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precopulatory acoustic interactions of the new world malaria vector anopheles albimanus (diptera: culicidae).anopheles albimanus is a malaria vector in central america, northern south america and the caribbean. although a public health threat, an. albimanus precopulatory mating behaviors are unknown. acoustics play important roles in mosquito communication, where flight tones allow males to detect and attract potential mates. the importance of sound in precopulatory interactions has been demonstrated in toxorhynchites brevipalpis, aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus and anopheles gambiae; convergence ...201931370863
experimental assessment of zika virus mechanical transmission by aedes aegypti.the pandemic emergence of several mosquito-borne viruses highlights the need to understand the different ways in which they can be transmitted by vectors to human hosts. in this study, we evaluated the propensity of aedes aegypti to transmit mechanically zika virus (zikv) using an experimental design. mosquitoes were allowed to feed on zikv-infected blood and were then rapidly transferred to feed on zikv-free blood until they finished their meal. the uninfected blood meals, the mosquito abdomens ...201931370135
infection and transmission of cache valley virus by aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti mosquitoes.cache valley virus (cvv; bunyavirales, peribunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus endemic in north america. although severe diseases are mainly observed in pregnant ruminants, cvv has also been recognized as a zoonotic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. human exposures to cvv and its related subtypes occur frequently under different ecological conditions in the new world; however, neurotropic disease is rarely reported. high prevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies hav ...201931366369
fractional-dose yellow fever vaccination: how much more can we do with less?climate change, deforestation, urbanization, and increased population mobility have made the risk of large outbreaks of yellow fever more likely than ever. yellow fever vaccine production barely meets demands. in this review, we address the causes of the recent yellow fever outbreaks, why fractional dose yellow fever vaccination works, the role of virus neutralizing antibodies in the protection against yellow fever, and the need for revaccination.201931335440
spatial diffusion of the 2015-2016 zika, dengue and chikungunya epidemics in rio de janeiro municipality, brazil.different countries, especially brazil, that have faced recurrent dengue epidemics for decades and chikungunya epidemics since 2014, have had to restructure their health services to combat a triple epidemic of arboviruses - zika, dengue and chikungunya - transmitted by the same vector, mainly aedes aegypti, in 2015-2016. several efforts have been made to better understand these three arboviruses. spatial analysis plays an important role in the knowledge of disease dynamics. the knowledge of the ...201931364556
no evidence of zika, dengue, or chikungunya virus infection in field-caught mosquitoes from the recife metropolitan region, brazil, 2015.background: the recife metropolitan region (rmr), north-eastern brazil, was the epicentre of the 2015 zika virus (zikv) epidemic, which was followed by a 2016 chikungunya virus (chikv) epidemic. it historically has amongst the highest incidence of dengue virus (denv) infections and is the only remaining focus of lymphatic filariasis (lf) in brazil. in early 2015, a molecular xenomonitoring surveillance project focused on culex (cx.) quinquefasciatus commenced to inform lf elimination activities. ...201931363498
the ecological and epidemiological consequences of reproductive interference between the vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.vector ecology is integral to understanding the transmission of vector-borne diseases, with processes such as reproduction and competition pivotal in determining vector presence and abundance. the arbovirus vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus compete as larvae, but this mechanism is insufficient to explain patterns of coexistence and exclusion. inviable interspecies matings-known as reproductive interference-is another candidate mechanism. here, we analyse mathematical models of mosquito ...201931362626
the challenge of invasive mosquito vectors in the u.k. during 2016-2018: a summary of the surveillance and control of aedes albopictus.mosquito-borne diseases resulting from the expansion of two key vectors, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae), continue to challenge whole regions and continents around the globe. in recent years there have been human cases of disease associated with chikungunya, dengue and zika viruses. in europe, the expansion of ae. albopictus has resulted in local transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses. this paper considers the risk that ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus represent for ...201931361038
comparative evaluation of an improved test method for bioefficacy of insecticidal fabrics against dengue and malaria vectors.insecticidal fabrics are important personal protective measures against mosquitoes, ticks and other disease vectors. in the absence of internationally accepted guidelines, bioefficacy tests have been carried out using continuous exposure and three minutes exposure bioassay methods. recently, we have reported an improved method for bioefficacy testing of insecticidal fabrics, which involves continuous exposure of mosquitoes to the test fabrics. the present paper reports the comparative evaluation ...201931358045
serological data shows low levels of chikungunya exposure in senegalese nomadic pastoralists.the chikungunya virus (chikv) is spread by aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitos worldwide; infection can lead to disease including joint pain, fever, and rash, with some convalescent persons experiencing chronic symptoms. historically, chikv transmission has occurred in africa and asia, but recent outbreaks have taken place in europe, indonesia, and the americas. from september to october 2014, a survey was undertaken with nomadic pastoralists residing in the northeast departments of seneg ...201931357631
larvicidal and enzymatic inhibition effects of annona muricata seed extract and main constituent annonacin against aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are vectors of arboviruses that cause dengue, zika and chikungunya. bioactive compounds from plants are environmentally sustainable alternatives to control these vectors and thus the arboviruses transmitted by them. the present study evaluated the larvicidal activity of an acetogenin-rich fraction (acerf) and its main constituent annonacin obtained from annona muricata seeds on ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus. the larvicidal assays were performed ...201931357557
mosquito-borne viruses and insect-specific viruses revealed in field-collected mosquitoes by a monitoring tool adapted from a microbial detection array.several mosquito-borne diseases affecting humans are emerging or reemerging in the united states. the early detection of pathogens in mosquito populations is essential to prevent and control the spread of these diseases. in this study, we tested the potential applicability of the lawrence livermore microbial detection array (llmda) to enhance biosurveillance by detecting microbes present in aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex mosquitoes, which are major vector species globally, including ...201931350319
