empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study.the skin lesion of early lyme disease, erythema migrans (em), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. because other skin lesions may resemble em, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of em is appropriate in regions where lyme disease is rare. we constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of em: treat all, observe, and serology as a function of the probability that a ...201324107201
ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern virginia.the incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern united states has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. the results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern virginia. since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected ...201324201057
single-tube real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ixodes affinis and ixodes scapularis.ixodes affinis neumann (1899) and ixodes scapularis say (1821) are tick vectors of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. ixodes affinis and i. scapularis are morphologically very similar, and as they are sympatric in the mid- and south-atlantic u.s. coastal states, their accurate identification is crucial to studies of disease and vector ecology in this area. this work describes a rapid, single-tube sybr(®) green-based real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ...201324192510
microbial communities and symbionts in the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae) from north china.close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in china, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. however, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in h. longicornis under natural conditions. in the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities ...201324499619
a nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. however, whether and how arthropod saliva counters nod-like (nlr) sensing remains elusive. nlrs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved i ...201324155744
the ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with babesia bovis.cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, babesia bovis. babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus rhipicephalus. the most prevalent species is rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. the transmission of b. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the r. microplus ovarian proteome ide ...201324330595
tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defences and pathogen transmission.ticks require blood meal to complete development and reproduction. multifunctional tick salivary glands play a pivotal role in tick feeding and transmission of pathogens. tick salivary molecules injected into the host modulate host defence responses to the benefit of the feeding ticks. to colonize tick organs, tick-borne microorganisms must overcome several barriers, i.e., tick gut membrane, tick immunity, and moulting. tick-borne pathogens co-evolved with their vectors and hosts and developed m ...201323971008
tick bites and red meat allergy.a novel form of anaphylaxis has been described that is due to ige antibody (ab) directed against a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). ongoing work regarding the cause and distribution of this ige response is reviewed.201323743512
comparison of a real-time pcr method with serology and blood smear analysis for diagnosis of human anaplasmosis: importance of infection time course for optimal test utilization.anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. we compared the performance of a published real-time pcr assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate anaplasma and ehrlichia species with blo ...201323637292
aggregate-reactivation activity of the molecular chaperone clpb from ehrlichia chaffeensis.rickettsiale diseases, including human monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis, are the second leading cause of the tick-borne infections in the usa and a growing health concern. little is known about how e. chaffeensis survives the host-induced stress in vertebrate and tick hosts. a molecular chaperone clpb from several microorganisms has been reported to reactivate aggregated proteins in cooperation with the co-chaperones dnak/dnaj/grpe (kje). in this study, we performed the fir ...201323667479
effect of latitude on the rate of change in incidence of lyme disease in the united states.tick-borne illnesses represent an important class of emerging zoonoses, with climate change projected to increase the geographic range within which tick-borne zoonoses might become endemic. we evaluated the impact of latitude on the rate of change in the incidence of lyme disease in the united states, using publicly available data.201325077101
what is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in united states national parks?united states national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. we assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal national park service documents and organismal ...201323540107
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospc alleles associated with human lyme borreliosis worldwide in non-human-biting tick ixodes affinis and rodent hosts in southeastern united states.comparative analysis of ospc genes from 127 borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains collected in european and north american regions where lyme disease is endemic and where it is not endemic revealed a close relatedness of geographically distinct populations. ospc alleles a, b, and l were detected on both continents in vectors and hosts, including humans. six ospc alleles, a, b, l, q, r, and v, were prevalent in europe; 4 of them were detected in samples of human origin. ten ospc alleles, a, ...201323263953
detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from louisiana black bears (ursus americanus luteolus).there are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern united states, which include: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis. the black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. we investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from louisiana black bears (ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in louisiana from june 2010 to ma ...201323415850
the rare ospc allele l of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, commonly found among samples collected in a coastal plain area of the southeastern united states, is associated with ixodes affinis ticks and local rodent hosts peromyscus gossypinus and sigmodon hispidus.the rare ospc allele l was detected in 30% of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains cultured from a tick species, ixodes affinis, and two rodent host species, peromyscus gossypinus and sigmodon hispidus, collected in a coastal plain area of georgia and south carolina, in the southeastern united states.201323220965
the effects of ingested mammalian blood factors on vector arthropod immunity and physiology.the blood feeding behavior of disease-transmitting arthropods creates a unique intersection between vertebrate and invertebrate physiology. here, we review host blood-derived factors that persist through blood digestion to affect the lifespan, reproduction, and immune responses of some of the most common arthropod vectors of human disease.201323370408
receptors for the neuropeptides, myoinhibitory peptide and sifamide, in control of the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis.tick salivary glands are important organs that enable the hematophagous feeding of the tick. we previously described the innervation of the salivary gland acini types ii and iii by a pair of protocerebral salivary gland neurons that produce both myoinhibitory peptide (mip) and sifamide (šimo et al., 2009b). in this study we identified authentic receptors expressed in the salivary glands for these neuropeptides. homology-based searches for these receptors in the ixodes scapularis genome sequence ...201323357681
meningoencephalitis from borrelia miyamotoi in an immunocompromised patient.ixodes ticks serve as vectors for borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease. globally, these ticks often concurrently harbor b. miyamotoi, a spirochete that is classified within the relapsing-fever group of spirochetes. although humans presumably are exposed to b. miyamotoi, there are limited data suggesting disease attributable to it. we report a case of progressive mental deterioration in an older, immunocompromised patient, and even though koch's postulates were not met, we posit b. miy ...201323323900
a novel approach, based on blsoms (batch learning self-organizing maps), to the microbiome analysis of ticks.ticks transmit a variety of viral, bacterial and protozoal pathogens, which are often zoonotic. the aim of this study was to identify diverse tick microbiomes, which may contain as-yet unidentified pathogens, using a metagenomic approach. dna prepared from bacteria/archaea-enriched fractions obtained from seven tick species, namely amblyomma testudinarium, amblyomma variegatum, haemaphysalis formosensis, haemaphysalis longicornis, ixodes ovatus, ixodes persulcatus and ixodes ricinus, was subject ...201323303373
transmission-blocking vaccines: focus on anti-vector vaccines against tick-borne diseases.tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. with the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. in this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking v ...201425503555
comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the ehrlichia muris-like (eml) agent, of ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern united states over a 15 year period (1997-2012).since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the department of defense human tick test kit program (httkp) of the us army public health command have been tested for pathogens by pcr. we noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. the aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of i. scapularis submitted from ...201425465046
mosquito akirin as a potential antigen for malaria control.the control of vector-borne diseases is important to improve human and animal health worldwide. malaria is one of the world's deadliest diseases and is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium, which are transmitted by anopheles spp. mosquitoes. recent evidences using subolesin (sub) and akirin (akr) vaccines showed a reduction in the survival and/or fertility of blood-sucking ectoparasite vectors and the infection with vector-borne pathogens. these experiments suggested the possibi ...201425472895
case report: molecular evidence of anaplasma platys infection in two women from venezuela.this article presents two case reports of anaplasma platys detection in two women from venezuela. both patients were exposed to rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling a. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and a. platys dna was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. these ca ...201425266347
pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the mexico-us border along the rio grande.transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. the complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. the rio grande serve ...201425453027
