TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
circatidal activity rhythm in the mangrove cricket apteronemobius asahinai.mangrove forests are influenced by tidal flooding and ebbing for a period of approximately 12.4 hours (tidal cycle). mangrove crickets (apteronemobius asahinai) forage on mangrove forest floors only during low tide. under constant darkness, most crickets showed a clear bimodal daily pattern in their locomotor activity for at least 24 days; the active phases of approximately 10 hours alternated with inactive phases of approximately 2 hours, which coincided with the time of high tide in the field. ...018302994
virulence and resistance in a mosquito-microsporidium interaction.we review the results of a series of experiments involving aedes aegypti and its microsporidian parasite vavraia culicis to illustrate how intra-specific competition and parasitism shape life history traits. more specifically these experiments showed that some major components of virulence are host condition-dependent in this system, while others are not. we also briefly discuss the ways through which v. culicis modifies the physiological functioning of its host. we discuss the implications of t ...025567490
dengue: where are we today?dengue is considered the main arthropod-borne viral disease of humans. in the last few years, an increasing number of reports of mild and severe cases have been reported. the growing dengue incidence observed in recent years has been accompanied by reports of new observations, findings and global initiatives with an improvement in our understanding of this phenomenon. the epidemiology and new clinical classification of dengue, advances in the diagnostic and pathogenesis knowledge, and vaccine de ...022589659
a phylogenetic approach to gene expression data: evidence for the evolutionary origin of mammalian leukocyte phenotypes.the evolution of multicellular organisms involved the evolution of specialized cell types performing distinct functions; and specialized cell types presumably arose from more generalized ancestral cell types as a result of mutational event, such as gene duplication and changes in gene expression. we used characters based on gene expression data to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among 11 types of lymphocytes by the maximum parsimony method. the resulting phylogenetic tree showed expected ...019601972
urban structure and dengue fever in puntarenas, costa rica.dengue is currently the most important arboviral disease globally and is usually associated with built environments in tropical areas. remotely sensed information can facilitate the study of urban mosquito-borne diseases by providing multiple temporal and spatial resolutions appropriate to investigate urban structure and ecological characteristics associated with infectious disease. in this study, coarse, medium and fine resolution satellite imagery (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer, adv ...020161131
defeating dengue: new mosquito genome, old promise? 018438504
drosophila ctbp regulates proliferation and differentiation of eye precursors and complexes with eyeless, dachshund, dan, and danr during eye and antennal development.specification factors regulate cell fate in part by interacting with transcriptional co-regulators like ctbp to regulate gene expression. here, we demonstrate that ctbp forms a complex or complexes with the drosophila melanogaster pax6 homolog eyeless (ey), and with distal antenna (dan), distal antenna related (danr), and dachshund to promote eye and antennal specification. phenotypic analysis together with molecular data indicate that ctbp interacts with ey to prevent overproliferation of eye p ...020730908
using chimeric piggybac transposase to achieve directed interplasmid transposition in silkworm bombyx mori and fruit fly drosophila cells.the piggybac transposon has been long used to integrate foreign dna into insect genomes. however, undesirable transgene expression can result from random insertions into the genome. in this study, the efficiency of chimeric gal4-piggybac transposase in directing integration onto a dna target plasmid was evaluated in cultured silkworm bombyx mori bm-12 and fruit fly drosophila schneider 2 (s2) cells. the gal4-piggybac transposase has a gal4 dna-binding domain (dbd), and the target plasmid has ups ...020803777
neuropeptide action in insects and crustaceans.physiological processes are regulated by a diverse array of neuropeptides that coordinate organ systems. the neuropeptides, many of which act through g protein-coupled receptors, affect the levels of cyclic nucleotides (camp and cgmp) and ca(2+) in target tissues. in this perspective, their roles in molting, osmoregulation, metabolite utilization, and cardiovascular function are highlighted. in decapod crustaceans, inhibitory neuropeptides (molt-inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic ho ...020550437
effects of mutations in aedes aegypti sterol carrier protein-2 on the biological function of the protein.sterol carrier protein-2 (scp-2) is a nonspecific intracellular lipid carrier protein. however, the molecular mechanism of ligand selectivity and the in vivo function of scp-2 remain unclear. in this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the ligand selectivity and in vivo function of the yellow fever mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 protein (aescp-2). mutations to amino acids in aescp-2 known to interact with bound ligand also weakened nbd-cholesterol binding. substitution of ...020681612
identification of myotropic neuropeptides from the brain and corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the beetle, zophobas atratus.the neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (cc/ca) of adult beetles, zophobas atratus fabricius (coleoptera:tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (maldi tof/tof ms). the homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen hplc fractions for myotropic a ...021067424
