the fate of hepatozoon species naturally infecting florida black racers and watersnakes in potential mosquito and soft tick vectors, and histological evidence of pathogenicity in unnatural host species.haemogregarine parasites, derived from the florida snakes coluber constrictor and nerodia fasciata and ingested by aedes aegypti, completed sporogony within the hemocoeles of nearly all fed mosquitoes in 14-18 days, and produced oocysts typical of hepatozoon. however, mortalities and morbidity were high in the culex which had fed on the coluber. oocysts were not found in any ornithodoros turicata (argasidae) which fed upon either snake host, but many sections of fed ticks had gametocyte-like cel ...19911683862
insecticide susceptibility of aedes aegypti from santo domingo, dominican republic.the insecticide susceptibility of aedes aegypti adults and larvae from santo domingo, dominican republic, was investigated using world health organization standard procedures. a field strain was more resistant to insecticides than a colony strain that originated from the same place. larvae produced from ovitrap-collected eggs were resistant to temephos (78.2% mortality on exposure to 0.025 mg/liter). mortality rates after exposure of adults to discriminating concentrations showed that wild popul ...19911710652
susceptibility of aedes aegypti larvae to temephos and bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis in integrated control.the susceptibility of field collected aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated in terms of median lethal time (lt50) and final mortality, when treated with temephos, bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as well as mixtures of these two agents. third instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than early and late fourth instar ones to the entomopathogen. survival of some individuals when exposed to temephos suggest possible resistance. temporal synergism in early fourth instar larvae was detected ...19911726480
a program for prevention and control of epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in puerto rico and the u.s. virgin islands.the ongoing resurgence of aedes aegypti in the americas--abetted by poor mosquito control, urbanization, and increased air travel--has led to dengue hyperendemicity, more frequent dengue epidemics, and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf). this article describes a program developed to cope with this situation that emphasizes disease prevention rather than general mosquito control measures.19911742570
pathogenicity of spiroplasma taiwanense for larval aedes aegypti mosquitoes.helical replicative forms, but not the persistent non-replicative forms, of spiroplasma taiwanense abalain-colloc et al. (isolated from the mosquito anopheles sinensis wiedemann in taiwan) were shown to reduce significantly the survival of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito larvae reared in 10 ml of water with 0.3 ml of s.taiwanense suspensions added on days 0 and 3. the suspensions contained, respectively, helical forms at a concentration of 10(9) colour change units (ccu)/ml and persistent forms at 1 ...19911768913
cytotoxicity of a cloned bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cryivb toxin to an aedes aegypti cell line.a cloned cryivb toxin was purified from a cured strain of bacillus thuringiensis (bt) containing the cryivb gene on the recombinant plasmid cam135. solubilized protoxin was treated with aedes gut extract or trypsin for varying times and tested for toxicity in vitro on three dipteran and one lepidopteran cell line. treatment with the aedes extract but not trypsin, produced an active toxin which lysed only aedes aegypti cells out of those tested. this activation was time-dependent reaching a maxim ...19911769533
effect of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine on the migration of brugia pahangi microfilariae into the haemocoel of aedes aegypti.two strains of aedes aegypti (l.), differing in their susceptibility to brugia pahangi (buckley & edeson), were examined with regard to the effect on the proportion of microfilariae migrating from the mid-gut, of specific carbohydrate supplements in the infecting bloodmeal. n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac), a sugar also present on the microfilarial sheath, significantly increased the migration rate. this enhancement is greater for the refractory strain of ae.aegypti. the use of sucrose as a contr ...19911773126
metabolic labeling of dirofilaria immitis third- and fourth-stage larvae and their excretory-secretory products.infective third-stage larvae of dirofilaria immitis were collected from aedes aegypti and cultured in vitro to the fourth stage. larval proteins were labeled metabolically using [35s]cysteine and methionine in different media and for different lengths of time. labeled proteins in the excretory-secretory component and the larval homogenates were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions and by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis ...19911779301
potential for dengue in south africa: mosquito ecology with particular reference to aedes aegypti.observations on prevalence, geographical distribution, utilization of artificial larval habitats and anthropophilism were made on diurnal mosquitoes at selected localities along the coast of natal and inland in the transvaal to identify potential vectors of dengue in south africa. larval collections made in artificial containers on the ground, the exposure of bamboo pots as ovitraps in trees and collection of mosquitoes biting man showed the following species as the most likely candidates for ve ...19911787403
seasonal incidence and vertical distribution patterns of oviposition by aedes aegypti in an urban environment in trinidad, w. i.the oviposition patterns of aedes aegypti were investigated using modified ovitraps placed along 4 vertical transects and monitored weekly for 52 wk in st. augustine, trinidad, w.i. from the 832 ovitraps exposed at ground level, 1.2, 3.0 and 4.6-m elevations, 43% (361) were found containing 20,114 ae. aegypti eggs. during the wet season, 52.7% of the eggs were collected whereas during the dry season only 47.3% were collected. egg populations were highest at the 1.2-m elevation. the implications ...19911791447
aedes aegypti infestation characteristics in several caribbean countries and implications for integrated community-based control.periodic larval surveys for aedes aegypti were conducted in 11 caribbean countries between 1983 and 1989. on average, there were 24 potential larval habitats per house including 4.9 which held water at the time of examination. breteau indices for the various islands ranged from 34.7 to 121.6. in descending order of importance, water storage drums, house plants, buckets, used tires and miscellaneous small discarded containers accounted for 84% of all foci. highest rates of infestation were found ...19911791448
efficacy assessment of quwenling, a mosquito repellent from china.quwenling, an insect repellent product of china derived from extracts of the lemon eucalyptus plant (eucalyptus maculata citriodon), was evaluated. laboratory tests compared quwenling with deet against anopheles albimanus, an. quadrimaculatus, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus and field tests with ae. taeniorhynchus. cloth treated with quwenling at greater than 2x the dosage of deet was effective against 2 of 4 species tested (ae. albopictus 29 days, an. quadrimaculatus 28 days). on the skin of volu ...19911791453