lyme disease, virginia, usa, 2000-2011.lyme disease, caused by the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern united states by the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis), is increasing in incidence and expanding geographically. recent environmental modeling based on extensive field collections of host-seeking i. scapularis ticks predicted a coastal distribution of ticks in mid-atlantic states and an elevational limit of 510 m. however, human lyme disease cases are increasing most dramatically at higher elevations in ...201425272308
virome analysis of amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis ticks reveals novel highly divergent vertebrate and invertebrate viruses.a wide range of bacterial pathogens have been identified in ticks, yet the diversity of viruses in ticks is largely unexplored. in the united states, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis are among the principal tick species associated with pathogen transmission. we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the viromes of these tick species and identified the presence of powassan virus and eight novel viruses. these included the most divergent nairovirus descr ...201425056893
review: unraveling lyme disease. 201424965960
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
lyme disease. 201425119621
microbial population analysis of the salivary glands of ticks; a possible strategy for the surveillance of bacterial pathogens.ticks are one of the most important blood-sucking vectors for infectious microorganisms in humans and animals. when feeding they inject saliva, containing microbes, into the host to facilitate the uptake of blood. an understanding of the microbial populations within their salivary glands would provide a valuable insight when evaluating the vectorial capacity of ticks. three tick species (ixodes ovatus, i. persulcatus and haemaphysalis flava) were collected in shizuoka prefecture of japan between ...201425089898
high-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in europe.due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout europe. therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. to accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (tbps), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from france, denmark, and the netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. this advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detect ...201425120960
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
massive infection of seabird ticks with bacterial species related to coxiella burnetii.seabird ticks are known reservoirs of bacterial pathogens of medical importance; however, ticks parasitizing tropical seabirds have received less attention than their counterparts from temperate and subpolar regions. recently, rickettsia africae was described to infect seabird ticks of the western indian ocean and new caledonia, constituting the only available data on bacterial pathogens associated with tropical seabird tick species. here, we combined a pyrosequencing-based approach with a class ...201424657860
clinical practice. lyme disease. 201424785207
delayed anaphylaxis to red meat masquerading as idiopathic anaphylaxis.anaphylaxis is traditionally recognized as a rapidly developing combination of symptoms that often includes hives and hypotension or respiratory symptoms. furthermore, when a specific cause is identified, exposure to this cause is usually noted to have occurred within minutes to 2 hours before the onset of symptoms. this case is of a 79-year-old woman who developed a severe episode of anaphylaxis 3 hours after eating pork. before 2012, she had not experienced any symptoms after ingestion of meat ...201424811014
detection of a borrelia species in questing gulf coast ticks, amblyomma maculatum.borrelia spp. are agents of lyme disease and relapsing fever, diseases which use ixodes hard ticks and ornithodoros soft ticks, respectively, as primary vectors. some relapsing fever spirochetes, such as b. miyamotoi, are also found in hard ticks. to date, no borrelia sp. is known to use the hard tick, amblyomma maculatum, as a vector. however, both b. burgdorferi and b. lonestari were recently detected in a. maculatum removed from hosts. in our study, dna extracts from 306 questing adult a. mac ...201424844970
the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in ixodes scapularis collected in the hudson valley, new york state.ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick, is capable of transmitting the pathogens that cause lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi), babesiosis (babesia microti), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum), and to a lesser extent powassan encephalitis (deer tick virus [dtv]). these pathogens represent significant public health problems, but little is known about the occurrence and co-infection prevalence of these pathogens in i. scapularis. here, we used standard pcr and pathogen-specific primers to ...201424689680
spatial distribution of counties in the continental united states with records of occurrence of amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae).in addition to being a major nuisance biter, the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), is increasingly recognized as an important vector of pathogens affecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. despite its notoriety, efforts have been lacking to define the spatial occurrence ofa. americanum in the continental united states with precision beyond that conveyed in continental-scale distribution maps. here we present a county-level distribution map for a. americanum generated by compiling ...201424724282
comparative bioinformatics, temporal and spatial expression analyses of ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting anion-transporting polypeptides (oatps) are an integral part of the detoxification mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates. these cell surface proteins are involved in mediating the sodium-independent uptake and/or distribution of a broad array of organic amphipathic compounds and xenobiotic drugs. this study describes bioinformatics and biological characterization of 9 oatp sequences in the ixodes scapularis genome. these sequences have been annotated on the basis of 12 transmembrane ...201424582512
gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in dermacentor silvarum.subolesin (4d8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. to date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. in this study, we cloned the open reading frame (orf) of d. silvarum 4d8 cdna (ds4d8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residu ...201424623890
insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats.this review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. we introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. our purpose is to provide the veterinary p ...201424393426
detection of lyme borrelia in questing ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and small mammals in louisiana.lyme borreliosis is caused by spirochetes from the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. in the united states, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.; johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner) is the most common cause of human lyme borreliosis. with >25,000 cases reported annually, it is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. although approximately 90% of cases are contained to the northeastern and great lake states, areas in canada and some southern states are ...201424605479
diversity of rickettsiales in the microbiome of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.ticks are important vectors for many emerging pathogens. however, they are also infected with many symbionts and commensals, often competing for the same niches. in this paper, we characterize the microbiome of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae), the lone star tick, in order to better understand the evolutionary relationships between pathogens and nonpathogens. multitag pyrosequencing of prokaryotic 16s rrna genes (16s rrna) was performed on 20 lone star ticks (including males, females, and ...201424162580
laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.the collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. the public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. the focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the united states. o ...201424396136
habitat and vegetation variables are not enough when predicting tick populations in the southeastern united states.two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by a. maculatum and dermacentor variabilis). there is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were ...201526656122
emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm.ticks, as vectors of several notorious zoonotic pathogens, represent an important and increasing threat for human and animal health in europe. recent applications of new technology revealed the complexity of the tick microbiome, which may affect its vectorial capacity. appreciation of these complex systems is expanding our understanding of tick-borne pathogens, leading us to evolve a more integrated view that embraces the 'pathobiome'; the pathogenic agent integrated within its abiotic and bioti ...201526610021
avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the united states.migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. we systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the united states from the neotropics for ticks. we screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including rickettsia species and borrelia burgdorferi. over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ti ...201526431964
human infection with ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, united states, 2007-2013(1).an ehrlichia muris-like (eml) pathogen was detected among 4 patients in minnesota and wisconsin during 2009. we characterized additional cases clinically and epidemiologically. during 2004-2013, blood samples from 75,077 patients from all 50 united states were tested by pcr from the groel gene for ehrlichia spp. and anaplasma phagocytophilum. during 2007-2013, samples from 69 (0.1%) patients were positive for the eml pathogen; patients were from 5 states: indiana (1), michigan (1), minnesota (33 ...201526402378
ticknet-a collaborative public health approach to tickborne disease surveillance and research.ticknet, a public health network, was created in 2007 to foster greater collaboration between state health departments, academic centers, and the centers for disease control and prevention on surveillance and prevention of tickborne diseases. research activities are conducted through the emerging infections program and include laboratory surveys, high-quality prevention trials, and pathogen discovery.201526291549
variation in the microbiota of ixodes ticks with regard to geography, species, and sex.ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of lyme disease on the east coast and in the upper midwest regions of the united states, yet the tick is also present in the southeast, where lyme disease is absent or rare. a closely related species, i. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the south but does not seem to transmit it to humans. in order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult i. scapularis and 13 adult i. affinis ticks captured i ...201526150449
comparative population genetics of two invading ticks: evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansions.two species of ixodid tick, ixodes affinis neumann and amblyomma maculatum koch, are simultaneously expanding their ranges throughout the mid-atlantic region of the us. although we have some understanding of the ecology and life history of these species, the ecological mechanisms governing where and how new populations establish and persist are unclear. to assess population connectivity and ancestry, we sequenced a fragment of the 16s mitochondrial rrna gene from a representative sample of indiv ...201526254575