antioxidant activity of five brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in brazil.this study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of brazil.021120039
oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata, coleus forskohlii, and datura stramonium leaves against aedes aegypti and culex quinquefaciatus.mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. in the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of pongamia pinnata, coleus forskohlii, and datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus. the oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata, coleus ...021120036
molecular cloning and analysis of the tryptophan oxygenase gene in the silkworm, bombyx mori.a bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae) gene encoding tryptophan oxygenase has been molecularly cloned and analyzed. the tryptophan oxygenase cdna had 1374 nucleotides that encoded a 401 amino acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of 46.47 kda and a pi of 5.88. rt-pcr analysis showed that the b. mori tryptophan oxygenase gene was transcribed in all examined stages. tryptophan oxygenase proteins are relatively well conserved among different orders of arthropods.020331401
anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. this infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. however anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the v ...027843231
impact of source reduction on the spatial distribution of larvae and pupae of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in suburban neighborhoods of a piedmont community in north carolina.aedes albopictus (skuse) is a principal nuisance mosquito species and a potential arbovirus vector throughout its geographic range in the united states. this species lays eggs, and progeny complete development in water-filled containers that are discarded in suburban landscapes. source reduction of containers, achieved through environmental sanitation, was used to experimentally manipulate mosquito production to gain insight into the spatial structure of the population of immature ae. albopictus ...018714860
use of google earth to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. google earth) complement existing geographic information system (gis) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an ...018797648
alkalinization in the isolated and perfused anterior midgut of the larval mosquito, aedes the present study, isolated midguts of larval aedes aegypti l. (diptera: culicidae) were mounted on perfusion pipettes and bathed in high buffer mosquito saline. with low buffer perfusion saline, containing m-cresol purple, transepithelial voltage was monitored and luminal alkalinization became visible through color changes of m-cresol purple after perfusion stop. lumen negative voltage and alkalinization depended on metabolic energy and were stimulated in the presence of serotonin (0.2 micro ...020307229
how relevant is panallergen sensitization in the development of allergies?panallergens comprise various protein families of plant as well as animal origin and are responsible for wide ige cross-reactivity between related and unrelated allergenic sources. such cross-reactivities include reactions between various pollen sources, pollen and plant-derived foods as well as invertebrate-derived inhalants and foodstuff. here, we provide an overview on the most clinically relevant panallergens from plants (profilins, polcalcins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, pathogene ...027129102
the salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito aedes aegypti is a member of the 5'-nucleotidase family.the saliva of hematophagous insects contains a variety of pharmacologically active substances that counteract the normal hemostatic response to injury in vertebrate hosts. the yellow-fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, secretes an apyrase that inhibits adp-dependent platelet aggregation. apyrase was purified as an active enzyme from adult female salivary glands and subjected to tryptic digestion, and the resulting peptides were sequenced. the amino acid sequences obtained match the conceptual transla ...07846038
identification of the abdominal-a homologue from aedes aegypti and structural comparisons among related genes. 01354853
cumulative mortality of aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.objective to evaluate the larvicidal activity of azadirachta indica, melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of carica papaya against aedes aegypti (linnaeus, 1762) (diptera: culicidae). methods the larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. the groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (bti) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (pc1) and 0.06 ppm (p ...025119939
genome-wide comparison of genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of juvenile hormone between silkworm and other insects.juvenile hormone (jh) contributes to the regulation of larval molting and metamorphosis in insects. herein, we comprehensively identified 55 genes involved in jh biosynthesis, metabolism and signaling in the silkworm (bombyx mori) as well as 35 in drosophila melanogaster, 35 in anopheles gambiae, 36 in apis mellifera, 47 in tribolium castaneum, and 44 in danaus plexippus. comparative analysis showed that each gene involved in the early steps of the mevalonate (mva) pathway, in the neuropeptide r ...025071411
isoleucine at position 150 of cyt2aa toxin from bacillus thuringiensis plays an important role during membrane binding and oligomerization.cyt2aa2 is a mosquito larvicidal and cytolytic toxin produced by bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. the toxin becomes inactive when isoleucine at position 150 was replaced by alanine. to investigate the functional role of this position, ile150 was substituted with leu, phe, glu and lys. all mutant proteins were produced at high level, solubilized in carbonate buffer and yielded protease activated product similar to those of the wild type. intrinsic fluorescence spectra analysis sugges ...023527862
