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study of oostatic peptide uptake and metabolism in developing ovaries of the flesh fly, neobellieria bullata.the uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (tmof), h-tyr-asp-pro-ala-pro-oh (5p), in ovaries of neobellieria bullata (parker) (diptera: sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. during selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3hpro(3)]5p after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. the ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. a det ...020572785
whither drosophila? 020606015
can daytime use of bed nets not treated with insecticide reduce the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in vietnam?the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bed net use and elucidate the effect of daytime bed net use on preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) among children in vietnam. we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and a matched case-control study in khanh hoa province where not only some pre-schoolchildren but also some school children, who take a nap during lunch break prior to returning to school, used bed nets during the day. among 36,901 children 2-10 year ...020519617
functional role of stim1 and orai1 in silkmoth (bombyx mori) sex pheromone production.store-operated ca(2+) influx has recently been shown to require the activation of two proteins, stromal interaction molecule 1 (stim1) and orai1. in mammals the putative channel ion selectivity filter is thought to comprise conserved charged residues in the first and third transmembrane domains of orai1 in addition to three residues in the first extracellular loop. the latter residues, however, are not conserved in either of the bombyx mori orai1 variants or in most insects, suggesting that sele ...020714403
molecular basis of calcium signaling in lymphocytes: stim and orai.ca(2+) entry into cells of the peripheral immune system occurs through highly ca(2+)-selective channels known as crac (calcium release-activated calcium) channels. crac channels are a very well-characterized example of store-operated ca(2+) channels, so designated because they open when the endoplasmic reticulum (er) ca(2+) store becomes depleted. physiologically, ca(2+) is released from the er lumen into the cytoplasm when activated receptors couple to phospholipase c and trigger production of ...020307213
genomic approaches with natural fish populations.natural populations v. inbred stocks provide a much richer resource for identifying the effects of nucleotide substitutions because natural populations have greater polymorphism. additionally, natural populations offer an advantage over most common research organisms because they are subject to natural selection, and analyses of these adaptations can be used to identify biologically important changes. among fishes, these analyses are enhanced by having a wide diversity of species (>28 000 specie ...020409163
a road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models.the demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticised for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better un ...023679011
a divergent p element and its associated mite, but5, generate chromosomal inversions and are widespread within the drosophila repleta species group.the transposon but5 caused two chromosomal inversions fixed in two drosophila species of the repleta group, d. mojavensis and d. uniseta. but5 copies are approximately 1-kb long, lack any coding capacity, and do not resemble any other transposable element (te). because of its elusive features, but5 has remained unclassified to date. to fully characterize but5, we carried out bioinformatic similarity searches in available sequenced genomes, including 21 drosophila species. significant hits were o ...023682154
comparative digestive physiology.in vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (gi) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). the expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between population ...023720328
wide spread cross resistance to pyrethroids in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from veracruz state mexico.seven f1 strains of aedes aegypti (l.) were evaluated by bottle bioassay for resistance to the pyrethroids d-phenothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyalothrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and z-cypermethrin. the new orleans strain was used as a susceptible control. mortality rates after a 1 h exposure and after a 24 h recovery period were determined. the resistance ratio between the 50% knockdown values (rr(kc50)) of the f1 and new orleans strains indicated high levels of ...023786088
the impact of co2 on collection of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and culex quinquefasciatus say by bg-sentinel® traps in manaus, brazil.carbon dioxide (co2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. the bg-sentinel® trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing culicidae, but co2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. the objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of bg-sentinel traps baited with and without co2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. fifteen areas were selected within the city of manaus, brazil, where four bg-sentinels were op ...023579804
the divergence, actions, roles, and relatives of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters.the mammalian slc4 (solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three cl-hco3 exchangers (ae1-3), five na(+)-coupled hco3(-) transporters (ncbts), and two other unusual members (ae4, btr1). in this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian ncbts-nbce1, nbce2, nbcn1, ndcbe, and nbcn2. each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular ph and, by contributing to the movement of hco3(-) across epithelia, i ...023589833
an analysis on model development for climatic factors influencing prediction of dengue incidences in urban cities. 023703353
