squalene: a naturally abundant mammalian skin secretion and long distance tick-attractant (acari: ixodidae).squalene is a naturally occurring lipid on mammalian skin and is an attractant to the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.). in this study, we compared squalene to the standard tick-attractants, benzaldehyde, isobutyric acid, methyl salicylate, nonanoic acid, and o-nitrophenol identified as active ingredients of tick aggregation-attachment pheromones and determined its effectiveness in field and laboratory settings at varying distances. squalene was detected from 1/4 m greater than the stand ...199910467784
evidence of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in ixodes ricinus ticks in switzerland.a total of 1,667 ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five regions in switzerland where there have been sporadic occurrences of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and horses. the ticks were examined for rickettsiae of the ehrlichia phagocytophila group via nested pcr. twenty-one ticks (1.3%) were positive; 3 (0.5%) were nymphs, 6 (1.3%) were adult males, and 12 (1.9%) were adult females. the number of positive ticks varied with the stage of development and with the geographical origin. nucleo ...199910203481
molecular typing of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochete that causes human lyme borreliosis (lb), is a genetically and phenotypically divergent species. in the past several years, various molecular approaches have been developed and used to determine the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the lb-related spirochetes and their potential association with distinct clinical syndromes. these methods include serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, dna-dna reassociation analysis, rrna gene restri ...199910515907
attachment sites of four tick species (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing humans in georgia and south carolina.from june 1995 through january 1998, 677 tick specimens were submitted by 521 humans from 14 states. analysis was limited to specimens originating in georgia and south carolina, representing 87.3% of total submissions. attachment sites were specified in 367 specimens (62.3%). the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say), a vector of the agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, favored the head and neck in 59% of attached specimens. the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), a strongly i ...199910337108
comparison of ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with e. muris as metropolitan tokyo, the ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in hinohara village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. this finding suggests that the reservoir of e. muris is focal. among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 apodemus speciosus mice and 1 a. argenteus mouse, respectively. five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (haemaphysalis flava) collected in asuke town, aichi prefecture, where the e. muris type strain had be ...199910074536
palp-splaying behavior and a specific mouthpart site associated with active water vapor uptake in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).ticks actively absorb water vapor from unsaturated air via their mouthparts. a wax technique was used to cover select areas of the mouthparts of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), to examine whether a specific site is involved in uptake. covering dorsal, ventral, and distal regions failed to inhibit uptake, whereas wax applied to the proximal region, specifically the hypostome-cheliceral junction, blocked water absorption. a novel occurrence of a palp-splaying behavior was observed d ...199910337109
effects of environmental ph on membrane proteins in borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, alternates between the microenvironments of the tick vector, ixodes scapularis, and a mammalian host. the environmental conditions the spirochete encounters during its infectious cycle are suspected to differ greatly in many aspects, including available nutrients, temperature, and ph. here we identify alterations in the membrane protein profile, as determined by immunoblotting and two-dimensional nonequilibrium ph gradient gel electropho ...199910377088
genetic diversity of the 28-kilodalton outer membrane protein gene in human isolates of ehrlichia chaffeensis.the ehrlichia chaffeensis 28-kda outer membrane protein (p28) gene was sequenced completely by genomic walking with adapter pcr. the dna sequence of the p28 gene was nearly identical to the previously reported sequence (n. ohashi, n. zhi, y. zhang, and y. rikihisa, infect. immun. 66:132-139, 1998), but analysis of a further 75 bp on the 5' end of the gene revealed dna that encoded a 25-amino-acid signal sequence. the leader sequence was removed from the n terminus of a 30-kda precursor to genera ...199910074538
attempted transmission of human granulocytotropic ehrlichia (hge) by amblyomma americanum and amblyomma maculatum.transstadial transmission of human granulocytotrophic ehrlichia (hge) was attempted in dogs using amblyomma americanum (l.) and a. maculatum koch, two species that, as adults, feed readily on human beings. larvae and nymphs were acquisition-fed on a dog that was parasitemic with hge. two months later, following digestion of the blood meal and subsequent molting to nymphal or adult stage, these ticks were fed to repletion on hge-naive dogs. none of the dogs developed clinical evidence of ehrlichi ...19979195722
