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first evidence of vertical infection of dengue virus 2 in aedes aegypti mosquitoes from sinaloa, mexico.fourteen pools of aedes aegypti larvae collected within the urban area of culiacán, sinaloa, were analyzed by rt-pcr. the results demonstrate, for the first time, the vertical infection of serotype-2 dengue virus (denv-2) in sinaloa, mexico, suggesting that ae. aegypti acts as a natural reservoir of denv-2 in this region.201829485942
hypericum japonicum: a double-headed sword to combat vector control and cancer.mosquito control with naturally derived herbal insecticides has gained much momentum, with the increased insecticide resistance of vectors and the multiple infectious diseases spread by them. yet, recent studies also suggest that mosquitoes could probably transmit some cancerous cells or cancer-causing viruses from one individual to another between their blood meals. the current research thus focused on the screening and characterization of novel plants with both mosquitocidal and anticancerous ...201829476319
in tune with nature: wolbachia does not prevent pre-copula acoustic communication in aedes aegypti.mosquito-borne diseases are rapidly spreading to vast territories, putting at risk most of the world's population. a key player in this scenario is aedes aegypti, a hematophagous species which hosts and transmits viruses causing dengue and other serious illnesses. since vector control strategies relying only on insecticides have proven unsustainable, an alternative method involving the release of wolbachia-harboring individuals has emerged. its successful implementation vastly depends on how fit ...201829471864
dengue viruses and promising envelope protein domain iii-based vaccines.dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. all four serotypes of dengue virus can ...201829470620
using adult aedes aegypti females to predict areas at risk for dengue transmission: a spatial case-control study.traditional indices for measuring dengue fever risk in a given area are based on the immature forms of the vector (larvae and pupae surveys). however, this is inefficient because only adult female mosquitoes actually transmit the virus. based on these assumptions, our objective was to evaluate the association between an entomological index obtained from adult mosquito traps and the occurrence of dengue in a hyperendemic area. additionally, we compared its cost to that of the breteau index (bi).201829462598
seasonal distribution and container preference ratio of the dengue fever vector (aedes aegypti, diptera: culicidae) in rawalpindi, pakistan.aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) are known vectors of dengue, chikungunya, and other pathogens; however, their ecology and role in virus transmission has not been well studied in pakistan. here, we report on an intensive survey of potential breeding sites of ae. aegypti in rawalpindi, punjab province, pakistan. the study continued for 11 mo and was divided into three seasons: january to june (pre-monsoon), july to september (monsoon), and october-november (post-monsoon). larval mo ...201829462424
improving vector-borne pathogen surveillance: a laboratory-based study exploring the potential to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites in mosquito saliva.vector-borne pathogen surveillance programmes typically rely on the collection of large numbers of potential vectors followed by screening protocols focused on detecting pathogens in the arthropods. these processes are laborious, time consuming, expensive, and require screening of large numbers of samples. to streamline the surveillance process, increase sample throughput, and improve cost-effectiveness, a method to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites (plasmodium falciparum) by leveraging ...201829460859
entomological and epidemiological aspects of dengue epidemics in fortaleza, ceará, brazil, 2001-2012.to characterize the entomological and epidemiological aspects of dengue epidemics occurred in fortaleza, ceará, brazil, from 2001 to 2012.201829451615
dynamic remodeling of lipids coincides with dengue virus replication in the midgut of aedes aegypti mosquitoes.we describe the first comprehensive analysis of the midgut metabolome of aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for arboviruses such as dengue, zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. transmission of these viruses depends on their ability to infect, replicate and disseminate from several tissues in the mosquito vector. the metabolic environments within these tissues play crucial roles in these processes. since these viruses are enveloped, viral replication, assembly and release occur on ...201829447265
mosquitoes of northwestern uganda.despite evidence of arbovirus activity in northwestern uganda (west nile sub-region), there is very limited information on the mosquito fauna of this region. the only published study reported 52 mosquito species in northwestern uganda but this study took place in 1950 and the information has not been updated for more than 60 yr. in january and june 2011, co2 baited-light traps were used to collect 49,231 mosquitoes from four different locations, paraa (9,487), chobe (20,025), sunguru (759), and ...201829444287
the impact of insecticide applications on the dynamics of resistance: the case of four aedes aegypti populations from different brazilian regions.in the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses. however, increasing insecticide resistance in ae. aegypti populations might hinder insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. it will be important to understand the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance by assessing its frequency and the mechanisms by which it occurs.201829432488
optimal control approach for establishing wmelpop wolbachia infection among wild aedes aegypti populations.wolbachia-based biocontrol has recently emerged as a potential method for prevention and control of dengue and other vector-borne diseases. major vector species, such as aedes aegypti females, when deliberately infected with wolbachia become less capable of getting viral infections and transmitting the virus to human hosts. in this paper, we propose an explicit sex-structured population model that describes an interaction of uninfected (wild) male and female mosquitoes and those deliberately inf ...201829429122
a natural agonist of mosquito trpa1 from the medicinal plant cinnamosma fragrans that is toxic, antifeedant, and repellent to the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.plants produce various secondary metabolites that offer a potential source of novel insecticides and repellents for the control of mosquito vectors. plants of the genus cinnamosma are endemic to, and widely-distributed throughout, the island of madagascar. the barks of these species are commonly used in traditional medicines for treating a wide range of maladies. the therapeutic nature of the bark is thought to be associated with its enrichment of pungent drimane sesquiterpenes, which elicit ant ...201829425195