gates grand challenges explorations award: endectocides for controlling transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. 024818085
phylogeography and spatio-temporal genetic variation of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) populations in the florida keys.aedes aegypti (l.) is the principal mosquito vector of dengue fever, the second-most deadly vector-borne disease in the world. in ae. aegypti and other arthropod disease vectors, genetic markers can be used to inform us about processes relevant to disease spread, such as movement of the vectors across space and the temporal stability of vector populations. in late 2009, 27 locally acquired cases of dengue fever were reported in key west, fl. the last dengue outbreak in the region occurred in 193 ...023540116
pupal productivity of dengue vectors in kolkata, india: implications for vector management.entomological surveillance of the dengue vectors using pupal productivity as indicators can be helpful in effective management. on this basis, an assessment was made on the relative importance of the larval habitats of aedes mosquitoes in kolkata, an endemic zone for dengue in west bengal, india.023640563
how brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine. interview by claudia jurberg and julia d'aloisio..brazil recently announced an agreement between its bio-manguinhos vaccine unit and two us companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. claudia jurberg and julia d'aloisio talk to jaime benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.023476088
the tiptop/teashirt genes regulate cell differentiation and renal physiology in drosophila.the physiological activities of organs are underpinned by an interplay between the distinct cell types they contain. however, little is known about the genetic control of patterned cell differentiation during organ development. we show that the conserved teashirt transcription factors are decisive for the differentiation of a subset of secretory cells, stellate cells, in drosophila melanogaster renal tubules. teashirt controls the expression of the water channel drip, the chloride conductance ch ...023404107
synthetic genomics and synthetic biology applications between hopes and organisms and biological systems designed to satisfy human needs are among the aims of synthetic genomics and synthetic biology. synthetic biology seeks to model and construct biological components, functions and organisms that do not exist in nature or to redesign existing biological systems to perform new functions. synthetic genomics, on the other hand, encompasses technologies for the generation of chemically-synthesized whole genomes or larger parts of genomes, allowing to simultaneousl ...023997647
susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in pyrethroid-resistant populations of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from mexico.resistance to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was evaluated in females from six strains of aedes aegypti (l.) that expressed high levels of cross-resistance to eight pyrethroid insecticides. relative to lc50 and lc90 at 24 h of a susceptible new orleans (no) strain, three strains were highly resistant to chlorpyrifos (coatzacoalcos, resistance ratio [rrlc90 = 11.97; pozarica, rrlc90 = 12.98; and cosoleacaque, rrlc50 = 13.94 and rrlc90 = 17.57), one strain was moderately resistant (v ...024897857
drosophila by the dozen. 017634150
accuracy of dengue reporting by national surveillance system, brazil. 026812472
essential oils from two eucalyptus from tunisia and their insecticidal action on orgyia trigotephras (lepidotera, lymantriidae).essential oils extracted from aromatic and medicinal plants have many biological properties and are therefore an alternative to the use of synthetic products. the chemical composition of essential oils from two medicinal plants (eucalyptus globulus and e. lehmannii) was determined and, their insecticidal effects on the third and fourth larval stages of orgyia trigotephras were assessed.025204015
within-host viral dynamics of dengue serotype 1 infection.dengue, the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans, is endemic across much of the world, including much of tropical asia and is increasing in its geographical range. here, we present a mathematical model of dengue virus dynamics within infected individuals, detailing the interaction between virus and a simple immune response. we fit this model to measurements of plasma viral titre from cases of primary and secondary denv 1 infection in vietnam. we show that variation in model param ...024829280
[environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the peruvian population].this article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the peruvian population. a major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (pm 2.5). in lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to pm 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adults, ...025418656
temporal correlations between mosquito-based dengue virus surveillance measures or indoor mosquito abundance and dengue case numbers in mérida city, méxico.surveillance of dengue virus (denv) in aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) females is of potential interest because human denv infections are commonly asymptomatic, which decreases the effectiveness of dengue case surveillance to provide early warning of building outbreaks. our primary aim was to examine if mosquito-based virological measures--monthly percentages of examined ae. aegypti females infected with denv or examined homes from which at least one denv-infected ae. aegypti female was collected ...025118425