ticks parasitizing humans in georgia and south carolina.from 1990 through 1995, 913 ticks removed from 460 human patients in georgia or south carolina were identified and recorded. the majority of these specimens (758, 83.0%) were lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum. one hundred and four (11.4%) american dog ticks dermacentor variabilis, 36 (3.9%) blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis, 9 (1.0%) gulf coast ticks amblyomma maculatum, and 6 (0.7%) brown dog ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus were also recovered. all active stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults ...19968636862
comparison of methods for introducing and producing artificial infection of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) with ehrlichia chaffeensis.only 29.5 +/- 8.91% of engorged amblyomma americanum (l.) nymphs that we inoculated with ehrlichia chaffeensis molted successfully to adults compared with 75.8 +/- 7.46% of engorged nymphs that were not inoculated. however, 65.4 +/- 6.02% of unfed nymphs of this species were exposed for 2 h to e. chaffeensis suspension introduced to them through glass capillaries gained weight. these nymphs were placed on rabbits, and approximately 50% of them completed their feeding and molted successfully to a ...199910467766
tick avoidance behaviors associated with a decreased risk of anti-tick salivary gland protein antibody seropositivity in military personnel exposed to amblyomma americanum in arkansas.during april through september 1990, 399 military personnel who originated from either fort chaffee, arkansas (n = 236) or fort wainwright, alaska (n = 163) were studied during maneuvers in tick-infested areas at fort chaffee. study subjects completed a questionnaire and had pre- and post-maneuvers serum specimens analyzed for antibodies to several rickettsial and ehrlichial agents and to amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) salivary gland proteins (anti-tick saliva antibodies [atsa], a biologi ...19968916798
prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from the georgia coast and barrier islands.human monocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging zoonosis caused by infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson, jones & wilson, which is transmitted to mammals by ixodid ticks. prevalence of infected ticks and distribution of infection foci indicate relative risk of human exposure to ehrlichiosis and may be influenced by factors such as geographic isolation, human disturbance, and the availability of suitable mammalian reservoir hosts. to test, this, individual and pooled lone star ticks, ...200010730500
prostaglandin e2 in the salivary glands of the female tick, amblyomma americanum (l.): calcium mobilization and exocytosis.a cholera toxin-sensitive, prostaglandin e2 (pge2) specific receptor has been identified in the plasma membrane fraction of tick salivary glands. in the present study, we report that stimulation of dispersed salivary glands of the lone star tick amblyomma americanum (l.) with 1 nm to 10 microm pge2 increased the intracellular concentration of inositol trisphosphate (ip3) in a dose-dependent manner. incubation of dispersed tissue with 1 nm to 10 microm pge2 also stimulated release of 45ca2+ from ...19989684330
molecular cloning and characterization of the ehrlichia chaffeensis variable-length pcr target: an antigen-expressing gene that exhibits interstrain variation.a clone expressing an immunoreactive protein with an apparent molecular mass of 44 kda was selected from an ehrlichia chaffeensis arkansas genomic library by probing with anti-e. chaffeensis hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid. nucleotide sequencing revealed an open reading frame (orf) capable of encoding a 198-amino-acid polypeptide. the orf contained four imperfect, direct, tandem 90-bp repeats. the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences did not show close homologies to entries in the molecul ...199910203503
detection and identification of ehrlichia, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and bartonella species in dutch ixodes ricinus ticks.a sensitive and specific pcr hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of ehrlichia and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. in separate assays the 16s rrna gene of ehrlichia species and the 23s-5s rrna spacer region of b. burgdorferi sensu lato were amplified and labeled by pcr. these pcr products were used in a reverse line blot hybridization assay in which oligonucleotide probes are covalently linked to a membrane in parallel lines. hybridization of the s ...199910364588
physician-diagnosed erythema migrans and erythema migrans-like rashes following lone star tick differentiate cases of physician-diagnosed erythema migrans and erythema migrans-like rashes associated with lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) bites.19989722725
serologic evidence of a natural infection of white-tailed deer with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in wisconsin and maryland.white-tailed deer participate in the maintenance of the ixodes tick life cycle and are reservoirs for some tick-borne infectious agents. deer may be useful sentinels for tick-transmitted agents, such as ehrlichiae. in order to determine whether white-tailed deer are markers of natural transmission or are reservoirs for the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent, we performed indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (ifa) tests and immunoblotting with the hge agent and ehrlichia chaffeensis on se ...19989801331