cost-effectiveness of novel system of mosquito surveillance and control, brazil.of all countries in the western hemisphere, brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, monitoramento inteligente da dengue (intelligent dengue monitoring system [mid]), which was implemented in 21 cities in minas gerais, brazil. traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. in cities that used mid, vector control was conducted specifically at high ...023628282
genetic relatedness of dengue viruses in key west, florida, usa, 2009-2010.sequencing of dengue virus type 1 (denv-1) strains isolated in key west/monroe county, florida, indicate endemic transmission for >2 years of a distinct and predominant sublineage of the american-african genotype. denv-1 strains isolated elsewhere in florida grouped within a separate central american lineage. findings indicate endemic transmission of denv into the continental united states.023632064
infections with the microbe cardinium in the dolichopodidae and other empidoidea.maternally transmitted reproductive parasites such as wolbachia and cardinium can drastically reshape reproduction in their hosts. beyond skewing sex ratios towards females, these microbes can also cause cytoplasmic incompatibility. wolbachia probably infects two thirds of insects, but far less is known about the occurrence or action of other bacteria with potentially similar effects. in contrast with the two more widespread reproductive parasites, wolbachia and spiroplasma, far less is known of ...023909372
genetic control of aedes mosquitoes.aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. in this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. we focus particularly on those methods that are already bei ...023816508
in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts, fractions and a substance isolated from the amazonian plant tachia grandiflora (gentianaceae).tachia sp. are used as antimalarials in the amazon region and in vivo antimalarial activity of a tachia sp. has been previously reported. tachia grandiflora maguire and weaver is an amazonian antimalarial plant and herein its cytotoxicity and antimalarial activity were investigated. spectral analysis of the tetraoxygenated xanthone decussatin and the iridoid aglyone amplexine isolated, respectively, from the chloroform fractions of root methanol and leaf ethanol extracts was performed. in vitro ...023827996
hidden magicians of genome evolution.transposable elements (tes) represent genome's dynamic component, causing mutations and genetic variations. transposable elements can invade eukaryotic genomes in a short span; these are silenced by homology-dependent gene silencing and some functional parts of silenced elements are utilized to perform novel cellular functions. however, during the past two decades, major interest has been focused on the positive contribution of these elements in the evolution of genomes. the interaction between ...023852286
metabolic function in drosophila melanogaster in response to hypoxia and pure oxygen.this study examined the metabolic response of drosophila melanogaster exposed to o(2) concentrations ranging from 0 to 21% and at 100%. the metabolic rate of flies exposed to graded hypoxia remained nearly constant as o(2) tensions were reduced from normoxia to approximately 3 kpa. there was a rapid, approximately linear reduction in fly metabolic rate at p(o(2))s between 3 and 0.5 kpa. the reduction in metabolic rate was especially pronounced at p(o(2)) levels <0.5 kpa, and at a p(o(2)) of 0.1 ...019749106
germline excision of transgenes in aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases.aedes (ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1-4) and chikungunya virus. homing endonucleases (hes) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded dna breaks (dsb) in a highly specific manner. in this report, we show that the hes y2-i-anii, i-crei and i-scei are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. y2-i-anii demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20 ...023549343
3-(arylthiomethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxamides: chemoselective nucleophilic chemistry and insecticidal activity.a collection of 91 3-(arylthiomethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxamides was prepared starting from dimethyl 3-(chloromethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxylate. the thioether moieties in these compounds were subsequently oxidized to give the corresponding 3-(arylsulfonylmethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxamides. by carefully controlling stoichiometry and reaction conditions, the c4 and c5 carbomethoxy groups could be differentially derivatized to carboxamides. a total of 182 trisubstituted isoxazoles are reported a ...019624156
do viruses use vectors to penetrate mucus barriers?i propose a mechanism by which viruses successfully infect new individuals, despite being immotile particles with no ability for directed movement. within cells, viral particle movements are directed by motors and elements of the cytoskeleton, but how viruses cross extracellular barriers, like mucus, remains a mystery. i propose that viruses cross these barriers by hitch-hiking on bacteria or sperm cells which can transport themselves across mucosal layers designed to protect the underlying cell ...020190864
biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella zell. (lepidoptera:gelechiidae).the olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. eugenol and peppermint o ...023961036
serotonin-induced high intracellular ph aids in alkali secretion in the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti l.the anterior midgut of the larval yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti generates a luminal ph in excess of 10 in vivo and similar values are attained by isolated and perfused anterior midgut segments after stimulation with submicromolar serotonin. in the present study we investigated the mechanisms of strong luminal alkalinization using the intracellular fluorescent indicator bcecf-am. following stimulation with serotonin, we observed that intracellular ph (ph(i)) of the anterior midgut increased ...019648402