controlled release repellent formulations on human volunteers under three climatic regimens.two controlled-release repellent formulations containing 33% (3m) and 42% (biotek) deet and an army repellent containing 75% deet were evaluated in 3 different climatic regimens (tropical forested, tropical open and basic hot environments). the 3 repellents provided similar protection for different time periods after application under all 3 climates against aedes aegypti, ae. taeniorhynchus and anopheles stephensi whereas there was no difference in protection period against an. albimanus.19911791462
the fate of plasmodium gallinaceum in anopheles stephensi liston and possible barriers to transmission.plasmodium gallinaceum develops up to the ookinete stage in the non-compatible mosquito, anopheles stephensi, this development occurring over the same time period and with the same success as in the compatible vector, aedes aegypti. the slower digestive rate in an. stephensi, smaller blood-meal and lower enzyme activity than in aedes, and an acceleration of the formation of the peritrophic membrane (pm) do not inhibit the development of the parasite. however, the ookinetes are not able to penetr ...19911793266
effect of selected chemicals on mosquito larval orientation behaviour using a new apparatus was designed and fabricated for studying the effects of aromatic chemicals on the iv instar larvae of aedes aegypti (l.). the test chemicals (essential oils and monoterpenoids) were incorporated in agar along with yeast and dog biscuits which formed an attractant food source (bait). a fairly rapid decrease in the migration of larvae towards the bait cum chemical source was observed during the first hour after which a steady state was observed. minimum migration (9.67%) was seen with ...19911794875
long-term effects of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on aedes aegypti.immediate (24 hours exposure) and long-term (until the emergence of the adults) effects of different doses of a primary powder of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (b.t.i.) against first and second instar aedes aegypti larvae were monitored. the long-term effect was dose-dependent and was materialized by a prolongation of the preimaginal development and continuous cumulative mortality until the emergence of the adults. mortality values were higher during the fourth larval instar and the ...19911802053
the aedes aegypti genome: complexity and organization.we describe the use of dna reassociation kinetics to determine the total genome size and complexity together with the individual complexity and copy number of the single copy, middle repetitive and highly repeated dna fractions of cell line and larval dna from the mosquito, aedes aegypti. the genome of ae. aegypti is both large and complex, being one third the size of the human genome, and exhibits a short period interspersed repeat pattern. the implications of patterns of sequence arrangement a ...19911802804
susceptibility of adult aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera; culicidae) to ddt in kampuchea.the susceptibility to 4% ddt was tested in adult aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in houses in phnom penh (kampuchea). it was found that in spite of the fact that insecticide treatment had not been performed for many years, the populations of both species as a whole remained resistant. however, there were some differences in the susceptibility between males and females and between engorged and hungry females. possible causes of these differences are discussed in the ...19911808035
laboratory evaluation of bacillus thuringiensis h-14 against aedes aegypti larvae in the northeast region of thailand.laboratory bioassays using a preparation of bacillus thuringiensis h-14 (bt.h-14), namely skeetal were conducted to determine their effectiveness against late 3rd/early 4th instar larvae of aedes aegypti. the larvae were collected from municipal areas in 7 provinces, namely burirum, roi-et, khon kaen, ubol ratchatani, nakorn phanom, surin and nakorn ratchasima, in the northeast of thailand. it was found that for skeetal, lc50 ranged from 128 to 151 nl/l (average 143) and lc90 ranged from 254 to ...19911818396
global climate change and infectious diseases.the effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. these mosquitoes transmit dengue v ...19911820262
[sampling study for larval density quantification of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the state of são paulo, brazil].the yellow fever and dengue vector control program developed by the superintendency for the control of endemic diseases in the state of s. paulo recommends aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus larval density monitoring in cities with domiciliar infestation. the sampling plan which has been applied in the countries of the presidente prudente region (sp- brazil) since 1987 is described. the infestation is measured by using the breteau index. a sample of buildings is drawn, monthly and independently, ...19911820612
isolation and laboratory evaluation of an indigenous strain of bacillus sphaericus (9001).an indigenous strain of bacillus sphaericus h5a (9001), possessing high insecticidal properties, was isolated from diseased larvae of culex species. this strain in comparison with the known strains of b. sphaericus, i.e., 1593 and 2362, was found to be promising against the fourth instar larvae of anopheles culicifacies, an. stephensi, an. subpictus, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus. b. sphaericus 9001 is highly stable and virulent through 25 successive transfers and thus can be effectiv ...19911822451
effects of medium alterations on in vitro development of brugia malayi larvae in cultured mosquito thoraces.a recent study showed that 1-day-old, intracellularly lodged larvae of brugia species develop in vitro to the infective third-stage larvae (l3) in excised thoraces of susceptible mosquitoes in the diphasic insect tissue culture medium containing a nutrient agar base overlaid with a 1:1 mixture of schneider's drosophila medium and grace's insect cell culture medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (fbs) and antimicrobial agents. in the present investigation, the diphasic culture medium wa ...19911865265
infection of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti mosquitoes with dengue parent and progeny candidate vaccine viruses: a possible marker of human attenuation.dengue (den-1) and den-4 parent (p) and progeny candidate vaccine (cv) viruses were compared in their abilities to infect and to replicate in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. the den cv clones were temperature sensitive (ts) and had small plaque morphology. the den-1 and den-4 cv viruses differed in their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by mosquitoes. the den-1 cv virus was not attenuated for the vector mosquitoes; oral infection rates with the cv virus we ...19911877715
mosquito host influences on development of filariae.a brief review is presented of the literature relating to factors which limit the capacity of filariae to develop in mosquitoes, with particular emphasis on immune mechanisms. most insects respond to bacterial infection by the production of potent antibacterial proteins, but little is known of this aspect of the immune response in mosquitoes or of the possible influence of immune proteins on the fate of filarial infections in mosquitoes. a summary account is given of recent experiments with the ...19911888212