q fever.q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of new zealand. the disease is caused by coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of c. burnetii in nature. c. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. however, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being r ...199910515901
identification of ehrlichia chaffeensis by nested pcr in ticks from southern china.a total of 717 ticks collected from southern china were examined by nested pcr for the presence of ehrlichia chaffeensis. sixteen (55. 2%) of 29 adult amblyomma testudinarium ticks and 28 (11.7%) of 240 adult and at least 4.2% of 215 nymphal (pooled specimens) haemaphysalis yeni ticks tested positive. four other species of ticks were negative. selected positive amplicons were confirmed by dna sequencing.200010878087
new ehrlichia species closely related to ehrlichia chaffeensis isolated from ixodes ovatus ticks in ehrlichia strains (six hf strains and one anan strain) that were obtained from laboratory mice by intraperitoneally inoculating homogenates of adult ixodes ovatus collected in japan were characterized. 16s rrna sequences of all six hf strains were identical, and the sequences were 99.7, 98.2, and 97.7% identical to those of anan strain, ehrlichia chaffeensis (human monocytic ehrlichiosis agent), and e. muris, respectively. partial groel amino acid sequencing also revealed that the six hf s ...200010747103
molecular cloning of camp-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit isoforms from the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.).the salivary glands of ixodid ticks are central to tick feeding and to survival during off-host periods. they produce and secrete a number of molecules critical to maintaining the complex host-vector interface and to maintaining osmotic balance. we have previously shown that a cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase (capk) is involved in the mechanism of salivary gland secretion. we have now cloned cdnas encoding three isoforms of the catalytic subunit (capk-c) of the capk from amblyomma americanum, ...199910070744
a state-by-state survey of ticks recorded from humans in the united states.based on tick specimens accessioned into the u.s. national tick collection, the species of ticks recorded as ectoparasites of humans are documented and compared for 49 u.s. states. a total of 44 tick species was recorded as parasites of humans, consisting of 11 species of soft ticks (argasidae) and 33 species of hard ticks (ixodidae). four of the hard tick species are not native to the u.s. and were removed from travelers returning from foreign destinations. therefore, we record 40 of the 84 spe ...200010925803
prevalence of ehrlichia ewingii in amblyomma americanum in north carolina. 200010979750
prostaglandin e(2)-stimulated secretion of protein in the salivary glands of the lone star tick via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway.previous studies identified a prostaglandin e(2) (pge(2)) receptor in the salivary glands of partially fed female lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.). in the present studies, protein secretion from dispersed salivary gland acini was shown to be specific for pge(2), as compared with pgf(2alpha) or the thromboxane analog u-46619, in accordance with their respective binding affinities for the pge(2) receptor. furthermore, the selective pge(2) ep1 receptor agonist, 17-phenyl trinor pge(2), wa ...200010989297
detection of the agent of heartwater, cowdria ruminantium, in amblyomma ticks by pcr: validation and application of the assay to field ticks.we have previously reported that the pcs20 pcr detection assay for cowdria ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater disease of ruminants, is more sensitive than xenodiagnosis and the pcs20 dna probe for the detection of infection in the vector amblyomma ticks. here, we further assessed the reliability of the pcr assay and applied it to field ticks. the assay detected dna of 37 isolates of c. ruminantium originating from sites throughout the distribution of heartwater and had a specificity ...200010747140
detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis dna in amblyomma americanum ticks in connecticut and rhode island.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, is transmitted by amblyomma americanum ticks, which are most abundant in the southern united states. because serologic evidence suggests that residents of connecticut are exposed to e. chaffeensis, a. americanum ticks were collected in connecticut and rhode island for pcr analysis to detect e. chaffeensis dna. eight of 106 (7.6%) a. americanum ticks from connecticut and 6 of 52 (11.5%) from rhode island contained e. chaf ...200011101616
what's eating you? amblyomma ticks (amblyomma americanum). 200011109142
