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larval feeding behavior of three co-occurring species of container mosquitoes.interspecific differences in foraging behavior may help to determine whether the outcome of interspecific competition is coexistence or exclusion. mosquitoes in the genus culex are commonly described as foraging primarily by filtering the water column. this behavior contrasts with that of other container-dwelling genera, such as aedes and ochlerotatus, that are thought to forage primarily by browsing on container and detritus surfaces. we compared the feeding behavior of cx. pipiens, ae. albopic ...015707290
identification of mosquito avian-derived blood meals by polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex analysis.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) heteroduplex assay (hda) was developed to identify avian derived mosquito blood meals to the species level. the assay used primers amplifying a fragment of the cytochrome b gene from vertebrate but not invertebrate species. in culex tarsalis fed on quail, pcr products derived from the quail cytochrome b gene were detected seven days post-engorgement. in an analysis of wild-caught mosquitoes, 85% of blood-fed mosquitoes produced detectable pcr products. heterodup ...012201598
risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibilitystatus of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) in some sites in accra, ghana.dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. although, dengue has not been reported in ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease.027752187
arbovirus infections.arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease in the united states through both endemic transmission and travel-associated infections. this article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the united states.026633778
chikungunya vaccines in development.chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of europe and the americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase ii trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vacc ...026554522
climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. while this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (vbds), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. in part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven vbd models and climate change projections, but also, perhap ...025688012
barriers to success: how baculoviruses establish efficient systemic infections.the mechanisms used by baculoviruses to exit the midgut and cause systemic infection of their insect hosts have been debated for decades. after being ingested, baculoviruses reach the midgut, where several host barriers need to be overcome in order to establish successful infection. one of these barriers is the basal lamina, a presumably virus-impermeable extracellular layer secreted by the epithelial cells lining the midgut and trachea. this review discusses new evidence that demonstrates how t ...021300392
biological transmission of arboviruses: reexamination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends.among animal viruses, arboviruses are unique in that they depend on arthropod vectors for transmission. field research and laboratory investigations related to the three components of this unique mode of transmission, virus, vector, and vertebrate host, have produced an enormous amount of valuable information that may be found in numerous publications. however, despite many reviews on specific viruses, diseases, or interests, a systematic approach to organizing the available information on all f ...016223950
emerging and re-emerging viruses: a global challenge illustrated by chikungunya virus outbreaks.in recent decades, the issue of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially those related to viruses, has become an increasingly important area of concern in public health. it is of significance to anticipate future epidemics by accumulating knowledge through appropriate research and by monitoring their emergence using indicators from different sources. the objective is to alert and respond effectively in order to reduce the adverse impact on the general populations. most of the eme ...024175207
protective and pathogenic responses to chikungunya virus infection.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an arbovirus responsible for causing epidemic outbreaks of human disease characterized by painful and often debilitating arthralgia. recently chikv has moved into the caribbean and the americas resulting in massive outbreaks in naïve human populations. given the importance of chikv as an emerging disease, a significant amount of effort has gone into interpreting the virus-host interactions that contribute to protection or virus-induced pathology following chikv infec ...026366337
factors shaping the adaptive landscape for arboviruses: implications for the emergence of disease.many examples of the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases involve the adaptation of zoonotic viruses to new amplification hosts or to humans themselves. these include several instances of simple mutational adaptations, often to hosts closely related to the natural reservoirs. however, based on theoretical grounds, arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, may face several challenges for adaptation to new hosts. here, we review recent findings regarding adaptive evolution of arboviruse ...023374123