what does not kill them makes them stronger: larval environment and infectious dose alter mosquito potential to transmit filarial worms.for organisms with complex life cycles, larval environments can modify adult phenotypes. for mosquitoes and other vectors, when physiological impacts of stressors acting on larvae carry over into the adult stage they may interact with infectious dose of a vector-borne pathogen, producing a range of phenotypes for vector potential. investigation of impacts of a common source of stress, larval crowding and intraspecific competition, on adult vector interactions with pathogens may increase our unde ...024827444
dengue: moving from current standard of care to state-of-the-art treatment.treatment of dengue remains supportive in the absence of targeted antiviral therapy or approved vaccines. responsive fluid management is key to preventing progression to shock or other severe manifestations. the dynamic natural history of dengue infection and its influence on hemodynamic homeostasis needs to be carefully considered in the planning of individualized therapy. though largely self-limiting, the sheer burden of dengue disease on the global population will result in atypical manifesta ...025999799
[the incorporation of activities to control dengue by community health agents].to evaluate the performance of community health agents when dengue control activities were added to their tasks.024789644
functional role of stim1 and orai1 in silkmoth (bombyx mori) sex pheromone ca(2+) influx has recently been shown to require the activation of two proteins, stromal interaction molecule 1 (stim1) and orai1. in mammals the putative channel ion selectivity filter is thought to comprise conserved charged residues in the first and third transmembrane domains of orai1 in addition to three residues in the first extracellular loop. the latter residues, however, are not conserved in either of the bombyx mori orai1 variants or in most insects, suggesting that sele ...020714403
molecular basis of calcium signaling in lymphocytes: stim and entry into cells of the peripheral immune system occurs through highly ca(2+)-selective channels known as crac (calcium release-activated calcium) channels. crac channels are a very well-characterized example of store-operated ca(2+) channels, so designated because they open when the endoplasmic reticulum (er) ca(2+) store becomes depleted. physiologically, ca(2+) is released from the er lumen into the cytoplasm when activated receptors couple to phospholipase c and trigger production of ...020307213
study of oostatic peptide uptake and metabolism in developing ovaries of the flesh fly, neobellieria bullata.the uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (tmof), h-tyr-asp-pro-ala-pro-oh (5p), in ovaries of neobellieria bullata (parker) (diptera: sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. during selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3hpro(3)]5p after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. the ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. a det ...020572785
spontaneous splenic rupture: a rare presentation of dengue fever.spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (df). we report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for df. early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a ...024678156
clove (syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice.clove (syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. clove is native of indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including brazil in the state of bahia. this plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. this review in ...025182278
oviposition habitat selection by container-dwelling mosquitoes: responses to cues of larval and detritus abundances in the field.insects' oviposition responses to resource and larval densities can be important factors determining distributions and competitive interactions of larvae. aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) show aggregated distributions of larvae in the field, larval interactions that are affected by detritus resources, and oviposition responses to resource and density cues in the laboratory. we conducted field experiments testing whether these species choose oviposition sites i ...024678139
whither drosophila? 020606015
can daytime use of bed nets not treated with insecticide reduce the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever among children in vietnam?the purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bed net use and elucidate the effect of daytime bed net use on preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) among children in vietnam. we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and a matched case-control study in khanh hoa province where not only some pre-schoolchildren but also some school children, who take a nap during lunch break prior to returning to school, used bed nets during the day. among 36,901 children 2-10 year ...020519617
origin of the dengue virus outbreak in martin county, florida, usa 2013.after a 75-year absence from florida, substantial local transmission of dengue virus (denv) occurred in key west, monroe county, florida in 2009 and continued in 2010. the outbreak culminated in 85 reported cases. in 2011 and 2012, only isolated cases of local denv transmission were reported in florida, none were reported in key west. in 2013, a new outbreak occurred, but this time in martin county about 275 miles north of key west with 22 reported cases. as the key west and martin county outbre ...025664240
the locust genome provides insight into swarm formation and long-distance flight.locusts are one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests and represent a useful model system in entomology. here we present a draft 6.5 gb genome sequence of locusta migratoria, which is the largest animal genome sequenced so far. our findings indicate that the large genome size of l. migratoria is likely to be because of transposable element proliferation combined with slow rates of loss for these elements. methylome and transcriptome analyses reveal complex regulatory mechanisms invo ...024423660