host association and seasonal activity of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in missouri.from june 1993 through june 1996, 2,260 adult, 4,426 nymphal, and 2,178 larval lone star ticks amblyomma americanum (l.) were collected in missouri from vertebrate hosts and by dragging a cloth over vegetation. prevalence, mean intensity, and relative abundance of each stage varied among hosts. the relative abundance of adult lone star ticks was highest on white-tailed deer, but this stage was also collected from raccoons, opossum, red fox, coyotes, and wild turkey. nymphs were collected from gr ...200011128501
isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia, rickettsia peacockii, in a rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni, cell embryonic cell line (dae100) of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni, was observed by microscopy to be chronically infected with a rickettsialike organism. the organism was identified as a spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia by pcr amplification and sequencing of portions of the 16s rrna, citrate synthase, rickettsia genus-specific 17-kda antigen, and sfg-specific 190-kda outer membrane protein a (rompa) genes. sequence analysis of a partial rompa gene pcr fragment and indirec ...200111157215
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis.although borrelia theileri, the agent of bovine borreliosis, was described at the turn of the century (in 1903), its relationship with borreliae causing lyme disease or relapsing fever remains undescribed. we tested the previously published hypothesis that spirochetes infecting lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) may comprise b. theileri by analyzing the 16s ribosomal dnas (rdnas) and flagellin genes of these spirochetes. b. theileri, the amblyomma agent, and b. miyamotoi formed a natural gro ...200111158095
tick infestations of birds in coastal georgia and alabama.mist-netted birds were examined for ticks on jekyll island, glynn co., georgia (32 bird species) in 1996-1998, and at fort morgan, baldwin co., alabama (36 species) in 1998 during fall migration. sixty-two (14.7%) of 423 birds from jekyll island and 22 (13.3%) of 165 birds from fort morgan were infested with ticks. the mean number of ticks per infested bird was 2.0 on jekyll island and 6.3 at fort morgan. ten species of birds were infested with ticks on jekyl1 island where 87% of all ticks were ...200010780541
infection rates of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) by ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: ehrlichieae) and prevalence of e. chaffeensis-reactive antibodies in white-tailed deer in southern indiana, monitor the percentage and stability of ehrlichia chaffeensis-infected ticks in southern indiana over time, pools of amblyomma americanum (l.) ticks were screened for infection in southern indiana for a 2nd time. nested polymerase chain reaction (with 6% dmso included only in the 2nd reaction) was performed on 920 ticks in pools of 5 individuals from 9 sites (5 sites previously examined and 4 new ones) in 6 counties. the average minimum infection rate for all sites for 1997 was 1.6%, lower th ...199910593071
human ehrlichioses: newly recognized infections transmitted by ticks.human ehrlichioses are tick-borne infections caused by bacteria in the genus ehrlichia. human monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by an agent similar to ehrlichia equi. e. chaffeensis infects mononuclear phagocytes and is transmitted by lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) found in the south central and eastern united states. the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis infects mostly neutrophils, it transmitted by ixodes spec ...19989509259
isolation, cultivation, and characterization of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the charleston area of south carolina.twenty-eight borrelia burgdorferi isolates from the charleston, s.c., area are described. this represents the first report and characterization of the lyme disease spirochete from that state. the isolates were obtained from december 1994 through december 1995 from the tick ixodes scapularis, collected from vegetation, and from the rodents peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mouse), neotoma floridana (eastern wood rat), and sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat). all isolates were screened immunologically by i ...200010618074
interdigital gland substances of white-tailed deer and the response of host-seeking ticks (acari: ixodidae).host-seeking male and female blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, exhibited an arrestant response when contacting substances from front and rear interdigital glands of male and female white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann). female i. scapularis responded positively to substances from interdigital glands on the fore legs and hind legs of female deer, whereas male i. scapularis responded only to samples from the fore legs of does. these results showed that previously reported ...200111268681
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing wild turkeys (aves: phasianidae) in eastern kansas.during the spring and fall turkey hunting seasons of 1999, hunters and kansas department of wildlife and parks field personnel examined wild turkeys, meleagris gallopavo l., for ticks and submitted them to us for identification. from springtime hunting, we received 113 ticks from 12 turkeys killed in nine counties, all in the eastern one-third of kansas. collectors reported examining three additional wild turkeys on which no ticks were found. all ticks were nymphal lone star ticks, amblyomma ame ...200111268682
