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susceptibility of various mosquitoes of california to subperiodic brugia malayi.laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the susceptibility of six species of mosquitoes, representing three genera, to subperiodic brugia malayi. the black-eye, liverpool strain of aedes aegypti was the susceptible control. mosquitoes were fed on microfilaremic jirds (meriones unguiculatus). all mosquitoes, except wild caught culex erythrothorax, were laboratory-reared and allowed to feed when 8 to 10 days old. anopheles freeborni, anopheles hermsi, and culiseta inornata proved refrac ...19958533667
cloning and expression of a novel toxin gene from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encoding a highly mosquitocidal protein.a gene, designated cry11b, encoding a 81,293-da crystal protein of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan was cloned by using a gene-specific oligonucleotide probe. the sequence of the cry11b protein, as deduced from the sequence of the cry11b gene, contains large regions of similarity with the cry11a toxin (previously cryivd) from b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. the cry11b protein was immunologically related to both cry11a and cry4a proteins. the cry11b gene was expressed in a nontoxic s ...19958534090
sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern nigeria.septic tank mosquitoes in abia state university okigwe, south-eastern nigeria were studied using exit traps between november 1988 and april 1989. the results were revealing and striking. apart from the common septic tank mosquitoes, culex p. quinquefasciatus, cu. cinereus and aedes aegypti, which have been previously commonly found breeding in ammonia and nitrate-rich waters of latrines and septic tanks, the other species, cu. horridus, cu. tigripes and aedes vittatus, have not been commonly rep ...19938508215
public service deficiencies and aedes aegypti breeding sites in venezuela.the 1992 study reported here assessed relationships between potable water supply and trash collection practices and the prevalence of dengue vector mosquito (aedes aegypti) breeding sites in 30 towns located along the north coast of venezuela. within each study town, 100 homes were chosen. at each of these homes the number of water-bearing containers and containers harboring a. aegypti were determined and interviews were conducted to obtain information about the local water supply, trash collect ...19958520605
lessons of aedes aegypti control in thailand.the incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (dhf) in thailand has increased cyclically since the first recognized outbreak in 1958. without an effective vaccine against dengue, and considering the clinical difficulty of treating dhf cases, vector control is needed to prevent dengue transmission. since the establishment of the who aedes research unit in 1964, continued since 1973 as the who collaborating centre at the department of medical research in bangkok, much operational research has been ca ...19938435481
rotundial, a new natural mosquito repellent from the leaves of vitex rotundifolia.a new natural mosquito repellent was isolated from fresh leaves of vitex rotundifolia. its structure was elucidated by an extensive nmr spectral analysis to be a cyclopentene dialdehyde named rotundial. this compound possessed potent repelling activity against aedes aegypti.19958534996
probing and gorging responses of three mosquito species to a membrane feeding system at a range of temperatures.membrane feeding of 3 mosquito species, aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi, and anopheles arabiensis, with formulated protein meals was carried out at a range of temperatures. the response was evaluated in terms of probing after 5 min, engorgement after 90 min, and 50% feeding time. aedes aegypti showed a satisfactory feeding response across the complete temperature range investigated, 28-40 degrees c, although engorgement was significantly faster between 36 and 40 degrees c. anopheles stephensi ...19958551304
establishment and characterization of three cell lines from aedes triseriatus (diptera: culicidae).three cell lines (a.t. grip-1, 2, and 3) were established from aedes triseriatus (say) embryonated eggs or neonate larvae and their morphology, growth, karyotype, and isozyme pattern were studied. the isozyme alleles observed in the 3 cell lines also were found in adults of the original mosquito colony. each cell line differed in enzymatic, morphological, and karyotypical patterns. la crosse encephalitis (lac) and snowshoe hare (ssh) viruses, members of the california encephalitis virus group, w ...19958551501
failure of immune sera to neutralize dengue-2 virus in intrathoracically inoculated aedes aegypti.aedes aegypti became infected when inoculated with a mixture of dengue-2 virus and anti-dengue-2 antibodies, but not when they were exposed to the same mixture per os. this phenomenon merits more detailed investigation. understanding why this difference in mosquito infection rate occurs may lead to improved dengue virus assays or provide insights into the nature of dengue virus-antibody interactions.19958551312
evaluation of enemas for exposing aedes aegypti to suspensions of dengue-2 virus.to determine if enemas could be used to simulate oral exposure of aedes aegypti to dengue-2 virus, we compared infection rates of mosquitoes administered an enema of a blood suspension containing dengue-2 virus to infection rates in mosquitoes that imbibed the same suspension from a drop of blood. in 1 of 4 experiments infection rates were significantly different. more importantly, during 2 of the 4 trials, 100% of the mosquitoes in the enema treatment group were infected. we speculate that the ...19958551311
infection of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) and ae. aegypti with lambornella stegomyiae (ciliophora: tetrahymenidae).the transformation of lambornella stegomyiae trophonts to theronts, the distribution of invasion cysts on larval aedes albopictus cuticle, and the virulence of l. stegomyiae to ae. albopictus and aedes aegypti were studied in the laboratory. transformation of trophonts into theronts was induced by a morphogenic agent released from larval ae. albopictus homogenate. the first transformation was observed 4 hr after exposure to larval mosquito homogenate, but most transformations occurred between 12 ...19958568285
characterization of resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides in field populations of aedes aegypti from venezuela.resistance to the organophosphates (op) temephos, malathion, and pirimiphos methyl, and the carbamate propoxur was found to be low (< 5-fold) in 3 aedes aegypti populations collected from falcon and aragua states of venezuela. resistance to chlorpyrifos (op), permethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) was moderate (7-fold) in both populations. mechanisms of resistance were investigated with the synergists piperonyl butoxide (mixed function oxidase inhibitor) and s, s, s-tributyl phosphorot ...19958551300
characterization of six highly mosquitocidal bacillus thuringiensis strains that do not belong to h-14 serotype.four strains belonging to bacillus thuringiensis serovars thompsoni, malaysiensis, canadensis, jegathesan and two auto-agglutinating b.t. strains were identified as being highly toxic to the mosquito larvae of the species aedes aegypti, anopheles stephensi, and culex pipiens. their larvicidal and hemolytic activities were determined and compared with those of strains known to be highly mosquitocidal and/or cytolytic from serovars of b.t. israelensis, morrisoni, darmstadiensis, medellin, kyushuen ...19968555944