evidence for chikungunya and dengue transmission in quelimane, mozambique: results from an investigation of a potential outbreak of chikungunya virus.in january 2016, health authorities from zambézia province, mozambique reported the detection of some patients presenting with fever, arthralgia, and a positive result for chikungunya in an igm-based rapid diagnostic test (rdt). we initiated a study to investigate a potential chikungunya outbreak in the city of quelimane.201829415070
aedes aegypti antiviral adaptive response against denv-2.priming is the conceptual term defining memory phenomenon in innate immune response. numerous examples of enhanced secondary immune response have been described in diverse taxa of invertebrates; which naturally lacks memory response. in mosquitoes, a previous non-lethal challenge with some specific pathogens modify their immune response against the same microorganism; developing an improved antimicrobial reaction. in this work, we explore the ability of aedes aegypti to mount a higher antiviral ...201829408269
existing and potential infection risk zones of yellow fever worldwide: a modelling analysis.yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. an effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in angola, democratic republic of the congo, and brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity to spread further internat ...201829398634
immune response-related genes associated to blocking midgut dengue virus infection in aedes aegypti strains that differ in susceptibility.aedes (stegomyia) aegypti, the principal global vector of dengue viruses, has differences in its' susceptibility to dengue virus infection. we compared the global expression of genes in the midguts of colombian ae. aegypti dengue-susceptible (cali-s) and dengue-refractory (cali-mib) field derived strains after ingesting either a sugarmeal, a bloodmeal, or a bloodmeal containing dengue virus serotype 2 (denv-2). microarray-based transcriptome analysis among treatments indicated a total of 4725 tr ...201829389079
aedes mosquitoes and aedes-borne arboviruses in africa: current and future threats.the zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted byaedesmosquitoes in africa. yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and zika are poorly controlled in africa and often go unrecognized. however, to combat these diseases, both in africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in africa, theiraedesvectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities foraedescontrol. d ...201829382107
synthesis and structure-activity relationships of carbohydrazides and 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives bearing an imidazolidine moiety against the yellow fever and dengue vector, aedes aegypti.1,3,4-oxadiazole and imidazolidine rings are important heterocyclic compounds exhibiting a variety of biological activities. in this study, novel compounds with oxadiazole and imidazolidine rings were synthesized from 3-(methylsulfonyl)-2-oxoimidazolidine-1-carbonyl chloride and screened for insecticidal activities. the proposed structures of the 17 synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, infrared (ir), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 h-nmr), and mass spectroscopy.201828869331
quantification through tlc-densitometric analysis, repellency and anticholinesterase activity of the homemade extract of indian cloves.the rise of the mosquitoes-transmitted diseases, like dengue, zika and chikungunya in brazil in the last years has increased concerns on protection against mosquitoes bites. however, the prohibitive prices of the commercially available repellents for the majority of the brazilian population has provoked a search for cheaper solutions, like the use of the homemade ethanolic extract of indian clove (syzygium aromaticum l.) as repellent, which has been reported as quite efficient by the local press ...201828913959
an overview of mosquito vectors of zika virus.the mosquito-borne arbovirus zika virus (zikv, flavivirus, flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak impressive by its magnitude and rapid spread. first detected in uganda in africa in 1947, from where it spread to asia in the 1960s, it emerged in 2007 on the yap island in micronesia and hit most islands in the pacific region in 2013. subsequently, zikv was detected in the caribbean, and central and south america in 2015, and reached north america in 2016. although zikv infections are in general asy ...201829481868
vector competence of selected north americananophelesandculexmosquitoes for zika virus.zika virus (zikv) is a vector-borne flavivirus that has caused recent outbreaks associated with serious disease in infants and newborns in the americas.aedesmosquitoes are the primary vectors for zikv, but little is known about the diversity of mosquitoes that can transmit zikv in north america. we chose three abundant north american mosquito species (anopheles freeborni,anopheles quadrimaculatus, andculex tarsalis) and one known vector species (aedes aegypti), fed them blood meals supplemented ...201829472998
potential occurrence of zika from subtropical to temperate argentina considering the basic reproduction number (r0).to assess the potential occurrence of zika transmission throughout argentina by the mosquito aedes aegypti considering the basic reproduction number (r0).201829466517
alterations of mitochondrial electron transport chain and oxidative stress induced by alkaloid-like α-aminonitriles on aedes aegypti larvae.aedes aegypti mosquitoes are responsible for dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus transmission in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. due to the absence of vaccines or antiviral drugs for human treatment, the majority of control strategies are targeted at ae. aegypti elimination. our research on mosquito control insecticidal agents has previously shown that the alkaloid girgensohnine and its analogues (α-aminonitriles) present in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vivo inse ...201829463410
synergistic effect of entomopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum extract in combination with temephos against three major mosquito vectors.mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. herein, we evaluated the toxicity of fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefaciatus. f. oxysporum extract was characterized ...201829457957
modeling the spread of the zika virus using topological data analysis.zika virus (zikv), a disease spread primarily through the aedes aegypti mosquito, was identified in brazil in 2015 and was declared a global health emergency by the world health organization (who). epidemiologists often use common state-level attributes such as population density and temperature to determine the spread of disease. by applying techniques from topological data analysis, we believe that epidemiologists will be able to better predict how zikv will spread. we use the vietoris-rips fi ...201829438377