natural infection of domestic goats with ehrlichia chaffeensis.thirty-eight domestic goats from an area of ehrlichia chaffeensis endemicity were tested for antibodies reactive to e. chaffeensis and for e. chaffeensis-specific 16s rrna gene fragments by an indirect fluorescent antibody test and a nested pcr assay, respectively. twenty-eight of 38 (73.7%) goats had antibodies reactive to e. chaffeensis (>/=1:128), and 6 of 38 (15.8%) goats were positive by diagnostic pcr; e. chaffeensis was isolated in cell culture from one goat. our data indicate that goats ...200010618139
fine specificity of autoantibodies to calreticulin: epitope mapping and characterization.extracellular calreticulin (crt) as well as anti-crt antibodies have been reported in patients with various autoimmune disorders and crt has been implicated in 'epitope spreading' to other autoantigens such as the ro/ss-a complex. in addition, antibodies against parasite forms of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, crt, have been found in patients suffering from onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. in this study, we screened sera for anti-crt antibodies from patients with active and inactive sys ...200010792392
ticks of south carolina (acari: ixodoidea).county and host records are reported for 19 species of ticks from south carolina: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, amblyomma tuberculatum, aponomma latum, boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor variablis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes affinis, ixodes brunneus, ixodes cookei, ixodes marxi, ixodes minor, ixodes scapularis, ixodes texanus, ixodes woodi, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ornithodoros capensis. ixodes woodi is recorded from south ...199910672552
short report: study on the efficacy of a new long-acting formulation of n, n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) for the prevention of tick attachment.the beneficial effects of n, n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) against biting insects of human and animals appear to last <6 hr after a single application to the skin. to prolong the repellent effects of deet, recently we developed a new long-acting formulation of deet called lipodeet. this preparation was retained in the skin for a longer duration of time with minimal systemic absorption. in this study, we have evaluated the protective effect of three compounds (deet, lipodeet, and morpel 220) again ...200010813468
prevalence of lyme disease borrelia spp. in ticks from migratory birds on the japanese mainland.borrelia sp. prevalence in ticks on migratory birds was surveyed in central japan. in autumn, a total of 1,733 birds representing 40 species were examined for ticks. a total of 361 ticks were obtained from 173 birds of 15 species, and these ticks were immature haemaphysalis flava (94.4%), haemaphysalis longicornis, ixodes columnae, ixodes persulcatus, ixodes turdus, and an unidentified ixodes species. of these, 27 juveniles of h. flava on turdus pallidus, turdus cardis, or emberiza spodocephala, ...200010698761
identification of ehrlichia spp. and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ticks in the baltic regions of russia.the presence and distribution of ehrlichia spp. and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was demonstrated among ixodid ticks collected in the baltic regions of russia, where lyme borreliosis is endemic. a total of 3,426 ixodes ricinus and 1,267 ixodes persulcatus specimens were collected, and dark-field microscopy showed that 265 (11.5%) i. ricinus and 333 (26.3%) i. persulcatus ticks were positive. from these samples, 472 dark-field-positive and 159 dark-field-negative ticks were subjected to pcr an ...200111376063
helminthic transmission and isolation of ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of potomac horse fever, by using trematode stages from freshwater stream snails.we report successful helminthic transmission of ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of potomac horse fever, using trematode stages collected from juga yrekaensis snails. the ehrlichial agent was isolated from the blood of experimentally infected horses by culture in murine monocytic cells and identified as e. risticii ultrastructurally and by characterization of three different genes.200010699046
analysis of lipids in the salivary glands of amblyomma americanum (l.): detection of a high level of arachidonic acid.analysis of lipids in salivary glands of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, demonstrated that arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) comprises 8% of all fatty acids identified by gas chromatography. the occurrence of arachidonic acid and other c20 polyunsaturated fatty acids in tick salivary glands was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. arachidonate is located entirely in the phospholipid fraction and is associated exclusively with phosphatidylcholine (pc) and phosphatidylethanolami ...19938324244
ehrlichia chaffeensis in missouri ticks.a nested polymerase chain reaction specific for ehrlichia chaffeensis was used to attempt to amplify dna from extracts of 100 individual ticks collected from 13 counties in central missouri. seventeen of 59 amblyomma americanum and six of 41 dermacentor variabilis ticks exhibited the characteristic 389-basepair product. this supports the hypothesis that these tick species may be vectors of human monocytic ehrlichiosis.19989790445
isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from dermacentor andersoni salivary gland.a 36-kda immunosuppressant protein (da-p36) was isolated from salivary glands of feeding female ixodid ticks dermacentor andersoni, using its affinity for ultralink biosupport medium (pierce, rockford, illinois)/protein complexes. using a nested set of forward degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to da-p36 n-terminal amino acids, a cdna encoding the immunosuppressant protein was isolated by 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends. the resulting 772-base pair cdna encodes a novel protein ...200010864249
ixodid ticks on white-tailed deer and feral swine in florida.a state-wide survey was conducted in florida during the 1997-99 hunting seasons to examine white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (sus scrofa) for potential indigenous vectors of the rickettsial agent of heartwater, cowdria ruminantium. a total of 504 white-tailed deer and 166 feral swine was examined from 30 wildlife management areas across the state. amblyomma maculatum, an experimental vector of c. ruminantium, was common on both deer and feral swine throughout the state. ...200111469190
comparison of efficacy of american and african amblyomma ticks as vectors of heartwater (cowdria ruminantium) infection by molecular analyses and transmission trials.the ability of amblyomma americanum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma maculatum, and amblyomma variegatum to acquire and transmit cowdria ruminantium infection was investigated. uninfected nymphs were fed on clinically reacting c. ruminantium-infected sheep and then analyzed for infection by specific dna detection assays and by tick transmission trials. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the mean infection prevalence of a. maculatum ticks (50.7%) was similar to that of a. variegatum, elevage str ...200010701562
theileria sp. infections associated with bovine fatalities in the united states confirmed by small-subunit rrna gene analyses of blood and tick samples.theileria sp.-specific small subunit (ssu) rrna gene amplification confirmed the presence of the organism in cattle and in amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis ticks collected from a cattle herd in missouri. blood from the index animal had type a and type d theileria ssu rrna genes. the type d gene was also found in blood from two cohort cattle and tick tissues. the type a ssu rrna gene was previously reported from bovine theileria isolates from texas and north carolina; the type d ge ...199910449501
antibody-mediated elimination of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen ehrlichia chaffeensis during active is generally accepted that cellular, but not humoral immunity, plays an important role in host defense against intracellular bacteria. however, studies of some of these pathogens have provided evidence that antibodies can provide immunity if present during the initiation of infection. here, we examined immunity against infection by ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. studies with mice have demonstrated that immunocompetent strai ...200010722619
the '4-poster' passive topical treatment device to apply acaricide for controlling ticks (acari: ixodidae) feeding on white-tailed deer.a '4-poster' device that attracts white-tailed deer to a bait source, and as they feed, allows a self-application of a pesticide to the head, ears, and neck to control ticks was designed, constructed, and tested. the device consists of a central bin containing bait to attract deer and two feeding and application stations. these stations each have one bait port and two vertical pesticide-impregnated applicator rollers. this design allows unrestricted vertical retraction of the head to minimize in ...200010916301
distribution of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: rickettsiaeceae) in amblyomma americanum in southern indiana and prevalence of e. chaffeensis--reactive antibodies in white-tailed deer in indiana and ohio in continue monitoring the prevalence and distribution of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: rickettsiaeceae) in southern indiana, a total of 498 amblyomma americanum (l.) ticks (262 adults and 292 nymphs) was collected from five southern indiana counties during may and june 1998. ticks were pooled and examined for the presence of e. chaffeensis using nested polymerase chain reaction and primers specific for the 16s rrna gene of e. chaffeensis. the average minimum infection rate for adult tic ...200010916302
effects of habitat structure on the retention of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) adults during drag sampling surveys.the ability of ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) to remain on drags, once acquired, was tested in sparse and dense shrub layer vegetation. when placed on bottoms of drags, adults of both species remained attached for distances three to four times greater in sparse vegetation compared with dense vegetation. when attached to the tops of drags, the differences in retention of ticks on drags between vegetation densities were significant only for a. americanum. in dense vegetation, ...200111476345