chikungunya virus and prospects for a vaccine.in 2004, chikungunya virus (chikv) re-emerged from east africa to cause devastating epidemics of debilitating and often chronic arthralgia that have affected millions of people in the indian ocean basin and asia. more limited epidemics initiated by travelers subsequently occurred in italy and france, as well as human cases exported to most regions of the world, including the americas where chikv could become endemic. because chikv circulates during epidemics in an urban mosquito-human cycle, con ...023151166
the role of environmental variables on aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology.aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. as an invasive mosquito species, ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and ...023916332
innate antiviral immunity in drosophila.the study of drosophila, and other genetically tractable insects, has expanded our understanding of innate immunity and more recently antiviral innate mechanisms. the drosophila antiviral program includes inflammatory signaling cascades as well as antiviral rna silencing and autophagy. this review will highlight the recent discoveries in antiviral immunity in insects and will reveal some of the lessons learned.020137906
host inflammatory response to mosquito bites enhances the severity of arbovirus infection.aedes aegypti mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting many medically important viruses such as those that cause zika and dengue. the inoculation of viruses into mosquito bite sites is an important and common stage of all mosquito-borne virus infections. we show, using semliki forest virus and bunyamwera virus, that these viruses use this inflammatory niche to aid their replication and dissemination in vivo. mosquito bites were characterized by an edema that retained virus at the inoculation ...027332734
rna interference-mediated antiviral defense in insects.small interfering rna (sirna)-mediated rna interference (rnai) pathways are critical for the detection and inhibition of rna virus replication in insects. recent work has also implicated rnai pathways in the establishment of persistent virus infections and in the control of dna virus replication. accumulating evidence suggests that diverse double-stranded rnas produced by rna and dna viruses can trigger rnai responses yet many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit rnai defenses. therefore, ...026034705
mosquito immune responses to arbovirus infections.the principal mosquito innate immune response to virus infections, rna interference (rnai), differs substantially from the immune response to bacterial and fungal infections. the exo-sirna pathway constitutes the major anti-arboviral rnai response and its essential genetic components have been identified. recent research has also implicated the piwi-interacting rna pathway in mosquito anti-arboviral immunity, but piwi gene-family components involved are not well-defined. arboviruses must evade o ...025401084
a genome-wide rnai screen reveals that mrna decapping restricts bunyaviral replication by limiting the pools of dcp2-accessible targets for cap-snatching.bunyaviruses are an emerging group of medically important viruses, many of which are transmitted from insects to mammals. to identify host factors that impact infection, we performed a genome-wide rnai screen in drosophila and identified 131 genes that impacted infection of the mosquito-transmitted bunyavirus rift valley fever virus (rvfv). dcp2, the catalytic component of the mrna decapping machinery, and two decapping activators, ddx6 and lsm7, were antiviral against disparate bunyaviruses in ...023824541
rna interference in infectious tropical diseases.introduction of double-stranded rna (dsrna) into some cells or organisms results in degradation of its homologous mrna, a process called rna interference (rnai). the dsrnas are processed into short interfering rnas (sirnas) that subsequently bind to the rna-induced silencing complex (risc), causing degradation of target mrnas. because of this sequence-specific ability to silence target genes, rnai has been extensively used to study gene functions and has the potential to control disease pathogen ...018344671
transgene-mediated suppression of the rna interference pathway in aedes aegypti interferes with gene silencing and enhances sindbis virus and dengue virus type 2 replication.rna interference (rnai) is the major innate antiviral pathway in aedes aegypti that responds to replicating arboviruses such as dengue virus (denv) and sindbis virus (sinv). on the one hand, the mosquito's rnai machinery is capable of completely eliminating denv2 from ae. aegypti. on the other, transient silencing of key genes of the rnai pathway increases replication of sinv and denv2, allowing the viruses to temporally overcome dose-dependent midgut infection and midgut escape barriers (meb) m ...023331493
specificity of resistance to dengue virus isolates is associated with genotypes of the mosquito antiviral gene dicer-2.in contrast to the prevailing view that invertebrate immunity relies on broad-spectrum recognition and effector mechanisms, intrinsic genetic compatibility between invertebrate hosts and their pathogens is often highly specific in nature. solving this puzzle requires a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying observed patterns of invertebrate host-pathogen genetic specificity, broadly referred to as genotype-by-genotype interactions. here, we identify an invertebrate immune gene in ...023193131
tackling the most difficult diseases. genetics and genomics open new strategies to fight vector-borne diseases. 011600446