integrated vector control of aedes aegypti mosquitoes around target houses.the developing fetuses of pregnant women are at high risk of developing serious birth defects following zika virus infections. we applied an integrated vector control (ivc) approach using source reduction, larviciding, and mass trapping with non-insecticidal sticky traps to protect targeted houses by reducing the density of female aedes aegypti mosquitoes.201829422087
zika and aedes aegypti: new and old challenges.infection with the zika virus had a great impact not only on pregnant women and newborns, but also on public health, on popular ideas about aedes aegypti and with respect to women's social rights. the objective of this paper is to identify this impact and the historical, social and health changes of the disease and the legacy of the zika virus. interventions by researchers from different specialties foster conditions for more comprehensive investigations into future epidemic threats in brazil an ...201829412263
zika virus mb16-23 in mosquitoes, miami-dade county, florida, usa, 2016.we isolated a strain of zika virus, mb16-23, from aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in miami beach, florida, usa, on september 2, 2016. phylogenetic analysis suggests that mb16-23 most likely originated from the caribbean region.201829400646
mission accomplished? we need a guide to the 'post release' world of wolbachia for aedes-borne disease control.historically, sustained control of aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika viruses, has been largely ineffective. subsequently, two novel 'rear and release' control strategies utilizing mosquitoes infected with wolbachia are currently being developed and deployed widely. in the incompatible insect technique, male aedes mosquitoes, infected with wolbachia, suppress populations through unproductive mating. in the transinfection strategy, both male and female wolbac ...201829396201
larvicidal activity of selected plant extracts and their combination against the mosquito vectors culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti.in order to develop an environment-friendly botanical mosquito larvicide alternative to the chemical larvicides, extracts were made from the leaves of hyptis suaveolens, lantana camara, nerium oleander, and tecoma stans with three organic solvents such as methanol (me), chloroform (ch), and petroleum ether (pe) using a soxhlet extractor. the plant extracts were screened for larvicidal activity individually and in combination against the larvae of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus as per w ...201829460245
mosquito saliva: the hope for a universal arbovirus vaccine?arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are taxonomically diverse causes of significant morbidity and mortality. in recent decades, important mosquito-borne viruses such as west nile, chikungunya, dengue, and zika have re-emerged and spread widely, in some cases pandemically, to cause serious public health emergencies. there are no licensed vaccines against most of these viruses, and vaccine development and use has been complicated by the number of different viruses to protect against, by subtype ...201829617849
the potential impacts of 21st century climatic and population changes on human exposure to the virus vector mosquitoaedes aegypti.the mosquitoaedes (ae). aegyptitransmits the viruses that cause dengue and chikungunya, two globally-important vector-borne diseases. we investigate how choosing alternate emissions and/or socioeconomic pathways may modulate future human exposure toae. aegypti. occurrence patterns forae. aegyptifor 2061-2080 are mapped globally using empirically downscaled air temperature and precipitation projections from the community earth system model, for the representative concentration pathway (rcp) 4.5 a ...201829610543
identification of hub genes and pathways in zika virus infection using rna-seq data: a network-based computational approach.zika virus (zikv), a single-strand rna flavivirus, is transmitted primarily through aedes aegypti. the recent outbreaks in america and unexpected association between zikv infection and birth defects have triggered the global attention. this vouches to understand the molecular mechanisms of zikv infection to develop effective drug therapy. a systems-level understanding of biological process affected by zikv infection in fetal brain sample led us to identify the candidate genes for pharmaceutical ...201829608426
pyrethroid resistance persists after ten years without usage against aedes aegypti in governmental campaigns: lessons from são paulo state, brazil.aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses, is found at high densities in tropical urban areas. the dissemination of this vector is partially the consequence of failures in current vector control methods, still mainly relying upon insecticides. in the state of são paulo (sp), brazil, public health managers employed pyrethroids against ae. aegypti adults from 1989 to 2000, when a robust insecticide resistance monitoring system detected resistance to pyrethroids in several ae. a ...201829601580
zika virus pathogenesis in infant mice after natural transmission by the bite of infected mosquitoes.the objective of this study was to understand natural disease progression in infant cd1 mice after the bite of aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected by the zika virus (zikv, mr-766 strain).201829597193
commentary: zika virus in the americas-yet anotherarbovirusthreat. 201829593683
diverse laboratory colonies of aedes aegypti harbor the same adult midgut bacterial microbiome.host-associated microbes, collectively known as the microbiota, play an important role in the biology of multicellular organisms. in mosquito vectors of human pathogens, the gut bacterial microbiota influences vectorial capacity and has become the subject of intense study. in laboratory studies of vector biology, genetic effects are often inferred from differences between geographically and genetically diverse colonies of mosquitoes that are reared in the same insectary. it is unclear, however, ...201829587819
a vaccinia-based single vector construct multi-pathogen vaccine protects against both zika and chikungunya viruses.zika and chikungunya viruses have caused major epidemics and are transmitted by aedes aegypti and/or aedes albopictus mosquitoes. the "sementis copenhagen vector" (scv) system is a recently developed vaccinia-based, multiplication-defective, vaccine vector technology that allows manufacture in modified cho cells. herein we describe a single-vector construct scv vaccine that encodes the structural polyprotein cassettes of both zika and chikungunya viruses from different loci. a single vaccination ...201829581442
characterization of the adult aedes aegypti early midgut peritrophic matrix proteome using lc-ms.the aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector of arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika virus. these arboviruses are transmitted during adult female mosquito bloodfeeding. while these viruses must transverse the midgut to replicate, the blood meal must also reach the midgut to be digested, absorbed, or excreted, as aggregation of blood meal metabolites can be toxic to the female mosquito midgut. the midgut peritrophic matrix (pm), a semipermeable extracellular layer ...201829570734
