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an impressive capacity for cold tolerance plasticity protects against ionoregulatory collapse in the disease vector aedes aegypti.the mosquito aedes aegypti is largely confined to tropical and subtropical regions, but its range has recently been spreading to colder climates. as insect biogeography is tied to environmental temperature, understanding the limits of a. aegypti thermal tolerance and their capacity for phenotypic plasticity is important in predicting the spread of this species. in this study, we report on the chill coma onset (cco) and recovery time (ccrt), as well as low-temperature survival phenotypes of larva ...201931732503
insecticidal and antifeedant activities of malagasy medicinal plant (cinnamosma sp.) extracts and drimane-type sesquiterpenes against aedes aegypti mosquitoes.the overuse of insecticides with limited modes of action has led to resistance in mosquito vectors. thus, insecticides with novel modes of action are needed. secondary metabolites in madagascan plants of the genus cinnamosma (canellaceae) are commonly used in traditional remedies and known to elicit antifeedant and toxic effects in insect pests. here we test the hypothesis that extracts of cinnamosma sp. enriched in drimane sesquiterpenes are toxic and/or antifeedant to the yellow fever mosquito ...201931731570
sylvatic dengue virus type 4 in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes in an urban setting in peninsular malaysia.dengue fever is endemic in malaysia, contributing to significant economic and health burden in the country. aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus are the main vectors of the dengue virus (denv), which circulates in sylvatic and human transmission cycles and has been present in malaysia for decades. the study investigated the presence and distribution of denv in urban localities in the klang valley, peninsular malaysia. a total of 364 ae. aegypti and 1,025 ae. albopictus larvae, and 10 ae. aegypti and ...201931730672
expansion of aedes africanus (diptera: culicidae), a sylvatic vector of arboviruses, into an urban environment of abidjan, côte d'ivoire.in 2008, an outbreak of yellow fever occurred in abidjan. the entomological investigations confirm that abidjan is at risk of yellow fever with a suspicion of the national park of banco (npb) forest as a likely area of re-emergence. this study aims to assess the dispersion of sylvatic vectors of arboviruses from the npb forest to the surrounding areas (andokoi and sagbé). the sampling was done in the rainy season using the who layer-traps technique. among the six species of aedes sampled, aedes ...201931729805
a new approach to improve acoustic trapping effectiveness for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).monitoring mosquito populations is essential to designing and implementing control strategies. recent strategies based on releasing biologically modified mosquitoes have increased the need to effectively monitor mosquito abundance. unfortunately, existing surveillance traps are of limited value due to their high cost and low capture rates. here, we report the results of experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an acoustic trap prototype. stimuli synthesized from recordings of ae. ae ...201931729803
modifying the autocidal gravid ovitrap (ago) with a powered suction fan and additional lures to increase the collections of released aedes aegypti and a natural population of ae. albopictus (diptera: culicidae). 201931729800
the effects of temperature and shading on mortality and development rates of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).urbanization has caused an increase in favorable habitats for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), given their ability to reproduce in small and often non-degradable artificial water-containers. while much work has been done on ae. aegypti biology and ecology in urban landscapes, the role of shading on immature stages as an independent factor from temperature, and any possible interactions between these factors, remains unexamined. we assessed how temperature and shading affected egg hatch-rate, ...201931729799
parity and gonotrophic discordance of females of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in the city of são paulo, sp, brazil.the objective of this study was to assess the parity, presence of blood in the stomach, and the gonotrophic discordance of females of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus captured in two areas of the city of são paulo. the captures were undertaken monthly, by aspiration, in the period from january, 2015 to august, 2017. all the females of the two species had their midguts and ovaries dissected to determine the presence of blood and the parity/stage of maturation. with regard to parity, 27% and 34% ...201931729798
state-wide survey of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in florida.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are invasive mosquito species with geographic ranges that have oscillated within florida since their presence was first documented. local transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses serves as evidence of the public health importance of these two species. it is important to have detailed knowledge of their distribution to aid in mosquito control efforts and understand the risk of arbovirus transmission to humans. through a partnership involving the uni ...201931729793
spatial-temporal distribution of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and locations of recycling units in southeastern brazil.dengue is an arbovirus disease that threatens approximately 200 million people annually worldwide. aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) is anthropophilic mosquito, extremely well adapted to the urban environment and utilizes varied habitats for egg-laying and development. this study analysed the distribution of mosquito larvae and eggs in urban area of santa bárbara d'oeste, são paulo, brazil. the spatial correlation between locations in which people store recyclable materials and the dist ...201931727179
assessments of influences of a prolific gut fungus (zancudomyces culisetae) on larval and adult mosquito (aedes aegypti) - associated microbiota.adult mosquitoes inherit a bacterial community from larvae via transstadial transmission, an understudied process that may influence host-microbe interactions. microbes contribute to important host life history traits, and analyzing transmitted microbial communities, the interrelationship between larval and adult-associated microbiota, and factors influencing host-microbe relationships are targets for research. during its larval stage, the yellow fever mosquito (aedes aegypti) hosts the trichomy ...201931757825
infected mosquitoes have altered behavior to repellents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to reach a consensus on whether infected and uninfected mosquitoes respond differently to repellents. after screening 2,316 published studies, theses, and conference abstracts, we identified 18 studies that tested whether infection status modulated the effectiveness of repellents. thirteen of these studies had outcomes available for meta-analysis, and overall, seven repellents were tested (typically deet with 62% of outcomes), six mosquito ...201931755530