occurrence of aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera, culicidae) in houses of different constructions in phnom penh, kampuchea.the relation between the number of mosquito specimens of the most abundant species aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say and the construction of houses which they inhabited was studied. the effect of the building materials and of the height at which the floor was situated above the ground were assessed in five and four localities, respectively. it was found that in the localities having the character of a town the mosquitoes were most abundant in houses constructed from corrugated pl ...19911916534
a single amino acid change in the e2 glycoprotein of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus affects replication and dissemination in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.four monoclonal antibody-resistant variants (marvs) of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus were used to study mosquito-virus interactions. in vitro experiments using an aedes albopictus cell line, c6/36, demonstrated that an amino acid change in the glycoprotein e2h epitope (marv 1a3b-7) decreased virus growth when compared with the wild-type, trinidad donkey virus, and its vaccine derivative, tc-83. the marvs replicated as efficiently as the parent virus when inoculated into aedes aegypt ...19911919525
binding of vitellogenin to membranes isolated from mosquito ovaries.the presence of specific receptors for vitellogenin (vg) in ovary membranes of the mosquito, aedes aegypti, was demonstrated by an in vitro binding assay. the binding reaction, which is dependent on ph and ca2+, uses 4 micrograms membrane protein, 35s-vg labeled metabolically by fat body culture in vitro, and unlabeled vitellin (vn) for competition. at ph 7.0 and in the presence of 5 mm ca2+, the binding of vg to its receptor reaches equilibrium within 60-90 min at both 4 and 25 degrees c. the b ...19911932779
entomological investigations during outbreaks of dengue fever in certain villages in maharashtra state.outbreaks of dengue (den) fever are reported from 22 villages in five districts in the state of maharashtra. den viral antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence test in 34 of 375 female aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from 8 villages. den types 2 and 3 were identified among the 16 strains that were isolated. none of the 64 male mosquitoes showed the presence of viral antigen; 281 males and 323 females reared from field collected larvae were also found negative. indoor spraying of dd ...19911937596
effects of ivermectin (mk-933) on the reproductive rate of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti (l.) females were blood fed a single time on rabbits previously injected subcutaneously with ivermectin at 10 or 50 times the labeled dose recommended for cattle (0.2 mg [ai]/kg body weight). although adult mosquito survival was unchanged by the low dose, fecundity and hatch were depressed slightly. females fed on rabbits at the high dose exhibited reduced survival and egg production compared with females fed on control rabbits. eggs from these females also were less likely to hatc ...19911941909
analysis of inheritance of oral susceptibility of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to dengue-2 virus using isofemale lines.isofemale lines were compared to determine possible genetic variation in oral susceptibility within the fare strain of aedes aegypti (l.) to dengue-2 (den-2) virus. three groups of 12 isofemale lines each were tested statistically using the sas catmod procedure of analysis of variance. the "isofemale line" effect was highly significant, demonstrating genetic variability in oral susceptibility among females. the length of time eggs were stored before hatching influenced the oral susceptibility of ...19911941912
flp-mediated recombination in the vector mosquito, aedes aegypti.the activity of a yeast recombinase, flp, on specific target dna sequences, frt, has been demonstrated in embryos of the vector mosquito, aedes aegypti. in a series of experiments, plasmids containing the flp recombinase under control of a heterologous heat-shock gene promoter were co-injected with target plasmids containing frt sites into preblastoderm stage mosquito embryos. flp-mediated recombination was detected between (i) tandem repeats of frt sites leading to the excision of specific dna ...19911945877
a field trial on the comparative effectiveness of malathion and resigen by ulv application on aedes aegypti.field trials were conducted in two residential areas of petaling jaya municipality to test the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of malathion 96% tg and resigen on aedes aegypti. malathion is the currently used insecticide in malaysia for the control of dengue. the leco hd ulv machine was used throught the trials. for malathion the flow rate was 90 ml/minute at a vehicle speed of 8kph and for resigen the flow rate was 200 ml/minute at the same vechicle speed. malathion was more effective giving ...19911948249
[dengue in the americas. a problem of regional health].the aedes aegypti was almost eradicate from the americas in the early sixties but reinfested the region a few years later, and dengue transmission has become a major health problem. the americas have been affected by dengue epidemics since the 1970s and hemorrhagic fever is becoming a threat for millions of people living in the tropical and subtropical areas of the continent. resources to cope with the increasing transmission of different serotypes in the region are scarce. therefore a regional ...19911948410
formulation of a flowable liquid concentrate of bacillus thuringiensis serotype h-14 spores and crystals as mosquito larvicide.bacillus thuringiensis serotype h-14 spores and crystals, produced in 51 fermenters, were centrifuged and resuspended in emulsified palm olein to give 3.2 x 10(11) colony forming units (cfu)/ml. the suspension was mixed with a cassava-molasses-palm olein-charcoal (cmpc-2) mixture which served as the carrier, adhesive, dispersant and protectant. the final concentration of the formulation was 3.2 x 10(9) cfu/ml. the lethal concentrations capable of killing 50% of the test population (lc50) of cmpc ...19911955414
aedes aegypti: characterization of hemocyte polypeptide synthesis during wound healing and immune response to inoculated microfilariae.hemocytes from adult, female aedes aegypti, intrathoracically inoculated with microfilariae (mf) of the nematode dirofilaria immitis, were compared to saline-inoculated and uninoculated controls using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), 125i-labeling, and wheat germ agglutinin (wga) binding techniques. activation of wound healing and/or melanotic encapsulation responses by the inoculation of saline or mf into the host hemocoel induced alterations in the hemocyte ...19911959574
anti-mosquito antibodies reduce the susceptibility of aedes aegypti to arbovirus infection.aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to infection with ross river virus and murray valley encephalitis virus when they were fed on a blood-virus mixture containing rabbit antibodies to mosquito midgut components. presence of the antibodies did not demonstrably affect virus titres in infected mosquitoes, nor the transmission of virus from infected mosquitoes to vertebrates.19901966777
comparison of development of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and bacillus sphaericus in mosquito larvae.immunofluorescent staining was used with thin sections of paraffin-embedded specimens to detect the development of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and bacillus sphaericus in the gut of mosquito larvae. the third- and fourth-instar larvae of aedes aegypti, anopheles maculatus, and culex quinquefasciatus were fed either vegetative cells or spores of the bacteria. spore germination, multiplication, and sporulation were studied in the larvae of each species. the spores of b. thuringiensis va ...19901969455