treatment of chikungunya chronic arthritis: a systematic review.chikungunya (chik) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. in brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. the initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. usually, chik presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. during this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggere ...201829561944
model-based inference from multiple dose, time course data reveals wolbachia effects on infection profiles of type 1 dengue virus in aedes aegypti.infection is a complex and dynamic process involving a population of invading microbes, the host and its responses, aimed at controlling the situation. depending on the purpose and level of organization, infection at the organism level can be described by a process as simple as a coin toss, or as complex as a multi-factorial dynamic model; the former, for instance, may be adequate as a component of a population model, while the latter is necessary for a thorough description of the process beginn ...201829558464
mosquito-borne human viral diseases: whyaedes aegypti?although numerous viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, four have caused the most human suffering over the centuries and continuing today. these are the viruses causing yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and zika fevers. africa is clearly the ancestral home of yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika viruses and likely the dengue virus. several species of mosquitoes, primarily in the genusaedes, have been transmitting these viruses and their direct ancestors among african primates for millennia allo ...201829557341
dengue virus infection inaedes albopictusduring the 2014 autochthonous dengue outbreak in tokyo metropolis, japan.in 2014 in japan, 162 autochthonous dengue cases were reported for the first time in nearly 70 years. here, we report the results of the detection and isolation of dengue virus (denv) from mosquitoes collected in tokyo metropolis in 2014 and 2015. the phylogenetic relationship among denv isolates from mosquitoes and from patients based on both the entire envelope gene and whole coding sequences was evaluated. herein, 2,298 female and 956 maleaedes albopictusmosquitoes were collected at six suspe ...201829557338
identification of aanat5b as a spermine n-acetyltransferase in the mosquito, aedes aegypti.mosquitoes transmit a number of diseases in animals and humans, including dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses that affect millions of people each year. controlling the disease-transmitting mosquitoes has proven to be a successful strategy to reduce the viruses transmission. polyamines are required for the life cycle of the rna viruses, chikungunya virus and zika virus, and a depletion of spermidine and spermine in the host via induction of spermine n-acetyltransferase restricts their replicatio ...201829554129
the mixture of cashew nut shell liquid and castor oil results in an efficient larvicide against aedes aegypti that does not alter embryo-fetal development, reproductive performance or dna integrity.dengue fever, chikungunya fever and zika virus are epidemics in brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as aedes aegypti or aedes albopictus. the liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus aedes. the present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named talcc-20) on the mortality of larvae and on the reproducti ...201829554095
mapping the virome in wild-caught aedes aegypti from cairns and bangkok.medically important arboviruses such as dengue, zika, and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the globally distributed mosquito aedes aegypti. increasing evidence suggests that transmission can be influenced by mosquito viromes. herein rna-seq was used to characterize rna metaviromes of wild-caught ae. aegypti from bangkok (thailand) and from cairns (australia). the two mosquito populations showed a high degree of similarity in their viromes. blast searches of assembled contigs sugg ...201829549363
estimating the probability of dengue virus introduction and secondary autochthonous cases in europe.given the speed of air travel, diseases even with a short viremia such as dengue can be easily exported to dengue naïve areas within 24 hours. we set out to estimate the risk of dengue virus introductions via travelers into europe and number of secondary autochthonous cases as a result of the introduction. we applied mathematical modeling to estimate the number of dengue-viremic air passengers from 16 dengue-endemic countries to 27 european countries, taking into account the incidence of dengue ...201829545610
house screening with insecticide-treated netting provides sustained reductions in domestic populations of aedes aegypti in merida, mexico.there is a need for effective methods to control aedes aegypti and prevent the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and zika viruses. insecticide treated screening (its) is a promising approach, particularly as it targets adult mosquitoes to reduce human-mosquito contact.201829543805
the seasonal influence of climate and environment on yellow fever transmission across africa.yellow fever virus (yfv) is a vector-borne flavivirus endemic to africa and latin america. ninety per cent of the global burden occurs in africa where it is primarily transmitted by aedes spp, with aedes aegypti the main vector for urban yellow fever (yf). mosquito life cycle and viral replication in the mosquito are heavily dependent on climate, particularly temperature and rainfall. we aimed to assess whether seasonal variations in climatic factors are associated with the seasonality of yf rep ...201829543798
risk perception and level of knowledge of diseases transmitted by aedes aegypti.diseases caused by viruses such as dengue, chikungunya and zika are mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by aedes aegypti. we performed a cross-sectional study of healthcare personnel and the general population using questionnaires to identify the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices, and risk perception for dengue, chikungunya and zika. a total of 248 questionnaires were applied, 63.3% to healthcare personnel and 36.7% to the general population. of the healthcare personnel, 53% were men, ...201829538507
dengue virus in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in urban areas in the state of rio grande do norte, brazil: importance of virological and entomological surveillance.vector control remains the sole effective method to prevent dengue virus (denv) transmission, although a vaccine for dengue has recently become available and testing of its efficacy and coverage is being performed in multiple places. entomological surveillance is a key factor in alerting authorities to possible outbreaks, but until now natural denv infection of mosquito populations has been scarcely used as an early warning system to monitor fluctuating prevalence of infected mosquitoes. the pur ...201829534105