arbovirus emergence in the temperate city of córdoba, argentina, 2009-2018.the distribution of arbovirus disease transmission is expanding from the tropics and subtropics into temperate regions worldwide. the temperate city of córdoba, argentina has been experiencing the emergence of dengue virus, transmitted by the mosquito aedes aegypti, since 2009, when autochthonous transmission of the virus was first recorded in the city. the aim of this work is to characterize the emergence of dengue and related arboviruses (zika and chikungunya) in córdoba since 2009. herein, we ...201931754110
stable isotope marking of laboratory-reared aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the use of stable isotope enrichment to mark mosquitoes has provided a tool to study the biology of vector species. in this study, we evaluated isotopic marking of aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) in a laboratory setting. we determined the optimal dosage for marking adult ae. aegypti mosquitoes with 13c and 15n. additionally, ae. aegypti mosquitoes were single and dually marked with 13c and 15n for up to 60 d postemergence without changes to adult body size or transgenerational marking. t ...201931751467
chikungunya virus populations experience diversity- dependent attenuation and purifying intra-vector selection in californian aedes aegypti mosquitoes.chikungunya virus (togaviridae, alphavirus; chikv) is a mosquito-borne global health threat that has been transmitted transiently in the southeastern united states. a primary chikv mosquito vector, aedes aegypti, was recently established in the populous state of california, but the vector competence of californian mosquitoes is unknown. explosive chikv epidemics since 2004 have been associated with the acquisition of mosquito-adaptive mutations that enhance transmission by ae. aegypti or ae. alb ...201931751338
a lamp assay for the rapid and robust assessment of wolbachia infection in aedes aegypti under field and laboratory conditions.with wolbachia-based arbovirus control programs being scaled and operationalised around the world, cost effective and reliable detection of wolbachia in field samples and laboratory stocks is essential for quality control. here we validate a modified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for routine scoring of wolbachia in mosquitoes from laboratory cultures and the field, applicable to any setting. we show that this assay is a rapid and robust method for highly sensitive and speci ...201931747432
vector distribution and transmission risk of the zika virus in south and central america.zika is of great medical relevance due to its rapid geographical spread in 2015 and 2016 in south america and its serious implications, for example, certain birth defects. recent epidemics urgently require a better understanding of geographic patterns of the zika virus transmission risk. this study aims to map the zika virus transmission risk in south and central america. we applied the maximum entropy approach, which is common for species distribution modelling, but is now also widely in use fo ...201931745446
computational and experimental insights into the chemosensory navigation of aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.mosquitoes are prolific disease vectors that affect public health around the world. although many studies have investigated search strategies used by host-seeking adult mosquitoes, little is known about larval search behaviour. larval behaviour affects adult body size and fecundity, and thus the capacity of individual mosquitoes to find hosts and transmit disease. understanding vector survival at all life stages is crucial for improving disease control. in this study, we use experimental and com ...201931744443
adulticidal activity of metarhizium anisopliae s.l. (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) native strains from argentina against aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the adulticidal activity of six fungal strains of metarhizium anisopliae (metschn.) sorokin s.l. (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) against aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) was assessed. these strains (cep 085, cep 087, cep 120, cep 350, cep 404, and cep 423) were isolated from soil samples or nondipteran hosts collected from areas in argentina where ae. aegypti is distributed. bioassays were performed with four conidial concentrations plus a control of each fungal strain to determine the let ...201931742608
vector competence of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus from the metropolitan area of guadalajara, jalisco, mexico for zika virus.zika virus (zikv) is a mosquito-borne pathogen discovered in the late 40's in uganda during a surveillance program for yellow fever. by 2014 the virus reached eastern island in the americas, and two years later, the virus spread to almost all countries and territories of the americas. the mosquito aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease, and several researchers have also studied the vector competence of culex quinquefasciatus in virus transmission. the aim of the pres ...201931740702
electrophysiological responses of eighteen species of insects to fire ant alarm pheromone.olfaction plays a dominant role in insect communication. alarm pheromones, which alert other insects of the same species of impending danger, are a major class of releaser pheromones. the major components of alarm pheromones in red imported fire ants, honeybees and aphids have been identified as 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (2e-3,6-dp), isopentyl acetate (ipa), and e-β-farnesene (eβf), respectively. in this study, electroantennography (eag) responses to edp (a mixture of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyra ...201931739452
zika virus dissemination from the midgut of aedes aegypti is facilitated by bloodmeal-mediated structural modification of the midgut basal lamina.the arboviral disease cycle requires that key tissues in the arthropod vector become persistently infected with the virus. the midgut is the first organ in the mosquito that needs to be productively infected with an orally acquired virus. following midgut infection, the virus then disseminates to secondary tissues including the salivary glands. once these are productively infected, the mosquito is able to transmit the virus to a vertebrate host. recently, we described the midgut dissemination pa ...201931739432
zika virus seroprevalence in blood donors from the northeastern region of são paulo state, brazil, between 2015 and 2017.although primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitos, zika virus (zikv) can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, due to the fact that some of the infected donors can establish asymptomatic viremia. zikv seroprevalence in brazilian blood donors is unknown. the main reason for this gap in the knowledge originates from the difficulty in evaluating zikv humoral immunity due to antigenic cross-reactivity between the different brazilian flaviviruses and, in particular, dengue virus (denv). t ...201931738944
aedes aegypti immune response and its potential impact on dengue virus transmission.dengue virus (denv) transmission to human populations requires infection of vector mosquitoes as an essential component of the transmission process. denv transmission leads to infections that range from asymptomatic to life-threatening pathologies, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. aedes aegypti is the principal vector of denv, and its vector competence consists of the intrinsic factors, genes, molecules, and pathways that allow infection, replication, and dissemination ...201931738698