wing shape as an indicator of larval rearing conditions for aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).estimating a mosquito's vector competence, or likelihood of transmitting disease, if it takes an infectious bloodmeal, is an important aspect of predicting when and where outbreaks of infectious diseases will occur. vector competence can be affected by rearing temperature and inter- and intraspecific competition experienced by the individual mosquito during its larval development. this research investigates whether a new morphological indicator of larval rearing conditions, wing shape, can be us ...022897054
mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses.a majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. the viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. a majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. this initially appeared to be simple mechanical ...010066833
larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria.adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. however, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. here, we used anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. we reared larvae in two groups; one ...027412284
antiviral defense mechanisms in honey bees.honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. high annual losses of honey bee colonies in north america and in some parts of europe have profound ecological and economic implications. colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including rna viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include rna-interference ...026273564
transcriptional pausing controls a rapid antiviral innate immune response in drosophila.innate immune responses are characterized by precise gene expression whereby gene subsets are temporally induced to limit infection, although the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. we show that antiviral immunity in drosophila requires the transcriptional pausing pathway, including negative elongation factor (nelf) that pauses rna polymerase ii (pol ii) and positive elongation factor b (p-tefb), which releases paused pol ii to produce full-length transcripts. we identify a set of g ...023084920
novel genetic and molecular tools for the investigation and control of dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes.aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue virus (denv) throughout the tropical world. this anthropophilic mosquito species needs to be persistently infected with denv before it can transmit the virus through its saliva to a new vertebrate host. in the mosquito, denv is confronted with several innate immune pathways, among which rna interference is considered the most important. the ae. aegypti genome project opened the doors for advanced molecular studies on pathogen-vector interactions in ...024693489
microbiota-dependent priming of antiviral intestinal immunity in drosophila.enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. in drosophila, the erk signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. the intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral erk signaling in the intestinal epithelium. one signal depends on recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota, particularly from the commensal acetobacter pomorum, which primes th ...026567510
mayaro virus infection, amazon basin region, peru, 2010-2013.during 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed mayaro virus infection in the peruvian amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.024210165
the status of infectious disease in the amazon region.the amazon river basin region is a vast territory with an area >7 million km2, encompassing parts of 9 south american countries: bolivia, brazil, colombia, ecuador, french guiana, guyana, peru, suriname, and venezuela. the amazon river, the longest river in the world, traverses the region from west to east, fed by multiple tributaries. the region also contains the largest tropical rainforest in the world, situated on a massive plain whose altitude is near sea level. with a climate characterized ...019331757
assessing the epidemic potential of rna and dna viruses.many new and emerging rna and dna viruses are zoonotic or have zoonotic origins in an animal reservoir that is usually mammalian and sometimes avian. not all zoonotic viruses are transmissible (directly or by an arthropod vector) between human hosts. virus genome sequence data provide the best evidence of transmission. of human transmissible virus, 37 species have so far been restricted to self-limiting outbreaks. these viruses are priorities for surveillance because relatively minor changes in ...027869592
molecular modeling and docking study to elucidate novel chikungunya virus nsp2 protease inhibitors.chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the asian and african countries. absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify and develop novel leads for the same. recently, nsp2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by alphaviruses including chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the ...026664062
can horton hear the whos? the importance of scale in mosquito-borne disease.the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is determined by mechanisms and interactions at different scales of biological organization, from individual-level cellular processes to community interactions between species and with the environment. most research, however, focuses on one scale or level with little integration between scales or levels within scales. understanding the interactions between levels and how they influence our perception of vector-borne pathogens is critical. here two examp ...024724278