animal model of fatal human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis.human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis is a life-threatening, tick-borne, emerging infectious disease for which no satisfactory animal model has been developed. strain hf565, an ehrlichial organism closely related to e. chaffeensis isolated from ixodes ovatus ticks in japan, causes fatal infection of mice. c57bl/6 mice became ill on day 7 after inoculation and died on day 9. the liver revealed confluent necrosis, ballooning cell injury, apoptosis, poorly formed granulo ...200111159213
risk of lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a lone star tick-infested community.lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) have been suggested as a vector of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in the usa, based on associations with an infection manifesting mainly as erythema migrans. in laboratory experiments, however, they failed to transmit b. burgdorferi sensu stricto.200111693973
prevalence of infection in ticks submitted to the human tick test kit program of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive 1997, ticks removed from humans and received alive by the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine (usachppm) were tested for pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). thirty-three of 222 (15%) amblyomma americanum (l.) dnas produced amplicons of the expected size of ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson & wilson and 26/222 (12%) produced amplicons indicating borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigalt & brenner. five (2% ...200111268694
birds disperse ixodid (acari: ixodidae) and borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks in canada.a total of 152 ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) consisting of nine species was collected from 82 passerine birds (33 species) in 14 locations in canada from 1996 to 2000. the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwaldt & brenner was cultured from the nymph of a blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, that had been removed from a common yellowthroat, geothlypis trichas l., from bon portage island, nova scotia. as a result of bird movement, a nymphal i. scapula ...200111476328
effects of pyriproxyfen on off-host water-balance and survival of adult lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae).newly engorged nymphs of the lone star tick, amblyoma americanum (l.), were continuously exposed to 4 microg/cm2 of pyriproxyfen residues in glass vials. treatment of engorged nymphs (n = 285) resulted in significant molting inhibition, with more than one-fourth (26.7%, n = 76) of nymphs dying before or during ecdysis. treatment effects were evident among ticks that molted to the adult stage, with 26.7% (n = 76) of females, and 17.9% (n = 51) of males exhibiting moribund physical characteristics ...200111476341
different activities and footwear influence exposure to host-seeking nymphs of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).the relative potential for a person accidentally acquiring host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, and lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), while wearing either of two types of footwear, walking, crawling on hands and knees, and sitting on large fallen logs in deciduous woods, was evaluated. although flag samples indicated substantial populations of i. scapularis nymphs and low to moderate numbers of a. americanum at the study sites, relatively few i. scapularis ...200111476342
western blot analysis of sera reactive to human monocytic ehrlichiosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agents.laboratory diagnosis of human ehrlichioses is routinely made by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using cultured ehrlichia-infected whole cells as antigen. concern has been raised that incorrect diagnoses of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) or human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) may be made on the basis of serologic cross-reactivity between ehrlichia chaffeensis and the agent of hge. the present study examined whether two recombinant major outer membrane proteins, rp30 and rp44, tha ...200111682518
distribution, abundance, and seasonal activities of ticks collected from rodents and vegetation in south carolina.ixodid ticks were collected from live-trapped rodents and by flagging vegetation at sites in the piedmont, sandhills, coastal plain, and coastal zone of south carolina from may 1994 through december 1995. a total of 1,514 ticks was recovered from 237 live-trapped rodents. host-attached species included ixodes minor neumann (n = 818), dermacentor variabilis (say) (n = 346), amblyomma maculatum koch (n = 209), ixodes affinis neumann (n = 89), and ixodes scapularis say (n = 52). species of questing ...19989673934
identification and characterization of a homologue of the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the tick, amblyomma americanum.studying tick feeding and digestion, we discovered in a cdna library from partially fed amblyomma americanum ticks the first known arthropod homologue of a human cytokine, the pro-inflammatory macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif). the tick origin of the mif cdna clone was confirmed by sequencing a genomic fragment that contained the full-length tick mif gene with two introns. antiserum to a tick mif-specific peptide as well as antiserum to complete tick mif revealed the expression of tic ...200111520355