winning the tug-of-war between effector gene design and pathogen evolution in vector population replacement strategies.while efforts to control malaria with available tools have stagnated, and arbovirus outbreaks persist around the globe, the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (crispr)-based gene editing has provided exciting new opportunities for genetics-based strategies to control these diseases. in one such strategy, called "population replacement", mosquitoes, and other disease vectors are engineered with effector genes that render them unable to transmit pathogens. these eff ...201931737050
insight into mosquito gnrh-related neuropeptide receptor specificity revealed through analysis of naturally occurring and synthetic analogs of this neuropeptide family.adipokinetic hormone (akh), corazonin (crz), and the akh/crz-related peptide (acp) are neuropeptides considered homologous to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh). all three aedes aegypti gnrh-related neuropeptide receptors have been characterized and functionally deorphanized. individually they exhibit high specificity for their native ligands, prompting us to investigate the contribution of ligand structures in conferring receptor specificity for two of these receptors. here, w ...201931736879
estimation of the expected number of cases of microcephaly in brazil as a result of zika.in this paper we have adapted a delayed dengue model to zika. by assuming that the epidemic starts by a single infected individual entering a disease-free population at some initial time t0 we have used the least squares parameter estimation technique in r to estimate the initial time t0 using observed zika data from brazil as well as the transmission probabilities of zika in brazil between humans and mosquitoes and vice-versa. different values of aedes aegypti (a. aegypti) biting rate are used ...201931698665
corrigendum: supersensitive odorant receptor underscores pleiotropic roles of indoles in mosquito ecology.[this corrects the article doi: 10.3389/fncel.2018.00533.].201931762737
semi-field assessment of spinosad in combination with altosid briquet and dudim dt tablets against aedes aegypti mosquito larvae reared in pond water.this study aims at evaluating the larvicidal efficacy of slow-release formulations of bacterial insecticide spinosad blended with two insect growth regulators (igrs), altosid xr-briquets and dudim dt tablets against mosquito larvae of aedes aegypti. this insect is the cause of dengue arthropod-borne viral disease. treatment based on vector control using chemicals poses risks to human and environment, while the strategy based on the use of natural products poses lower risks. the results of the pr ...201931762652
establishment of wolbachia strain walbb in malaysian populations of aedes aegypti for dengue control.dengue has enormous health impacts globally. a novel approach to decrease dengue incidence involves the introduction of wolbachia endosymbionts that block dengue virus transmission into populations of the primary vector mosquito, aedes aegypti. the wmel wolbachia strain has previously been trialed in open releases of ae. aegypti; however, the walbb strain has been shown to maintain higher density than wmel at high larval rearing temperatures. releases of ae. aegypti mosquitoes carrying walbb wer ...201931761702
co2 per se activates carbon dioxide receptors.carbon dioxide has been used in traps for more than six decades to monitor mosquito populations and help make informed vector management decisions. co2 is sensed by gustatory receptors (grs) housed in neurons in the maxillary palps. co2-sensitive grs have been identified from the vinegar fly and mosquitoes, but it remains to be resolved whether these receptors respond to co2 or bicarbonate. as opposed to the vinegar fly, mosquitoes have three gr subunits, but it is assumed that subunits gr1 and ...201931760135
intra-host growth kinetics of dengue virus in the mosquito aedes aegypti.dengue virus (denv) transmission by mosquitoes is a time-dependent process that begins with the consumption of an infectious blood-meal. denv infection then proceeds stepwise through the mosquito from the midgut to the carcass, and ultimately to the salivary glands, where it is secreted into saliva and then transmitted anew on a subsequent bite. we examined viral kinetics in tissues of the aedes aegypti mosquito over a finely graded time course, and as per previous studies, found that initial vi ...201931790509
pyriproxyfen treated surface exposure exhibits reproductive disruption in dengue vector aedes aegypti.reduced susceptibility of mosquito vectors to currently used insecticides hampers control interventions. recently pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator has been demonstrated to effectively reduce the reproductive potential in vector mosquitoes.201931738760
reversal of resistance to the larvicide temephos in an aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) laboratory strain from cuba.the objective of this investigation was to know whether the organophosphate temephos resistance developed in larvae from a laboratory strain of aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) from cuba could be reversed. the resistant laboratory strain of ae. aegypti, named san-f6, was left without temephos selection pressure for 12 generations. the level of temephos resistance was determined using who bioassays and mechanisms of metabolic resistance were determined based on enzyme activity levels detected by bi ...201931788689
the expanding pattern of aedes aegypti in southern yunnan, china: insights from microsatellite and mitochondrial dna markers.aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue fever, was first reported in yunnan in 2002. now, this species is found in nine counties in border areas of south-west yunnan. related dengue fever outbreaks have been reported since 2013. the population genetics of ae. aegypti in these areas were studied to explain the expansion history of this species.201931775906
the enemy of my enemy: multiple interacting selection pressures lead to unexpected anti-predator responses.despite being a major selective force, predation can induce puzzling variability in anti-predator responses-from lack of predator aversion to lifelong predator-induced fear. this variability is hypothesised to result from variation in the trade-offs associated with avoiding predators. but critical information on fitness outcomes of these trade-offs associated with anti-predator behaviours is lacking. we tested this trade-off hypothesis in aedes aegypti, by examining oviposition site selection de ...201931773313
dengue virus reduces agpat1 expression to alter phospholipids and enhance infection in aedes aegypti.more than half of the world population is at risk of dengue virus (denv) infection because of the global distribution of its mosquito vectors. denv is an envelope virus that relies on host lipid membranes for its life-cycle. here, we characterized how denv hijacks the mosquito lipidome to identify targets for novel transmission-blocking interventions. to describe metabolic changes throughout the mosquito denv cycle, we deployed a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (lc-hrms) ...201931815960
genetic diversity of laboratory strains and implications for research: the case of aedes aegypti.the yellow fever mosquito (aedes aegypti), is the primary vector of dengue, zika, and chikungunya fever, among other arboviral diseases. it is also a popular laboratory model in vector biology due to its ease of rearing and manipulation in the lab. established laboratory strains have been used worldwide in thousands of studies for decades. laboratory evolution of reference strains and contamination among strains are potential severe problems that could dramatically change experimental outcomes a ...201931815934
