landing periodicity of aedes aegypti with implications for dengue transmission in trinidad, west indies.the diel landing/biting periodicity of the trinidad strain of aedes aegypti (l.) was monitored using human-bait during january-august 1999. hourly light intensities were measured both indoors and outdoors at both urban and rural sites. the periodicity of females was diurnal and nocturnal, with 90% arriving during daylight and twilight and 10% during the night. the pattern of landing was trimodal, with consistent peaks at 0700 h, 1100 h and 1700 h. the diel periodicities at indoor and outdoor urb ...200011217215
virus-expressed, recombinant single-chain antibody blocks sporozoite infection of salivary glands in plasmodium gallinaceum-infected aedes aegypti.transgenic mosquitoes resistant to malaria parasites are being developed to test the hypothesis that they may be used to control disease transmission. we have developed an effector portion of an antiparasite gene that can be used to test malaria resistance in transgenic mosquitoes. mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize the circumsporozoite protein of plasmodium gallinaceum can block sporozoite invasion of aedes aegypti salivary glands. an anti-circumsporozoite monoclonal antibody, n2h6d5, w ...200011220756
growth characteristics of the chimeric japanese encephalitis virus vaccine candidate, chimerivax-je (yf/je sa14--14--2), in culex tritaeniorhynchus, aedes albopictus, and aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the japanese encephalitis (je) virus vaccine candidate, chimerivax-je, which consists of a yellow fever (yf) 17d virus backbone containing the prm and e genes from the je vaccine strain je sa14--14--2, exhibits restricted replication in non-human primates, producing only a low-level viremia following peripheral inoculation. although this reduces the likelihood that hematophagous insects could become infected by feeding on a vaccinated host, it is prudent to investigate the replication kinetics o ...200011220763
evolutionary relationships among parvoviruses: virus-host coevolution among autonomous primate parvoviruses and links between adeno-associated and avian parvoviruses.the current classification of parvoviruses is based on virus host range and helper virus dependence, while little data on evolutionary relationships among viruses are available. we identified and analyzed 472 sequences of parvoviruses, among which there were (virtually) full-length genomes of all 41 viruses currently recognized as individual species within the family parvoviridae. our phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes as well as open reading frames distinguished three evolutionary gro ...200111222696
aedes aegypti peroxidase gene characterization and developmental expression.the functions of insect peroxidases include detoxification, stabilization of extracellular matrices, and possible involvement in insect immunity. the current study describes the isolation of a peroxidase gene, aepox, and its cdna from the mosquito, aedes aegypti. aepox codes for a protein that is homologous to various heme-peroxidases from vertebrates and invertebrates, with highest identity to drosophila melanogaster peroxidase (62%). sequence comparison identified several functionally and stru ...200111222958
public health implications of dengue in personnel returning from east north queensland the vector of dengue fever (aedes aegypti) is present; hence any viraemic individual importing dengue has the potential to transmit the disease locally. in early 2000 approximately 2,000 personnel returned from east timor to townsville, north queensland. seven importations of dengue occurred and individual cases were viraemic for up to 6 days in townsville. no subsequent local transmission occurred. there were 3 cases each of dengue type 2 and dengue type 3. one case could no ...200011225377
the bacillus thuringiensis cyt genes for hemolytic endotoxins constitute a gene the same way that cry genes, coding for larvicidal delta endotoxins, constitute a large and diverse gene family, the cyt genes for hemolytic toxins seem to compose another set of highly related genes in bacillus thuringiensis. although the occurrence of cyt hemolytic factors in b. thuringiensis has been typically associated with mosquitocidal strains, we have recently shown that cyt genes are also present in strains with different pathotypes; this is the case for the morrisoni subspecies, whi ...200111229896
molecular cloning of two prophenoloxidase genes from the mosquito aedes aegypti.the biosynthesis of melanotic materials is an important process in the life of a mosquito. melanin production is critical for many diverse processes such as egg chorion tanning, cuticular sclerotization, and melanotic encapsulation of metazoan parasites. prophenoloxidase plays a critical role in this biochemical cascade. two cdnas, one full length and one partial clone, and two genomic clones encoding prophenoloxidase (pro-po) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. the full ...200111240641