mosquitocidal activity of the cryic delta-endotoxin from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai.the cloned 135-kda cryic delta-endotoxin from bacillus thuringiensis is a lepidopteran-active toxin, displaying high activity in vivo against spodoptera litoralis and spodoptera frugiperda larvae and in vitro against the s. frugiperda sf9 cell line. here, we report that the cryic delta-endotoxin cloned from b. thuringienesis subsp. aizawai hd-229 and expressed in an acrystalliferous b. thuringiensis strain is also toxic to aedes aegypti, anophles gambiae, and culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larv ...19968593070
understanding productivity, a key to aedes aegypti surveillance.the objective of this work was to define criteria that could be applied to achieve faster, more economical, and accurate assessment of vector populations for control of dengue viruses. during 1989-1990, 1,349 premises were surveyed in townsville, charters towers and mingela/ravenswood, queensland, australia. in each locality, 1.9-8.4% of premises contained three or more containers with aedes aegypti immature forms and were designated as key premises. comparison of surveys in townsville from 1989 ...19958561260
jungle yellow fever: clinical and laboratorial studies emphasizing viremia on a human case.the authors report the clinical, laboratorial and epidemiological aspects of a human case of jungle yellow fever. the patient suffered from fever, chills, sweating, headaches, backaches, myalgia, epigastric pains, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and prostration. he was unvaccinated and had been working in areas where cases of jungle yellow fever had been confirmed. investigations concerning the yellow fever virus were performed. blood samples were collected on several days in the course of the illnes ...19958599063
[dengue in mexico: a priority problem of public health].dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by aedes aegypti. it has been recently incorporated to the agenda of priorities in many countries in the americas. the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases is becoming a public health threat and requires the implementation of intensive surveillance and control strategies. the epidemiological panorama of dengue in mexico provides the opportunity to analyze a regional health problem and the risk factors involved in the genesis of hemorrhagic cases ...19958599144
[the role of the aedes aegypti vector in the epidemiology of dengue in mexico].the role of aedes aegypti (lineo) in the epidemiology of dengue fever in mexico is herein discussed based on the vectorial capacity model. comments on the advantages and disadvantages of each model component at the time of field determinations are also presented. emphasis is made on the impact of sampling and method bias on the results of vectorial capacity studies. the paper also addresses the need to increase vector biology knowledge as an input for epidemiological work to explain and predict ...19958599147
[vectors of dengue in mexico: a critical review)].the mosquito aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (linneaus, 1762) is the vector of dengue viruses in america. recently, another related species, aedes albopictus (skuse, 1894) was first introduced to america in 1986 in texas, usa and later on in sao paulo, brazil. since then, this mosquito has rapidly colonized new areas along the northern border states of mexico. the importance of this species as a vector of dengue virus is not clear. this work presents a revision of some characteristics of the two speci ...19958599149
[yellow fever in mexico. the eradication of aëdes aegypti. 1966]. 19958599142
mosquitoes, models, and dengue.in the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through latin america and the caribbean (dominican republic, jamaica, barbados, mexico, guatemala, el salvador, honduras, nicaragua, costa rica, panama, ecuador, colombia, venezuela, and brazil). the mosquito aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. the mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. the female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. thus, mosq ...19968622446
possible contributing factors to the paucity of yellow fever epidemics in the ashanti region of ghana, west africa.yellow fever virus vectors identified in the ashanti region of ghana included aedes aegypti, aedes africanus, aedes luteocephalus and aedes vittatus. other mosquito species, unrelated to yellow fever transmission, identified in this study included culex tigripes, culex thalassius, culex decens, culex tarsalis, anopheles gambiae, anopheles stephansi and toxorynchites brevipalpis. factors generally known to influence yellow fever transmission were also studied in the ashanti region. these included ...19968625858
genetically engineered resistance to dengue-2 virus transmission in mosquitoes.the control of arthropod-borne virus diseases such as dengue may ultimately require the genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors to disrupt virus transmission to human populations. to reduce the ability of mosquitoes to transmit dengue viruses, a recombinant sindbis virus was used to transduce female aedes aegypti with a 567-base antisense rna targeted to the premembrane coding region of dengue type 2 (den-2) virus. the transduced mosquitoes were unable to support replication of den-2 virus in t ...19968629025
immunohistological localization of regulatory peptides in the midgut of the female mosquito aedes aegypti.the midgut of the female mosquito aedes aegypti was studied immunohistologically with antisera to various regulatory peptides. endocrine cells immunoreactive with antisera to perisulfakinin, rfamide, bovine pancreatic polypeptide, urotensin 1, locustatachykinin 2 and allatostatins a1 and b2 were found in the midgut. perisulfakinin, rfamide and bovine pancreatic polypeptide all react with the same, about 500 endocrine cells, which were evenly distributed throughout the posterior midgut, with the ...19958574883
population genetics with rapd-pcr markers: the breeding structure of aedes aegypti in puerto rico.rapd-pcr polymorphisms at 57 presumptive loci were used to examine the breeding structure of the mosquito aedes aegypti in puerto rico. mosquitoes were sampled from 16 locations in six cities and samples were located in a nested spatial design to examine local patterns of gene flow. allele frequencies were estimated assuming (1) that genomic regions amplified by rapd-pcr segregate as dominant alleles, (2) that genotypes at rapd loci are in hardy-weinberg proportions, (3) identity in state (iis) ...19968626220
towards malaria control in nigeria: a qualitative study on the population of mosquitoes.malaria is still highly prevalent in many tropical countries and this disease can only survive in areas where mosquitoes and infected human populations are high. relevant information on the species of mosquitoes, their habitats and their population are important in planning preventative strategies in the control of malaria, hence this study. mosquito species and their habitats were investigated in both high and low density areas of benin city, edo state, nigeria. the results showed that culex pi ...19958568784