glopid-r report on chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and mayaro virus, part 5: entomological aspects.the glopid-r (global research collaboration for infectious disease preparedness) chikungunya (chikv), o'nyong-nyong (onnv) and mayaro virus (mayv) working group has been established to investigate natural history, epidemiology and clinical aspects of infection by these viruses. here, we present a report dedicated to entomological aspects of chikv, onnv and mayv. recent global expansion of chikungunya virus has been possible because chikv established a transmission cycle in urban settings using a ...201931812638
cryo-electron microscopy reveals that sperm modification coincides with female fertility in the mosquito aedes aegypti.manipulating mosquito reproduction is a promising approach to reducing mosquito populations and the burden of diseases they carry. a thorough understanding of reproductive processes is necessary to develop such strategies, but little is known about how sperm are processed and prepared for fertilization within female mosquitoes. by employing cryo-electron microscopy for the first time to study sperm of the mosquito aedes aegypti, we reveal that sperm shed their entire outer coat, the glycocalyx, ...201931811199
assessment of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) males flight ability for sit application: effect of device design, duration of test, and male age.the sterile insect technique (sit) is a pest control method where large numbers of sterile males are released to induce sterility in wild populations. since a successful sit application depends on the released sterile males being competitive with wild males, standard quality control tests are a necessary component of any sit program. flight ability (ability to fly out from a device) is a reliable indicator of insect quality. based on previous studies, we developed four new tubular devices constr ...201931808821
malaria and dengue mosquito vectors from lao pdr show a lack of the rdl mutant allele responsible for cyclodiene insecticide resistance.the gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) receptor, rdl, plays important roles in neuronal signaling and is the target of highly effective insecticides. a mutation in rdl, commonly a296s, underlies resistance to several insecticides such as cyclodienes. even though the use of cyclodienes has been banned, the occurrence of mutations substituting a296 is notably high in mosquitoes from several countries. here, we report a survey investigating the prevalence of the rdl mutant allele in mosquitoes from lao ...201931807752
the consequences of brugia malayi infection on the flight and energy resources of aedes aegypti mosquitoes.evidence from experimental infection studies has shown that infected mosquitoes exhibit altered host-seeking behaviours, with suppression and activation of behaviours dependent on the parasite's development stage. the mechanisms are poorly characterised; however, infections can impact mosquito energy reserves, thereby influencing key life-history traits and behaviours. in addition, filarial infection is likely detrimental to flight due to damage caused by developing worms. this study aimed to ev ...201931804546
finding the sweet spot: what levels of larval mortality lead to compensation or overcompensation in adult production?extrinsic mortality impinging on negatively density-dependent populations can result in no change in the number of survivors (compensation) or an increase (overcompensation) by releasing the population from density-dependent effects on survivorship. the relationship between the level of extrinsic mortality (i.e., percentage of mortality) and the level and likelihood of overcompensation is theoretically important, but rarely investigated. we tested the hypothesis that overcompensation occurs belo ...201931803516
diterpenes and their derivatives as promising agents against dengue virus and dengue vectors: a literature-based review.dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, causes about 100 million cases of infection annually. it is a major public concern, and if left untreated or improperly diagnosed, may cause serious health problems or even death. historically, dengue has not considered priorities for pharmaceutical companies made the available treatment options. therefore, medicinal scientists are revealing new insights and enabling novel interventions and approaches to dengue prevention and control. diterpenes, a class o ...201931802573
[river boats as a means of expansion of aedes aegypti towards border zones of the peruvian amazon].to assess the entomological risk of aedes aegypti in boats traversing border river routes in loreto.201931800930
investigating male aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) attraction to different oviposition containers using various configurations of the sound gravid aedes trap.aedes aegypti (linnaeus), the primary vectors of the arboviruses dengue virus and zika virus, continue to expand their global distributions. in efforts to better control such species, several mosquito control programs are investigating the efficacy of rearing and releasing millions of altered male aedes throughout landscapes to reduce populations and disease transmission risk. unfortunately, little is known about ae. aegypti, especially male, dispersal behaviors within urban habitats. we deploye ...201931799614
drug repurposing of bromodomain inhibitors as potential novel therapeutic leads for lymphatic filariasis guided by multispecies transcriptomics.to better understand the transcriptomic interplay of organisms associated with lymphatic filariasis, we conducted multispecies transcriptome sequencing (rna-seq) on the filarial nematode brugia malayi, its wolbachia endosymbiont wbm, and its laboratory vector aedes aegypti across the entire b. malayi life cycle. in wbm, transcription of the noncoding 6s rna suggests that it may be a regulator of bacterial cell growth, as its transcript levels correlate with bacterial replication rates. for a. ae ...201931796568
cdte-gsh as luminescent biomarker for labeling the larvicidal action of wsmol lectin in aedes aegypti larvae.mosquito-borne arboviruses compromise human health worldwide. due to resistance to chemical insecticides, natural compounds have been studied to combat mosquitoes. previous works have demonstrated a larvicidal activity of the water-soluble moringa oleifera lectin (wsmol) against aedes aegypti, suggesting a mechanism of action based on the interaction between lectin and chitin present in the larvae's peritrophic matrix. in this work, it was investigated the wsmol activity against aedes aegypti la ...201931796242
crispr/cas9-mediated gene deletion of the ompa gene in symbiotic cedecea neteri impairs biofilm formation and reduces gut colonization of aedes aegypti mosquitoes.symbiotic bacteria are pervasive in mosquitoes and their presence can influence many host phenotypes that affect vectoral capacity. while it is evident that environmental and host genetic factors contribute in shaping the microbiome of mosquitoes, we have a poor understanding regarding how bacterial genetics affects colonization of the mosquito gut. the crispr/cas9 gene editing system is a powerful tool to alter bacterial genomes facilitating investigations into host-microbe interactions but has ...201931790395