ehrlichia meningitis mimicking aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case study for medical decision-making heuristics.thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (sah). subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (ct) scan to ascertain sah bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (csf) red blood cells (rbcs), which would be consistent with an a ...201527053985
modulation of host immunity by tick generation sequencing and proteomics have helped to comprehensively characterize gene expression in tick salivary glands at both the transcriptome and the proteome level. functional data are, however, lacking. given that tick salivary secretions are critical to the success of the tick transmission lifecycle and, as a consequence, for host colonization by the pathogens they spread, we thoroughly review here the literature on the known interactions between tick saliva (or tick salivary gland ...201526189360
comparative metagenomic profiling of symbiotic bacterial communities associated with ixodes persulcatus, ixodes pavlovskyi and dermacentor reticulatus ticks.ixodes persulcatus, ixodes pavlovskyi, and dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting western siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. using metagenomic 16s profiling, we evaluate bacterial commun ...201526154300
amblyomma americanum as a bridging vector for human infection with francisella tularensis.the γ-proteobacterium francisella tularensis causes seasonal tick-transmitted tularemia outbreaks in natural rabbit hosts and incidental infections in humans in the south-central united states. although dermacentor variabilis is considered a primary vector for f. tularensis, amblyomma americanum is the most abundant tick species in this endemic region. a systematic study of f. tularensis colonization of a. americanum was undertaken to better understand its potential to serve as an overwintering ...201526121137
abundance and infection rates of ixodes scapularis nymphs collected from residential properties in lyme disease-endemic areas of connecticut, maryland, and new york. 201526047204
conserved amblyomma americanum tick serpin19, an inhibitor of blood clotting factors xa and xia, trypsin and plasmin, has anti-haemostatic functions.tick saliva serine protease inhibitors (serpins) facilitate tick blood meal feeding through inhibition of protease mediators of host defense pathways. we previously identified a highly conserved amblyomma americanum serpin 19 that is characterised by its reactive center loop being 100% conserved in ixodid ticks. in this study, biochemical characterisation reveals that the ubiquitously transcribed a. americanum serpin 19 is an anti-coagulant protein, inhibiting the activity of five of the eight s ...201525957161
tick microbiome: the force within.ticks are obligate blood-feeders and serve as vectors of human and livestock pathogens worldwide. defining the tick microbiome and deciphering the interactions between the tick and its symbiotic bacteria in the context of tick development and pathogen transmission will likely reveal new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. descriptive observations on the tick microbiome that began almost a century ago serve as forerunners to the gathering momentum to define the tick m ...201525936226
vector potential and population dynamics for amblyomma inornatum.we studied the natural life cycle of amblyomma inornatum and its vector potential in south texas. this tick is distributed throughout south texas and most of central america. a. inornatum represented 1.91% of the ticks collected by carbon dioxide traps during a study of free-living ticks in the tamaulipan biotic province in south texas. the life cycle of a. inornatum in south texas showed a clear seasonal pattern consistent with one generation per year. nymphs emerged in the spring with a peak i ...201525881916
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
canine vector-borne infections in mauritius.canine vector-borne diseases have a worldwide distribution, but to the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out to evaluate their presence on the indian ocean island of mauritius. an investigation into canine vector-borne infections was conducted in dogs (n = 78) resident at an animal shelter in port louis, mauritius using a combination of traditional microscopy and serological methods.201525889893
borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern united states.the predominant human-biting tick throughout the southeastern united states is amblyomma americanum. its ability to transmit pathogens causing lyme disease-like illnesses is a subject of ongoing controversy. results of previous testing by the department of defense human tick test kit program and other laboratories indicated that it is highly unlikely that a. americanum transmits any pathogen that causes lyme disease. in contrast, a recent publication by clark and colleagues (k. l. clark, b. leyd ...201525788545
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
anaphylaxis to the carbohydrate side chain 2007, the monoclonal antibody cetuximab caused severe hypersensitivity reactions during the first infusion in a region of the southeastern united states. investigation of pretreatment sera established that they contained immunoglobulin (ig) e against the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), which is present on the fab of cetuximab. alpha-gal is a blood group substance of nonprimate mammals. these ige antibodies are also associated with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat (ie ...201525841549