chikungunya virus: a rheumatologist's perspective.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus, transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes. it is responsible for a febrile illness, typically accompanied by maculopapular rash and severe, incapacitating arthralgia. the disease, although generally self-limiting, frequently evolves into a long-lasting, debilitating rheumatic disorder, which shares many clinical features with rheumatoid arthritis (ra). the underlying mechanism by which chikv induces persistent arthrit ...201829533749
comparative phylogeography ofaedesmosquitoes and the role of past climatic change for evolution within africa.the study of demographic processes involved in species diversification and evolution ultimately provides explanations for the complex distribution of biodiversity on earth, indicates regions important for the maintenance and generation of biodiversity, and identifies biological units important for conservation or medical consequence. african and forest biota have both received relatively little attention with regard to understanding their diversification, although one possible mechanism is that ...201829531714
natural variation in resistance to virus infection in dipteran insects.the power and ease ofdrosophilagenetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. studies of virus-host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit flydrosophila melanogasterand vector mosquit ...201829522475
update: noncongenital zika virus disease cases - 50 u.s. states and the district of columbia, 2016.zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). most zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or non ...201829518067
impacts of diurnal temperature and larval density on aquatic development of aedes aegypti.the increasing range of aedes aegypti, vector for zika, dengue, chikungunya, and other viruses, has brought attention to the need to understand the population and transmission dynamics of this mosquito. it is well understood that environmental factors and breeding site characteristics play a role in organismal development and the potential to transmit pathogens. in this study, we observe the impact of larval density in combination with diurnal temperature on the time to pupation, emergence, and ...201829513751
zika virus epidemiology in bolivia: a seroprevalence study in volunteer blood donors.zika virus (zikv), was widely reported in latin america and has been associated with neuropathologies, as microcephaly, but only few seroprevalence studies have been published to date. our objective was to determine the seroprevalence amongst bolivian blood donors and estimate the future potential circulation of the virus.201829513667
swift fabrication of ag nanostructures using a colloidal solution of holostemma ada-kodien (apocynaceae) - antibiofilm potential, insecticidal activity against mosquitoes and non-target impact on water bugs.recent research in entomology and parasitology focused on the efficacy of green fabricated nanomaterials as novel insecticides. in this study, we synthesized poly-dispersed and stable silver nanoparticles (agnps) using the leaf extract of holostemma ada-kodien. the nanostructures were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, and x-ray diffraction analysis. t ...201829510358
salivary factor ltrin from aedes aegypti facilitates the transmission of zika virus by interfering with the lymphotoxin-β receptor.pathogens have co-evolved with mosquitoes to optimize transmission to hosts. mosquito salivary-gland extract is known to modulate host immune responses and facilitate pathogen transmission, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of this have remained unknown. in this study, we identified and characterized a prominent 15-kilodalton protein, ltrin, obtained from the salivary glands of the mosquito aedes aegypti. ltrin expression was upregulated in blood-fed mosquitoes, and ltrin facilitated the t ...201829507355
transovarial transmission of dengue 1 virus in aedes aegypti larvae: real-time pcr analysis in a brazilian city with high mosquito population density.transovarial transmission is among the reported factors able to influence environmental maintenance of dengue virus (denv). endemic areas with active transmission of dengue are suitable for studying transovarial transmission. brazil is a country where dengue is endemic and where denv-1 is the most common disease-related virus serotype. this study aimed to identify transovarial transmission of denv-1 in aedes aegypti larvae by reverse-transcriptase nested real-time polymerase chain reaction. betw ...201829505732
green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using holarrhena antidysenterica (l.) wall.bark extract and their larvicidal activity against dengue and filariasis vectors.the present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal potential of methanol, hexane, acetone, chloroform, and aqueous bark extracts of holarrhena antidysenterica (l.) wall. and silver nanoparticles (agnps) synthesized using aqueous bark extract against the third instar larvae of aedes aegypti l. and culex quinquefasciatus say. agnps were prepared by adding 10 ml of aqueous bark extract in 90 ml of 1 mm silver nitrate (agno3) solution. after 5 min of mixing, a change in color from yellow t ...201829250727
mapping the spatial distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.mosquito-borne infectious diseases, such as rift valley fever, dengue, chikungunya and zika, have caused mass human death with the transnational expansion fueled by economic globalization. simulating the distribution of the disease vectors is of great importance in formulating public health planning and disease control strategies. in the present study, we simulated the global distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus at a 5×5km spatial resolution with high-dimensional multidisciplinary ...201829191515
first evidence of zika virus venereal transmission in aedes aegypti mosquitoes.aedes aegypti is considered the main zika virus (zikv) vector, and is thought to be responsible for the 2015-2016 outbreak in brazil. zika positive ae. aegypti males collected in the field suggest that vertical and/or venereal transmission of zikv may occur.201829185595
point-of-use nanobiosensor for detection of dengue virus ns1 antigen in adult aedes aegypti: a potential tool for improved dengue surveillance.dengue virus (denv) and its primary mosquito vectors aedes spp. have spread to every continent except antarctica, causing outbreaks and autochthonous transmission in previously disease-free regions. recently, the spread of other arboviruses carried by invasive aedes spp., such as chikungunya and zika, seem to be following similar trends as denv and have renewed interest in monitoring and modeling arboviruses within mosquito vectors. unfortunately, current commercially available detection methods ...201829182305