genome sequences of chikungunya virus isolates from an outbreak in southwest bangkok in 2018.an outbreak of chikungunya virus (chikv) infection occurred in southwest bangkok during the 2018 rainy season. the envelope glycoprotein e1 gene sequence of the infecting strain belonged to an east/central/south african lineage with alanine at residue 226. mutations in the predicted e1 (k211e) and e2 (v264a) proteins of chikv were identified in chikv-infected patients and in an aedes aegypti mosquito. analysis of the complete genome sequences showed marked differences from the strains causing pr ...201931834526
distribution of insecticide resistance and mechanisms involved in the arbovirus vector aedes aegypti in laos and implication for vector control.the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever, zika, and chikungunya viruses. worldwide vector control is largely based on insecticide treatments but, unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges due to mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. in southeast asia, resistance of ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been documented in several countries but no data regarding insecticide resistance has been repor ...201931830027
effects of larval diets and temperature regimes on life history traits, energy reserves and temperature tolerance of male aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae): optimizing rearing techniques for the sterile insect programmes.producing high quality sterile males is vital in aedes aegypti rear-and-release birth control strategies. larval diets, rearing temperatures, and their interactions determine the accumulation rates of essential nutrients in larvae, but these factors have been understudied in relation to mass-rearing techniques for producing eminent males.201931823817
social capital is associated with lower mosquito vector indices: secondary analysis from a cluster randomised controlled trial of community mobilisation for dengue prevention in mexico.control of the aedes aegypti mosquito is central to reducing the risk of dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever. randomised controlled trials, including the camino verde trial in mexico and nicaragua, demonstrate the convincing impact of community mobilisation interventions on vector indices. these interventions might work through building social capital but little is known about the relationship between social capital and vector indices.201931823786
zika virus: a possible emerging threat for bangladesh!zika virus, a member of flaviviridae is the etiology of zika or zika fever or zika virus (zikv) disease characterized by mild symptoms similar to very mild form of dengue or chikungunya. the virus transmits through aedes mosquitoes, particularly by aedes aegypti. the most dangerous effect of zikv infection is the ability of the virus to cause microcephaly and congenital malformation to the newborn baby if the mother is infected. the neurological disorders including guillain-barré syndrome might ...201931819889
successive blood meals enhance virus dissemination within mosquitoes and increase transmission potential.the recent zika virus (zikv) and chikungunya virus epidemics highlight the explosive nature of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) transmitted by aedes spp. mosquitoes1,2. vector competence and the extrinsic incubation period (eip) are two key entomological parameters used to assess the public health risk posed by arboviruses3. these are typically measured empirically by offering mosquitoes an infectious blood meal and temporally sampling mosquitoes to determine the infection and transmission ...201931819213
natural infection of aedes aegypti by chikungunya and dengue type 2 virus in a transition area of north-northeast brazil.dengue fever, chikungunya, and zika are diseases caused by viruses transmitted by aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. in brazil, the number of human infections is high, but few studies are performed in mosquito vectors. this study aimed to investigate the presence of zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses in ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus from the municipalities of alto alegre, caxias, codó, and são mateus do maranhão, located in the state of maranhão, northeast brazil. the mosquitoes were collect ...201931817553
development of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) mosquito larvae in high ammonia sewage in septic tanks causes alterations in ammonia excretion, ammonia transporter expression, and osmoregulation.larvae of the disease vector mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) readily develop in ammonia rich sewage in the british virgin islands. to understand how the larvae survive in ammonia levels that are lethal to most animals, an examination of ammonia excretory physiology in larvae collected from septic-water and freshwater was carried out. a. aegypti larvae were found to be remarkably plastic in dealing with high external ammonia through the modulation of nh4+ excretion at the anal papillae, measured usi ...201931836747
hyalodendrins a and b, new decalin-type tetramic acid larvicides from the endophytic fungus hyalodendriella sp. ponipodef12.two new decalin/tetramic acid hybrid metabolites, hyalodendrins a (1) and b (2) were isolated from plant endophytic fungus hyalodendriella sp. ponipodef12. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data, including nmr, hrms and ecd, and by chemical conversion. compounds 1 and 2 were phomasetin analogues, and both showed potent larvicidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of aedes aegypti with the median lethal dose (lc50) values of 10.31 and 5.9 ...201931892246
spatial risk distribution of dengue based on the ecological niche model of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) in the central mexican highlands.dengue is the most important viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, predominantly aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (diptera:culicidae). forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting the disease, and a large area of mexico presents suitable environmental conditions for the life cycle of ae. aegypti. in particular, the central mexican highlands have a high population density, increasing the risk of transmission and propagation of dengue. in the present study, the potential dist ...201931880769
author correction: cartography of odor chemicals in the dengue vector mosquito (aedes aegypti l., diptera/culicidae).an amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.201931844083
nano-emulsification enhances the larvicidal potential of the essential oil of siparuna guianensis (laurales: siparunaceae) against aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (diptera: culicidae).siparuna guianensis (laurales: siparunaceae) has a terpene-rich essential oil with great potential for larvicides. the poor water miscibility of their compounds makes nano-emulsions of great interest for novel bioactive systems, including for control of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae). this species is adapted to urban environments with important role in the epidemiology of some arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya fever, zika, and urban yellow fever. the aim of the present study was to eva ...201931840745