aedes aegypti midgut early trypsin is post-transcriptionally regulated by blood feeding.early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the aedes aegypti midgut during the first hours after ingestion of a blood meal. early trypsin gene expression was studied by northern blot analysis. the early trypsin mrna, absent in larvae, pupae and newly emerged females, reaches detectable levels at 24 h post-emergence and attains a maximum level at an adult age of 4-7 days. after the first week there is a decrease in the steady-state level of the transcript, but it remains readily detec ...19968630532
cloning and developmental expression of the ecdysone receptor gene from the spruce budworm, choristoneura fumiferana.degenerate oligonucleotides were designed on the basis of conserved amino acid sequences in the dna and ligand-binding regions of the members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. using these oligonucleotides in rna-pcr, a cdna fragment was isolated from the spruce budworm, choristoneura fumiferana. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of this cdna fragment with the members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily suggested that this pcr fragment is a region of the ecdysone re ...19958641050
experimental evidence against replication or dissemination of hepatitis c virus in mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) using detection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.in 3 laboratory experiments, mosquitoes were fed hepatitis c virus (hcv)-rna positive blood by using membrane feeders, separated into head, thorax, and abdomen, and tested by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for hcv-rna. hcv did not replicate or disseminate in mosquitoes that had ingested blood from patients that were hcv-viremic positive. when yellow fever mosquitoes, aedes aegypti (l.), were held for 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d after feeding, hcv-rna was detected in the abdomens of ...19968667387
impact of rapid urbanization on mosquitoes and their disease transmission potential in accra and tema, ghana.the total of 75 mosquito species recorded in accra have declined to 28 species. contributing factors to this decline and the reduction in prevalence of malaria and bancroftian filariasis in accra presently include extensive water pollution and a fairly high daily mosquito mortality due to several factors including loss of natural adult resting places, use of mosquito repellents and the probable increase of anopheles arabiensis population. presently low yellow fever incidence is due inter alia to ...19958669399
antibody-mediated inhibition of aedes aegypti midgut trypsins blocks sporogonic development of plasmodium gallinaceum.the peritrophic matrix (pm) that forms around a blood meal is a potential barrier of plasmodium development in mosquitoes. previously, we have shown that to traverse the pm, plasmodium ookinetes secrete a prochitinase and that an inhibitor of chitinase blocks further parasite development. here we report that it is the mosquito trypsin that activates the plasmodium prochitinase. trypsin was identified as the chitinase-activating enzyme by two criteria: (i) trypsin activity and activating activity ...19968641775
cloning and expression of the first anaerobic toxin gene from clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia, encoding a new mosquitocidal protein with homologies to bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins.a gene (cbm71) encoding a 71,128-da mosquitocidal protein (cbm71) was obtained by screening a size-fractionated xbai digest of total genomic dna from clostridium bifermentans subsp. malaysia ch18 with two gene-specific oligonucleotide probes. the sequence of the cbm71 protein, as deduced from the sequence of cbm71, corresponds to that of the 66-kda protein previously described as one of the mosquitocidal components of c. bifermentans subsp. malaysia. cbm71 shows limited similarities with bacillu ...19968655486
cloning and sequencing of trehalose synthase gene from pimelobacter sp. r48.the gene encoding trehalose synthase (catalyzing the conversion of maltose into alpha, alpha-trehalose by intramolecular transglucosylation) was cloned from pimelobacter sp. r48. sequence analysis revealed a 1719-bp synthase gene and a 573-residue amino-acid sequence. the 220 n-terminal residues were homologous to those of maltases from saccharomyces carlsbergensis and aedes aegypti.19968645698
characterization of the clinical and anatomical pathological changes associated with hepatozoon mocassini infections in unnatural reptilian hosts.laboratory-reared aedes aegypti mosquitoes were employed in the successful transmission of hepatozoon mocassini from a cotton-mouth moccasin (agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) to 3 lizard species (sceloporus undulatus, eumeces obsoletus and sceloporus poinsetti). marked to severe lethargy and anorexia developed in the s. undulatus, e. obsoletus and s. poinsetti at 15, 38, and 96 days postinfection (pi), respectively. all 3 lizards developed a leukocytosis and had increased plasma aspartate amin ...19968690537
aedes aegypti: induced antibacterial proteins reduce the establishment and development of brugia malayi.the effect of host immune activation on the development of brugia malayi in one susceptible and four refractory strains of aedes aegypti and in armigeres subalbatus was assessed. a. aegypti that were immune activated by the injection of saline or bacteria 24 hr before feeding on a b. malayi-infected gerbil had significantly reduced prevalences and mean intensities of infection from those of naive controls when exposed to bloodmeals with low (105 mf/20 microliters) and medium (160 mf/20 microlite ...19968682188
surveillance of the mosquito aedes aegypti and its biocontrol with the copepod mesocyclops aspericornis in australian wells and gold mines.a survey of the dengue vector mosquito aedes aegypti was undertaken using funnel traps to detect immature stages (larvae and pupae) in flooded disused mine shafts and wells in charters towers, queensland, northern australia. the town has a history of dengue fever since 1885 when goldminers were the first recorded victims. during the latest dengue epidemic in 1993, 2% of the population had laboratory-confirmed dengue virus type 2, despite source reduction of ae.aegypti breeding-sites at ground le ...19968744708
a placebo controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in reducing mosquito bite induced erythema.a randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in the symptomatic relief of mosquito bites. sixty eight healthy volunteers were bitten under laboratory conditions by aedes aegypti mosquitoes at three spots, on the ventral aspect of the forearm. one bite was treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel, another bite with a placebo gel which was identical in appearance and smell to the homeopathic after-bite gel, and the third b ...19958751030
lipid transfer from insect fat body to lipophorin: comparison between a mosquito triacylglycerol-rich lipophorin and a sphinx moth diacylglycerol-rich lipophorin.two insect lipoproteins, triacylglycerol-rich aedes aegypti lipophorin and diacylglycerol-rich manduca sexta lipophorin, were compared in their ability to load neutral lipid from fat body. when fat body of m. sexta was incubated in vitro with [3h]oleic acid, all radiolabeled fatty acids were esterified, predominantly to triacylglycerol. in a. aegypti fat body, however, half of the label remained as free fatty acids. when a. aegypti fat body was radiolabeled with [3h]glycerol, most of the radiola ...19968725165