dengue human infection models supporting drug development.dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. there is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (dhim) for drug development. a dhim could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients w ...024872399
the role of the mosquito in a dengue human infection model.recent efforts to combat the growing global threat of dengue disease, including deployment of phase iib vaccine trials, has continued to be hindered by uncertainty surrounding equitable immune responses of serotypes, relative viral fitness of vaccine vs naturally occurring strains, and the importance of altered immune environments due to natural delivery routes. human infection models can significantly improve our understanding of the importance of certain phenotypic characteristics of viral str ...024872400
chemical composition and biological activity of star anise illicium verum extracts against maize weevil, sitophilus zeamais adults.this study aims to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides. dried fruits of star anise (illicium verum hook.f. (austrobaileyales: schisandraceae)) were extracted with methyl alcohol (ma), ethyl acetate (ea), and petroleum ether (pe) at 25°c. the constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the repellency and contact toxicity of the extracts against sitophilus zeamais motschulsky (coleoptera: curculionidae) adults were tested. forty-four compounds, whose concentrati ...025368036
modified technique of wolbachia removal from malaysian aedes develop an artificial and modified wolbachia removal technique using tetracycline from naturally wolbachia infected aedes albopictus (ae. albopictus) so as to be able to produce generations of wolbachia free offsprings.025183276
a road map for integrating eco-evolutionary processes into biodiversity models.the demand for projections of the future distribution of biodiversity has triggered an upsurge in modelling at the crossroads between ecology and evolution. despite the enthusiasm around these so-called biodiversity models, most approaches are still criticised for not integrating key processes known to shape species ranges and community structure. developing an integrative modelling framework for biodiversity distribution promises to improve the reliability of predictions and to give a better un ...023679011
egg formation in lepidoptera.reproductive biology in the twentieth century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. while many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. the emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, after ...020050770
serotonin-induced high intracellular ph aids in alkali secretion in the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti l.the anterior midgut of the larval yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti generates a luminal ph in excess of 10 in vivo and similar values are attained by isolated and perfused anterior midgut segments after stimulation with submicromolar serotonin. in the present study we investigated the mechanisms of strong luminal alkalinization using the intracellular fluorescent indicator bcecf-am. following stimulation with serotonin, we observed that intracellular ph (ph(i)) of the anterior midgut increased ...019648402
biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, phthorimaea operculella zell. (lepidoptera:gelechiidae).the olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. eugenol and peppermint o ...023961036
metabolic function in drosophila melanogaster in response to hypoxia and pure oxygen.this study examined the metabolic response of drosophila melanogaster exposed to o(2) concentrations ranging from 0 to 21% and at 100%. the metabolic rate of flies exposed to graded hypoxia remained nearly constant as o(2) tensions were reduced from normoxia to approximately 3 kpa. there was a rapid, approximately linear reduction in fly metabolic rate at p(o(2))s between 3 and 0.5 kpa. the reduction in metabolic rate was especially pronounced at p(o(2)) levels <0.5 kpa, and at a p(o(2)) of 0.1 ...019749106
3-(arylthiomethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxamides: chemoselective nucleophilic chemistry and insecticidal activity.a collection of 91 3-(arylthiomethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxamides was prepared starting from dimethyl 3-(chloromethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxylate. the thioether moieties in these compounds were subsequently oxidized to give the corresponding 3-(arylsulfonylmethyl)isoxazole-4,5-dicarboxamides. by carefully controlling stoichiometry and reaction conditions, the c4 and c5 carbomethoxy groups could be differentially derivatized to carboxamides. a total of 182 trisubstituted isoxazoles are reported a ...019624156
comparative digestive vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (gi) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). the expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between population ...023720328
wide spread cross resistance to pyrethroids in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) from veracruz state f1 strains of aedes aegypti (l.) were evaluated by bottle bioassay for resistance to the pyrethroids d-phenothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyalothrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and z-cypermethrin. the new orleans strain was used as a susceptible control. mortality rates after a 1 h exposure and after a 24 h recovery period were determined. the resistance ratio between the 50% knockdown values (rr(kc50)) of the f1 and new orleans strains indicated high levels of ...023786088