could land cover influence aedes aegypti mosquito populations?aedes aegypti is mainly found in urban environments, where human activity guarantees the permanent availability of potential larval habitats. the present study aimed to test for a possible association between ae. aegypti infestation and land cover classes. from 23 february to 22 may 2015, immature mosquitoes (except eggs) were sampled in artificial containers identified in dwellings in córdoba city, argentina. the proportion of each land cover class was determined by spot-5 (satellites pour 1'ob ...201931840284
age- and sex-related abc transporter expression in pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant aedes aegypti.resistance mechanisms to synthetic insecticides often include point mutations and increased expression of genes encoding detoxification enzymes. since pyrethroids are the main adulticides used against aedes aegypti, which vectors pathogens such as zika virus, understanding resistance to this insecticide class is of significant relevance. we focused on adenosine triphosphate (atp)-binding cassette (abc) transporters in the pyrethroid-resistant puerto rico (pr) strain of ae. aegypti. we investigat ...201931862982
leptolegnia chapmanii como alternativa biológica para el control de aedes aegyptileptolegnia chapmanii is a facultative pathogen of many species of mosquitoes, among which species of the genus aedes, culex and anopheles stand out for their medical and sanitary importance. the potential of l. chapmanii as an alternative to control lies in its virulence, pathogenicity and specificity against the larval stages of mosquitoes, and because of its harmlessness to non-target species such as fish and amphibians, among others. the natural presence of l. chapmanii had been reported in ...201931860189
the first characterization of a cystatin and a cathepsin l-like peptidase from aedes aegypti and their possible role in denv infection by the modulation of apoptosis.recently, a salivary gland transcriptome study demonstrated that the transcripts of a putative cystatin gene (seqid aael013287; aacystatins) from aedes aegypti were increased in denv2-infected mosquitoes and that silencing of the aacystatin gene resulted in an increase in denv titres. in this work, aacystatin was biochemically characterized; the purified recombinant inhibitor was able to inhibit typical cysteine proteases with a ki in the nm range. pulldown assays using aag2 cell extracts identi ...201931857170
insecticide resistance in culex quinquefasciatus say, 1823 in brazil: a review.culex quinquefasciatus is a successful invasive species broadly distributed in subtropical regions, including brazil. it is an extremely annoying mosquito due to its nocturnal biting behavior, in high-density populations and it is a potential bridge between sylvatic arbovirus from birds to man in urban territories. herein, we present a review concerning the methods of chemical control employed against cx. quinquefasciatus in brazil since the 1950's and insecticide resistance data registered in t ...201931852489
deducing the role of virus genome-derived piwi-associated rnas in the mosquito-arbovirus arms race.the p-element-induced wimpy testis (piwi)-associated rna (pirna) pathway is known for its role in the protection of genome integrity in the germline of drosophila melanogaster by silencing transposable elements. the pirnas that target transposons originate from pirna clusters in transposon-rich regions of the drosophila genome and are processed by three piwi family proteins. in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes, which are two of the most important vectors of arthropod-borne viruses ( ...201931850054
mechanisms of transport of h+, na+ and k+, across the distal gastric caecum of larval aedes aegypti.measured changes in ion fluxes, transepithelial potential (tep) and basolateral membrane potential (vb) in response to ion transporter inhibitors were used to assess the mechanisms of transport of h+, na+ and k+, across the distal gastric caecum of larval aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever. preparations were stimulated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht, 10-6 m) in order to maintain stable rates of h+, na+, and k+ transport across the distal caecum. transepithelial potential (tep), basolateral ...201931846613
effect of wolbachia walbb on a positive-sense rna negev-like virus: a novel virus persistently infecting aedes albopictus mosquitoes and cells.the aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of several medically important arboviruses. the endosymbiotic bacterium, wolbachia pipientis, has emerged as a means of blocking transmission of arboviruses such as dengue and zika viruses. one wolbachia strain that has shown potential in field trials is walbb, a naturally occurring wolbachia strain of the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus. when transinfected into ae. aegypti, walbb exhibits strong virus inhibition. in addition to modulating a ...201931846415
antidengue potential of leaf extracts of pavetta tomentosa and tarenna asiatica (rubiaceae) against dengue virus and its vector aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).the aim of the present study was to screen the anti-dengue potential of crude leaf extracts of two plants from pavetta tomentosa and tarenna asiatica. for larvicidal assay, the acetone extract of both plants showed maximum effects, with the least lc50 and lc90 values (p. tomentosa (5.968 and 7.493 μg/ml) and t. asiatica (1.288 and 1.992 μg/ml)) and the same extract of both plants exhibited better pupicidal potency. the adulticidal activity of both plants (0-60 min interval periods) recorded best ...201931844692
associations between household environmental factors and immature mosquito abundance in quetzaltenango, guatemala.aedes aegypti-borne diseases are becoming major public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical regions. while socioeconomic status has been associated with larval mosquito abundance, the drivers or possible factors mediating this association, such as environmental factors, are yet to be identified. we examined possible associations between proximity to houses and roads and immature mosquito abundance, and assessed whether these factors and mosquito prevention measures mediated any associati ...201931870343
compatibility between leptolegnia chapmanii and diflubenzuron and neem oil for the control of aedes aegypti.leptolegnia chapmanii is pathogenic to mosquito larvae. the compatibility between l. chapmanii and two insect growth regulators (igr), diflubenzuron and neem oil, was evaluated. l. chapmanii was grown on culture media containing different concentrations of each igr. the mycelial growth was significantly reduced with the highest concentrations of igr (f6,98=268, p<0.05). however, the production of zoospores (f6,56=0.93, p>0.05) and the larval mortality of aedes aegypti (f6,56=0.95, p>0.05) were n ...201931866096
a non-conformational qsar study for plant-derived larvicides against zika aedes aegypti l. vector.a set of 263 plant-derived compounds with larvicidal activity against aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) vector is collected from the literature, and is studied by means of a non-conformational quantitative structure-activity relationships (qsar) approach. the balanced subsets method (bsm) is employed to split the complete dataset into training, validation and test sets. from 26,775 freely available molecular descriptors, the most relevant structural features of compounds affecting the bioact ...201931865579