aedes aegypti in french guiana: susceptibility to a dengue virus.twenty-seven samples of aedes aegypti (f1 generation) from french guiana were tested for their susceptibility to dengue serotype 2 virus. very high infection rates were observed by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. ae. aegypti samples were pooled according to two groups: the first group (n=10) represented mosquitoes from the urbanized area of cayenne and surroundings, and the second group (n=17) corresponded to mosquitoes collected in the countryside. infection rates were found to be sim ...200111251898
meconial peritrophic membranes and the fate of midgut bacteria during mosquito (diptera: culicidae) metamorphosis.the location of midgut bacteria relative to meconial peritrophic membranes (mpms) and changes in bacterial numbers during midgut metamorphosis were studied in anopheles punctipennis (say), culex pipiens (l.), and aedes aegypti (l.) pupae and newly emerged adults. after adult emergence in aedes, anopheles, and most culex, there were few to no bacteria in the midgut. in most newly emerged adult mosquitoes, few bacteria were found in either the lumen or within the mpms/meconia. in a few culex speci ...200111268687
movement of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) released in a small isolated village on hainan island, china.a mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted in a small isolated village on hainan island, china, to examine the dispersal and movement of adult aedes aegypti (l.). two cohorts of mosquitoes marked with uniquely colored fluorescent dye were released at two different sites and recaptured for 6 d at every house in the village using human bait collections. the distribution pattern of houses around release site affected dispersal. the recapture rate of females released at the center of the vill ...200111268697
an epidemic of dengue 3 in far north queensland, describe an epidemic of dengue type 3 that occurred in far north queensland in 1997-1999 and its influence on the further development of dengue prevention and control strategies.200111270758
lack of cross-resistance to cry19a from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) resistant to cry toxins from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with high levels of resistance to single or multiple toxins from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were tested for cross-resistance to the bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan polypeptide cry19a. no cross-resistance was detected in mosquitoes that had been selected with the cry11a, cry4a and cry4b, or cry4a, cry4b, cry11a, and cyta toxins. a low but statistically significant level of cross-resistance, three to fourfold, was detected in the colony sel ...200111282656
expression of mosquito active toxin genes by a colombian native strain of the gram-negative bacterium asticcacaulis excentricus.mosquito control with biological insecticides, such as bacillus sp. toxins, has been used widely in many countries. however, rapid sedimentation away from the mosquito larvae feeding zone causes a low residual effect. in order to overcome this problem, it has been proposed to clone the bacillus toxin genes in aquatic bacteria which are able to live in the upper part of the water column. two strains of asticcacaulis excentricus were chosen to introduce the b. sphaericus binary toxin gene and b. t ...200111285507
mosquito isolates of ross river virus from cairns, queensland, australia.during 1996-1998 60,619 mosquitoes were collected around cairns, australia and processed for alphavirus isolation. thirty-three isolates of ross river (rr) virus were made from 9 species, aedes imprimens, aedes kochi, aedes notoscriptus, aedes vigilax, culex annulirostris, culex gelidus, mansonia septempunctata, verrallina (formerly aedes) carmenti, and verrallina lineatus. attempts to isolate rr virus from 121 aedes aegypti were unsuccessful. twenty-six (79%) of the isolates came from within 1 ...200011289664
vector competence of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent wn virus outbreak, at the assateague island wildlife refuge, va, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, disseminati ...200111296813
a simple method to identify triatomine (hemiptera: reduviidae) feces in sensing devices used in vector surveillance programs.we successfully applied the phenolphthalin (kastle-meyer) test used in forensic chemistry to distinguish between feces from triatomines and other domestic arthropods in sensing devices used for vector surveillance. all black or dark brown, but not white or yellow, fecal smears from laboratory-reared or field-collected triatoma infestans klug, triatoma guasayana wydgozinsky & abalos, triatoma sordida ståhl (recently revalidated as triatoma garciabesi carcavallo, cichero, martínez, prosen & ronder ...200111296815
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