in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of selenium nanoparticles with significant larvicidal and bacteriostatic properties.in the present study, we investigated the larvicidal and bacteriostatic activity of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles using aqueous berry extract of murraya koenigii (mk-se nps). the synthesized mk-se nps were characterized using uv-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (xrd), fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (tem), scanning electron microscopy (sem) and energy dispersive x-ray (edx) analysis. xrd analysis revealed the crystalline nature of m ...201931349432
odorant inhibition in mosquito olfaction.how chemical signals are integrated at the peripheral sensory system of insects is still an enigma. here we show that when coexpressed with orco in xenopus oocytes, an odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito, cquior32, generated inward (regular) currents when challenged with cyclohexanone and methyl salicylate, whereas eucalyptol and fenchone elicited inhibitory (upward) currents. responses of cquior32-cquiorco-expressing oocytes to odorants were reduced in a dose-dependent fashion by ...201931349189
effect of chlorine and temperature on larvicidal activity of cuban bacillus thuringiensis isolates.the efficacy of biolarvicides may be influenced by species of mosquito, larval age and density, temperature, water quality, bacterial formulation, and others. the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and chlorine on larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis cuban isolates against aedes aegypti.201931346534
monitoring indole alkaloid production by penicillium digitatum during infection process in citrus by mass spectrometry imaging and molecular networking.green mold, caused by penicillium digitatum, is the most destructive post-harvest disease in citrus. secondary metabolites produced by fungal phytopathogens have been associated with toxicity to their respective host through the interaction with a wide range of cell targets. natural products have also been described as important molecules for biocontrol and competition in their respective environment. for p. digitatum, the production of indole alkaloids, tryptoquialanines a and b, have been repo ...201931345413
revisiting alkali metals as a tool to characterize patterns of mosquito dispersal and oviposition.mark-recapture methods constitute a set of classical ecological tools that are used to collect information on species dispersal and population size. these methods have advanced knowledge in disparate scientific fields, from conservation biology to pest control. gathering information on the dispersal of mosquito species, such as aedes aegypti, has become critical since the recognition of their role as vectors of pathogens. here, we evaluate a method to mark mosquitoes that exploits the rare alkal ...201931344901
autocidal gravid ovitraps protect humans from chikungunya virus infection by reducing aedes aegypti mosquito populations.public health responses to outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and zika virus have been stymied by the inability to control the primary vector, aedes aegypti mosquitos. consequently, the need for novel approaches to aedes vector control is urgent. placement of three autocidal gravid ovitraps (ago traps) in ~85% of homes in a community was previously shown to sustainably reduce the density of female ae. aegypti by >80%. following the introduction of chikungunya virus (chikv) to puerto rico, we cond ...201931344040
detection of wolbachia in field-collected aedes aegypti mosquitoes in metropolitan manila, philippines.recent reports reveal the presence of wolbachia in ae. aegypti. our study presents additional support for wolbachia infection in ae. aegypti by screening field-collected adult mosquitoes using two wolbachia-specific molecular makers.201931340862
using citizen science to enhance surveillance of aedes aegypti in arizona, 2015-17.vector surveillance is an essential component of vector-borne disease prevention, but many communities lack resources to support extensive surveillance. the great arizona mosquito hunt (gamh) was a collaborative citizen science project conducted during 2015-17 to enhance surveillance for aedes aegypti in arizona. citizen science projects engage the public in scientific research in order to further scientific knowledge while improving community understanding of a specific field of science and the ...201931334498
corrigendum to: "screening aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) populations from pernambuco, brazil for resistance to temephos, diflubenzuron, and cypermethrin and characterization of potential resistance mechanisms". 201931340382
correlation between cephalic circumference at birth and ocular alterations in patients with microcephaly potentially associated with zika virus infection.the zika virus (zikv) is an arbovirus isolated for the first time in 1947 and transmitted to humans by the aedes aegypti mosquito. in brasil, it was first detected in may 2015. since then, zikv has been identified as the etiological agent of acute exanthematous disease in brasil, and neuropediatricians of the recife warned about an epidemic of microcephaly, and the brazilian ministry of health confirmed the association between zikv and congenital malformations and neurological syndromes. the eye ...201931340324
efficacy of heterorhabdits indica lpp35 against aedes aegypti in domiciliary oviposition sites.entomopathogenic nematodes have been evaluated for control of mosquito species for decades. depending on the nematode and mosquito involved, mortality rates of larvae (l) may reach 100% in vitro. nonetheless, nematode efficacy at oviposition sites has rarely been assessed. heterorhabditis indica lpp35 has been shown to kill over 75% of aedes aegypti l3/l4 in cups and bottles outdoors. to assess its efficacy in indoor oviposition sites, different types/sizes of floor drains and pot saucers, and 6 ...201931339672
ctlga9 interacts with alp1 and apn receptors to modulate cry11aa toxicity in aedes aegypti.the mosquito aedes aegypti is associated with the spread of many viral diseases in humans, including dengue virus (denvs), yellow fever virus (yfv), zika virus (zikv), and chikungunya virus (chikv). bacillus thuringiensis (bt) is widely used as a biopesticide, which produces cry toxins for mosquito control. the cry toxins bind mainly to important receptors, including alkaline phosphatase (alp) and aminopeptidase-n (apn). this work investigated the function of a c-type lectin, ctlga9, in a. aegyp ...201931339308
differences in the transmission of dengue fever by different serotypes of dengue virus.dengue fever is the most common arbovirus in the world, and all four serotypes are infectious and pathogenic, but dengue virus (denv)-1 and denv-2 are the most prevalent in guangdong province. to investigate the differences in serotypes, we evaluated the replication, pathogenicity, and ns1 expression of denv-2 and denv-3 in cells, and further investigated the effects of ns1 on viral replication and transmission. the results of this study indicated that denv-2 replicated faster and was more patho ...201931503521
identification of critical factors that significantly affect the dose-response in mosquitoes irradiated as pupae.the sterile insect technique (sit) for use against mosquitoes consists of several steps including the production of the target species in large numbers, the separation of males and females, the sterilization of the males, and the packing, transport and release of the sterile males at the target site. the sterility of the males is the basis of the technique; for this, efficient and standardized irradiation methods are needed to ensure that the required level of sterility is reliably and reproduci ...201931500662