egg formation in lepidoptera.reproductive biology in the twentieth century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. while many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. the emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, after ...020050770
dengue: where are we today?dengue is considered the main arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. in the last few years, an increasing number of reports of mild and severe cases have been reported. the growing dengue incidence observed in recent years has been accompanied by reports of new observations, findings and global initiatives with an improvement in our understanding of this phenomenon. the epidemiology and new clinical classification of dengue, advances in the diagnostic and pathogenesis knowledge, and vaccine de ...022589659
a phylogenetic approach to gene expression data: evidence for the evolutionary origin of mammalian leukocyte phenotypes.the evolution of multicellular organisms involved the evolution of specialized cell types performing distinct functions; and specialized cell types presumably arose from more generalized ancestral cell types as a result of mutational event, such as gene duplication and changes in gene expression. we used characters based on gene expression data to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among 11 types of lymphocytes by the maximum parsimony method. the resulting phylogenetic tree showed expected ...019601972
urban structure and dengue fever in puntarenas, costa rica.dengue is currently the most important arboviral disease globally and is usually associated with built environments in tropical areas. remotely sensed information can facilitate the study of urban mosquito-borne diseases by providing multiple temporal and spatial resolutions appropriate to investigate urban structure and ecological characteristics associated with infectious disease. in this study, coarse, medium and fine resolution satellite imagery (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer, adv ...020161131
defeating dengue: new mosquito genome, old promise? 018438504
virulence and resistance in a mosquito-microsporidium interaction.we review the results of a series of experiments involving aedes aegypti and its microsporidian parasite vavraia culicis to illustrate how intra-specific competition and parasitism shape life history traits. more specifically these experiments showed that some major components of virulence are host condition-dependent in this system, while others are not. we also briefly discuss the ways through which v. culicis modifies the physiological functioning of its host. we discuss the implications of t ...025567490
circatidal activity rhythm in the mangrove cricket apteronemobius asahinai.mangrove forests are influenced by tidal flooding and ebbing for a period of approximately 12.4 hours (tidal cycle). mangrove crickets (apteronemobius asahinai) forage on mangrove forest floors only during low tide. under constant darkness, most crickets showed a clear bimodal daily pattern in their locomotor activity for at least 24 days; the active phases of approximately 10 hours alternated with inactive phases of approximately 2 hours, which coincided with the time of high tide in the field. ...018302994
purification and characterization of recombinant lipid storage protein-2 from drosophila melanogaster.lipid storage protein 2 (lsd 2) is a conserved insect protein that belongs to the small pat family of proteins. pat proteins are found associated to the lipid droplets of adipocytes and play significant roles in the regulation of triacylglycerides metabolism. here we describe the expression and purification of lsd2, its reconstitution in lipoprotein particles, the location of putative lipid binding sites and its secondary structure. this study provides the starting point for future studies on th ...018991782
neuroscience: love hangover. 018172487
the steroid hormone ecdysone functions with intrinsic chromatin remodeling factors to control female germline stem cells in drosophila.steroid hormones are known systemic regulators of multiple normal and cancerous tissues; however, whether or how they impact the fate and function of adult stem cells is unclear. in the drosophila ovary, insulin signals modulate the proliferation and self-renewal of germline stem cells (gscs), yet despite evidence that additional systemic factors control gsc activity, these have remained largely unknown. here, we report that ecdysone, a steroid hormone structurally related to mammalian sex stero ...021040900
examination of a miniaturized funnel trap for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) larval sampling.funnel traps are often used to sample for the presence of aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) larvae in subterranean aquatic habitats. these traps are generally > or = 15 cm in diameter, making them impractical for use in subterranean sites that have narrow (10-cm) access ports, such as those in standard-sized septic tanks. recent research indicates septic tanks may be important habitats for ae. aegypti in puerto rico and the caribbean. to sample mosquito larval populations in these sites, a ...021175077
identification of myotropic neuropeptides from the brain and corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the beetle, zophobas atratus.the neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (cc/ca) of adult beetles, zophobas atratus fabricius (coleoptera:tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (maldi tof/tof ms). the homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen hplc fractions for myotropic a ...021067424