development of mutants of the mosquitocidal bacterium bacillus thuringiensis subspecies morrisoni (pg-14) toxic to lepidopterous or dipterous insects.the parasporal body of the mosquitocidal isolate (pg-14) of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (btm) contains five major proteins with molecular masses of, respectively, 27.3, 65, 128, 135, and 144 kda. proteins corresponding in mass to the first four of these also occur in the mosquitocidal strain, b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti), and it is thought therefore that the mosquitocidal activity of both strains is due to these four proteins. in other studies it has been shown that each ...19901969828
[clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia, a new anaerobic bacterium pathogen to mosquito and blackfly larvae].a strain of clostridium bifermentans individualized as serovar malaysia (c.b.m.) according to its specific h antigen is toxic to mosquito and blackfly larvae when given orally. the toxicity occurs in sporulated cells which contain, in addition to spores, proteinic parasporal inclusion bodies and feather-like appendages; the amino acid content of the inclusion bodies is similar to that of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (b.t.i.) and b. sphaericus crystals. the toxicity to anopheles ste ...19901972899
comparative organophosphorus insecticide susceptibility in caribbean populations of aedes aegypti and toxorhynchites moctezuma.aedes aegypti larvae from antigua, jamaica, puerto rico, st. lucia, trinidad and union island and predatory larvae, toxorhynchites moctezuma, from trinidad were tested for susceptibility to temephos, malathion, fenthion, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos. there was some organophosphorus resistance in all strains of ae. aegypti, in the approximate order: antigua greater than jamaica greater than puerto rico greater than st. lucia greater than trinidad greater than union island. toxorhynchites moctezu ...19901973450
[the pathogens of taiwan mosquitoes--coelomomyces species].a brief mention was made of the history of world studies on the coelomomyces fungi, the life cycle of the fungi, their importance as biological agents for mosquito control, and the known ecological information concerning the taiwan mosquitoes parasitized by the fungi. special accounts were made of the results of experiments infecting four mosquito species, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, ae. triseriatus and tripteroides aranoides with coelomomyces stegomyiae var. chapmani, using the copepod, phyl ...19901976138
fate of ingested immunoglobulin g in the mosquito aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the amount of bloodmeals ingested by aedes aegypti was estimated to be 3.00 +/- 1.05 mg (2.84 +/- 0.99 microliters) in average. the feeding time of a mosquito was not necessarily associated with the quantity of the bloodmeal. nevertheless, the number of egg laid after bloodfeeding was apparently dependent on the volume of ingested bloodmeals. the change of immunoglobulin g (igg) in the ingested bloodmeals of aedes aegypti was also evaluated by elisa. to detect the survival of ingested igg, 5-day ...19901979823
the peritrophic membrane as a barrier: its penetration by plasmodium gallinaceum and the effect of a monoclonal antibody to ookinetes.we studied the point at which a monoclonal antibody (mab c5) to a surface protein (pgs25) on plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes blocked the infection of aedes aegypti mosquitoes. the antibody did not block the development of zygotes to ookinetes in vitro. development of ookinetes to oocysts in the mosquito was blocked to the same extent whether zygotes grew to ookinetes in the presence of mab c5 or the antibody was added after the ookinetes had reached full development. when ookinetes developed in ...19912009919
outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas of parbhani district of maharashtra (india).outbreak of dengue fever in chikalthana, pimpalgaon and waloor villages in parbhani district of maharashtra (india) were investigated. clinically, the illness was typical of dengue fever except for the absence of maculopapular rash. a total of 42 acute, 14 late acute, 73 convalescent and 19 sera from contacts were collected. of the 15 virus isolates, 12 were identified as dengue virus type 2 and 1 as dengue virus type 1. serological tests confirmed the etiological role of dengue virus in the out ...19912022403
transmission of viable mycobacterium leprae by aedes aegypti from lepromatous leprosy patients to the skin of mice through interrupted feeding.female aedes aegypti which took partial blood meals from the skin lesions of untreated lepromatous leprosy (ll) patients were then allowed to continue feeding on 72-96-hr-old swiss albino suckling mice (rockefeller strain). the bitten portion of skin was removed, divided into two parts and processed for the extraction of bacilli by two different methods using chloroform and petroleum ether. the proboscis of some of the fed mosquitoes was dissected out and examined for viable bacilli (stained by ...19912034021
the first epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the people's republic of china.the first epidemic of dengue in china associated with significant severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease which met the world health organization case definition occurred on hainan island in 1985-1986. the epidemic began in zhan county in september 1985, spread throughout the coastal areas, and ultimately involved 13 counties and cities of the island in 1986. the mosquito vector was aedes aegypti. the morbidity associated with dengue infection on hainan island was 1,913 per 100,000 residents, with ...19912042704
spiroplasma (mollicutes: spiroplasmataceae) pathogenic for aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae).intrathoracic inoculation with the mosquito spiroplasma, spiroplasma taïwanense abalain-colloc et al., was found to reduce significantly the survival of adult male and female aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles stephensi liston. this spiroplasma also reduced significantly the flight capacity of adult female ae. aegypti 5-8 d after inoculation and adult female an. stephensi 4 d after inoculation. adult female an. stephensi were incapable of flight 5 d after inoculation. as such, s. taïwanense joins ...19912056503
nutritional factors and antimicrobials on development of infective larvae of subperiodic brugia malayi (nematoda: filarioidea) in anopheles quadrimaculatus and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the effects of nutritional factors and antimicrobials on the development of infective larvae of subperiodic brugia malayi in susceptible anopheles quadrimaculatus say and aedes aegypti (l.) were investigated. larvae of both species of mosquitoes were reared on brewers yeast or a 1:1 brewers yeast-liver powder mixture. after emergence, one-half of the adults from each rearing condition were maintained on a 10% sucrose solution and the other half on a 10% sucrose solution containing 0.1% p-aminobe ...19912056511
characterization of mosquitocidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis crystal proteins.the mosquitocidal crystals of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. fukuokaensis were isolated and bioassayed against fourth-instar larvae of two mosquito species. the 50% lethal concentration values of the crystals to aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus were 4.1 and 2.9 micrograms/ml, respectively. in addition, the solubilized crystals had hemolytic activity; 50 micrograms/ml was the lowest detectable level. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the cryst ...19912059032