bioengineering of piper longum l. extract mediated silver nanoparticles and their potential biomedical applications.the present investigation highlights the strong antioxidant, anticancer and larvicidal potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (agnps) using aqueous leaf extract of piper longum l. for their diverse therapeutic applications. the optimum conditions for the synthesis of agnps were recorded as 1 mm agno3, 60 ± 2 °c at ph 6 for 120 min. synthesized agnps proved to be highly stable and monodispersed as characterized through various techniques. uv-vis spectrum of biosynthesized agnps showe ...201931500006
implication of sexual transmission of zika on dengue and zika outbreaks.dengue and zika viruses belong to the same flavivirus family and usually cocirculate within the same area. both the viruses can be transmitted by a common mosquito species aedes aegypti. however, non-vector-borne transmission of zika virus, such as sexual transmission and vertical transmission, has been reported in recent studies. in this study, we develop a dengue-zika coinfection model with a particular focus on the impact of zika sexual transmission to the transmission dynamics of both dengue ...201931499705
differential susceptibility & replication potential of vero e6, bhk-21, rd, a-549, c6/36 cells & aedes aegypti mosquitoes to three strains of chikungunya virus.chikungunya virus (chikv), a mosquito-borne arthritogenic virus causes infections ranging from febrile illness to debilitating polyarthralgia in humans. re-emergence of the virus has affected millions of people in africa and asia since 2004. during the outbreak, a new lineage of the virus has evolved as an adaptation for enhanced replication and transmission by aedes albopictus mosquito. a study was designed to compare the susceptibility of four vertebrate cell lines, namely vero e6 (african gre ...201931496530
waterproof, low-cost, long-battery-life sound trap for surveillance of male aedes aegypti for rear-and-release mosquito control programmes.sterile male rear-and-release programmes are of growing interest for controlling aedes aegypti, including use an "incompatible insect technique" (iit) to suppress transmission of dengue, zika, and other viruses. under iit, males infected with wolbachia are released into the suppression area to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in uninfected populations. these and similar mosquito-release programmes require cost-effective field surveys of both sexes to optimize the locations, timing, and quantit ...201931488182
a graph-based approach for finding the dengue infection pathways in humans using protein-protein interactions.dengue virus (denv) is one of the deadly arboviruses, which is primarily transmitted by aedes aegypti, and causes dengue infection to the humans. according to who, every year around 390 million humans are affected by denv, of which around 50 million deaths are reported. knowledge of the various diseases caused by the denv would greatly encourage to understand the infection mechanism and help to design new antiviral drug discovery. we propose a quasi-clique and quasi-biclique algorithm to classif ...201931486690
morphological study of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) eggs by x-ray computed microtomography.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are vectors of several arboviruses responsible for causing dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses and microcephaly, resulting in a public health problem in several countries worldwide. even in this scenario, studies on the morphology of mosquito eggs are still lacking. in this paper, x-ray microtomography was used to study mosquito egg morphology. several parameters such as length, surface area, volume, area-by-volume ratio, eccentricity and center ...201931494346
differential response to plant- and human-derived odorants in field surveillance of the dengue vector, aedes aegypti.linalool oxide (lo) and hexanoic acid (ha) represent plant- and human-derived odorants, respectively, previously found as attractants for the dengue vector aedes aegypti. here, we investigated if a blend of both compounds can improve captures of this mosquito species in field trials in two dengue endemic sites, kilifi and busia counties in kenya. ae. aegypti captures were significantly higher in kilifi than busia (χ21,142 = 170.63, p < 0.0001) and varied by treatments (χ25,137 = 151.19, p = 0.00 ...201931494122
vertical transmission of dengue virus in aedes aegypti and its role in the epidemiological persistence of dengue in central and southern mexico.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus are the main mosquito species responsible for dengue virus (denv) transmission to humans in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the role of vertical transmission in the epidemiology of dengue and the maintenance of this arbovirus in nature during interepidemic periods remain poorly understood, and denv vertical transmission could sustain the existence of virus reservoirs within aedes populations.201931483936
engineered action at a distance: blood-meal-inducible paralysis in aedes aegypti.population suppression through mass-release of aedes aegypti males carrying dominant-lethal transgenes has been demonstrated in the field. where population dynamics show negative density-dependence, suppression can be enhanced if lethality occurs after the density-dependent (i.e. larval) stage. existing molecular tools have limited current examples of such genetic pest management (gpm) systems to achieving this through engineering 'cell-autonomous effectors' i.e. where the expressed deleterious ...201931479450
travelling arboviruses: a historical perspective.chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses share many attributes. all are complex and widespread zoonoses of subhuman primates that have made successful transitions to the urban aedes aegypti transmission cycle. more important, they have an established record of travelling, having moved from their place of origin hundreds of years ago, sometimes repeatedly. understanding their epidemiology requires a knowledge of past behaviors including unexplained restraints to their travel. this is a ...201931472285
identification of human skin bacteria attractive to the asian tiger mosquito.aedes albopictus is a vector of arboviruses and filarial nematodes. originating from asia, this mosquito has rapidly expanded its geographical distribution and colonized areas across both temperate and tropical regions. due to the increase in insecticide resistance, the use of environmentally friendly vector control methods is encouraged worldwide. using methods based on semiochemicals in baited traps are promising for management of mosquito populations. interestingly, human skin microbiota was ...201931464044
quantifying the efficacy of genetic shifting in control of mosquito-borne diseases.many of the world's most prevalent diseases are transmitted by animal vectors such as dengue transmitted by mosquitoes. to reduce these vector-borne diseases, a promising approach is "genetic shifting": selective breeding of the vectors to be more resistant to pathogens and releasing them to the target populations to reduce their ability to transmit pathogens, that is, lower their vector competence. the efficacy of genetic shifting will depend on possible counterforces such as natural selection ...201931462914