bacterial exopolysaccharide (eps)-coated zno nanoparticles showed high antibiofilm activity and larvicidal toxicity against malaria and zika virus vectors.in this study, a novel and effective approach was performed to synthesize zno nanoparticles (zno nps) using the exopolysaccharides (eps) from the probiotic strain bacillus licheniformis dahb1. eps acted as reducing and stabilizing agent for the formation of eps-zno nps by co-precipitation method. structural characterization was investigated by a surface plasma resonance centered at 375nm in uv-vis spectrum. ftir spectrum exhibited functional groups with strong absorption peak at 3814.7-420cm-1. ...201829173489
facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity.the bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. in this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless green chemistry process, using the ulva lactuca seaweed extract as a reducing and capping agent. the production of u. lactuca-fabricated zno nanoparticles (ul-zno nps) was characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (xrd), uv-visible, fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy, selected area elect ...201829169140
complex wolbachia infection dynamics in mosquitoes with imperfect maternal transmission.dengue, malaria, and zika are dangerous diseases primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and anopheles stephensi. in the last few years, a new disease control method, besides pesticide spraying to kill mosquitoes, has been developed by releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium wolbachia into the natural areas to infect the wild population of mosquitoes and block disease transmission. the bacterium is transmitted by infected mothers and the maternal transmission was assumed to be ...201829161848
functional characterization of a serine protease inhibitor modulated in the infection of the aedes aegypti with dengue virus.during feeding with blood meal, female aedes aegypti can transmit infectious agents, such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika viruses. dengue virus causes human mortality in tropical regions of the world, and there is no specific treatment or vaccine with maximum efficiency being used for these infections. in the vector-virus interaction, the production of several molecules is modulated by both mosquitoes and invading agents. however, little information is available about these molecul ...201829133118
zika virus: what we need to know?zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. it is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and west nile viruses. it was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. large outbreaks were reported on yap islands in 2007. now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. major vector for virus transmission is aedes aegypti mosquito. zikv infection is mostly asymptomatic but ...201829131357
molecular detection and characterization of wolbachia pipientis from culex quinquefasciatus collected from lahore, pakistan.the gram-negative, pleomorphic endosymbiont wolbachia is known to infect a large number of insects and other arthropods naturally. this bacterium modifies the host biology, mainly causing reproductive alterations including feminization, death of male, parthenogenesis, and importantly cytoplasmic incompatibility. wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility results in nonviable offspring and vector population suppression. in addition, this bacterium rapidly spreads and propagates within the host ...201829141766
potential role for flubendazole in limiting filariasis transmission: observations of microfilarial sensitivity.flubendazole (flbz) is a potent and efficacious macrofilaricide after parenteral administration. studies in animal models and one trial in patients infected with onchocerca volvulus revealed that flbz elicits minimal effects on microfilariae (mf). severe complications after ivermectin (ivm) treatment of patients with high loa loa microfilaraemia are of great concern. we examined the potential of flbz to rapidly kill l. loa mf, the phenomenon proposed to underlie the complications. mf of l. loa w ...201829141764
detection and serotyping of dengue viruses in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) collected in surabaya, indonesia from 2008 to 2015.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary vectors, respectively, of dengue, the most important arboviral disease in the world. the aim of this study was to detect and serotype dengue viruses (denv) in the vectors ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus in surabaya, indonesia. between 2008 and 2015, 16,605 aedes mosquitoes were collected in 15 sub-districts of surabaya. ae. aegypti was dominant (90.9%), whereas few ae. albopictus were collected (9.1%). a total of 330 pools of adult ...201829093315
gold nanoparticles - against parasites and insect vectors.nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (au nps) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. here, i reviewed curr ...201829092797
the bacterium wolbachia exploits host innate immunity to establish a symbiotic relationship with the dengue vector mosquito aedes aegypti.a host's immune system plays a central role in shaping the composition of the microbiota and, in return, resident microbes influence immune responses. symbiotic associations of the maternally transmitted bacterium wolbachia occur with a wide range of arthropods. it is, however, absent from the dengue and zika vector mosquito aedes aegypti in nature. when wolbachia is artificially forced to form symbiosis with this new mosquito host, it boosts the basal immune response and enhances the mosquito's ...201829099491
sublethal exposure to deltamethrin reduces the abilities of giant water bugs to prey upon aedes aegypti larvae.freshwater ecosystems provide environmental conditions for many arthropod species, including pests like mosquitoes and beneficial insects. giant water bugs, belostoma anurum (hemiptera: belostomatidae), are aquatic insects that provide biological control of mosquitoes and small vertebrates in freshwater environments. however, the application of insecticides aiming to control mosquitoes can lead to insecticide exposures of aquatic predators that can result in their death or significant reductions ...201829049958
diurnal temperature range and chikungunya virus infection in invasive mosquito vectors.climate strongly influences the geographic distribution and timing of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. environmental temperature affects phenotypic traits of mosquitoes including vector competence for arboviruses mediated by changes in infection, extrinsic incubation period and in rates of transmission. most experiments, however, are done at constant temperatures. in nature, mosquitoes are more likely to experience daily fluctuations in temperature. here we compare disseminated infection (leg i ...201829040730