structural diversity of trypsin from different mosquito species feeding on vertebrate blood.mosquito trypsin was purified using a combination of ion exchange and affinity chromatography with the ligand soybean trypsin inhibitor. three aedes and three anopheles species were tested, all of which are specialized in the digestion of vertebrate blood. amino-terminal sequences of hplc-purified trypsins from aedes aegypti and anopheles quadrimaculatus revealed homologies of 30-40% with vertebrate and other invertebrate proteases previously identified as serine-proteases. the purified mosquito ...19912065758
[the possibility of using a mass of aedes aegypti pupae and imagoes for determining the amount of blood they consume].a close correlation between the mass of mosquito chrysa1ises, imago and the amount of the consumed blood makes it possible to determine the latter parameter using any other one according to the formulas presented in the article, the accuracy of determination depending on the accuracy of the weighing technique. the method can be used with mosquitos of any age and warm-blooded donors. the use of an indirect method determining the amount of the consumed blood (by the mass of mosquitos or chrysalise ...19912067464
development of mansonella perstans in the surrogate vector aedes aegypti.the biology of the human filaria mansonella perstans has been poorly studied due in part to the lack of experimental animal models in which its life-cycle could be reproduced. in nature culicodes spp. (and probably simuliids) are the vectors involved in disease transmission. in the present work aedes aegypti black-eyed strain was experimentally infected with m. perstans microfilariae by intrathoracic inoculation of 8 to 15 parasites contained in 0.4-0.6 microliters of rpmi 1640. concentration of ...19902075386
[comparative study of dengue 2 virus replication and isoenzymes in two strains of aedes aegypti].this study, dealing with two strains of aedes aegypti from vietnam and french guiana, shows the variability of the genes coding for 11 isoenzymatic systems and the replication of the dengue 2 virus in parenterally infected mosquitoes. slight differences are observed in the characteristics of viral replication. no clear correlation is shown with enzymatic patterns which appear widely different from one strain to the other with four of the enzymes studied.19902085909
activation of a cryptic crystal protein gene of bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki by gene fusion and determination of the crystal protein insecticidal specificity.dna hybridization with the insecticidal crystal protein gene crylla (formerly crybl) of bacillus thuringiensis supspecies kurstaki has shown that subspecies kurstaki contains a crylla-related sequence in addition to the crylla gene (donovan et al., 1988a). we have cloned the crylla-related sequence and have determined that the sequence, which has been designated cryllb, is 89% identical to the crylla gene. recombinant b. thuringiensis cells harbouring the cloned cryllb gene produced very little ...19902089222
[analysis of the surveillance system of larval traps in the municipality of mariel (1984-1987)].an analysis is done of the species of culicides captured by the surveillance system of aedes aegypti, with larvitraps, at the mariel municipality, during 1984-1987 period. the study shows an increased presence of aedes mediovittatus in the system of larvitraps during the working period, demonstrating it the usefulness of sing larvitraps in the surveillance programmes of dengue in order to detect other species besides aedes aegypti.19902089508
virulence of entomogenous fungus metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae to aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus larvae. 19902091906
development & evaluation of controlled release formulations of depa, an insect repellent.three controlled release formulations of the insect repellent depa (n, n-diethyl phenylacetamide), depa-a, depa-b and depa-c have been developed and tested on human subjects against aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes for repellency and the results were compared to those of a solution of depa (depa-0). the increase in the protection time of the formulations, as compared to depa-0 was compared. depa-b was found to be effective with a protection time of 7.13 and 6.15 h and percentage increase in protec ...19902091992
[changes in the susceptibility of the recipient aedes aegypti to brugia pahangi after passive transfer of haemolymph].observations were carried out on the changes in the susceptibility of aedes aegypti (refm) to brugia pahangi after receiving haemolymph from both refractory (reprr) and susceptible (refm) aedes aegypti that were previously inoculated with microfilariae plus tc199 (tissue culture 199) or tc199 respectively. the melanization rates of microfilariae in the recipient mosquitoes were determined by dissecting the mosquitoes on day 3, 4 and 5 after haemolymph transfer. in the recipients receiving haemol ...19902099252
[a study on transovarial transmission of dengue type 1 virus in aedes aegypti].the main purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of transovarial transmission of dengue type 1 virus, which was isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever during the 1987 dengue epidemic in southern taiwan, in aedes aegypti of kaohsiung strain (kh). parent female mosquitoes were inoculated with dengue 1 virus by intrathoracic inoculation technique. the f1 offspring adults collected from three sequential ovarian cycles were pooled to become 51, 13 and 14 pools, respectiv ...19902100728
[methods for evaluating aedes aegypti populations and insecticide treatment in a town of trinidad, west indies].a. aegypti populations in four neighborhoods of flanigan town, trinidad, were evaluated for 32 weeks by means of egg-laying traps, capture with human bait, and larva searches. the egg-laying traps were more effective for evaluating the mosquito population (p less than 0.001) than capture with human bait or larva searches. during weeks 12 to 15, treatments were applied using different combinations of insecticides and spraying strategies: focal and perifocal (fpfs), house (hs), and ultra-low volum ...19902149637
toxicity of protease-resistant domains from the delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti bioassays.the mosquitocidal glycoprotein endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was digested with chymotrypsin to yield protease-resistant domains which were then separated from smaller protease digestion products by high-performance liquid chromatography. once purified, the domains no longer bound wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin which binds n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) and glcnac oligomers. purified protease-resistant domains were as toxic for culex quinquefasciatus larvae as intact solub ...19902155575
effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of aedes aegypti and ae. taeniorhynchus for ockelbo virus.studies were conducted to determine the effect of environmental temperature on the ability of aedes aegypti and ae. taeniorhynchus to transmit ockelbo (ock) virus. temperatures tested were 10 degrees c, 17 degrees c, 24 degrees c, and a cyclic (10-24 degrees c, mean = 17 degrees c) regimen designed to mimic continuously temperatures to which a mosquito might be exposed in july and august in central sweden. both species were highly susceptible to oral infection, with no consistent association bet ...19902173434