stable distinct core eukaryotic viromes in different mosquito species from guadeloupe, using single mosquito viral metagenomics.mosquitoes are the most important invertebrate viral vectors in humans and harbor a high diversity of understudied viruses, which has been shown in many mosquito virome studies in recent years. these studies generally performed metagenomics sequencing on pools of mosquitoes, without assessment of the viral diversity in individual mosquitoes. to address this issue, we applied our optimized viral metagenomics protocol (netovir) to compare the virome of single and pooled aedes aegypti and culex qui ...201931462331
genetic stability of live-attenuated zika vaccine candidates.zika virus (zikv) has drawn global attention as the etiologic agent of zika congenital syndrome in babies born to infected pregnant women. to prevent future zikv outbreaks and protect persons at risk for severe disease, we developed two live-attenuated vaccine (lav) candidates containing 10- or 20-nucleotide deletions in the 3'utr of the viral genome (δ10 and δ20). after a single-dose immunization, both δ10 and δ20 lavs protected mice and non-human primates against zikv infection. here, we chara ...201931493417
subgenomic flavivirus rna binds the mosquito dead/h-box helicase me31b and determines zika virus transmission by aedes aegypti.zika virus (zikv) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus predominantly transmitted by aedes aegypti mosquitoes and poses a global human health threat. all flaviviruses, including those that exclusively replicate in mosquitoes, produce a highly abundant, noncoding subgenomic flavivirus rna (sfrna) in infected cells, which implies an important function of sfrna during mosquito infection. currently, the role of sfrna in flavivirus transmission by mosquitoes is not well understood. here, we demonstrate th ...201931488709
climate drives spatial variation in zika epidemics in latin america.between 2015 and 2017, zika virus spread rapidly through populations in the americas with no prior exposure to the disease. although climate is a known determinant of many aedes-transmitted diseases, it is currently unclear whether climate was a major driver of the zika epidemic and how climate might have differentially impacted outbreak intensity across locations within latin america. here, we estimated force of infection for zika over time and across provinces in latin america using a time-var ...201931455188
breteau index as a promising early warning signal for dengue fever outbreaks in the colombo district, sri lanka.despite the efforts in reducing vector densities, outbreaks of dengue fever have become a frequent event in sri lanka. as explained by dengue transmission dynamics, vector control activities intensified at peak or near peak outbreak situations would not be successful in controlling the outbreaks. a reliable method of outbreak prediction is always warranted for early preparedness. relationships between the monthly breteau indices of the two vector species (aedes aegypti l. and ae. albopictus skus ...201931454507
applying fuzzy logic to assess the biogeographical risk of dengue in south america.over the last decade, reports about dengue cases have increase worldwide, which is particularly worrisome in south america due to the historic record of dengue outbreaks from the seventeenth century until the first half of the twentieth century. dengue is a viral disease that involves insect vectors, namely aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus, which implies that, to prevent and combat outbreaks, it is necessary to understand the set of ecological and biogeographical factors affecting both the vecto ...201931488198
selection on aedes aegypti alters wolbachia-mediated dengue virus blocking and fitness.the dengue, zika and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by the mosquito aedes aegypti and pose a substantial threat to global public health. current vaccines and mosquito control strategies have limited efficacy, so novel interventions are needed1,2. wolbachia are bacteria that inhabit insect cells and have been found to reduce viral infection-a phenotype that is referred to as viral 'blocking'3. although not naturally found in a. aegypti4, wolbachia were stably introduced into this mosquito in ...201931451771
mosquito bite prevention through graphene barrier layers.graphene-based materials are being developed for a variety of wearable technologies to provide advanced functions that include sensing; temperature regulation; chemical, mechanical, or radiative protection; or energy storage. we hypothesized that graphene films may also offer an additional unanticipated function: mosquito bite protection for light, fiber-based fabrics. here, we investigate the fundamental interactions between graphene-based films and the globally important mosquito species, aede ...201931451645
host and viral mechanisms of congenital zika syndrome.in 2015-2016, in the americas, and especially in northeast brazil, a significant number of cases of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities were linked with an outbreak of zika virus (zikv) infection in pregnant women. while maternal symptoms of zikv are generally mild and self-limiting, clinical presentation in fetuses and newborns infected is extensive and includes microcephaly, decreased cortical development, atrophy and hypoplasia of the cerebellum and cerebellar vermis, arthro ...201931451049
life history traits and predatory performance of belostoma anurum (hemiptera: belostomatidae), a biological control agent of disease vector mosquitoes.understanding the life cycle and dietary requirements of laboratory-reared insects is critical for optimizing resources (including time) and can provide more reliable ecological basis for using such biological control agents in realistic programs. here, we evaluated the complete development and the predatory abilities of belostoma anurum (herrich-schäffer, 1848) (hemiptera: belostomatidae), an aquatic predator widely distributed in neotropical region, when reared at different diets. we firstly i ...201931446550
exposure of mosquito (aedes aegypti) larvae to the water extract and lectin-rich fraction of moringa oleifera seeds impairs their development and future fecundity.aedes aegypti control is a key component of the prophylaxis of dengue fever and other diseases. moringa oleifera seeds contain a water-soluble lectin (wsmol) with larvicidal and ovicidal activities against this insect. in this study, a. aegypti individuals were exposed at the third larval instar for 24 h to the water extract (0.1-1.0 mg/ml of protein) or lectin-rich fraction (0.05-0.6 mg/ml of protein) containing wsmol, and then their survival and development were followed for 9 days post-exposu ...201931446169
mitochondrial glycerol phosphate oxidation is modulated by adenylates through allosteric regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity in mosquito flight muscle.the huge energy demand posed by insect flight activity is met by an efficient oxidative phosphorylation process that takes place within flight muscle mitochondria. in the major arbovirus vector aedes aegypti, mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate, proline and glycerol 3-phosphate (g3p) represent the major energy sources of atp to sustain flight muscle energy demand. although adenylates exert critical regulatory effects on several mitochondrial enzyme activities, the potential consequences of alter ...201931446033
deet and other repellents are inhibitors of mosquito odorant receptors for oviposition attractants.in addition to its primary function as an insect repellent, deet has many "off-label" properties, including a deterrent effect on the attraction of gravid female mosquitoes. deet negatively affects oviposition sites. while deorphanizing odorant receptors (ors) using the xenopus oocyte recording system, we have previously observed that deet generated outward (inhibitory) currents on ors sensitive to oviposition attractants. here, we systematically investigated these inhibitory currents. we record ...201931446031