the alpha-gal story: lessons learned from connecting the dots.anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal, and therefore establishing its cause is pivotal to long-term risk management. our recent work has identified a novel ige antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). ige to alpha-gal has been associated with 2 distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate-onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab and (2) delayed-onset anaphylaxis 3 to ...201525747720
rhipicephalus microplus and ixodes ovatus cystatins in tick blood digestion and evasion of host immune response.cystatins are a group of cysteine protease inhibitors responsible for physiological proteolysis regulation and present in a wide range of organisms. studies about this class of inhibitors in parasites have contributed to clarify their roles in important physiological processes, like blood digestion and modulation of host immune response during blood feeding. thus, cystatins are a subject of research on the development of new parasite control methods. additionally, the characterization of protein ...201525889092
transstadial transmission of borrelia turcica in hyalomma aegyptium ticks.borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other borrelia groups. the novel group of borrelia was initially isolated from hyalomma aegyptium ticks in turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from jordan to japan. however, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the patho ...201525695663
guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in europe.canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are important tick-borne diseases with a worldwide distribution. information has been continuously collected on these infections in europe, and publications have increased in recent years. prevalence rates are high for ehrlichia and anaplasma spp. infections in dogs from different european countries. the goal of this article was to provide a practical guideline for veterinary practitioners on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ehrlichiosis and anapla ...201525649069
tick-borne diseases in turkey: a review based on one health perspective.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (tbds) with zoonotic characteristics. in turkey, almost 19 tbds have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acantho ...201627977689
gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. in the united sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. of these diseases, lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. gray wolves (canis lupus) recolonized wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of ...201627898670
brazilian borreliosis with special emphasis on humans and horses.borreliosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called lyme disease in many countries of the northern hemisphere and lyme-like or baggio-yoshinari syndrome in brazil. however, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. brazilian lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and amblyomma and rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. thus, domes ...201627769883
bunyaviruses are common in male and female ixodes scapularis ticks in central pennsylvania.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the united states and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. recently, several novel viruses in the family bunyaviridae (south bay virus (sbv) and blacklegged tick phlebovirus (btpv)) were identified infecting female i. scapularis ticks collected in new york state. we used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female i. scapularis ticks collected in centr ...201627602290
systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.four general properti ...201627502490
passive surveillance of ixodes scapularis (say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in massachusetts.a passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the university of massachusetts for pcr testing. the vast majority of these ticks were ixodes scapularis from massachusetts (n = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. two taqman duplex qpcr assays were developed to test i. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesi ...201627248292
novel borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, bothriocroton concolor, in date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. recently, a borrelia sp. related to the relapsing fever (rf) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (tachyglossus aculeatus). the present study investigated the presence of borrelia in 97 bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in queensland, new south wales, and victoria, australia, using nested pcr with borrelia-specific primers ...201627301754
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from texas.lyme disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector ixodes scapularis. it is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the united states. to determine the seroprevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493) collected during the 2001-2015 hunting seasons, using indirect elisa. samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above) than the negative con ...201627366674
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in amblyomma americanum ticks in the southeastern united states: the case of selective compatibility. 201627222323
use of peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by immunofluorescence assay to document ehrlichia chaffeensis as a cause of febrile illness in nicaragua.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the united states. limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including central and south america but not nicaragua to date. diagnosis of e. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but ifa is impracti ...201627053675