coi barcode versus morphological identification of culex (culex) (diptera: culicidae) species: a case study using samples from argentina and brazil.sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 culex (culex) species from argentina and brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of coi for barcoding using the best close match (bcm) algorithm. a pairwise kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 coi barcode sequences was constructed. of the 12 coi lineages recovered in the neighbour-joining topology, five co ...024473810
dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates.dengue is among the most prevalent and important arbovirus diseases of humans. to effectively control this rapidly spreading disease, control of the vector mosquito and a safe and efficacious vaccine are critical. despite considerable efforts, the development of a successful vaccine has remained elusive. multiple factors have complicated the creation of a successful vaccine, not the least of which are the complex, immune-mediated responses against four antigenically distinct serotypes necessitat ...023984962
aedes taeniorhynchus vectorial capacity informs a pre-emptive assessment of west nile virus establishment in galápagos.increased connectivity with the mainland has led to the arrival of many invasive species to the galápagos islands, including novel pathogens, threatening the archipelago's unique fauna. here we consider the potential role of the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus in maintaining the flavivirus west nile virus [wnv] should it reach the islands. we report on three components of vectorial capacity - vector competency, distributional abundance and host-feeding. in contrast to usa strains, galápagos a. tae ...023519190
urban mosquito fauna in mérida city, méxico: immatures collected from containers and storm-water drains/catch basins.we examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from november 2011 to june 2013 in mérida city, méxico. a wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. in total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. the most commonly collected species were aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (n = 60,961) a ...025429168
dengue: challenges for policy makers and vaccine developers.because of the increasing incidence, geographic expansion and economic burden of dengue transmission, dengue poses major challenges to policy makers. a vaccine against dengue is urgently needed, but vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate animal model, poor understanding of correlates of successful human immunity, the fear of immune enhancement, and viral interference in tetravalent combinations. the most suitable target epitopes for vaccines, as well as the role of n ...024781826
molecular detection and typing of dengue viruses from archived tissues of fatal cases by rt-pcr and sequencing: diagnostic and epidemiologic implications.diagnosis of dengue virus (denv) infection in fatal cases is challenging because of the frequent unavailability of blood or fresh tissues. for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (ffpe) tissues immunohistochemistry (ihc) can be used; however, it may not be as sensitive and serotyping is not possible. the application of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the detection of denv in ffpe tissues has been very limited. we evaluated ffpe autopsy tissues of 122 patients with susp ...022302871
deadly intracranial bleed in patients with dengue fever: a series of nine patients and review of literature.dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. to date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. world heath organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. one of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ich).027365962
molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus type-1 and 2 isolated in malaysia.detection of different serotypes of dengue virus and provide information on origin, distribution and genotype of the virus.026150855
re-emergence of dengue virus serotype 2 strains in the 2013 outbreak in nepal.epidemiological interventions and mosquito control are the available measures for dengue control. the former approach uses serotype and genetic information on the circulating virus strains. dengue has been frequently reported from nepal, but this information is mostly lacking. the present study was done to generate a comprehensive clinical and virological picture of a dengue outbreak in nepal during 2013.026905233
reemergence and autochthonous transmission of dengue virus, eastern china, 2014.in 2014, 20 dengue cases were reported in the cities of wenzhou (5 cases) and wuhan (15 cases), china, where dengue has rarely been reported. dengue virus 1 was detected in 4 patients. although most of these cases were likely imported, epidemiologic analysis provided evidence for autochthonous transmission.026292098
co-circulation of dengue and chikungunya viruses, al hudaydah, yemen, 2012.we investigated 400 cases of dengue-like illness in persons hospitalized during an outbreak in al hudaydah, yemen, in 2012. overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. the co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in yemen.025061762
reply to skalsky et al.: a microrna-like small rna from dengue virus. 025061641