increased akt signaling in the fat body of anopheles stephensi extends lifespan and increases lifetime fecundity through modulation of insulin-like peptides.insulin-like peptides (ilps) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (iis) cascade regulate numerous physiological functions, including lifespan, reproduction, immunity, and metabolism, in diverse eukaryotes. we previously demonstrated that in female anopheles stephensi and aedes aegypti mosquitoes, activation of the iis cascade in the fat body led to a significant increase in lifespan. in this work, we elucidated two putative mechanisms in a. stephensi behind the observed lifespa ...201931445957
heterologous production and functional characterization of ageritin, a novel type of ribotoxin highly expressed during fruiting of the edible mushroom agrocybe aegerita.fungi produce various defense proteins against antagonists, including ribotoxins. these toxins cleave a single phosphodiester bond within the universally conserved sarcin-ricin loop of ribosomes and inhibit protein biosynthesis. here, we report on the structure and function of ageritin, a previously reported ribotoxin from the edible mushroom agrocybe aegerita the amino acid sequence of ageritin was derived from cdna isolated from the dikaryon a. aegerita aae-3 and lacks, according to in silico ...201931444206
investigation of relative development and reproductivity fitness cost in three insecticide-resistant strains of aedes aegypti from thailand.knockdown resistance (kdr) and detoxification enzymes are major resistance mechanisms in insecticide-resistant aedes aegypti throughout the world. persistence of the resistance phenotype is associated with high fitness of resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide pressure. this study determined the relative fitness cost of three insecticide-resistant strains of aedes aegypti-pmd, pmd-r, and upk-r-and a hybrid under similar laboratory conditions in the absence of insecticide. the pmd strai ...201931443487
odorant receptors from culex quinquefasciatus and aedes aegypti sensitive to floral compounds.mosquitoes rely heavily on the olfactory system to find a host for a bloodmeal, plants for a source of energy and suitable sites for oviposition. here, we examined a cluster of eight odorant receptors (ors), which includes one or, cquior1, previously identified to be sensitive to plant-derived compounds. we cloned 5 ors from culex quinquefasciatus and two ors from aedes aegypti, ie, cquior2, cquior4, cquior5, cquior84, cquior85, aaegor14, and aaegor15 and then deorphanized these receptors using ...201931442487
first report on the transmission of zika virus by aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) during the 2018 zika outbreak in india.in a recent outbreak of zika virus (zikv) infection in jaipur city (rajasthan, india), a total of 159 cases were reported in september 2018. in order to identify vector responsible for zika transmission, mosquitoes were collected from houses with reported zika cases and nearby houses. a total of 108 pools containing 522 mosquitoes were tested for presence of zikv using rt-pcr and real time rt-pcr. we detected presence of zikv in three pools of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.), out of a total of 79 ...201931442386
new county records of aedes aegypti and aedes epactius in colorado.in august and september 2017, we conducted mosquito surveillance in southeastern colorado by using ovitraps and larval sampling. the aim was to determine if there were established populations of aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus in the region. a single female ae. aegypti was reared from eggs collected in la junta, co, but ae. albopictus was not detected. three other species were reared from eggs and/or larvae: ae. epactius, culex restuans, and cx. pipiens. aedes aegypti and ae. epactius were dete ...201931442179
phylogeography and invasion history of aedes aegypti, the dengue and zika mosquito vector in cape verde islands (west africa).aedes-borne arboviruses have spread globally with outbreaks of vast impact on human populations and health systems. the west african archipelago of cape verde had its first outbreak of dengue in 2009, at the time the largest recorded in africa, and was one of the few african countries affected by the zika virus epidemic. aedes aegypti was the mosquito vector involved in both outbreaks. we performed a phylogeographic and population genetics study of a. aegypti in cape verde in order to infer the ...201931548858
panophthalmitis associated with scleral necrosis in dengue hemorrhagic fever.dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus disease affecting humans. the aedes aegypti mosquito spreads it. ophthalmic manifestations of dengue range from subconjunctival hemorrhage to optic neuropathy. panophthalmitis in dengue fever is a rare finding. we report a case of a 22-year-old male having dengue fever, who presented with pain, redness, swelling and loss of vision in his right eye. he was diagnosed as panophthalmitis with subretinal hemorrhage and required right eye evisceration.201931546563
black soldier fly (hermetia illucens) larvae powder as a larval diet ingredient for mass-rearing aedes mosquitoes.the mass production of mosquitoes is becoming more wide-spread due to the increased application of the sterile insect technique (sit) and other genetic control programmes. due to the variable availability and high cost of the bovine liver powder (blp) constituent of many current larval diets, there is an urgent demand for new ingredients in order to support sustainable and efficient mosquito production while reducing rearing cost, without affecting the quality of the insects produced. two black ...201931535969
pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, damages midgut cells and interferes with behaviors of aedes aegypti larvae.juvenile hormone analogs (jha) are known to interfere with growth and biosynthesis of insects with potential for insecticide action. however, there has been comparatively few data on morphological effects of jha on insect organs. to determine pyriproxyfen effects on aedes aegypti larvae, we conducted toxicity, behavioral bioassays and assessed ultrastructural effects of pyriproxyfen on midgut cells. a. aegypti larvae were exposed in aqueous solution of pyriproxyfen lc50 concentrations and evalua ...201931534837
cluster containment strategy: addressing zika virus outbreak in rajasthan, india.india is at risk of zika virus transmission due to high prevalence of its vector aedes aegypti. rajasthan, a state in the north-west region of india, has also high prevalence of aedes mosquito. first laboratory confirmed case of zika virus disease in rajasthan was reported on 21 september 2018 in jaipur. the government of rajasthan quickly implemented a containment strategy to contain the outbreak and prevent further spread of this disease. strategy included active human and mosquito surveillanc ...201931565402
action of metarhizium brunneum (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) against organophosphate- and pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) and the synergistic effects of phenylthiourea.dengue, yellow fever, zika, and chikungunya arboviruses are endemic in tropical countries and are transmitted by aedes aegypti. resistant populations of this mosquito against chemical insecticides are spreading worldwide. this study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure of pesticide-sensitive ae. aegypti larvae (rockefeller) to conidia of the entomopathogen, metarhizium brunneum, laboratory strains arsef 4556 and v275, and any synergistic activity of phenylthiourea (ptu). in addit ...201931559435