evaluation of controlled-release mosquito repellent formulations.eight polymer and 9 microcapsule formulations of deet were tested on laboratory rabbits against aedes aegypti and anopheles albimanus. several formulations were significantly more effective than simple (unformulated) deet at the same strength for periods up to 24 h. best results were obtained with a polymer formulation containing a high molecular weight fatty acid and 3 microcapsule formulations containing lanolin, gum arabic, gelatin, tannic acid, stearic acid, polypropylene glycol, water, and ...19968723256
monoclonal antibodies against manduca sexta hemocytes bind aedes aegypti hemocytes: characterization of six monoclonal antibodies that bind hemocytes from both species.the mechanisms by which hemocytes mediate a mosquito's defense response to parasites or pathogens are not well understood. this is due in part to difficulty in collecting intact mosquito hemocytes for experiments and to a lack of reagents, such as antibodies. our objectives were to collect adult aedes aegypti hemocytes under conditions suitable for immunofluorescence microscopy, and to test whether monoclonal antibodies, generated against larval manduca sexta hemocytes, bind adult ae. aegypti he ...19958773196
evaluation of the laboratory rabbit model for screening topical mosquito repellents.the laboratory rabbit was evaluated as a model for screening topical mosquito repellents, using data obtained in tests of deet (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against aedes aegypti on humans and rabbits. host-specific differences in the action of the test material were quantified by multiple regression analysis. the test material was less effective but more persistent in tests on rabbits, and responses of the mosquito test population were more variable.19968723273
epidemic dengue 2 in the city of djibouti 1991-1992.from october 1991 to february 1992, an outbreak of acute fever (in which thick blood films were negative for malaria) spread rapidly in the city of djibouti, djibouti republic, affecting all age groups and both nationals and foreigners. the estimated number of cases was 12,000. the clinical features were consistent with a non-haemorrhagic dengue-like illness. serum samples from 91 patients were analysed serologically for flavivirus infection (dengue 1-4, west nile, yellow fever, zika, banzi, and ...19968758061
activity of novel juvenoids on arthropods of veterinary importance.different juvenile hormone mimics were compared regarding their efficacy against larval and pupal stages of the diptera aedes aegypti, musca domestica, and lucilia cuprina as well as the cat flea ctenocephalides felis. structure-activity relationship of a series of new diphenylethers was analyzed and compared to juvenoids like methoprene, hydroprene, and fenoxycarb. selected compounds were taken for a competition binding assay and their effect on jh-degradation by esterases was examined. the res ...19968756312
bioefficacy of mosquito mat, coil and dispenser formulations containing allethrin group of synthetic pyrethroids against mosquito vectors.the bioefficacy of mats, coils and dispensers containing allethrin group of synthetic pyrethroids was studied against laboratory strains of culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti and anopheles stephensi. except esbiothrin in the mat formulation which was 100 and 178 times more effective against cx. quinquefasciatus than against ae. aegypti and an. stephensi with kt50 of 0.005, 0.5 and 0.89 min. respectively, all the three allethrins in mat or coil formulations were equally effective against the t ...19968810142
effect of inactivation by sunlight on the larvicidal activities of mosquitocidal bacillus thuringiensis h-14 isolates from nigerian soils.bacillus thuringiensis h-14 is a well recognized bioinsecticide against mosquitoes. this study investigates the inactivation effect of sunlight on the larvicidal activities of four nigerian isolates of b. thuringiensis h-14, code-named obg1, obg8, gsc3 and gna13 as compared with a standard mosquito larvicide, b. thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti). a 0.125 mg/1 suspension of spore-delta-endotoxin powder of each isolate was exposed to direct sunlight for 7 h on a concrete roof (ca. 13 m high). a ...19968810143
evaluation of bacillus thuringiensis and bacillus sphaericus strains from chinese soils toxic to mosquito larvaeduring our research to isolate and screen microbial agents, eight bacillus thuringiensis isolates and five bacillus sphaericus isolates were shown to have high toxicity to mosquito larvae. comparing the lc50 values, four b. sphaericus isolates with lc50 values ranging from 0.50 to 1.47 ng/ml were about two to six times more toxic than strain 1593 (lc50 3.00 ng/ml) against larvae of culex quinquefasciatus. four b. thuringiensis isolates (lc50 values ranging from 3.80 to 7.54 ng/ml) and four b. sp ...19968812574
larvicidal constituents of melantheria albinervia.bioactivity-guided fractionation has led to the isolation of two larvicidal diterpenes, active against the yellow fever-transmitting mosquito aedes aegypti, from a dichloromethane root extract of melantheria albinervia (asteraceae), a plant from zimbabwe. these diterpenes were identified as ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and 9(11),16-kauradien-19-oic acid. the diterpenes were also weakly active against bacillus subtilis.19958824954
molecular characterization of the mosquito vitellogenin receptor reveals unexpected high homology to the drosophila yolk protein receptor.the mosquito (aedes aegypti) vitellogenin receptor (aavgr) is a large membrane-bound protein (214 kda when linearized) that mediates internalization of vitellogenin, the major yolk-protein precursor, by oocytes during egg development. we have cloned and sequenced two cdna fragments encompassing the entire coding region of aavgr mrna, to our knowledge the first insect vgr sequence to be reported. the 7.3-kb aavgr mrna is present only in female germ-line cells and is abundant in previtellogenic oo ...19968799131
[human diffusion of arthropod disease vectors throughout the world].the present distribution of animals and plants throughout the world is the result of an evolutionary process involving tectonic, climatic and biotic factors. humans, since their appearance, have contributed to the spreading of many species including disease vectors and pests. when humans left their native african home, they brought with them ectoparasites such as lice and acarids. during the neolithic era, humans were leading domesticated animals which carried their own parasites into new areas. ...19958777543
genetic differentiation of aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue virus in french polynesia.in recent years the incidence of dengue fever epidemics has increased and transmission has tended to be established over a geographically expanding area, including french polynesia. an increase in air transportation contributes to the diffusion of the dengue virus from southeast asia, a region considered to be a hyperendemic dengue zone, to the pacific region. presently, little is known about the role of the vector (aedes aegypti) in the diffusion of the dengue fever virus. a study on the geneti ...19958825508