vertical transmission of dengue virus in aedes aegypti collected in puerto iguazú, misiones, argentina.a finding of vertical transmission of the den 3 virus in male specimens of aedes aegypti, collected in the 2009 fall-winter period, in puerto iguazú city, misiones, argentina, using the rt-pcr technique in a 15-specimen pool is reported. this result is analyzed within the context of the epidemiological situation of argentina's northeast border.024626420
phylogeography of dengue virus serotype 4, brazil, 2010-2011.dengue virus serotype 4 (denv-4) reemerged in roraima state, brazil, 28 years after it was last detected in the country in 1982. to study the origin and evolution of this reemergence, full-length sequences were obtained for 16 denv-4 isolates from northern (roraima, amazonas, pará states) and northeastern (bahia state) brazil during the 2010 and 2011 dengue virus seasons and for an isolate from the 1982 epidemic in roraima. spatiotemporal dynamics of denv-4 introductions in brazil were applied t ...023092706
mosquito larvicidal properties of mirabilis jalapa (nyctaginaceae) against anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti & culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae). 025366214
updating the geographical distribution and frequency of aedes albopictus in brazil with remarks regarding its range in the americas.the geographical distribution of aedes albopictus in brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. countrywide house indexes (hi) for ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of brazilian municipalities. this mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the federal district). in 34 brazilian municipalities, th ...025317707
imported dengue fever in tuscany, italy, in the period 2006 to 2012.this report focuses on epidemiological and clinical features of dengue fever (df) in tuscany (italy) between 2006 and 2012. sixty-one df cases were diagnosed, 32 of which were in the period of aedes albopictus activity. some clinical (arthralgia/myalgia, nausea/vomiting, and skin rash), laboratory (leukopenia and thrombocytopenia), and epidemiological characteristics (travel in a continent other than africa) significantly distinguished df cases from other febrile illnesses. our data stress the i ...025155927
small bite, big threat: the burden of vector-borne diseases. 025909072
clinical applicability of various dengue diagnostic tests in resource-limited endemic settings.dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections caused by one of the four dengue serotypes, 1-4.025191051
zika virus: indian perspectives.the emergence of zika virus (ziv), a mosquito borne flavivirus like dengue (den) and chikungunya (chik), in brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. aedes aegypti is the major vector for ziv. fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ziv and there is abundance of aedes mosquitoes. in this review, we focus on current global scenar ...027487998
zika virus infection after travel to tahiti, december 2013. 025062427
evidence that implicit assumptions of 'no evolution' of disease vectors in changing environments can be violated on a rapid timescale.projected impacts of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics must consider many variables relevant to hosts, vectors and pathogens, including how altered environmental characteristics might affect the spatial distributions of vector species. however, many predictive models for vector distributions consider their habitat requirements to be fixed over relevant time-scales, when they may actually be capable of rapid evolutionary change and even adaptation. we examine the genetic signature o ...025688024
rodents and risk in the mekong delta of vietnam: seroprevalence of selected zoonotic viruses in rodents and humans.in the mekong delta in southern vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. we investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (dobrava virus [dobv], seoul virus [seov]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses ( ...025629782
travel medicine for the extreme traveler. 017101310
the roles of mosquito and bird communities on the prevalence of west nile virus in urban wetland and residential habitats.this study investigated the impacts of urban wetlands and their adjacent residential environments on the transmission dynamics of west nile virus (wnv) within the state of new jersey (usa). a working hypothesis was that urban wetlands decrease the local prevalence of wnv through the dilution effect from increased bird diversity, and through relative reductions in the numbers of competent avian host and mosquito species commonly associated with wnv. surveys of mosquito and bird communities were u ...025484570
the burden of dengue and chikungunya worldwide: implications for the southern united states and california.dengue virus (denv) spreads to humans through the bite of an infected aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus mosquito and is a growing public health threat to both industrialized and developing nations worldwide. outbreaks of autochthonous dengue in the united states occurred extensively in the past but over the past 3 decades have again taken place in florida, hawaii, and texas as well as in american samoa, guam, northern mariana islands, puerto rico, and the us virgin islands. as the aedes vectors ...025960096
larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of pithecellobium dulce (roxb.) benth. (fabaceae) against anopheles stephensi liston & aedes aegypti linn. (diptera: culicidae).in view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).024056567