use of maldi-tof ms to identify the culturable midgut microbiota of laboratory and wild mosquitoes.mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting many pathogens to humans and aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus are important vectors in the world. the microbiota plays an important role in developmental studies that involve impacts on the biological cycle of mosquitoes and vector control strategies. in this study, the aim was to understand the environment plays in the microbiota culturable diversity of aedes aegytpi, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus. midgut of stu ...201931525322
temperature and sugar feeding effects on the activity of a laboratory strain of aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is an invasive mosquito species that is expected to expand its global distribution through climate change. as poikilotherms, mosquitoes are greatly affected by the temperature of the environment which can impact host-seeking, blood-feeding, and flight activity as well as survival and ability to transmit pathogens. however, an important aspect of mosquito biology on which the effect of temperature has not been investigated is water and sugar-feeding and how access to a sugar source ...201931623118
control of rna viruses in mosquito cells through the acquisition of vdna and endogenous viral elements.aedes aegypti transmit pathogenic arboviruses while the mosquito itself tolerates the infection. we examine a pirna-based immunity that relies on the acquisition of viral derived cdna (vdna) and how this pathway discriminates between self and non-self. the pirnas derived from these vdnas are essential for virus control and piwi4 has a central role in the pathway. piwi4 binds preferentially to virus-derived pirnas but not to transposon-targeting pirnas. analysis of episomal vdna from infected cel ...201931621580
analysis in a murine model points to igg responses against the 34k2 salivary proteins from aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti as novel promising candidate markers of host exposure to aedes mosquitoes.aedes mosquitoes are vectors of arboviral diseases of great relevance for public health. the recent outbreaks of dengue, zika, chikungunya and the rapid worldwide spreading of aedes albopictus emphasize the need for improvement of vector surveillance and control. host antibody response to mosquito salivary antigens is emerging as a relevant additional tool to directly assess vector-host contact, monitor efficacy of control interventions and evaluate risk of arboviral transmission.201931618201
amylose inclusion complexes as emulsifiers for garlic and asafoetida essential oils for mosquito control.although the insecticidal properties of some plant essential oils are well-documented, their use in integrated pest and vector management is complicated by their high volatility, low thermal stability, high sensitivity to oxidation, and low solubility in water. we investigated the use of bio-based n-1-hexadecylammonium chloride and sodium palmitate amylose inclusion complexes as emulsifiers for two essential oils, garlic and asafoetida, known to be highly toxic to mosquito larvae. four emulsions ...201931614606
efficacy of active ingredients from the epa 25(b) list in reducing attraction of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) to humans.mosquitoes of the aedes genus are vectors for dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses. mosquito repellents are an effective way to prevent mosquito bites and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. in the early 90s, the u.s. environmental protection agency (epa) published a list of active ingredients that pose minimum risk to human health that can be used as pesticides or repellents without passing the epa registration process. the present study examined the efficacy of 21 of t ...201931612914
inhibition of dicer activity in lepidopteran and dipteran cells by baculovirus-mediated expression of flock house virus b2.prior studies have suggested that insect dna viruses are negatively affected by dicer-2-mediated rna interference (rnai). to examine this further, we utilized an in vitro assay to measure dicer activity in lepidopteran and dipteran cells, combined with baculoviruses expressing the rnai suppressor b2 from flock house virus or aedes aegypti dicer-2 (aedicer-2) using a constitutive heat shock promoter. addition of cell lysates containing baculovirus-expressed b2 to lysates from dipteran (s2, aag2) ...201931601846
iron and ferritin deposition in the ovarian tissues of the yellow fever mosquito (diptera: culicidae).dengue, yellow fever, and zika are viruses transmitted by yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti [linnaeus (diptera: culicidae)], to thousands of people each year. mosquitoes transmit these viruses while consuming a blood meal that is required for oogenesis. iron, an essential nutrient from the blood meal, is required for egg development. mosquitoes receive a high iron load in the meal; although iron can be toxic, these animals have developed mechanisms for dealing with this load. our previous res ...201931606748
efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets with declining physical and chemical integrity on aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).fitting long-lasting insecticidal nets (llin) as screens on doors/windows has a significant impact on indoor-adult aedes aegypti (l.), with entomological reductions measured in a previous study being significant for up to 2 yr post-installation, even in the presence of pyrethroid-resistant aedes populations. to better understand the mode of llin protection, bioassays were performed to evaluate the effects of field deployment (0, 6, and 12 mo) and damage type (none, central, lateral, and multiple ...201931603517
differential susceptibility and innate immune response of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus to the haitian strain of the mayaro virus.mayaro (mayv) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus belonging to the alphavirus genus of the togaviridae family. although forest-dwelling haemagogus mosquitoes have been considered as its main vector, the virus has also been detected in circulating aedes ssp mosquitoes. here we assess the susceptibility of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus to infection with mayv and their innate immune response at an early stage of infection. aedes albopictus was more susceptible to infection with mayv than ae. ...201931601017
management of insecticide resistance in the major aedes vectors of arboviruses: advances and challenges.the landscape of mosquito-borne disease risk has changed dramatically in recent decades, due to the emergence and reemergence of urban transmission cycles driven by invasive aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus. insecticide resistance is already widespread in the yellow fever mosquito, ae. aegypti; is emerging in the asian tiger mosquito ae. albopictus; and is now threatening the global fight against human arboviral diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika. because the panel of i ...201931600206
consensus and uncertainty in the geographic range of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the contiguous united states: multi-model assessment and synthesis.aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) and ae. (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) mosquitoes can transmit dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and zika viruses. limited surveillance has led to uncertainty regarding the geographic ranges of these vectors globally, and particularly in regions at the present-day margins of habitat suitability such as the contiguous united states. empirical habitat suitability models based on environmental conditions can augment surveillance gaps to describe the estimated potenti ...201931600194