a new serovar of bacillus thuringiensis possessing 28a28c flagellar antigenic structure: bacillus thuringiensis serovar jegathesan, selectively toxic against mosquito larvae.a novel bacillus thuringiensis strain highly toxic to mosquitoes was isolated from soil samples in malaysia. this strain was shown to display a new subfraction of the h-28 flagellar antigen determining a new serovar h28a28c, which was designated serovar jegathesan. bioassays indicated that culex quinquefasciatus larvae are the most susceptible to this new isolate, whereas toxicity to anopheles maculatus and aedes aegypti larvae was 10 times lower. the potency of this new serotype is also compara ...19958825511
evaluation of entomopathogenic bacteria against aedes polynesiensis, the vector of lymphatic filariasis in french polynesia.thirteen strains among 3 species of entomopathogenic bacteria were tested against 3 medically important mosquito species in french polynesia. two strains of bacillus thuringiensis were highly toxic to aedes polynesiensis, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus. six of 7 strains of bacillus sphaericus tested were highly toxic to cx. quinquefasciatus but not to the aedes spp. clostridium bifermentans serovar. malaysia was more toxic to ae. polynesiensis than to the other 2 species. entomopathog ...19958825516
laboratory evaluation of toxic baits for mosquito (aedes aegypti) larvae.toxic bait discs were prepared by incorporating the larvicide abate (temephos) technical, with yeast and dog biscuit (1:1), the latter forming the attractant source. these were assessed in 1, 10 and 25 litre aquaria and 100 litre drums against aedes aegypti larvae. floating as well as sinking bait discs were found equally effective in controlling free moving larvae. larvae confined in artificially suspended cages were not affected. the baits were found effective for 5 to 6 weeks. toxic disc bait ...19968781040
laboratory and field plot bioassay of bacillus sphaericus against arkansas mosquito species.bacillus sphaericus was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against larvae of 7 arkansas mosquito species and in rice field plots against a single mosquito species. laboratory-tested species included aedes aegypti, ae. albopictus, ae. vexans, anopheles punctipennis, culex quinquefasciatus, cx. restuans, and psorophora columbiae. field plot bioassays were evaluated against ps. columbiae only. the laboratory formulation tested demonstrated activity against all 7 species. mortalities were observed at ...19968827596
stability of equine infectious anemia virus in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae), stomoxys calcitrans (diptera:muscidae), and tabanus fuscicostatus (diptera:tabanidae) stored at -70 degrees c.equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) was injected intrathoracically into aedes aegypti, stomoxys calcitrans, and tabanus fuscicostatus, and fed to ae. aegypti in suspensions of either artificial blood of eagle's minimum essential medium. insects were stored at -70 degrees c for up to 9 months before testing for the presence of eiav. the viral tissue culture titers detected from stored insects were similar to those from insects tested at time 0.19968827617
yellow fever: a decade of reemergence.since the 1980s, yellow fever has reemerged across africa and in south america. the total of 18 735 yellow fever cases and 4522 deaths reported from 1987 to 1991 represents the greatest amount of yellow fever activity reported to the world health organization (who) for any 5-year period since 1948. there is an excellent vaccine against yellow fever. at present, a high proportion of travelers to at-risk areas are reported to be immunized, reflecting widespread knowledge about the international he ...19968827969
country-wide prevalence of ascogregarina culicis (apicomplexa: lecudinidae), a protozoan parasite of aedes aegypti in trinidad, west indies.the prevalence of the gregarine parasite ascogregarina culicis was determined for aedes aegypti populations in trinidad, west indies. over 5 months, a total of 5,651 ae. aegypti larvae were collected and identified from 419 sites throughout trinidad as part of a national dengue surveillance program. ascogregarina culicis infections were detected in 13.4% of 1,986 ae. aegypti larvae dissected. in 7 of 8 counties or major subdivisions where this parasite was detected in trinidad, the prevalence pe ...19958825500
entomological studies in a dengue endemic area, jalore, rajasthan.entomological studies on prevalence of adult and immatures of aedes aegypti along with associated ecological factors have been conducted in a dengue endemic area of jalore, rajasthan from 1992 to 1993. studies in two areas; reportedly affected and unaffected revealed more adults and higher breeding indices in the affected area as compared to the unaffected one. mosquitoes harbouring dengue antigen were found only in the affected locality. presence of dengue antigen in field caught mosquitoes in ...19968840653
[yellow fever in the ribeirão preto region at the turn of the 19th century: its scientific importance and economic repercussions].yellow fever in the region of ribeirao preto at the turn of xix century: scientific importance and economic repercussion. this historical review describes the bad situation of public health in brazil during the xix century caused by multiple yellow fever outbreaks. the knowledge regarding to yellow fever at that time is also described. a short history is presented of the development of the region of ribeirao preto, located in the northeast of sao paulo state, brazil, emphasising the actuation of ...19968851220
community based dengue control in columbia: people's knowledge and practice and the potential contribution of the biological larvicide bti (bacillus thuringiensis israelensis).a study on dengue control was undertaken in a poor urban area in cúcuta, colombia. the first objective was to describe people's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever, the transmission of the disease and possible preventive measures. the second objective was to analyse the infestation of the community with aedes aegypti larvae, and the third objective to test the efficacy of bti (bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) with respect to the level and duration of reduction of ae. aeg ...19958826104
survey of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in clemson, south carolina, with emphasis on aedes albopictus.a total of 530 oviposition trap samples were collected within a 10-km radius of clemson university between march 30 and october 19, 1993. from 19,664 larvae reared from collected eggs, 7 species were identified: aedes albopictus (89%), ae. triseriatus (6.5%), culex restuans (2.7%), cx. territans (0.6%), cx. pipiens complex (0.7%), toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (0.2%), and orthopodomyia signifera (0.1%). this is the first record of ae. albopictus in clemson. aedes aegypti was not found. ...19958825496
phenotypic segregation of aedes aegypti for immune antibacterial activity and resistance to filariae.we report the phenotypic selection of two lines of aedes aegypti, from a filariae susceptible parental stock (refm). this selection was based upon the level of inducible anti-gram negative escherichia coli activity within the haemolymph following e. coli infection. these lines, denoted 'high' and 'low', demonstrated significant differences in anti-e. coli responses throughout. however no difference was observed in the anti-gram positive micrococcus luteus response following e. coli challenge. f4 ...19968858873