rickettsia parkeri colonization in amblyomma maculatum: the role of superoxide dismutases.the gulf coast tick (amblyomma maculatum) is an arthropod vector of rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of american boutonneuse fever and an infectious agent of public health significance. in this study, we evaluated the biological significance of the superoxide dismutases (sods) of a. maculatum in hematophagy and r. parkeri colonization within the tick host.201627206371
disease vectors in the era of next generation sequencing.almost 20 % of all infectious human diseases are vector borne and, together, are responsible for over one million deaths per annum. over the past decade, the decreasing costs of massively parallel sequencing technologies have facilitated the agnostic interrogation of insect vector genomes, giving medical entomologists access to an ever-expanding volume of high-quality genomic and transcriptomic data. in this review, we highlight how genomics resources have provided new insights into the physiolo ...201627154554
expanded geographic distribution and clinical characteristics of ehrlichia ewingii infections, united states.ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis, spread through the bites of infected ticks, that is most commonly caused in the united states by infection with the bacterium ehrlichia chaffeensis. we retrospectively reviewed samples from an 18-month study of ehrlichiosis in the united states and found that e. ewingii was present in 10 (9.2%) of 109 case-patients with ehrlichiosis, a higher rate of infection with this species than had previously been reported. two patients resided in new jersey and indiana ...201627089171
erratum for stromdahl et al., borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern united states. 201627114565
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis at hamilton-wentworth, ontario.lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in canada, where the etiological agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. this study explores the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, collected at dundas, ontario (a locality within the region of hamilton-wentworth). using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and c ...201627226771
update on canine and feline blood donor screening for blood-borne update on the 2005 american college of veterinary internal medicine (acvim) consensus statement on blood donor infectious disease screening was presented at the 2015 acvim forum in indianapolis, indiana, followed by panel and audience discussion. the updated consensus statement is presented below. the consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate blood-borne pathogen testing for canine and feline blood donors in north america.201626806261
ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins sequentially secreted every 24 h during blood feeding.ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa. this study describes lc-ms/ms identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of i. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (bd), and spontaneously detached (sd). the 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity ...201626751078
tick-borne pathogen - reversed and conventional discovery of disease.molecular methods have increased the number of known microorganisms associated with ticks significantly. some of these newly identified microorganisms are readily linked to human disease while others are yet unknown to cause human disease. the face of tick-borne disease discovery has changed with more diseases now being discovered in a "reversed way," detecting disease cases only years after the tick-borne microorganism was first discovered. compared to the conventional discovery of infectious d ...201425072045
coxiella detection in ticks from wildlife and livestock in malaysia.recent studies have shown that ticks harbor coxiella-like bacteria, which are potentially tick-specific endosymbionts. we recently described the detection of coxiella-like bacteria and possibly coxiella burnetii in ticks found from rural areas in malaysia. in the present study, we collected ticks, including haemaphysalis bispinosa, haemaphysalis hystricis, dermacentor compactus, dermacentor steini, and amblyomma sp. from wildlife and domesticated goats from four different locations in malaysia. ...201627763821
preparing the "new" biologist of the future: student research at the interface of mathematics and biology.we describe a unique research experience for undergraduates and research experience for veterinary students summer program at the national institute for mathematical and biological synthesis on the campus of the university of tennessee, knoxville. the program focused on interdisciplinary research at the interface of biology and mathematics. participants were selected to work on projects with a biology mentor and a mathematics mentor in an environment that promoted collaboration outside of the st ...201020810963
a 60-year meta-analysis of tick paralysis in the united states: a predictable, preventable, and often misdiagnosed poisoning.tick paralysis (tp) is a neurotoxic poisoning primarily afflicting young girls in endemic regions. recent case series of tp have described increasing misdiagnoses of tp as the guillain-barré syndrome (gbs). a meta-analysis of the scientific literature was conducted using internet search engines to assess the evolving epidemiology of tp. fifty well-documented cases of tp were analyzed over the period 1946-2006. cases were stratified by demographics, clinical manifestations, and outcomes. misdiagn ...201020186584