modeling the impact on virus transmission of wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of aedes aegypti.dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and is a public health burden in more than 100 countries. aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (denv) infection and are being tested in field trials. to mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of a. aegypti carrying the wolbachia strains wmel and wmelpop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. we found th ...025787763
oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata, coleus forskohlii, and datura stramonium leaves against aedes aegypti and culex quinquefaciatus.mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. in the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of pongamia pinnata, coleus forskohlii, and datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus. the oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata, coleus ...021120036
ageing in a eusocial insect: molecular and physiological characteristics of life span plasticity in the honey bee.commonly held views assume that ageing, or senescence, represents an inevitable, passive, and random decline in function that is strongly linked to chronological age. in recent years, genetic intervention of life span regulating pathways, for example, in drosophila as well as case studies in non-classical animal models, have provided compelling evidence to challenge these views.rather than comprehensively revisiting studies on the established genetic model systems of ageing, we here focus on an ...018728759
a cumulative feeding threshold required for vitellogenesis can be obviated with juvenile hormone treatment in lubber grasshoppers.developmental thresholds can ensure that an adequate condition has been attained to proceed through major transitions (e.g. initiation of reproduction, metamorphosis). nutrition is critical to attaining most thresholds, because it is needed for both growth and storage. attaining a threshold typically stimulates the release of hormones that commit the animal to the developmental transition, yet the relationships between the nutrition needed for developmental thresholds and these endocrine signals ...018083735
antioxidant activity of five brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in brazil.this study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of brazil.021120039
neuropeptide action in insects and crustaceans.physiological processes are regulated by a diverse array of neuropeptides that coordinate organ systems. the neuropeptides, many of which act through g protein-coupled receptors, affect the levels of cyclic nucleotides (camp and cgmp) and ca(2+) in target tissues. in this perspective, their roles in molting, osmoregulation, metabolite utilization, and cardiovascular function are highlighted. in decapod crustaceans, inhibitory neuropeptides (molt-inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic ho ...020550437
drosophila ctbp regulates proliferation and differentiation of eye precursors and complexes with eyeless, dachshund, dan, and danr during eye and antennal development.specification factors regulate cell fate in part by interacting with transcriptional co-regulators like ctbp to regulate gene expression. here, we demonstrate that ctbp forms a complex or complexes with the drosophila melanogaster pax6 homolog eyeless (ey), and with distal antenna (dan), distal antenna related (danr), and dachshund to promote eye and antennal specification. phenotypic analysis together with molecular data indicate that ctbp interacts with ey to prevent overproliferation of eye p ...020730908
using chimeric piggybac transposase to achieve directed interplasmid transposition in silkworm bombyx mori and fruit fly drosophila cells.the piggybac transposon has been long used to integrate foreign dna into insect genomes. however, undesirable transgene expression can result from random insertions into the genome. in this study, the efficiency of chimeric gal4-piggybac transposase in directing integration onto a dna target plasmid was evaluated in cultured silkworm bombyx mori bm-12 and fruit fly drosophila schneider 2 (s2) cells. the gal4-piggybac transposase has a gal4 dna-binding domain (dbd), and the target plasmid has ups ...020803777
formulae for insect wingbeat frequency.a formula is developed connecting the wingbeat frequency of insects with their masses and wing areas. it is derived first theoretically, using dimensional analysis, and then it is compared with published measurements. the formula discovered involves two parameters which dimensional analysis alone cannot determine. one of these is evaluated using one among many proposed semi-empirical relationships (the only one that stands scrutiny); the other by fitting a published dataset. it is found that the ...020673120
effects of mutations in aedes aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 on the biological function of the protein.sterol carrier protein-2 (scp-2) is a nonspecific intracellular lipid carrier protein. however, the molecular mechanism of ligand selectivity and the in vivo function of scp-2 remain unclear. in this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the ligand selectivity and in vivo function of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 protein (aescp-2). mutations to amino acids in aescp-2 known to interact with bound ligand also weakened nbd-cholesterol binding. substitution of ...020681612
dengue vaccine: come let's fight the menace.although dengue has a global distribution, the world health organization (who) south-east asia region together with western pacific region bears nearly 75% of the current global disease burden. globally, the societal burden has been estimated to be approximately 528 to 1300 disability-adjusted life years (daly) per million to populations in endemic regions dengue is believed to infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide a year with half a million life-threatening infections requiring hospitalizat ...025695523