effect of d-allethrin aerosol and coil to the mortality of mosquitoes.commercial insecticides were widely used by communities to control the mosquito population in their houses. d-allethrin is one of insecticide ingredients widely distributed in two different concentrations namely 0.15% of aerosol and 0.3% of coil formulations. we aimed to understand the mortality of indoor mosquitoes after being exposed to d-allethrin 0.15% (aerosol) and 0.3% (coil) formulations.201931879666
clustering of zika viruses originating from different geographical regions using computational sequence descriptors.in this report we consider a data set, which consists of 310 zika virus genome sequences taken from different continents, africa, asia and south america. the sequences, which were compiled from genbank, were derived from the host cells of different mammalian species (simiiformes, aedes opok, aedes africanus, aedes luteocephalus, aedes dalzieli, aedes aegypti, and homo sapiens). for chemometrical treatment the sequences have been represented by sequence descriptors derived from their graphs or ne ...201931878862
odorant ligands for the co2 receptor in two anopheles vectors of malaria.exhaled co2 is an important host-seeking cue for anopheles mosquitoes, which is detected by a highly conserved heteromeric receptor consisting of three 7-transmembrane proteins gr22, gr23, and gr24. the co2 receptor neuron has been shown to also respond sensitively to a variety of odorants in aedes aegypti. the detection of co2 is important for upwind navigation and for enhancing the attraction to body heat as well as to skin odorants. the orthologs of the co2 receptor proteins are present in ma ...201930796292
nix is a male-determining factor in the asian tiger mosquito aedes albopictus.the initial signal that governs sex determination is highly variable among insects. a homolog of nix, the male-determining factor in aedes aegypti, was previously found in the asian tiger mosquito ae. albopictus. here we show that the ae. albopictus nix (aalnix) is more complex in gene structure and splice isoforms than its ae. aegypti homolog (aaenix). aalnix shows a similar transcription profile compared to aaenix. crispr/cas9-mediated knockouts of aalnix in vivo and in the ae. albopictus c6/3 ...201931901476
lemongrass and cinnamon bark: plant essential oil blend as a spatial repellent for mosquitoes in a field setting.plant essential oils (eos) have been considered as spatial repellents to help disrupt the pathogen transmission cycle of mosquitoes. our objective was to assess spatial repellency effects of eos on the tropical yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) and on local mosquito populations in coastal british columbia (canada). in laboratory experiments using protocols of the world health organization, three of the solitary eos tested proved repellent to ae. aegypti: cinnamon bar ...201931143941
haemagogus leucocelaenus and haemagogus janthinomys are the primary vectors in the major yellow fever outbreak in brazil, 2016-2018.the yellow fever virus (yfv) caused a severe outbreak in brazil in 2016-2018 that rapidly spread across the atlantic forest in its most populated region without viral circulation for almost 80 years. a comprehensive entomological survey combining analysis of distribution, abundance and yfv natural infection in mosquitoes captured before and during the outbreak was conducted in 44 municipalities of five brazilian states. in total, 17,662 mosquitoes of 89 species were collected. before evidence of ...201930866775
bioefficacy of two nonpyrethroid insecticides for targeted indoor residual spraying against pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti.we evaluated the efficacy of bendiocarb (ficam w® 80%) and pirimiphos-methyl (actellic 300cs® 28.16%), applied to different surfaces potentially sprayable within houses during the application of a targeted indoor residual spraying (tirs) against a field pyrethroid-resistant strain of aedes aegypti. bioassays with cones were performed on cement (walls), wood (doors), and textile (cloth) surfaces within typical houses in the mexican city of merida (n = 10). optimal residual efficacy (>80% of mean ...201931922939
discriminating lethal concentrations for transfluthrin, a volatile pyrethroid compound for mosquito control in thailand.pyrethroids are commonly used to control malaria and dengue vectors in thailand. the lack of specific lethal discriminating concentrations (dcs) for specific mosquito species has possibly compromised more accurate assessments of physiological susceptibility to various chemicals over time. previous studies have established dcs of various residual pyrethroids against specific mosquitoes in thailand. however, dcs for transfluthrin (tft), a highly volatile pyrethroid compound, against mosquito vecto ...201931922934
geographical distribution of aedes aegypti aegypti and aedes aegypti formosus (diptera: culicidae) in kenya and environmental factors related to their relative abundance.the mosquito aedes aegypti (l.) is the primary vector of various infectious viruses and is typified by a polymorphic color and abundance of white scales on the body. it has been conventionally separated into two subspecies, ae. aeg. formosus (walker) (aaf) and ae. aeg. aegypti (l.) (aaa), with aaf considered a 'sylvan' form and aaa a 'domestic' form. because the two subspecies show different susceptibilities to dengue viruses it is important to understand their distribution. in this study, we co ...201931815285
vgsc-interacting proteins are genetically associated with pyrethroid resistance in aedes aegypti.association mapping of factors that condition pyrethroid resistance in aedes aegypti has consistently identified genes in multiple functional groups. toward better understanding of the mechanisms involved, we examined high throughput sequencing data (hts) from two aedes aegypti aegypti collections from merida, yucatan, mexico treated with either permethrin or deltamethrin. exome capture enrichment for coding regions and the aaegl5 annotation were used to identify genes statistically associated w ...201930695054
susceptibility profile of aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) from montclair, california, to commonly used pesticides, with note on resistance to pyriproxyfen.the peridomestic anthropophilic aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) is originated from the wild zoophilic subspecies aedes aegypti formosus in sub-saharan africa, and currently has a broad distribution in human-modified environments of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. in california, breeding populations were initially detected in 2013 in the cities of fresno, madera, and san mateo, and now can be found in 188 cities of 12 counties in the state. recent genetic studies suggest that this spe ...201930810751
hold your breath - differential behavioral and sensory acuity of mosquitoes to acetone and carbon dioxide.host seeking in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, and the african malaria mosquito, anopheles coluzzii, relies on specific and generic host-derived odorants. previous analyses indicate that the behavioral response of these species depends differentially on the presence of carbon dioxide (co2) and other constituents in human breath for activation and attraction. in this study, we use a flight tube assay and electrophysiological analysis to assess the role of acetone, a major component of ...201931887129