cell targeting of a pore-forming toxin, cyta delta-endotoxin from bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, by conjugating cyta with anti-thy 1 monoclonal antibodies and insulin.the cytolytic protein toxin cyta was linked to two monoclonal antibodies (mab) directed against the mouse or the rat thy 1 antigen. the purified cyta-mab conjugates were not toxic to either target or nontarget cells. the conjugates did bind specifically to target cells since they agglutinated the target cells but not nontarget cells. when the conjugates were treated with dithiothreitol, the released cyta was toxic to all cells tested. these results suggested that the attachment of cyta to a mole ...19968853459
dengue 3 virus distribution in the mosquito aedes aegypti: an immunocytochemical study.the dissemination of dengue (den) 3 virus in parenterally infected female aedes aegypti mosquitoes was studied immunocytochemically. antigen was first detected in fat body cells near the thoracic site of virus inoculation. the intussuscepted foregut, salivary glands and nervous tissue were the first major tissues infected. nervous tissue appeared to be the primary site of amplification. muscles, tracheae, malphigian tubules and the posterior midgut did not become infected. the only part of the r ...19968834747
acasp, a gene encoding a cathepsin d-like aspartic protease from the hookworm ancylostoma caninum.intestinal infection with the zoonotic hookworm ancylostoma caninum can provoke human eosinophilic enteritis. a cdna was isolated from a. caninum, using an oligonucleotide primer designed to hybridize to the region encoding the consensus, catalytic site residues d32tgssnlw of aspartic proteases. this novel cdna encoded an aspartic protease zymogen of 422 amino acids, exhibiting 47% identity to the lysosomal aspartic protease of aedes aegypti, 46% identity to the aspartic protease of schistosoma ...19968858139
the efficacy of prrrikweg gel in the treatment of insect bites: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.this study was conducted to examine the efficacy of prrikweg gel, a homeopathic after-bite gel, in relieving the effects of mosquito bites, in particular itching and erythema.19968861830
setaria digitata microfilaraemia in mastomys coucha: an animal model for chemotherapeutic and immunobiological studies.intraperitoneal implantation of adult gravid females of the bovine filarial parasite, setaria digitata in mastomys coucha was found to induce microfilaraemia lasting for about 125 days. the microfilariae (mf) could be detected as early as 4 days post-implantation (p.i.) and peak levels of about 30 mf in 20 microliters of blood were observed by 21 days. a significant positive correlation was found between mf density and the body weight of recipients pre-implantation. the implanted adult worms wer ...19968873474
effects of variations in a formulated protein meal on the fecundity and fertility of female mosquitoes.a formulated protein meal developed by kogan (1990) for adult female aedes aegypti mosquitoes was evaluated and modified to increase egg and pupal yield. a vigorous laboratory colony was maintained with the females fed exclusively on this dietary formula for about twenty-five generations over more than 2 years. extra modifications were made to produce a diet suitable for anopheles arabiensis and anopheles stephensi females to produce eggs. both formulations contain bovine albumin, haemoglobin an ...19968887337
heritability of infection-induced humoral antibacterial activity in the immune response of the mosquito aedes aegypti. 19968887345
early trypsin, a female-specific midgut protease in aedes aegypti: isolation, aminoterminal sequence determination, and cloning and sequencing of the gene.early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the aedes aegypti midgut during the first hours after ingestion of a blood meal. it plays an essential role in the transcriptional activation of the late trypsin form, the major midgut endoprotease involved in the blood meal digestion. early trypsin is the most abundant midgut polypeptide isolated by benzamidine-sepharose affinity chromatography 3 h after feeding. the amino-terminal sequence of the early trypsin protein matches that of the 3 ...19968882654
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--a sixth symposium.the sixth spanish language symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 62nd annual meeting in norfolk, va, in march 1996. the principal objective, as for the previous 5 symposia, was to promote the participation in the amca meeting by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 25 presentations that were given in spanish by participants from 6 countries in latin ...19968887226
responses of antennal olfactory receptors in the yellow fever mosquito aedes aegypti to human body odours.recent behavioural studies have demonstrated that human body odours which female aedes aegypti find attractive exert their effects as complex mixtures of synergistically acting components. we have attempted to clarify the sensory mechanisms underlying the perception of these complex host odours by studying the responses of sensory cells underneath the a3-type sensilla of the mosquito antenna to both a human skin wash extract and the extract's active chromatographic fractions. the reaction patter ...19968894302
inter- and intraspecific variation in resistance to desiccation by adult aedes (stegomyia) spp. (diptera: culicidae) from indonesia.desiccation survival times of adult mosquitoes were studied for yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti (l.) (6 strains), asian tiger mosquito, ae. albopictus (skuse) (5 strains), and ae. paullusi stone & farmer (1 strain) colonized from south sulawesi, indonesia. at both 90 and 70% rh, ae. aegypti males and females outlived the other species. the forest species ae. paullusi was least resistant to desiccation. strains of ae. aegypti and ae. albopictus from urban areas were more resistant to desicca ...19968906905
occurrence of aedes (stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in halmahela villages, indonesia.aedes (stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes breeding in containers in and around human houses were surveyed in halmahela villages, the north moluccas, indonesia. adults reared from larvae found in containers and those reared from eggs collected by ovitraps revealed the dominance of aedes scutellaris (walker) in residential areas. breeding of aedes aegypti (l.) and aedes albopictus (skuse) was confirmed in a few coastal villages with high human densities.19968906924
attraction and trapping of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) with host odors in the laboratory.volatile constituents of mouse odor were eluted from an adsorbent after collection within a closed-air system, and offered to host-seeking yellowfever mosquitoes, aedes aegypti (l.), in the laboratory. gas chromatographic analysis showed that individual mouse odors varied in blend, both quantitatively and qualitatively. in a 2-choice bioassay, sticky traps baited with individual mouse odors caught more female mosquitoes than controls (69% caught on baited traps) in all cases. when 2 traps baited ...19968906926