preliminary findings on bagaza virus (flavivirus: flaviviridae) growth kinetics, transmission potential & transovarial transmission in three species of mosquitoes.bagaza virus (bagv), a flavivirus synonymous with israel turkey meningoencephalitis virus, has been found to circulate in india. bagv has recently been held responsible for inducing febrile illness in humans and causing unusually high mortality to wild birds in spain. a study was therefore, undertaken to determine its replication kinetics in certain mosquitoes and to determine vector competence and potential of the mosquitoes to transmit bagv experimentally.024056604
interspecific larval competition between aedes albopictus and aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in northern virginia.aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes japonicus (theobald) are two of the most recent and widespread invasive mosquito species to have become established in the united states. the two species co-occur in water-filled artificial containers, where crowding and limiting resources are likely to promote inter- or intraspecific larval competition. the performance of northern virginia populations of ae. japonicus and ae. albopictus competing as larvae under field conditions was evaluated. per capita rates ...018714861
neurological infections in the returning international traveler.clinicians may encounter international travelers returning with exotic infections, emerging infectious diseases, or resurgent old-world infections. many of these infectious diseases can affect the nervous system directly or indirectly. the contemporary neurologist should therefore be cognizant of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and appropriate management of common travel-related infections. this chapter focuses on five important infections that affect the central nervous sy ...025147444
dengue antibody prevalence in german travelers.we studied 2,259 german citizens after they returned from dengue-endemic countries from 1996 to 2004. serotype-specific dengue antibodies indicated acute infections in 51 (4.7%) travelers with recent fever and 13 (1.1%) travelers with no recent fever, depending largely on destination and epidemic activity in the countries visited.015890135
the tortoise or the hare? impacts of within-host dynamics on transmission success of arthropod-borne viruses.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in a cycle of alternating transmission between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. arboviruses possess rna genomes capable of rapid diversification and adaptation, and the between-host trade-offs inherent to host alternation impose well-documented constraints on arbovirus evolution. here, we investigate the less well-studied within-host trade-offs that shape arbovirus replication dynamics and transmission. arboviruses generally establish l ...026150665
assessment of arbovirus surveillance 13 years after introduction of west nile virus, united states.before 1999, the united states had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. after emergence of west nile virus (wnv), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build wnv surveillance systems. the council of state and territorial epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federa ...026079471
outbreak of dengue virus serotype-2 (denv-2) of cambodian origin in manipur, india - association with meteorological factors.dengue is a major health problem in many parts of india and its neighbouring countries. dengue cases have not been reported from manipur, a northeastern state of india till 2007. but, the sudden outbreak of fever with febrile illness during 2007 and 2008, suspected to be dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever was investigated to detect the causative agent. potential impact of climatic variables on dengue transmission has been documented and hence the association between climatic factors, entomological ...023168706
the new health threats of exotic and global travel. 023265199
economic value of dengue vaccine in thailand.with several candidate dengue vaccines under development, this is an important time to help stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, scientists, clinicians, and manufacturers) better understand the potential economic value (cost-effectiveness) of a dengue vaccine, especially while vaccine characteristics and strategies might be readily altered. we developed a decision analytic markov simulation model to evaluate the potential health and economic value of administering a dengue vaccine to an individual ...021540387
serratia odorifera mediated enhancement in susceptibility of aedes aegypti for chikungunya virus.the susceptibility of the mosquito to the invading pathogen is predominantly dictated by the complex interactions between the mosquito midgut and the surface proteins of the invading pathogen. it is well documented that the midgut microbiota plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen. in the present study, we investigated the influence of serratia odorifera, an endogenous cultivable midgut inhabitant of aedes aegypti on the chikungunya virus (chikv) ...025027087
larvicidal efficacy of ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant juniperus procera essential oil against afrotropical malaria vector anopheles arabiensis (diptera: culicidae).to screen the essential oil of juniperus procera (j. procera) (cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of anopheles arabiensis (an. arabiensis) patton, the principle malaria vector in ethiopia.025183156