co-occurrence of kdr mutations v1016i and f1534c and its association with phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) populations from costa rica.aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) is considered the most important mosquito vector species for several arboviruses (e.g., dengue, chikungunya, zika) in costa rica. the primary strategy for the control and prevention of aedes-borne diseases relies on insecticide-based vector control. however, the emergence of insecticide resistance in the mosquito populations presents a significant threat to these prevention actions. the characterization of the mechanisms driving the insecticide resistance in ae. ae ...201931891404
diverse sensitivities of trpa1 from different mosquito species to thermal and chemical stimuli.temperature and odors profoundly affect the behavior of animals. transient receptor potential channel, subfamily a, member 1 (trpa1) functions as a polymodal nociceptor for sensing both vital environmental cues in insects. mosquitoes are recognized as disease vectors, and many efforts have been devoted to investigations of their host-seeking behaviors and repellents. however, the physiological characteristics of mosquito trpa1 have not been systematically studied. we identified multiple alternat ...201931882848
risk of dengue in central africa: vector competence studies with aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) populations and dengue 2 virus.dengue is the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide but was considered scarce in west-central africa. during the last decade, dengue outbreaks have increasingly been reported in urban foci in this region suggesting major epidemiological changes. however, in central africa where both vectors, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are well established, the role of each species in dengue transmission remains poorly investigated.201931887138
dirofilaria and wolbachia in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in central european russia and on the black sea coast.dirofilariasis is endemic in russia, as well as in many other european countries. the aim of this study was to assess the ability of mosquitoes to transfer dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens in regions with temperate and subtropical climates. the possible impact of the symbiotic bacterium wolbachia on dirofilaria transmission was also investigated. 5333 female mosquitoes were collected at 11 points in central european russia and on the black sea coast during the period 2013-2017. out of ...201930644356
in tune with nature: wolbachia does not prevent pre-copula acoustic communication in aedes aegypti.mosquito-borne diseases are rapidly spreading to vast territories, putting at risk most of the world's population. a key player in this scenario is aedes aegypti, a hematophagous species which hosts and transmits viruses causing dengue and other serious illnesses. since vector control strategies relying only on insecticides have proven unsustainable, an alternative method involving the release of wolbachia-harboring individuals has emerged. its successful implementation vastly depends on how fit ...201829471864
optimal control approach for establishing wmelpop wolbachia infection among wild aedes aegypti populations.wolbachia-based biocontrol has recently emerged as a potential method for prevention and control of dengue and other vector-borne diseases. major vector species, such as aedes aegypti females, when deliberately infected with wolbachia become less capable of getting viral infections and transmitting the virus to human hosts. in this paper, we propose an explicit sex-structured population model that describes an interaction of uninfected (wild) male and female mosquitoes and those deliberately inf ...201829429122
a natural agonist of mosquito trpa1 from the medicinal plant cinnamosma fragrans that is toxic, antifeedant, and repellent to the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti.plants produce various secondary metabolites that offer a potential source of novel insecticides and repellents for the control of mosquito vectors. plants of the genus cinnamosma are endemic to, and widely-distributed throughout, the island of madagascar. the barks of these species are commonly used in traditional medicines for treating a wide range of maladies. the therapeutic nature of the bark is thought to be associated with its enrichment of pungent drimane sesquiterpenes, which elicit ant ...201829425195
bacillus wiedmannii biovar thuringiensis: a specialized mosquitocidal pathogen with plasmids from diverse origins.bacillus cereus sensu lato also known as b. cereus group is composed of an ecologically diverse bacterial group with an increasing number of related species, some of which are medically or agriculturally important. numerous efforts have been undertaken to allow presumptive differentiation of b. cereus group species from one another. fcc41 is a bacillus sp. strain toxic against mosquito species like aedes aegypti, aedes (ochlerotatus) albifasciatus, culex pipiens, culex quinquefasciatus, and culex ...201830285095
vector competence of aedes bromeliae and aedes vitattus mosquito populations from kenya for chikungunya virus.kenya has experienced outbreaks of chikungunya in the past years with the most recent outbreak occurring in mandera in the northern region in may 2016 and in mombasa in the coastal region from november 2017 to february 2018. despite the outbreaks in kenya, studies on vector competence have only been conducted on aedes aegypti. however, the role played by other mosquito species in transmission and maintenance of the virus in endemic areas remains unclear. this study sought to determine the possib ...201830321181
natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus: a systematic review.dengue is of great concern in various parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries where the mosquito vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are present. the transmission of this virus to humans, by what is known as horizontal transmission, occurs through the bite of infected females of one or other of the two mosquito species. furthermore, an infected female or male parent, by what is known as vertical transmission, can transfer this arbovirus to some part of their o ...201829391071
entomological and epidemiological aspects of dengue epidemics in fortaleza, ceará, brazil, 2001-2012.to characterize the entomological and epidemiological aspects of dengue epidemics occurred in fortaleza, ceará, brazil, from 2001 to 2012.201829451615
first evidence of vertical infection of dengue virus 2 in aedes aegypti mosquitoes from sinaloa, mexico.fourteen pools of aedes aegypti larvae collected within the urban area of culiacán, sinaloa, were analyzed by rt-pcr. the results demonstrate, for the first time, the vertical infection of serotype-2 dengue virus (denv-2) in sinaloa, mexico, suggesting that ae. aegypti acts as a natural reservoir of denv-2 in this region.201829485942
hypericum japonicum: a double-headed sword to combat vector control and cancer.mosquito control with naturally derived herbal insecticides has gained much momentum, with the increased insecticide resistance of vectors and the multiple infectious diseases spread by them. yet, recent studies also suggest that mosquitoes could probably transmit some cancerous cells or cancer-causing viruses from one individual to another between their blood meals. the current research thus focused on the screening and characterization of novel plants with both mosquitocidal and anticancerous ...201829476319
dengue viruses and promising envelope protein domain iii-based vaccines.dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. all four serotypes of dengue virus can ...201829470620
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