small regulatory rnas of rickettsia conorii.small regulatory rnas comprise critically important modulators of gene expression in bacteria, yet very little is known about their prevalence and functions in rickettsia species. r. conorii, the causative agent of mediterranean spotted fever, is a tick-borne pathogen that primarily infects microvascular endothelium in humans. we have determined the transcriptional landscape of r. conorii during infection of human microvascular endothelial cells (hmecs) by strand-specific rna sequencing to ident ...201627834404
virulence functions of autotransporter proteins. 200111179284
the p53-dependent effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor revealed by gene targeting.macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) is a mediator of host immunity and functions as a high, upstream activator of cells within the innate and the adaptive immunological systems. recent studies have suggested a potentially broader role for mif in growth regulation because of its ability to antagonize p53-mediated gene activation and apoptosis. to better understand mif's activity in growth control, we generated and characterized a strain of mif-knockout (mif-ko) mice in the inbred, c57bl/ ...200312878730
correlations between bacterial ecology and mobile dna.several factors can affect the density of mobile dna in bacterial genomes including rates of exposure to novel gene pools, recombination, and reductive evolution. these traits are difficult to measure across a broad range of bacterial species, but the ecological niches occupied by an organism provide some indication of the relative magnitude of these forces. here, by analyzing 384 bacterial genomes assigned to three ecological categories (obligate intracellular, facultative intracellular, and ex ...201020577742
identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. these intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. we used a polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry assay designed to detect a wide range of vectorborne microorganisms to characterize endosymbiont genetic signatures from amblyomm ...201222897044
biology of francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica live vaccine strain in the tick vector dermacentor variabilis.the γ-proteobacterium francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of seasonal tick-transmitted tularemia epizootics in rodents and rabbits and of incidental infections in humans. the biology of f. tularensis in its tick vectors has not been fully described, particularly with respect to its quanta and duration of colonization, tissue dissemination, and transovarial transmission. a systematic study of the colonization of dermacentor variabilis by the f. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine ...201222530023
molecular and functional characterization of vacuolar-atpase from the american dog tick dermacentor variabilis.vacuolar (v)-atpase is a proton-translocating enzyme that acidifies cellular compartments for various functions such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and protein degradation. previous studies in dermacentor variabilis chronically infected with rickettsia montanensis have identified v-atpase as one of the tick-derived molecules transcribed in response to rickettsial infection. to examine the role of the tick v-atpase in tick-rickettsia interactions, a full-length 2887-b ...201324164319
the genome sequence of lone star virus, a highly divergent bunyavirus found in the amblyomma americanum tick.viruses in the family bunyaviridae infect a wide range of plant, insect, and animal hosts. tick-borne bunyaviruses in the phlebovirus genus, including severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) in china, heartland virus (hrtv) in the united states, and bhanja virus in eurasia and africa have been associated with acute febrile illness in humans. here we sought to characterize the growth characteristics and genome of lone star virus (lsv), an unclassified bunyavirus originally isola ...201323637969
amblyomma americanum tick saliva serine protease inhibitor 6 is a cross-class inhibitor of serine proteases and papain-like cysteine proteases that delays plasma clotting and inhibits platelet aggregation.we previously demonstrated that amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor 6 (aams6) was secreted into the host during tick feeding and that both its mrna and protein were ubiquitously and highly expressed during the first 3 days of tick feeding. this study demonstrates that aams6 is a cross-class inhibitor of both serine- and papain-like cysteine proteases that has apparent antihaemostatic functions. consistent with the typical inhibitory serpin characteristics, enzyme kinetics analyse ...201323521000
ehrlichia chaffeensis replication sites in adult drosophila melanogaster.ehrlichia chaffeensis is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium which causes the tick-borne disease human monocytic ehrlichiosis. in vertebrates, e. chaffeensis replicates in monocytes and macrophages. however, no clear cell or tissue tropism has been defined in arthropods. our group identified two host genes that control e. chaffeensis replication and infection in vivo in drosophila, uridine cytidine kinase and separation anxiety. using the uas-gal4 rnai system, we generated f1 flies ...201323306065
reproducible and quantitative model of infection of dermacentor variabilis with the live vaccine strain of francisella tularensis.pathogen life cycles in mammalian hosts have been studied extensively, but studies with arthropod vectors represent considerable challenges. in part this is due to the difficulty of delivering a reproducible dose of bacteria to follow arthropod-associated replication. we have established reproducible techniques to introduce known numbers of francisella tularensis strain lvs from mice into dermacentor variabilis nymphs. using this model infection system, we performed dose-response infection exper ...201425362054
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