identification and characterization of differentially expressed cdnas of the vector mosquito, anopheles gambiae.the isolation and study of anopheles gambiae genes that are differentially expressed in development, notably in tissues associated with the maturation and transmission of the malaria parasite, is important for the elucidation of basic molecular mechanisms underlying vector-parasite interactions. we have used the differential display technique to screen for mrnas specifically expressed in adult males, females, and midgut tissues of blood-fed and unfed females. we also screened for mrnas specifica ...19968917545
insecticide susceptibility of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in the lower rio grande valley of texas and mexico.in response to a potential dengue fever outbreak in south texas during 1995, the susceptibilities of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus to commonly used mosquito adulticides were assessed. larvae collected from the lower rio grande valley of texas and mexico were reared to adults and tested against susceptible laboratory strains at texas a&m university. resistance ratios at both the lc50 and lc95 rates were all less than 10, indicating that adult populations of both species are still susceptible ...19968887230
a search for components in human body odour that attract females of aedes aegypti.in a new type of wind tunnel, mosquitoes fly upwind towards host odour sources and towards human skin wash extracts obtained by rubbing the skin with a pad soaked in ethanol. we used this behavioural response as a bioassay to identify attractants in liquid chromatography fractions of such extracts. l-lactic acid is a major constituent of skin wash extracts and it is a necessary component for the extract's effectiveness. as a single stimulus, however, l-lactic acid is only slightly effective. thi ...19968894295
[aedes aegypti in french guiana. some aspects of history, general ecology and vertical transmission of the dengue virus].aedes aegypti is suspected to be present in the country since the late 18th century, and was responsible of urban yellow fever epidemics in the last century. this mosquito was identified for the first time in french guiana in 1902. more recently, in 1940, an eradication campaign started and aedes aegypti was eradicated between 1950 and 1963, date of the reinfestation. during the past 30 years, some dengue outbreaks occurred every 2 to 6 years, and the first dengue haemorrhagic fever epidemic spr ...19968924768
[prediction and prevention of dengue epidemics].prediction and prevention of dengue epidemics are based on informations gathered about the mosquito vector species, the dengue types transmitted, the vertebrate hosts and their environment. although aedes aegypti is the most important vector, other aedes may also propagate the dengue viruses. the populations of vector mosquitoes are evaluated through several indices: breteau and/or positive house index, number of indoor resting aedes females, etc.... the four dengue types can replicate in verteb ...19968924770
[dengue and its vectors in brazil].history of dengue in brazil is covered from the first citations in the xixth century to the great outbreaks of the last ten years. den-1 and den-4 viruses have been isolated for the first time in 1982 during an epidemic in boa vista, roraima state. in 1986-1987, epidemics of dengue type 1 covered an extended area from rio de janeiro/sào paulo states to the north east states of brazil. during 1990-1991, dengue type 2 epidemics have been notified in the south east (rio de janeiro/são paulo) and in ...19968924771
[control of mosquitos in martinique. a collective public health action and improvement of the quality of life].aedes aegypti control program in martinique started en 1968. the aedes aegypti major breeding sites are associated with flowers vases, drums, used tyres, artificial containers and watering places. however, culex quinquefasciatus is the main nuisance mosquito in all the island. this species is unpleasant, especially in urban areas. over 200 culex quinquefasciatus bites per person per night have been observed in several localities of the island. culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites are mostly ass ...19968924774
[anti-aedes aegypti campaign in french guiana].the history of vector control in french guiana started in 1947 when a small team was recruited for that purpose. in 1949, the first ddt treatments were implemented and aedes aegypti could not be found until 1960. between 1966 and 1972 an eradication campaign was carried out which resulted in the elimination of ae. aegypti from all the department except the city of cayenne. malathion and orthodibrom were used as adulticides and temephos (abate) was sprayed against the larvae. nevertheless, in 198 ...19968924775
[epidemiology of arbovirus diseases: use and value of physiologic age determination of female mosquito vectors].the physiological age of yellow fever aedes females in africa was studied during four years, from 1988 to 1992. we used a method, according to polovodova's method, which looks for the "yellow body" under natural light. those yellow bodies exist in the old females, the "parous" ones, and not in the young females, the "nulliparous" ones. we present some results to illustrate the interest of studying the physiological age of mosquitoes in the epidemiology of the arboviral diseases. the transmission ...19968924776
[control of aedes aegypti in martinique. contribution of entomology studies].the dengue prevention activities in martinique are based on: entomological surveillance (including the use of insecticide in all parts of the island). epidemiological (clinical, serological and virological) surveillance. health education (radio, tv, exhibitions, talks in primaries and secondaries schools, in associations,...). the main breeding sites of aedes aegypti are maintained by human practices: flowers vases, containers, used tyres, waste... the role of those human practices in the standi ...19968924777
[new epidemiological aspects of dengue].since the 1940s, the dengue epidemics occur more and more often in the pacific islands with an increased severity. for example, in new caledonia, outbreaks of dengue-like diseases have been reported since the end of the last century but the first epidemic due to an identified virus occurred in 1942-1943 and was caused by the den-1 type. the next, due to the den-2 type, was reported thirty years later, in 1972-1973. after that, three outbreaks burst between 1975 and 1990, caused successively by d ...19968924778
[the situation of dengue in the world].the situation of dengue in the world can be summarized as follows: 2,5 billions persons at risk, 60 millions cases per year, and 30 000 deaths per year. the four dengue serotypes, den-1, den-2, den-3 and den-4 are nearly human-specific. clinical symptoms of dengue vary from unapparent infection, mild febrile manifestations to hemorrhagic forms with or without shock syndrome. dengue viruses are transmitted by aedes mosquitoes, the most important vectors being aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus. t ...19968924780
[dengue in the americas].dengue fever is endemic from argentina to mexico, where serotypes 1, 2 and 4 are in wide circulation. after an absence of almost 20 years, serotype 3 arrived in central america in late 1994. over the past decade dengue has become a major public health problem in many of these countries, with an increase in the prevalence of dengue haemorrhagic fever and in the number of fatal cases. the situation is not new; there is evidence of a least eight pandemics from the early 19th century until the initi ...19968924781