the difference of sve-cadherin levels between dengue hemorrhagic fever patients with shock and without shock.dengue virus infection is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the aedes aegypti mosquito. dengue virus (den-v) consists of 4 serotypes, namely den-1, den-2, den-3, and den-4. the most feared result of dhf is death. death in children is caused by hypovolemic shock due to plasma leakage from intravascular to extravascular space due to endothelial dysfunction.201931592274
endemic disease control agents' perception on the fight against aedes aegypti and the prevention of arbovirus infections in brazil.arboviruses pose a serious and constant threat to public health, and have demanded surveillance efforts worldwide. the prevention of arbovirus transmission depends on effective measures to control vectors and promote health. the objective of this study was to examine the factors that enhance and impair the endemic disease control agents' field work, based on their own perspective.201931584945
vectors of arboviruses in the state of são paulo: 30 years of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus.to describe the infestation of the municipalities of são paulo by the vectors aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus, characterize seasonality and analyze average temperatures and larval densities.201931576944
knockout of juvenile hormone receptor, methoprene-tolerant, induces black larval phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti.the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, vectors human pathogens. juvenile hormones (jh) control almost every aspect of an insect's life, and jh analogs are currently used to control mosquito larvae. since rna interference does not work efficiently during the larval stages of this insect, jh regulation of larval development and mode of action of jh analogs are not well studied. to overcome this limitation, we used a multiple single guide rna-based crispr/cas9 genome-editing method to knockout t ...201931570611
discovery of an aedes (stegomyia) albopictus population and first records of aedes (stegomyia) aegypti in canada.a population of aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae), a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and zika and west nile viruses, has been detected in windsor, ontario, canada from 2016 onwards. here, we describe its seasonal distribution, as well as the various aquatic habitats from which this species was collected and its larval co-habitation. we collected immatures from tires, treeholes, extruded polystyrene foam containers, discarded plastic cups, old recycling bins a ...201931566765
evidence-based process for prioritizing positive behaviors for promotion: zika prevention in latin america and the caribbean and applicability to future health emergency responses.since the 2015 zika outbreak in latin america and the caribbean, a plethora of behavior change messages have been promoted to reduce zika transmission. one year after the united states agency for international development (usaid) initiated its zika response, more than 30 variants of preventive behaviors were being promoted. this situation challenged social and behavior change (sbc) programming efforts that require a coordinated response and agreed upon set of focus behaviors to be effective. to ...201931558597
de novo genome sequencing and comparative stage-specific transcriptomic analysis of dirofilaria repens.the zoonotic mosquito-borne filarial nematode dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous and ocular infections in dogs, cats and humans. from infected vertebrate hosts, microfilariae are taken up by mosquitoes and develop into infective l3. these are transmitted to new vertebrate hosts and develop over two further moults to adult worms. the aims of the project were (i) the de novo sequencing and annotation of the d. repens genome and (ii) comparative transcriptomic analyses of the two developmental ...201931557466
globe-trotting aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus: risk factors for arbovirus pandemics.introduction: two species of aedes (ae.) mosquitoes (ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus) are primary vectors for emerging arboviruses that are a significant threat to public health and economic burden worldwide. distribution of these vectors and the associated arboviruses, such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, yellow fever virus, and zika virus, was for a long time restricted by geographical, ecological, and biological factors. presently, arbovirus emergence and dispersion are more rapid and geog ...201931556813
reducing the cost and assessing the performance of a novel adult mass-rearing cage for the dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and zika vector, aedes aegypti (linnaeus).the widespread emergence of resistance to insecticides used to control adult aedes mosquitoes has made traditional control strategies inadequate for the reduction of various vector populations. therefore, complementary vector control methods, such as the sterile insect technique, are needed to enhance existing efforts. the technique relies on the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile males, and the development of efficient and standardized mass-rearing procedures and tools is essential ...201931553724
toxic effect of essential oil and its compounds isolated from sphaeranthus amaranthoides burm. f. against dengue mosquito vector aedes aegypti linn.aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector that can transfer many deadly diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever viruses. due to the developing resistance among the vector populations by the application of chemical insecticides, alternative eco-friendly vector management strategies are being focused. in this aspect, the present study was carried out to evaluate the mosquitocidal potentials of essential oil of sphaeranthus amaranthoides (eo-sa). eo-sa was found to be effective ...201931519251
liaisons dangereuses: cross-border gene flow and dispersal of insecticide resistance-associated genes in the mosquito aedes aegypti from brazil and french guiana.in recent years, south america has suffered the burden of continuous high impact outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and zika. aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of these arboviruses and its control is the only solution to reduce transmission.201931553370
aedes spp. and their microbiota: a review.aedes spp. are a major public health concern due to their ability to be efficient vectors of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and other arboviruses. with limited vaccines available and no effective therapeutic treatments against arboviruses, the control of aedes spp. populations is currently the only strategy to prevent disease transmission. host-associated microbes (i.e., microbiota) recently emerged as a promising field to be explored for novel environmentally friendly vector control strategies. in ...201931551973
non-canonical transcriptional regulation of heme oxygenase in aedes aegypti.heme oxygenase (ho) is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for heme breakdown, which yields carbon monoxide (co), biliverdin (bv) and ferrous ion. here we show that the aedes aegypti heme oxygenase gene (aeho - aael008136) is expressed in different developmental stages and tissues. aeho expression increases after a blood meal in the midgut, and its maximal transcription levels overlaps with the maximal rate of the further modified a. aegypti biglutaminyl-biliverdin (aebv) pigment production. ho is a ...201931551499