molecular cloning of the 130-kilodalton mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin gene of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in bacillus sphaericus.a 3.7-kilobase (kb) xbai fragment harboring the cryivb gene (l. thorne, f. garduno, t. thompson, d. decker, m. a. zounes, m. wild, a. m. walfield, and t. j. pollock, j. bacteriol. 166:801-811, 1986) which encoded a 130-kilodalton (kda) mosquitocidal toxin from a 110-kb plasmid of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 4q2-72 was cloned into puc12 and transformed into escherichia coli. the clone with a recombinant plasmid (designated pbt8) was toxic to aedes aegypti larvae. the fragment (3.7 k ...19902200339
[study on the vertical transmission of the dengue virus in the south pacific].in the course of a dengue outbreak, 765 larvae and 20 pupae were collected in noumea and in wallis island around patients premises, to investigate a possible natural infection. on 15 pools made of 335 aedes aegypti larvae and pupae, 3 appeared to be infected. dengue virus type 1 was the only serotype identified. minimum infection rate reached 1: 112. in new caledonia, the local strains of aedes aegypti can insure the survival of dengue 1 virus between outbreaks, due to a vertical infection of th ...19902208461
[the presence of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus in the fiji islands].an entomological survey conducted at the international airports of the fiji islands showed aedes albopictus breeding in the protective area of nadi airport. no aedes aegypti nor anopheles accidentally imported have been seen during the visit. aedes vexans, a. pseudoscutellaris, a. burnetti, a. vigilax, culex annulirostris, c. quinquefasciatus and a species of the pipiens complex have been collected incidentally out of airport areas. due to the presence of aedes albopictus, a new and important ep ...19902208470
brugia malayi and brugia pahangi: transmission blocking activity of ivermectin and brugian filarial infections in aedes aegypti.brugia malayi- or brugia pahangi-infected, microfilaremic jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were treated with ivermectin at a single dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight, administered subcutaneously. after different time intervals, aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on treated or untreated jirds. sausage stage, l2, and l3 larvae failed to develop in mosquitoes that fed on jirds from 15 to 30 days post-treatment. after 1 month, the numbers of l3 larvae recovered from mosquitoes fed on treated b. paha ...19902209785
mortality and infertility in adult mosquitoes after the ingestion of blood containing ivermectin.mosquitoes of 3 species (aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus) were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. three effects (death, decreased egg production, and reduced egg hatching) were observed in the insects, depending upon the concentration of ivermectin ingested. the ld50 of ivermectin in human blood for the 3 mosquito species was estimated to be 126, 208, and 698 ng/ml, respectively. mosquitoes dying after ingestion of ivermectin developed s ...19902221216
variation among strains of aedes aegypti in susceptibility to oral infection with dengue virus type 2.we compared 18 aedes aegypti strains for oral susceptibility to dengue virus type 2 (den-2) using a feeding protocol in which all parameters remained constant, including the titer of the infectious bloodmeal. for most strains, no significant variation between replicates was observed. comparisons between pairs of strains showed variation of different degrees, and allowed us to characterize the strains with respect to their oral susceptibility to den-2.19902221225
dirofilaria immitis: effect on hemolymph polypeptide synthesis in aedes aegypti during melanotic encapsulation reactions against microfilariae.[35s]methionine-labeled hemolymph polypeptides from adult, female aedes aegypti liverpool strain mosquitoes inoculated with the microfilariae of the filarial nematode dirofilaria immitis were compared with those from saline-inoculated and uninoculated controls by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) followed by fluorography. sds-page analysis of cell-free hemolymph collected via perfusion at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postinoculation (pi) detected the enhanced e ...19902226702
apparent influence of the stage of blood meal digestion on the efficacy of ground applied ulv aerosols for the control of urban culex mosquitoes. ii. laboratory evidence.the susceptibility of adult culex pipiens s.l., culiseta melanura and aedes aegypti to insecticide aerosols in wind tunnel exposures varied with time, depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. greater than 2-fold differences were observed in the concentrations of malathion and synergized resmethrin required to kill test mosquitoes, depending on whether they had been given a blood meal and, if they had, the length of time following the blood meal. the period of lowest susceptibility varied ...19902230763
mosquito attraction to substances from the skin of different humans.mosquito attraction responses to substances collected from human skin and placed on glass petri dishes were studied. mosquito response varied according to the source of the substance. substances removed from the head and hands elicited the greatest attraction response in laboratory-reared mosquitoes. mosquito response lasted up to 6 h when the substance was aged and was increased by warming the samples from ca. 25 degrees c to 37 degrees c. of the 12 mosquito species studied, attraction response ...19902230769
baseline data on aedes aegypti populations in santo domingo, dominican republic.baseline field studies were conducted from april 1987 to july 1988 on aedes aegypti in santo domingo, an endemic area for dengue fever. premise, container and breteau indices were measured in one treated area and 2 nearby control areas. these indices averaged 69.6, 46.3 and 142.1, respectively. the principal larval habitats of ae. aegypti were 208-liter (55-gal) concrete-lined drums. the estimated daily adult production was approximately 60 per house. adult mosquito populations were monitored us ...19902230783
increased abundance, size, and longevity of food-deprived mosquito populations exposed to a fungal determine whether the quantity of food available to mosquitoes in their aquatic environment limits the effectiveness of microbial pathogens as biological control agents, experimentally well-nourished and malnourished larval aedes aegypti (linn.) were exposed to graded inocula of the entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae. first instar larvae were provided access either to 3 or to 5 mg of food, and lots from each food regimen were inoculated with 20, 40, 60, or 80 micrograms of fungal ...19902240376
the fate of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in b. thuringiensis var. israelensis-killed pupae of aedes aegypti.carcasses of mosquito larvae killed by bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis allow its complete growth cycle (germination, vegetative growth, and sporulation), thus becoming toxic themselves to scavenging larvae. in this study, we demonstrate that the bacterium is capable of inducing death of aedes aegypti pupae and of recycling in the resulting carcasses. b. thuringiensis var. israelensis-killed pupae were obtained by treating 40-hr-old synchronized fourth instar larvae with a low dose of spo ...19902250101