the effect of insecticidal stress on reproductive output of susceptible and field strains of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the phenomenon of high egg reproduction when mortality risk rises is common in mosquitoes. however, the phenomenon may vary between insecticide susceptible and field-collected strains, due to the latter's decreased energy allocation in reproduction in the presence of insecticide resistance. in this study, we evaluated the effect of chlorpyrifos (cp) and temephos (tp) exposure on the oviposition and survival of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) (diptera: culicidae) using a susceptible strain (khsm) and tw ...201829040719
the effect of larval diet on adult survival, swarming activity and copulation success in male aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).control of aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) populations is vital for reducing the transmission of several pervasive human diseases. the success of new vector control technologies will be influenced by the fitness of laboratory-reared transgenic males. however, there has been relatively little published data on how rearing practices influence male fitness in aedes mosquitoes. in the laboratory, the effect of larval food availability on adult male fitness was tested, using a range of differ ...201829029298
zika and chikungunya virus detection in naturally infected aedes aegypti in ecuador.the wide and rapid spread of chikungunya (chikv) and zika (zikv) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. the early detection of chikv and zikv in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. this study was done to detect zikv and chikv viruses i ...201828982578
transcription profiling for defensins of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) during development and in response to infection with chikungunya and zika viruses.aedes aegypti (l.) is a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses. these viruses encounter a variety of induced defense responses from the innate immune system of the mosquito. we cloned defensin a from ae. aegypti using laboratory populations originating from key west and orlando, florida. to characterize inducible immune defensin peptides, we examined the defensin a (defa) and defensin c (defc) expression through time course studies using quantitative real-time pcr. we obser ...201828968775
screening of plant extracts and fractions on aedes aegypti larvae found in the state of mato grosso do sul (linnaeus, 1762) (culicidae).the constant use of chemical insecticides for aedes aegypti control has caused resistance in the mosquito populations. thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the larvicidal potential of extracts and fractions of plants on a. aegypti larvae. the analysis included sixty one extracts and twenty five fractions of fifty botanical species at concentrations of 0.25; 0.12; 0.06 to 0.03 mg ml-1; 4 replications and one negative control of dechlorinate water and 1% dmso; and a positive control wi ...201828640344
environmentally benign nanometric neem-laced urea emulsion for controlling mosquito population in environment.the increasing risk of vector-borne diseases and the environmental pollution in the day-to-day life due to the usage of the conventional pesticides makes the role of nanotechnology to come into the action. the current study deals with one of the applications of nanotechnology through the formulation of neem urea nanoemulsion (nune). nune was formulated using neem oil, tween 20, and urea using the microfluidization method. prior to the development of nanoemulsion, the ratio of oil/surfactant/urea ...201829116538
functional characterization of the dual allatostatin-a receptors in mosquitoes.the neuropeptide allatostatin-a (asta) and its cognate receptors (astars) are involved in the modulation of feeding behavior, which in hematophagous insects includes the regulation of the disease vector-related behaviors, host seeking and blood feeding. in mosquitoes and other dipterans, there are two copies of astar, contrasting with the single copy found in other insects. in this study, we identified and cloned the dual astar system of two important disease vectors aedes aegypti and culex quin ...201829103918
genome sequence of a novel strain of a phasi charoen-like virus identified in zhanjiang, china.here, we report the genome sequence of a novel strain of a phasi charoen-like virus, isolated from aedes aegypti mosquitoes caught in zhanjiang province of china. phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus belongs to a new genus, goukovirus, in the family bunyaviridae this is the first reported genome sequence of a phasi charoen-like virus identified in china.201829326198
behavior of detoxifying enzymes of aedes aegypti exposed to girgensohnine alkaloid analog and cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil.because mosquito control depend on the use of commercial insecticides and resistance has been described in some of them, there is a need to explore new molecules no resistant. in vivo effects of girgensohnine analog 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)acetonitrile dppa and cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil cfeo, on the detoxifying enzymes acetylcholinesterase (ache), glutathione-s-transferase (gst), nonspecific esterases (α- and β-), mixed function oxidases (mfo) and p-npa esterases were ...201829129589
mosquito vector-associated microbiota: metabarcoding bacteria and eukaryotic symbionts across habitat types in thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.vector-borne diseases are a major health burden, yet factors affecting their spread are only partially understood. for example, microbial symbionts can impact mosquito reproduction, survival, and vectorial capacity, and hence affect disease transmission. nonetheless, current knowledge of mosquito-associated microbial communities is limited. to characterize the bacterial and eukaryotic microbial communities of multiple vector species collected from different habitat types in disease endemic areas ...201829375803
the wolbachia strain wau provides highly efficient virus transmission blocking in aedes aegypti.introduced transinfections of the inherited bacteria wolbachia can inhibit transmission of viruses by aedes mosquitoes, and in ae. aegypti are now being deployed for dengue control in a number of countries. only three wolbachia strains from the large number that exist in nature have to date been introduced and characterized in this species. here novel ae. aegypti transinfections were generated using the walba and wau strains. in its native ae. albopictus, walba is maintained at lower density tha ...201829370307
fine-scale landscape genomics helps explain the slow spatial spread of wolbachia through the aedes aegypti population in cairns, australia.the endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia suppresses the capacity for arbovirus transmission in the mosquito aedes aegypti, and can spread spatially through wild mosquito populations following local introductions. recent introductions in cairns, australia have demonstrated slower than expected spatial spread. potential reasons for this include: (i) barriers to ae. aegypti dispersal; (ii) higher incidence of long-range dispersal; and (iii) intergenerational loss of wolbachia. we investigated these th ...201829358725