conspecific and allospecific larval extracts entice mosquitoes to lay eggs and may be used in attract-and-kill control strategy.one of the strategies of integrated vector management is to lure gravid mosquitoes for surveillance purposes or to entice them to lay eggs in water containing toxins that kill the offspring (attract-and-kill or trap-and-kill). typically, the major challenge of this approach is the development of a lure that stimulates oviposition plus a toxin with no deterrent effect. bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti) satisfies the latter criterion, but lures for these autocidal gravid traps are sore ...201931551447
serine hydroxymethyltransferase controls blood-meal digestion in the midgut of aedes aegypti mosquitoes.female aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that cause diverse diseases of public health significance. blood protein digestion by midgut proteases provides anautogenous mosquitoes with the nutrients essential for oocyte maturation and egg production. midgut-specific mir-1174 affects the functions of the midgut through its target gene serine hydroxymethyltransferase (shmt). however, less is known about shmt-regulated processes in blood digestion by mosquitoes.201931551071
urbanization creates diverse aquatic habitats for immature mosquitoes in urban areas.global increases in temperatures and urbanization are impacting the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. urbanization processes create suitable habitats for vector mosquitoes in which there are a reduced number of predators, and human hosts are widely available. we hypothesize that mosquito vector species, especially aedes aegypti, are locally concentrated primarily in those specific habitats at the neighborhood levels that provide suitable conditions and environmental resources needed for m ...201931653914
vector mosquito surveillance using centers for disease control and prevention autocidal gravid ovitraps in san antonio, texas.mosquito surveillance in large urban areas of the southern usa that border mexico has become increasingly important due to recent transmission of zika virus and chikungunya virus in the americas as well as the continued threat of dengue and west nile viruses. the vectors of these viruses, aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus, co-occur in residential areas, requiring vector control entities to deploy several different trap types, often expensive and labor-intensive, to survei ...201931647715
a milestone in botanical mosquito repellents: novel pmd-based formulation protects more than twice as long as high-concentration deet and other leading products.the use of skin-applied repellents is the primary method recommended by the centers for disease control and prevention for personal protection against biting mosquitoes. historically, the majority of long-efficacy mosquito repellents have been n,n diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet)-based. recently, a variety of new botanical formulations have been marketed, but their protection times generally continue to fall well short of high-concentration deet products. we present a laboratory arm-in-cage stud ...201931647713
from surveillance to control: evaluation of a larvicide intervention against aedes aegypti in brownsville, texas.south texas is recognized as a potential area for the emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne diseases due to recent circulation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses. during 2017, high aedes aegypti abundance found in the city of brownsville, tx, in combination with the previous year's local transmission of zika virus, triggered the activation of the texas department of state health services emergency mosquito control contingency contract. a contract with the clarke environmental and mo ...201931647710
evaluation of the persistence of three larvicides used to control aedes aegypti in arapiraca, northeastern brazil.the chemical control of the mosquito aedes aegypti is a great challenge worldwide, since several populations of this species are already resistant to traditional insecticides, such as temephos. in brazil, alternative larvicides, such as bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (bti) and pyriproxyfen, have been used more recently. in this study we evaluated the persistence of pyriproxyfen (sumilarv 0.5%g), 2 commercial formulations of bti (vectobac wdg and vectobac g), and temephos (fersol 1g) under fi ...201931647707
a novel methodology for recording wing beat frequencies of untethered male and female aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti is a vector of many significant arboviruses worldwide, including dengue, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses. with vector control methodology pivoting toward rearing and releasing large numbers of insects for either population suppression or virus-blocking, economical remote (sentinel) surveillance methods for release tracking become increasingly necessary. recent steps in this direction include advances in optical sensors that identify and classify insects based on their w ...201931647706
[recurrence of dengue epidemics in burkina faso: community preference for an intervention to prevent the disease].community-based interventions have proven effective in several latin american countries in controlling dengue vector aedes aegypti and reducing the burden of the disease. however, we did not find any study reporting the assessment or implementation of such interventions in sub-saharan africa. this article presents local communities' preferences for activities as part of the implementation of a community-based intervention for dengue prevention in ouagadougou (burkina faso) where dengue epidemics ...201931645291
new record of aedes albopictus in a suburban area of merida, yucatan, mexico.a survey was carried out in 51 households within a suburban area of merida, yucatan, mexico, for 5 consecutive days. adult collections were performed using prokopack aspirators (indoors) and human-landing mosquito catches (hlc) outdoors, and larval sites (artificial containers) were revised for larvae collection. a total of 259 aedes albopictus were collected, 246 from artificial larval sites, 8 by indoor aspiration, and 5 by hlc. this is the first record of ae. albopictus in merida, yucatan, me ...201931647708
a peridomestic aedes malayensis population in singapore can transmit yellow fever virus.the case-fatality rate of yellow fever virus (yfv) is one of the highest among arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). although historically, the asia-pacific region has remained free of yfv, the risk of introduction has never been higher due to the increasing influx of people from endemic regions and the recent outbreaks in africa and south america. singapore is a global hub for trade and tourism and therefore at high risk for yfv introduction. effective control of the main domestic mosquito vec ...201931589616
susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanisms in three populations of aedes aegypti from peru.epidemics of dengue, chikungunya and zika are a growing threat to areas where aedes aegypti are present. the efficacy of chemical control of ae. aegypti is threatened by the increasing frequency of insecticide resistance. the objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility status as well as the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in three populations of ae. aegypti in high risk areas of dengue, chikungunya, and zika in peru.201931640810
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