the impact of co2 on collection of aedes aegypti (linnaeus) and culex quinquefasciatus say by bg-sentinel® traps in manaus, brazil.carbon dioxide (co2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. the bg-sentinel® trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing culicidae, but co2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. the objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of bg-sentinel traps baited with and without co2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. fifteen areas were selected within the city of manaus, brazil, where four bg-sentinels were op ...023579804
the divergence, actions, roles, and relatives of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters.the mammalian slc4 (solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three cl-hco3 exchangers (ae1-3), five na(+)-coupled hco3(-) transporters (ncbts), and two other unusual members (ae4, btr1). in this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian ncbts-nbce1, nbce2, nbcn1, ndcbe, and nbcn2. each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular ph and, by contributing to the movement of hco3(-) across epithelia, i ...023589833
an analysis on model development for climatic factors influencing prediction of dengue incidences in urban cities. 023703353
cost-effectiveness of novel system of mosquito surveillance and control, brazil.of all countries in the western hemisphere, brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, monitoramento inteligente da dengue (intelligent dengue monitoring system [mid]), which was implemented in 21 cities in minas gerais, brazil. traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. in cities that used mid, vector control was conducted specifically at high ...023628282
genetic relatedness of dengue viruses in key west, florida, usa, 2009-2010.sequencing of dengue virus type 1 (denv-1) strains isolated in key west/monroe county, florida, indicate endemic transmission for >2 years of a distinct and predominant sublineage of the american-african genotype. denv-1 strains isolated elsewhere in florida grouped within a separate central american lineage. findings indicate endemic transmission of denv into the continental united states.023632064
genomic approaches with natural fish populations.natural populations v. inbred stocks provide a much richer resource for identifying the effects of nucleotide substitutions because natural populations have greater polymorphism. additionally, natural populations offer an advantage over most common research organisms because they are subject to natural selection, and analyses of these adaptations can be used to identify biologically important changes. among fishes, these analyses are enhanced by having a wide diversity of species (>28 000 specie ...020409163
a divergent p element and its associated mite, but5, generate chromosomal inversions and are widespread within the drosophila repleta species group.the transposon but5 caused two chromosomal inversions fixed in two drosophila species of the repleta group, d. mojavensis and d. uniseta. but5 copies are approximately 1-kb long, lack any coding capacity, and do not resemble any other transposable element (te). because of its elusive features, but5 has remained unclassified to date. to fully characterize but5, we carried out bioinformatic similarity searches in available sequenced genomes, including 21 drosophila species. significant hits were o ...023682154
infections with the microbe cardinium in the dolichopodidae and other empidoidea.maternally transmitted reproductive parasites such as wolbachia and cardinium can drastically reshape reproduction in their hosts. beyond skewing sex ratios towards females, these microbes can also cause cytoplasmic incompatibility. wolbachia probably infects two thirds of insects, but far less is known about the occurrence or action of other bacteria with potentially similar effects. in contrast with the two more widespread reproductive parasites, wolbachia and spiroplasma, far less is known of ...023909372
genetic control of aedes mosquitoes.aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. in this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. we focus particularly on those methods that are already bei ...023816508
in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts, fractions and a substance isolated from the amazonian plant tachia grandiflora (gentianaceae).tachia sp. are used as antimalarials in the amazon region and in vivo antimalarial activity of a tachia sp. has been previously reported. tachia grandiflora maguire and weaver is an amazonian antimalarial plant and herein its cytotoxicity and antimalarial activity were investigated. spectral analysis of the tetraoxygenated xanthone decussatin and the iridoid aglyone amplexine isolated, respectively, from the chloroform fractions of root methanol and leaf ethanol extracts was performed. in vitro ...023827996
hidden magicians of genome evolution.transposable elements (tes) represent genome's dynamic component, causing mutations and genetic variations. transposable elements can invade eukaryotic genomes in a short span; these are silenced by homology-dependent gene silencing and some functional parts of silenced elements are utilized to perform novel cellular functions. however, during the past two decades, major interest has been focused on the positive contribution of these elements in the evolution of genomes. the interaction between ...023852286
germline excision of transgenes in aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases.aedes (ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1-4) and chikungunya virus. homing endonucleases (hes) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded dna breaks (dsb) in a highly specific manner. in this report, we show that the hes y2-i-anii, i-crei and i-scei are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. y2-i-anii demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20 ...023549343
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