current concerns and perspectives on zika virus co-infection with arboviruses and hiv.dissemination of vector-borne viruses, such as zika virus (zikv), in tropical and sub-tropical regions has a complicated impact on the immunopathogenesis of other endemic viruses such as dengue virus (denv), chikungunya virus (chikv) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the consequences of the possible co-infections with these viruses have specifically shown significant impact on the treatment and vaccination strategies. zikv is a mosquito-borne flavivirus from african and asian lineages that ...201829352633
aerial ulv control of aedes aegypti with naled (dibrom) inside simulated rural village and urban cryptic habitats.we conducted aerial fixed wing ultra low volume (ulv) spray trials with naled to investigate penetration of exposed and simulated cryptic habitat within opened buildings, partially sealed buildings, and outdoor locations targeting sentinel adult aedes aegypti mosquitoes in north central florida. mortality was observed in open and closed buildings and outdoors, even in mosquitoes placed in cryptic habitats. observations on the impact of building type, mosquito exposure method such as placement in ...201829352307
reduction in musca domestica fecundity by dsrna-mediated gene knockdown.house flies (musca domestica) are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the u.s. non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. double stranded rna (dsrna) has been suggested as a biopesticide for m. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the rnai pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. in this study female house flies were injected with dsrna targeting actin-5c or ribo ...201829342168
zika virus in salivary glands of five different species of wild-caught mosquitoes from mexico.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen, and aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease. other mosquito species in the aedes and culex genera have been suggested to have the potential for being competent vectors based on experimental exposition of mosquitoes to an infectious blood meal containing zikv. here, we report the isolation in cell culture of zikv obtained from different body parts of wild-caught female mosquitoes (ae. aegypti, ae. vexans, cx. quinquefasci ...201829339746
wolbachia-induced transcription factor gata4 suppresses ovary-specific genes blastoderm-specific protein 25d and imaginal disc growth factor.the endosymbiotic bacterium wolbachia infects a wide array of insect hosts and has been implicated in a range of biological modifications as a consequence of its infection. previously, it was shown that the transcription factor gata4 was significantly induced in wolbachia wmelpop-cla strain infected aedes aegypti whole mosquitoes and cells. here, we provide evidence that this induction also occurs in mosquito ovaries where the ovary-specific genes blastoderm-specific protein 25d (bsg25d) and ima ...201829336504
vibrational properties of bulk boric acid 2a and 3t polymorphs and their two-dimensional layers: measurements and density functional theory calculations.boric acid (h3bo3) is being used effectively nowadays in traps/baits for the management of aedes aegypti l. and aedes albopictus skuse species of mosquitoes, which are the main spreading vectors worldwide for diseases such as malaria, dengue, and zika. previously, we published results on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of its molecular triclinic h3bo3-2a and trigonal h3bo3-3t polymorphs within the framework of density functional theory (dft). because of the renewed importance ...201829328646
the discovery of arthropod-specific viruses in hematophagous arthropods: an open door to understanding the mechanisms of arbovirus and arthropod evolution?the discovery of an odd virus from hematophagous arthropods 40 years ago by stollar and thomas described cell fusing agent virus in cells derived from aedes aegypti mosquitoes. then came the report of kamiti river virus from ae. macintoshi in 1999, followed by worldwide reports of the discovery of other viruses of mosquitoes, ticks, and midges that replicate only in arthropods and not in vertebrates or in vertebrate cells. these viruses (now totaling at least 64 published) have genomes analogous ...201829324047
dengue hemorrhagic fever virus in saudi arabia: a review.dengue fever is a global disease with a spectrum of clinical manifestation ranging from mild febrile disease to a severe disease in the form of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. dengue virus is one viral hemorrhagic fever that exists in the kingdom of saudi arabia in addition to alkhurma (alkhurma) hemorrhagic fever, chikungunya virus, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever, and rift valley fever. the disease is limited to the western and south-western regions of saudi arabia, where a ...201829319426
qsar analysis of plant-derived compounds with larvicidal activity against zika aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) vector using freely available descriptors.we develop a qsar model for predicting the larvicidal activity of 60 plant-derived molecules against aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae), vector of several diseases such as, dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika virus. the balanced subsets method (bsm) based on k-means cluster analysis (k-mca) is employed to split the data set. the replacement method (rm) variable subset selection technique coupled with multivariable linear regression (mlr) proves to be successful for exploring 18,326 mol ...201829314584
krüppel homologue 1 acts as a repressor and an activator in the transcriptional response to juvenile hormone in adult mosquitoes.krüppel homologue 1 (kr-h1) is a zinc finger transcription factor that is upregulated in insects by juvenile hormone (jh) in metamorphosis and adult reproduction. the molecular function of kr-h1 in reproduction remains largely unknown. here we report that aakr-h1 functions as an important transcription regulator in adult female aedes aegypti mosquitoes. the amount of aakr-h1 protein increases with rising jh levels after adult emergence, reaches its peak at 48 h after eclosion, then decreases gra ...201829314423
aristololactam derivatives from the fruits of aristolochia contorta bunge.three new aristololactam derivatives, aristololactam w-y (1-3), and three known compounds (4-6) were isolated from the fruits of aristolochia contorta bunge. compounds 1 and 2 represent the first example of an n-ch2och3 aristololactam derivative from natural products. their structures were elucidated by 1d/2d nmr and hresims spectra. all of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against 4th instar larvae of aedes aegypti. compound 4 displayed insecticidal activity ...201829313366
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