health economics of dengue: a systematic literature review and expert panel's assessment.dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. we searched five databases (pubmed, embase, lilac, econlit, and wholis) to identify health economics studies of dengue. forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. the remaining two were a willingness-to ...021363989
regulation of cell survival and death during flavivirus infections.flaviviruses, ss(+) rna viruses, include many of mankind's most important pathogens. their pathogenicity derives from their ability to infect many types of cells including neurons, to replicate, and eventually to kill the cells. flaviviruses can activate tumor necrosis factor α and both intrinsic (bax-mediated) and extrinsic pathways to apoptosis. thus they can use many approaches for activating these pathways. infection can lead to necrosis if viral load is extremely high or to other types of c ...024921001
dengue virus infection: current concepts in immune mechanisms and lessons from murine models.dengue viruses (denv), a group of four serologically distinct but related flaviviruses, are responsible for one of the most important emerging viral diseases. this mosquito-borne disease has a great impact in tropical and subtropical areas of the world in terms of illness, mortality and economic costs, mainly due to the lack of approved vaccine or antiviral drugs. infections with one of the four serotypes of denv (denv-1-4) result in symptoms ranging from an acute, self-limiting febrile illness, ...024182427
knowledge and use of personal protective measures against mosquito borne diseases in a resettlement colony of delhi.mosquito borne diseases (mbds) are major public health problem in india. state of delhi is endemic for dengue and other mbds. the increasing incidence of mbds in delhi in recent years warrants a pro-active approach for their prevention. knowledge and use of personal protective measures (ppms) presents an effective strategy for prevention and control of mbds.024761243
mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective rt-pcr method.to develop a rapid, cost effective rt-pcr method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area.023569876
unsuspected dengue and acute febrile illness in rural and semi-urban southern sri lanka.dengue virus (denv), a globally emerging cause of undifferentiated fever, has been documented in the heavily urbanized western coast of sri lanka since the 1960s. new areas of sri lanka are now being affected, and the reported number and severity of cases have increased. to study emerging denv in southern sri lanka, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data and acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from patients >2 years old with febrile illness. we tested paired serum samples for denv i ...022304972
mosquito biting activity on humans & detection of plasmodium falciparum infection in anopheles stephensi in goa, india.knowledge of the bionomics of mosquitoes, especially of disease vectors, is essential to plan appropriate vector avoidance and control strategies. information on biting activity of vectors during the night hours in different seasons is important for choosing personal protection measures. this study was carried out to find out the composition of mosquito fauna biting on humans and seasonal biting trends in goa, india.022382193
a cluster of dengue cases in american missionaries returning from haiti, 2010.dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-borne dengue viruses (denv-1 to -4) that are endemic throughout the tropics. after returning from a 1-week missionary trip to haiti in october of 2010, 5 of 28 (18%) travelers were hospitalized for dengue-like illness. all travelers were invited to submit serum specimens and complete questionnaires on pre-travel preparations, mosquito avoidance practices, and activities during travel. denv infection was confirmed in seven (25%) travelers ...022232444
zika virus: a roar after years of whispering. 027168917
the emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: a review and a consensus statement of the indusem joint working group (jwg).the zika virus (zikv), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. the world health organization (who) predicts that millions of cases of zikv are likely to occur in the americas during the next 12 months. these projections, in conjunction with suspected zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted who to declare public health emergency of intern ...027013839
novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. new and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. the small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics of ...022280344
a search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, aescp-2, through computational screening and docking strategies.sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. this conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(scp2).021808576
neurological manifestations of zika virus infection.zika virus (zikv) is a flavivirus (flaviviridae family) transmitted mainly by aedes mosquitoes. the virus was restricted to the african continent until its spread to south-east asia in the 1980's, the micronesia in 2007, the french polynesia in 2013 and, more recently in the americas in 2015, where, up to date, the world health organization (who) has estimated about 3-4 million total cases of zikv infection. during outbreaks in the french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015, respectively, nati ...027878100