evaluation of household bleach as an ovicide for the control of aedes aegypti.accumulations of dormant eggs in container habitats allow aedes aegypti populations to survive harsh environmental conditions and may frustrate control interventions directed at larval and adult life stages. while sodium hypochlorite solutions (naocl) have long been recognized as ovicides for use against dengue vectors, the susceptibility of eggs to spray applications has not been robustly evaluated on substrate materials representative of the most frequently utilized artificial container habita ...025843179
in vitro antibacterial and in vivo cytotoxic activities of grewia paniculata.grewia paniculata (family: malvaceae) has been used to treat inflammation, respiratory disorders and fever. it is additionally employed for other health conditions including colds, diarrhea and as an insecticide in bangladesh. the aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of different extracts of grewia paniculata.025949950
transgenerational effect of infection in plasmodium-infected mosquitoes.transgenerational effects of infection have a huge potential to influence the prevalence and intensity of infections in vectors and, by extension, disease epidemiology. these transgenerational effects may increase the fitness of offspring through the transfer of protective immune factors. alternatively, however, infected mothers may transfer the costs of infection to their offspring. although transgenerational immune protection has been described in a dozen invertebrate species, we still lack a ...025762571
mosquito biology. evolution of sexual traits influencing vectorial capacity in anopheline mosquitoes.the availability of genome sequences from 16 anopheline species provides unprecedented opportunities to study the evolution of reproductive traits relevant for malaria transmission. in anopheles gambiae, a likely candidate for sexual selection is male 20-hydroxyecdysone (20e). sexual transfer of this steroid hormone as part of a mating plug dramatically changes female physiological processes intimately tied to vectorial capacity. by combining phenotypic studies with ancestral state reconstructio ...025722409
anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. this infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. however anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the v ...027843231
how relevant is panallergen sensitization in the development of allergies?panallergens comprise various protein families of plant as well as animal origin and are responsible for wide ige cross-reactivity between related and unrelated allergenic sources. such cross-reactivities include reactions between various pollen sources, pollen and plant-derived foods as well as invertebrate-derived inhalants and foodstuff. here, we provide an overview on the most clinically relevant panallergens from plants (profilins, polcalcins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, pathogene ...027129102
dengue reborn: widespread resurgence of a resilient vector. 018795135
molecular cloning and analysis of the tryptophan oxygenase gene in the silkworm, bombyx mori.a bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae) gene encoding tryptophan oxygenase has been molecularly cloned and analyzed. the tryptophan oxygenase cdna had 1374 nucleotides that encoded a 401 amino acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of 46.47 kda and a pi of 5.88. rt-pcr analysis showed that the b. mori tryptophan oxygenase gene was transcribed in all examined stages. tryptophan oxygenase proteins are relatively well conserved among different orders of arthropods.020331401
cloning and characterization of a putative farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase gene from the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens.juvenile hormone (jh) plays key roles in both metamorphosis and adult reproductive processes. farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase (famet) is thought to be an important enzyme in the jh biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing methylation of farnesoic acid (fa) to methyl farnesoate (mf). a full-length cdna (nlfamet) encoding a 299 amino acid putative famet was isolated from the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens (stal) (hemiptera: geometroidea), a major rice pest in many parts of asia. nlfamet showed h ...020874390
a killer-rescue system for self-limiting gene drive of anti-pathogen constructs.a number of genetic mechanisms have been suggested for driving anti-pathogen genes into natural populations. each of these mechanisms requires complex genetic engineering, and most are theoretically expected to permanently spread throughout the target species' geographical range. in the near term, risk issues and technical limits of molecular methods could delay the development and use of these mechanisms. we propose a gene-drive mechanism that can be self-limiting over time and space, and is si ...018765342
evolution of an insect-specific groucho-interaction motif in the engrailed selector protein.animal morphology evolves through alterations in the genetic regulatory networks that control development. regulatory connections are commonly added, subtracted, or modified via mutations in cis-regulatory elements, but several cases are also known where transcription factors have gained or lost activity-modulating peptide motifs. in order to better assess the role of novel transcription factor peptide motifs in evolution, we searched for synapomorphic motifs in the homeotic selectors of drosoph ...018803772
impact of source reduction on the spatial distribution of larvae and pupae of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in suburban neighborhoods of a piedmont community in north carolina.aedes albopictus (skuse) is a principal nuisance mosquito species and a potential arbovirus vector throughout its geographic range in the united states. this species lays eggs, and progeny complete development in water-filled containers that are discarded in suburban landscapes. source reduction of containers, achieved through environmental sanitation, was used to experimentally manipulate mosquito production to gain insight into the spatial structure of the population of immature ae. albopictus ...018714860