[dengue in french guiana. history and present status].the evolution of dengue in french guiana has the same trend as in most tropical american countries, with emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) and endemicity of the disease. during the 1940's, several dengue-like outbreaks were reported from french guiana. then, the only dengue vector, aedes aegypti, was eradicated between 1950 and 1963, when it started to reinfest the country. by the end of the 1960's, new dengue epidemics with serological confirmation were described. after 1970, the firs ...19968924782
sensory aspects of host location in mosquitoes.visual, thermal and olfactory stimuli all contribute to blood meal host location in mosquitoes but olfaction is probably the dominant sensory modality used for this purpose. much attention has been devoted to the l-lactic acid receptor because it is well characterized and because its sensitivity is a major determinant of host responsiveness in the anautogenous species aedes aegypti. studies employing statistical analysis of close to 500 single unit recordings and the scanning electron microscope ...19968894299
dengue fever at the u.s.-mexico border, 1995-1996.dengue is a mosquito-transmitted acute disease caused by any of four virus serotypes (den-1, den-2, den-3 and den-4) and is characterized by acute manifestations that can include fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, nausea, and vomiting. on august 25, 1995, public health authorities in mexico notified the texas department of health (tdh) of an ongoing outbreak of dengue fever in the state of tamaulipas, which borders south texas. because of the year-round presence of the aedes aegypti mos ...19968927003
pathogenicity of the aedes albopictus parvovirus (aapv), a denso-like virus, for aedes aegypti mosquitoes.aapv, a denso-like virus isolated from a c6/36 clone of the aedes albopictus cell line, proved to be very pathogenic for aedes aegypti first and third instar larvae following per os infection. the mortality reached 90% in 10 days for larvae infected at the first instar. several factors, such as temperature, larval density and stage, and duration of contact with infectious particles, influenced infection. the virus titer in females surviving infection at the third larval instar reached 10(8) tcid ...19968931366
apyrase and alpha-glucosidase in the salivary glands of aedes albopictus.an apyrase and an alpha-glucosidase were detected in the salivary glands extracts of adult aedes albopictus. the apyrase is a 61,000 da secreted protein that hydrolyses atp and adp. this protein is synthe-sized in adults and is preferentially accumulated in the distal lateral lobes of the female salivary glands. the alpha-glucosidase is a secreted 67,000 da protein. this enzyme is synthesized during adult life and accumulated in the proximal-lateral lobes of both males and females. the results a ...19968925436
[ecology of aedes aegypti in africa and asia].aedes aegypti is originated from africa and expanded around the tropical world with a pantropical distribution in 1930. because of mosquito control, this extension decreased, but is still very important and threatening because of disease transmission. eggs of ae. aegypti can survive unfavorable conditions. larvae and pupae of ae. aegypti breed into natural or artificial containers, the last being the most important. artificial breeding-sites are mostly water storage containers and discarded cont ...19968924766
[the risk of urban yellow fever outbreaks in brazil by dengue vectors. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus].urban yellow fever (yf) epidemics have disappeared from brazil since about 50 years, but a selvatic cycle still exist. in many states, cases are more or less numerous each year. ae. aegypti was eradicated in 1954, re-appeared temporarily in 1967, and then definitively in 1976-1977. ae. aegypti is a vector of yellow few (yf), but also of dengue, whose first cases were reported in 1982. today, dengue is endemic in many regions. a second flavivirus vector, aedes albopictus is present since about te ...19968924767
[the yeast flora of blood-sucking mosquitoes].yeast flora composition has been studied in natural populations of blood-sucking mosquitoes of genera aedes. anopheles and culex dwelling in the territory of ukraine. the authors have distinguished 18 yeast species belonging to 7 genera. species candida famata, c. (yarrowia) lipolytica as well as the yeast of genera rhodotorula and cryptococcus dominate on the larvae and imago of mosquitoes. the distinguished strains are the components of normal microflora of blood-sucking mosquitoes and take no ...19968983519
changes in ribosomal protein rpl8 mrna during the reproductive cycle of the mosquito, aedes aegypti.changes in the abundance of ribosomal protein rpl8 mrna were compared with 18s rrna and vitellogenin mrna in fat body from adult female aedes aegypti during the reproductive cycle. levels of rpl8 mrna began to increase within 2 h after adult eclosion, peaked at about 24 h post-eclosion, and remained high throughout the next 48 h. during this same period, rrna abundance increased about 2-fold. after the bloodmeal, levels of rpl8 mrna gradually decreased over the next 48 h, while rrna levels incre ...19968969467
disposable containers as larval habitats for aedes aegypti in a city with regular refuse collection: a study in marília, são paulo state, brazil.in marília, brazil, refuse is collected at least every other day, yet non-useful, non-returnable containers such as cans, plastic bottles and tires account for almost half of the container habitats found positive for the aedes aegypti mosquito. a study was therefore conducted to investigate why these containers exist despite regular refuse collection and a high level of awareness of dengue prevention, and how the control program could most effectively respond. differing community perceptions as ...19968971274
nad(p)h-dependent production of oxygen reactive species by the salivary glands of the mosquito anopheles albimanus.salivary gland homogenates of the adult female mosquito anopheles albimanus, but not those of aedes aegypti, induced light production in the presence of nadph and luminol, indicating a nadph oxidase activity producing reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion) by the anopheline salivary homogenate. superoxide production by the anopheline salivary homogenate was also confirmed by the nadph-dependent, superoxide dismutase inhibitable, reduction of cytochrome c. the nadph oxidase reaction measured ...19968995793
peritrophic matrix proteins of anopheles gambiae and aedes aegypti.little is known about the composition and function of the mosquito peritrophic matrix (pm), a physical barrier that pathogens must traverse to complete their life cycles. anopheles gambiae and aedes aegypti pm proteins induced by blood or by a protein-free meal have been characterized by the use of 2-d gel electrophoresis and lectin-binding affinity assays. more than forty proteins have been identified in both species. over half of the pm proteins of both mosquitoes migrate identically. many pm ...19968933177
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