zika in america: the year in review.short on funds and with no therapeutics or vaccines in sight, u.s. health officials are scrambling to prepare for a protracted fight with zika virus and the mosquitoes that carry it. in this article, the author focuses on the arrival of zika in the u.s.027990081
dengue fever in travelers to the tropics, 1998 and 1999.dengue fever (df) has become common in western travelers to the tropics. to improve the basis for travel advice, risk factors and dengue manifestations were assessed in 107 swedish patients for whom df was diagnosed after return from travel in 1998 and 1999. patient data were compared with data on a sample of all swedish travelers to dengue-endemic countries in the same years. only three of the patients had received pretravel advice concerning df from their physicians. hemorrhagic manifestations ...012702223
classification of dengue illness based on readily available laboratory data.the aim of this study was to examine retrospective dengue-illness classification using only clinical laboratory data, without relying on x-ray, ultrasound, or percent hemoconcentration. we analyzed data from a study of children who presented with acute febrile illness to two hospitals in thailand. multivariable logistic regression models were used to distinguish: (1) dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) versus dengue fever (df), (2) dhf versus df + other febrile illness (ofi), (3) dengue versus ofi, a ...020889865
zika virus: epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from world olympics and pilgrimage.to describe zika virus (zikv) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming mass gathering (mg) events.027648063
mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from cuiabá, state of mato grosso, brazil.this study aimed to verify the diversity of culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in cuiabá, state of mato grosso, brazil. mosquitoes were captured with nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. p ...026784852
is transfusion-transmitted dengue fever a potential public health threat?dengue is an arboviruses due to single-stranded enveloped ribonucleic acid viruses, named dengue viruses (denv), that include four serotypes and are mainly transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes of the genus aedes (a. aegypti and a. albopictus). the distribution of the disease was historically limited to intertropical areas; however, during the last thirty years, the perimeter of the disease extended considerably and temperate areas are now at risk of outbreaks. the present global burden of deng ...025964876
indigenous dengue fever, buenos aires, argentina. 018760035
advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17d yellow fever (yf) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. in this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17d yf vaccine. we discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test ...024757521
geographic variation in adult survival and reproductive tactics of the mosquito aedes albopictus.climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life history characters. since aedes albopictus (skuse) invaded north america in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of approximately 14 degrees latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality due to cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. life table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of ae. albop ...018402136
emerging viral diseases. 018491811
thoughts around the zika virus crisis.as a lot of reviews are available on zika virus (zikv), in this short commentary, we will focus on the recent advances and gaps in knowledge regarding our understanding of zikv infections and on the reaction to the "zikv crisis."027832453
the mysterious zika virus: adding to the tropical flavivirus mayhem.until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (denv) inhabiting africa, zika virus (zikv) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the western hemisphere. the outbreak causing potential for zikv was realized when it made its way from africa to yap island micronesia in 2007, and in french polynesia in 2013. from there, it moved on to brazil in 2015. now zikv has infected people in more than 33 countries in central and south america and the caribbean. moreover the epi ...027763483
vector-borne disease, cities, and climate change. 027737979
culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit zika virus.we report that two laboratory colonies of culex quinquefasciatus and culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit zikv either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on vero cells. we therefore consider it unlikely that culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of zikv.027605159
experimental investigation of the susceptibility of italian culex pipiens mosquitoes to zika virus infection.we investigated the susceptibility of an italian population of culex pipiens mosquitoes to zika virus (zikv) infection, tested in parallel with aedes aegypti, as a positive control. we analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. viral rna was detected in the body of cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. our results indicate that cx. pipiens is not susceptible to zikv infection.027605056
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