larvicidal activity of blastospores and conidiospores of beauveria bassiana (strain gk 2016) against age groups of aedes aegypti.laboratory bioassays of two development stages, blastospores (bs) and conidiospores (cs) of beauveria bassiana (strain gk 2016) against aedes aegypti larvae were conducted at 27 degrees c. in study 1, against 24 h post-hatched larvae, both bs and cs stages showed significant difference in their respective larvicidal efficacy over the control (p less than 0.0001). larval mortality between 24 and 96 h post-exposure was significantly higher than any other time period investigated. significantly hig ...19902251749
role of insects as inhalant allergens in bronchial asthma with special reference to the clinical characteristics of patients.the whole body extracts (wbes) of 13 common insects from delhi, namely musca domestica (house fly); sitophilus oryzae (rice weevil); callosobrochous maculatus (pulse beetle); anopheles stephensi, culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti (mosquitoes); blattella germanica and periplaneta americana (cockroaches: male, female and nymph); spodoptera litura and heliothis armigera (moths), were prepared to evaluate their allergenic significance in patients with allergic bronchial asthma. intradermal (i ...19902253082
[further comment on the role of sugars for the successful infection of blood-sucking diptera by protozoa that are the causative agents of human diseases].possible reasons of a successful development of plasmodium gallinaceum in aedes aegypti, which were not given sugar feeding, are analysed. such reasons are assumed to be high contents of sugars (up to 200 mg/% in the blood of chickens-donors) and retention of sugar in the crop of mosquitoes, which were fed from a tampon, in control.19902259528
transmission of mycobacterium leprae from lepromatous leprosy patients to the skin of mice through intermittent feeding.batches of hungry aedes aegypti mosquitoes which partially sucked blood from the skin lesions of proved untreated lepromatous leprosy (ll) patients were allowed immediately to feed on a portion of the skin of a cleanly shaved swiss mouse. the portion of the skin was cut, homogenized on the same day and extracted with chloroform. out of 10 extracts, stained for acid fast bacilli (afb), mycobacterium leprae were demonstrated in eight, indicating transfer of bacilli mechanically to the biting spot ...19902260204
the susceptibility of five laboratory colonies of mosquitoes to the human nematode wuchereria bancrofti (cobbold).laboratory colonies of anopheles gambiae, an. arabiensis, an. merus, an. quadriannulatus and aedes aegypti formosus were artificially fed on blood containing microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti. the anopheline colonies all supported parasite development to the infective stage, with an. quadriannulatus being the most heavily infected. the parasite did not develop at all in the ae. aegypti formosus colony.19902260902
small heat shock proteins distinguish between two mosquito species and confirm identity of their cell lines.we have adapted aedes aegypti cells to eagle's minimal medium containing nonessential amino acids, glutamine, and 5% fetal bovine serum. in this medium, cells maintained at 28 degrees c under a 5% co2 atmosphere had a doubling time of 42 hr. ninety-three percent of the cells in a typical population contained 6 full-size chromosomes and an apparent chromosome fragment. ae. aegypti cells could be distinguished from ae. albopictus cells by the sizes of the small heat shock proteins, whose synthesis ...19902267971
high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of hemolymph plasma catecholamines in immune-reactive aedes aegypti.tyrosine and catecholamines have been implicated as substrates for the encapsulation reactions involved in the immune response of mosquitoes to microfilariae (mff). identification and quantitation of tyrosine and catecholamines present in aedes aegypti hemolymph plasma were accomplished by ion-pair high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection at either +650 or +850 mv vs ag/agcl. tyrosine, dopamine, and n-beta-alanyldopamine were detected in the hemolymph plasma of naive a. ...19902273291
characterization of the bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from taiwan.over 100 bacillus thuringiensis (bt) isolates which produced phase bright inclusions have been isolated from soil samples from different areas in taiwan. three types of crystal proteins were visualized by phase contrast microscopy. among these isolates, only 14 different types of plasmid profiles have been observed. they all possess a variety of plasmids ranging from a few kb to around 250 kb in size. with respect to the crystal protein profiles, the plasmid profiles, and the shapes of crystal p ...19902274596
dengue 3 virus infection of aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti: comparison of parent and progeny candidate vaccine viruses.den-3 parent (strain ch53489) and progeny candidate vaccine (clone 24/28) viruses were compared in their abilities to interact with aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus. the parent and progeny virus were equivalent in their ability to infect, to replicate in, and to be transmitted by both species of mosquitoes. the candidate vaccine den-3 clone was temperature sensitive and had small plaque morphology. these phenotypic markers remained stable during mosquito passage. thus, temperature sensitivity an ...19902301711
transfer of the toxin protein genes of bacillus sphaericus into bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.the genes encoding the toxic determinants of bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. in both cases, the b. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of b. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. b. thuringiensis transformants expressing b. sphaericus and b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against aedes aegypti, ...19902306087
immune competence of aedes trivittatus hemocytes as assessed by lectin binding.hemocytes were perfused from uninoculated, saline-inoculated, and dirofilaria immitis microfilariae-inoculated aedes trivittatus and assessed for their capacity to bind wheat germ agglutinin (wga). approximately one-fourth of perfused hemocytes were wga positive in all groups of mosquitoes at all time periods tested. results suggest a. trivittatus has a larger inherent population of immune-competent hemocytes as compared with aedes aegypti and, therefore, is faster and more effective in killing ...19902319432
comparison of ground and aerial ultra-low volume applications of malathion against aedes aegypti in santo domingo, dominican republic.efficacy of ground and aerial ultra-low volume (ulv) applications of 91% malathion at 438 ml/ha against aedes aegypti in the dominican republic was evaluated using indoor collections, oviposition trapping and adult sentinel mortality rates. ground compared to aerial ulv applications in this study were found to have a greater effect on ae. aegypti when measured by the described sampling techniques. neither application method provided the level of ae. aegypti suppression believed necessary for con ...19902324712
aedes aegypti surveillance in tobago, west indies (1983-88).during 1983-88 aedes aegypti were collected using larval surveys and ovitraps in tobago, w.i. the main artificial containers used by ae. aegypti were drums (35.4%) and small miscellaneous containers (23.4%). from a total of 15,600 ovitraps exposed, 183 ovitraps (1.3%) were positive, with 25 containing ae. aegypti eggs and 158 with haemagogus equinus eggs. no aedes albopictus eggs were detected in tobago during this study.19902324721