use of google earth to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. google earth) complement existing geographic information system (gis) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an ...018797648
alkalinization in the isolated and perfused anterior midgut of the larval mosquito, aedes aegypti.in the present study, isolated midguts of larval aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) were mounted on perfusion pipettes and bathed in high buffer mosquito saline. with low buffer perfusion saline, containing m-cresol purple, transepithelial voltage was monitored and luminal alkalinization became visible through color changes of m-cresol purple after perfusion stop. lumen negative voltage and alkalinization depended on metabolic energy and were stimulated in the presence of serotonin (0.2 micro ...020307229
the salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito aedes aegypti is a member of the 5'-nucleotidase family.the saliva of hematophagous insects contains a variety of pharmacologically active substances that counteract the normal hemostatic response to injury in vertebrate hosts. the yellow-fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, secretes an apyrase that inhibits adp-dependent platelet aggregation. apyrase was purified as an active enzyme from adult female salivary glands and subjected to tryptic digestion, and the resulting peptides were sequenced. the amino acid sequences obtained match the conceptual transla ...07846038
identification of the abdominal-a homologue from aedes aegypti and structural comparisons among related genes. 01354853
cumulative mortality of aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.objective to evaluate the larvicidal activity of azadirachta indica, melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of carica papaya against aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) (diptera: culicidae). methods the larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. the groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (bti) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (pc1) and 0.06 ppm (p ...025119939
genome-wide comparison of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of juvenile hormone between silkworm and other insects.juvenile hormone (jh) contributes to the regulation of larval molting and metamorphosis in insects. herein, we comprehensively identified 55 genes involved in jh biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in the silkworm (bombyx mori) as well as 35 in drosophila melanogaster, 35 in anopheles gambiae, 36 in apis mellifera, 47 in tribolium castaneum, and 44 in danaus plexippus. comparative analysis showed that each gene involved in the early steps of the mevalonate (mva) pathway, in the neuropeptide r ...025071411
isoleucine at position 150 of cyt2aa toxin from bacillus thuringiensis plays an important role during membrane binding and oligomerization.cyt2aa2 is a mosquito larvicidal and cytolytic toxin produced by bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. the toxin becomes inactive when isoleucine at position 150 was replaced by alanine. to investigate the functional role of this position, ile150 was substituted with leu, phe, glu and lys. all mutant proteins were produced at high level, solubilized in carbonate buffer and yielded protease activated product similar to those of the wild type. intrinsic fluorescence spectra analysis sugges ...023527862
gates grand challenges explorations award: endectocides for controlling transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. 024818085
phylogeography and spatio-temporal genetic variation of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) populations in the florida keys.aedes aegypti (l.) is the principal mosquito vector of dengue fever, the second-most deadly vector-borne disease in the world. in ae. aegypti and other arthropod disease vectors, genetic markers can be used to inform us about processes relevant to disease spread, such as movement of the vectors across space and the temporal stability of vector populations. in late 2009, 27 locally acquired cases of dengue fever were reported in key west, fl. the last dengue outbreak in the region occurred in 193 ...023540116
pupal productivity of dengue vectors in kolkata, india: implications for vector management.entomological surveillance of the dengue vectors using pupal productivity as indicators can be helpful in effective management. on this basis, an assessment was made on the relative importance of the larval habitats of aedes mosquitoes in kolkata, an endemic zone for dengue in west bengal, india.023640563
how brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine. interview by claudia jurberg and julia d'aloisio..brazil recently announced an agreement between its bio-manguinhos vaccine unit and two us companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. claudia jurberg and julia d'aloisio talk to jaime benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.023476088
the tiptop/teashirt genes regulate cell differentiation and renal physiology in drosophila.the physiological activities of organs are underpinned by an interplay between the distinct cell types they contain. however, little is known about the genetic control of patterned cell differentiation during organ development. we show that the conserved teashirt transcription factors are decisive for the differentiation of a subset of secretory cells, stellate cells, in drosophila melanogaster renal tubules. teashirt controls the expression of the water channel drip, the chloride conductance ch ...023404107
synthetic genomics and synthetic biology applications between hopes and concerns.new organisms and biological systems designed to satisfy human needs are among the aims of synthetic genomics and synthetic biology. synthetic biology seeks to model and construct biological components, functions and organisms that do not exist in nature or to redesign existing biological systems to perform new functions. synthetic genomics, on the other hand, encompasses technologies for the generation of chemically-synthesized whole genomes or larger parts of genomes, allowing to simultaneousl ...023997647
susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in pyrethroid-resistant populations of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from mexico.resistance to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was evaluated in females from six strains of aedes aegypti (l.) that expressed high levels of cross-resistance to eight pyrethroid insecticides. relative to lc50 and lc90 at 24 h of a susceptible new orleans (no) strain, three strains were highly resistant to chlorpyrifos (coatzacoalcos, resistance ratio [rrlc90 = 11.97; pozarica, rrlc90 = 12.98; and cosoleacaque, rrlc50 = 13.94 and rrlc90 = 17.57), one strain was moderately resistant (v ...024897857
genome-level analysis of selective constraint without apparent sequence conservation.conservation of function can be accompanied by obvious similarity of homologous sequences which may persist for billions of years (iyer lm, leipe dd, koonin ev, aravind l. 2004. evolutionary history and higher order classification of aaa+ atpases. j struct biol. 146:11-31.). however, presumably homologous segments of noncoding dna can also retain their ancestral function even after their sequences diverge beyond recognition (fisher s, grice ea, vinton rm, bessling sl, mccallion as. 2006. conserv ...023418180
crystal structure and functional characterization of the human rbm25 pwi domain and its flanking basic region.human rbm25 (rna-binding motif protein 25) is a novel splicing factor that contains a pwi domain, a newly identified rna/dna-binding domain, and regulates bcl-x pre-mrna alternative splicing. the flanking basic region has been suggested to serve as a co-operative partner of the pwi domain in the binding of nucleic acids, but the structure of this basic region is unknown. in the present paper, we report the crystal structure of the rbm25 pwi domain and its flanking basic region. the pwi domain is ...023190262
promising new tools to fight aedes mosquitoes.two new tools for suppressing aedes aegypti mosquito populations have been recommended for pilot testing. carefully designed trials will be needed to see whether they actually reduce disease as well. andréia azevedo soares reports.027516632
toxicity studies for indigenous bacillus thuringiensis isolates from malang city, east java on aedes aegypti larvae.to investigate the toxicity of indigenous bacillus thuringiensis (b. thuringiensis)isolates from malang city for controlling aedes aegypti (ae. aegypti) larvae.023593589
racing against time against zika. 027489331
inhibitor designing, virtual screening, and docking studies for methyltransferase: a potential target against dengue virus.aim of this work was to design and identify some s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (sah) analogs as inhibitors of s-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase (mtase) protein using computational approaches.027413346
evolutionary conservation and adaptation in the mechanism that regulates srebp action: what a long, strange trip it's been.sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (srebps) are a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bhlh-lz) transcription factors that are conserved from fungi to humans and are defined by two key features: a signature tyrosine residue in the dna-binding domain, and a membrane-tethering domain that is a target for regulated proteolysis. recent studies including genome-wide and model organism approaches indicate srebps coordinate cellular lipid metabolism with other cellular physiologi ...019933148
the efficacy of some commercially available insect repellents for aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. deet (n,n-diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during world war ii. fear of possible side effects of deet has created a large market for "natural" deet-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. we present a comparative study on the efficacy ...026443777
big city, small world: density, contact rates, and transmission of dengue across pakistan.macroscopic descriptions of populations commonly assume that encounters between individuals are well mixed; i.e. each individual has an equal chance of coming into contact with any other individual. relaxing this assumption can be challenging though, due to the difficulty of acquiring detailed knowledge about the non-random nature of encounters. here, we fitted a mathematical model of dengue virus transmission to spatial time-series data from pakistan and compared maximum-likelihood estimates of ...026468065
clip-domain serine proteases as immune factors in insect hemolymph.clip proteases are non-digestive serine proteases present in hemolymph of insects and other arthropods. they are composed of one or more amino-terminal clip domains followed by a linker sequence and a carboxyl-terminal s1a family serine protease domain. the genes for clip proteases have evolved as four clades (clipa, clipb, clipc, clipd), each present as multigene families in insect genomes. clip proteases in hemolymph function in innate immune responses. these include proteolytic activation of ...026688791
nutritional control of insect reproduction.the amino acid-target of rapamycin (aa/tor) and insulin pathways play a pivotal role in reproduction of female insects, serving as regulatory checkpoints that guarantee the sufficiency of nutrients for developing eggs. being evolutionary older, the aa/tor pathway functions as an initial nutritional sensor that not only activates nutritional responses in a tissue-specific manner, but is also involved in the control of insect insulin-like peptides (ilps) secretion. insulin and aa/tor pathways also ...026644995
repellant and insecticidal activities of shyobunone and isoshyobunone derived from the essential oil of acorus calamus rhizomes.it was found that the essential oil of acorus calamus rhizomes showed insecticidal activity.026600710
vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations.humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (vpds). common vpds encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis a, and cholera. we conducted a r ...026406333
draft genome sequence of bacillus thuringiensis 147, a brazilian strain with high insecticidal activity.bacillus thuringiensis is a ubiquitous gram-positive and sporulating bacterium. its crystals and secreted toxins are useful tools against larvae of diverse insect orders and, as a consequence, an alternative to recalcitrant chemical insecticides. we report here the draft genome sequence of b. thuringiensis147, a strain isolated from brazil and with high insecticidal activity. the assembled genome contained 6,167,994 bp and was distributed in seven replicons (a chromosome and 6 plasmids). we iden ...026517667
satyrization without evidence of successful insemination from interspecific mating between invasive mosquitoes.previous research has documented low frequencies of interspecific mating in nature between the invasive vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. it is also known that heterospecific male accessory gland substances transferred during mating sterilize a. aegypti but not a. albopictus females, leading to satyrization, a form of reproductive interference. this paper demonstrates that satyrization of a. aegypti by a. albopictus may occur without evidence of successful insemination. our results sho ...026382076
it's time for doctors to speak out on climate change. 022135506
cell surface changes in the egg at fertilization.an egg changes dramatically at fertilization. these changes include its developmental potential, its physiology, its gene expression profile, and its cell surface. this review highlights the changes in the cell surface of the egg that occur in response to sperm. these changes include modifications to the extracellular matrix, to the plasma membrane, and to the secretory vesicles whose contents direct many of these events. in some species, these changes occur within minutes of fertilization, and ...019658159
chikungunya fever - epidemic in rural maharashtra. 020165644
larvicidal activity of syzygium aromaticum (l.) merr and citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck essential oils and their antagonistic effects with temephos in resistant populations of aedes aegypti.environmentally friendly botanical larvicides are commonly considered as an alternative to synthetic larvicides against aedes aegypti linn. in addition, mosquito resistance to currently used larvicides has motivated research to find new compounds acting via different mechanisms of action, with the goal of controlling the spread of mosquitos. essential oils have been widely studied for this purpose. this work aims to evaluate the larvicidal potential of syzygium aromaticum and citrus sinensis ess ...027384083
[dengue and chikungunya vector control: is it necessary to re-examine present strategies?]. 026849689
modelling, simulation and social network data: what's new for public health and epidemiology informatics? 026293870
the mysterious multi-modal repellency of deet.deet is the most effective insect repellent available and has been widely used for more than half a century. here, i review what is known about the olfactory and contact mechanisms of deet repellency. for mosquitoes, deet has at least two molecular targets: odorant receptors (ors) mediate the effect of deet at a distance, while unknown chemoreceptors mediate repellency upon contact. additionally, the ionotropic receptor ir40a has recently been identified as a putative deet chemosensor in drosoph ...026252744
upward trend in dengue incidence among hospitalized patients, united states.international travel and a global expansion of dengue fever have the potential to increase the incidence of dengue in the united states. we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of trends in dengue among hospitalized patients by using the national inpatient sample (2000-2007); the number of cases more than tripled (p<0.0001).021529411
infection dynamics of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (togaviridae: alphavirus) in four strains of culex tarsalis (diptera: culicidae): an immunocytochemical study.background: vector competence describes the efficiency with which vector arthropods become infected with and transmit pathogens and depends on interactions between pathogen and arthropod genetics as well as environmental factors. for arbovirus transmission, the female mosquito ingests viremic blood, the virus infects and replicates in midgut cells, escapes from the midgut, and disseminates to other tissues, including the salivary glands. virus-laden saliva is then injected into a new host. for t ...022629118
the poly(a) polymerase gld2 is required for spermatogenesis in drosophila melanogaster.the dna of a developing sperm is normally inaccessible for transcription for part of spermatogenesis in many animals. in drosophila melanogaster, many transcripts needed for late spermatid differentiation are synthesized in pre-meiotic spermatocytes, but are not translated until later stages. thus, post-transcriptional control mechanisms are required to decouple transcription and translation during spermatogenesis. in the female germline, developing germ cells accomplish similar decoupling throu ...021427144
cloning and expression analysis of the bombyx mori α-amylase gene (amy) from the indigenous thai silkworm strain, nanglai.α-amylase is a common enzyme for hydrolyzing starch. in the silkworm, bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae), α-amylase is found in both digestive fluid and hemolymph. here, the complete genomic sequence of the amy gene encoding α-amylase from a local thai silkworm, the nanglai strain, was obtained. this gene was 7981 bp long with 9 exons. the full length amy cdna sequence was 1749 bp containing a 1503 bp open reading frame. the orf encoded 500 amino acid residues. the deduced protein showed 8 ...021529256
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