transmission of plasmodium gallinaceum by adult aedes aegypti infected as larvae.transmission of plasmodium gallinaceum to chickens by adult mosquitoes eclosed from larvae that consumed infected adult mosquitoes was investigated. no malarial infections were observed in chicks fed on by mosquitoes that eclosed from larvae that had consumed crushed infected adult mosquitoes. where cadavers with noncrushed thoraces were used, 3 of 4 chicks fed on by adult mosquitoes developed parasitemias ranging from 6 to 11% infected erythrocytes.19902324722
incidence and diel pattern of oviposition outdoors of the mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in trinidad, w.i. in relation to solar aspect.the incidence and diel patterns of oviposition of domestic aedes aegypti in trinidad, west indies during the middle of the wet season (july and august) was compared, using modified ovitraps, in unshaded peridomestic outdoor sites facing east or west. sites close to each other along a transect differed greatly in the total eggs they received, 18.2% of sites receiving 50.6% of the eggs. sites receiving most eggs were close to other breeding sites. the incidence of oviposition in sites facing west, ...19902331177
diel patterns of oviposition indoors of the mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in trinidad, w.i.: a preliminary study.diel patterns of oviposition of domestic aedes aegypti were monitored early in the dry season in two situations indoors in trinidad, west indies. in kitchens, a large, well defined peak of oviposition (comprising more than 56% of eggs laid) occurred two to four hours before sunset and a smaller peak (about 16% of eggs laid) occurred within the two hours after sunrise. in living rooms, the afternoon peak was better defined and larger (more than 86% of eggs laid) and occurred later, within the two ...19902331178
susceptibility of anopheles quadrimaculatus (diptera: culicidae) to subperiodic brugia malayi and brugia pahangi (nematoda: filarioidea) adapted to nude mice and jirds.anopheles quadrimaculatus and aedes aegypti (black-eyed liverpool strain) were fed on jirds and nude mice (jird-jird infection, jird-mouse infection, and mouse-jird infection) infected with subperiodic brugia malayi and b. pahangi. microfilariae of b. malayi from jird-mouse and mouse-jird infections developed normally in an. quadrimaculatus, whereas those from jird-jird infections did not develop. microfilariae of both species from jirds and nude mice developed normally in ae. aegypti and those ...19902332882
[distribution pattern of dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in peripheral blood of a dog and their intake by mosquitoes].experiments were made in which aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed on a dog infected with dirofilaria immitis, in order to determine the distribution pattern of microfilariae (mf) in the dog's periphery blood and the number of mf taken by the mosquitoes. mosquitoes fed on an anesthetized dog at some 50 shaved skin spots and they were weighed immediately before and after feeding. this enabled us to examine not only the mf number taken by each mosquito but also the mf intake density in terms of mf number ...19902333443
anti-tick antibodies: an epidemiologic tool in lyme disease 1988, antibodies to arthropod (ixodes dammini, dermacentor variabilis, and aedes aegypti) salivary gland proteins and to borrelia burgdorferi were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 53 high-risk outdoor workers from the new jersey department of environmental protection. lyme disease seropositives had significantly higher anti-i. dammini antibody levels than seronegative controls (p = 0.006). anti-b. burgdorferi antibody (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and anti-i. dammini ant ...19902356814
a survey on indoor resting mosquito species in phnom penh, kampuchea.indoor resting mosquitoes were collected in 7 localities (250 houses) of phnom penh at various periods. the mosquitoes were collected for 8 min in every house by means of an aspirator and net. a total of 16 species of mosquitoes resting in houses were found, one of them for the first time in kampuchea. culex quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in 6 of the localities observed; its predominance in houses was more or less evident; aedes aegypti prevailed in one locality. the percentage of ...19902370029
structure of the aedes aegypti (l.) and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) populations in the houses of phnom penh (kampuchea).sex ratio and engorged females ratio were studied in the main mosquito species populations (aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus and partially anopheles vagus) in the houses of phnom penh. collections were carried out in 7 different localities, including area from the centre of the town to the periphery. in ae. aegypti and c. quinquefasciatus populations females were dominant in 5 localities, while males were dominant in 2 localities. engorged females were predominant over unfed ones in all cas ...19902370030
effect of gamma irradiation on the hemocyte-mediated immune response of aedes aegypti against microfilariae.the effect of gamma irradiation on the melanotic encapsulation response of aedes aegypti black eye liverpool strain against inoculated dirofilaria immitis microfilariae (mff) was assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 days postinoculation (pi). mosquitoes received 6000 rad from a 137cs source (shepard mark i irradiator) at 3 days postemergence and were inoculated with 15-20 mff 24 hr later. these mosquitoes were compared to nonirradiated controls that also were inoculated with 15-20 mff at 3 days postemerge ...19902376661
applicability of presence-absence and sequential sampling for ovitrap surveillance of aedes (diptera: culicidae) in chiang mai, northern thailand.applicability of presence or absence sampling for ovitrap surveillance of aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) was examined for data collected in chiang mai, northern thailand. distribution of eggs per trap was contagious but did not fit the negative binomial distribution with a common k. the relationship between the mean number of eggs per trap and the proportion of positive traps was described using gerrard & chiang's model, which does not assume particular distribution patterns. us ...19902388225
[preliminary study on the biological control of dengue vectors by fish in liouchyou prefecture, pingtung county, taiwan].an investigation made in may 1989 with questionnaires to 2,480 families in liouchyou prefecture, pingtung county, showed that there were about 6,533 water containers in the whole village, of which 49.83% were used to store water for drinking, and the remaining 50.17% were used for washing clothes and watering plants. 32.42% of the residents volunteered to rear fish in the family water containers to control the mosquito population. during the period from april to october 1989, there was a total a ...19902402027
microcarriers as a culturing system of insect cells and insect viruses.there is an increasing interest in culturing of insect cells, which are host for arthropod-born (arbo) viruses. the potential applications of arbo viruses are in the following two main fields: 1. medical applications (e.g. preparation of viral vaccines and viral antigens for diagnostic purposes). 2. as bioinsecticides in pest control in horticulture, agriculture and forestry. one of the potential cell substrates for these applications is an anchorage-dependent-mosquito cell line established from ...19872438174
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