analysis of the expressed genome of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) using an expressed sequence tag expressed sequence tag (est) approach was used to study the genome of two developmental stages of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. cdna libraries were constructed from the larval and adult stages of a. americanum. in total, 1942 ests were sequenced (1462 adult ests and 480 larval ests) and analyzed using bioinformatic programs. contig assembly using the capii program revealed 11% and 15% redundancy of sequences in the larval and adult ests, respectively. of the 1942 ests, 1738 sequen ...200011087176
ehrlichia ewingii infection in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis and e. ewingii, are transmitted by amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. because white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of a. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of e. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with e. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. to test for e. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reaction ...200212095432
sensitive detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis in cell culture, blood, and tick specimens by reverse transcription-pcr.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium of monocytes and macrophages and the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, an emerging zoonosis. the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) has been implicated as the primary vector of e. chaffeensis. the present study examined the sensitivity of the nested reverse transcription (rt)-pcr based on the 16s rrna gene relative to that of the nested pcr for detection of e. chaffeensis in infected dh82 cells, experimentally infec ...200111158090
lone-star tick bite of the conjunctiva. 200111735801
dermacentor variabilis and boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae): experimental vectors of babesia equi to equids.the experimental vector competence of five laboratory-reared ixodid tick species representing three genera [amblyomma americanum (l.), boophilus microplus (canestrini), d. andersoni stiles, d. occidentalis marx, and d. variabilis (say)] for babesia equi (laveran 1901) was evaluated by delayed transfer of male ticks from infected to susceptible equids or by infesting the latter animals with adult ticks previously fed as nymphs on infected equids. after feeding for 5, 6, or 13 d on acquisition hos ...200212144301
simultaneous detection of anaplasma marginale and a new ehrlichia species closely related to ehrlichia chaffeensis by sequence analyses of 16s ribosomal dna in boophilus microplus ticks from identify ehrlichial agents in boophilus microplus ticks, dna samples of b. microplus collected from the tibet autonomous region and sichuan province of china were screened by a nested pcr. sixteen of 43 (37%) dna samples of b. microplus from tibet were positive in nested pcr analysis. all 27 samples from sichuan were negative. the screen identified two ehrlichial agents based on different 16s rrna genes that were found after amplifying and sequencing the 5'-end fragments of the 16s rrna genes ...200212202567
amblyomma americanum: specific uptake of immunoglobulins into tick hemolymph during feeding.the passage of immunoglobulins in the blood meal into hemolymph prompts development of vaccines against internal antigens of ticks, but little is known about kinetics and specificity of the immunoglobulin uptake. we used capillary feeding of adult amblyomma americanum hard ticks to introduce compounds into the midgut and then examined the hemolymph after various times for their presence and concentration. immunoglobulins of different sources, albumin, choramphenicol acetyltransferase, inulin, an ...200011162374
prevalence of ectoparasites in a population of feral cats from north central florida during the summer.ectoparasites are a common and important cause of skin disorders in cats. ectoparasites are capable of disease transmission and can cause life-threatening anemia in young or debilitated animals. the objective of this study was to determine the potential feline ectoparasites in domestic cats by using a cohort of feral cats from north central florida that have not received veterinary care and have no known exposure to insecticide application. a total of 200 feral cats were randomly selected for th ...200212383632
the effect of male ticks on the feeding performance of immature stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).a unique group of immunoglobulin-binding proteins (igbps), produced by ixodid male ticks during the latter half of their prolonged feeding period, improves the feeding performance of co-feeding females. as a follow-up to this observation, we investigated whether male tick feeding also affects the feeding of other developmental stages. immature stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreeille) and amblyomma americanum (l.) were fed on rabbits in the presence or absence of conspecific males. the mea ...200011201360
identification of snare and cell trafficking regulatory proteins in the salivary glands of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.).prostaglandin e(2) (pge(2)) stimulates secretion of tick salivary gland proteins via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway and mobilization of intracellular ca(2+) (). highly conserved intracellular snare (soluble nsf attachment protein receptors) complex proteins are associated with the mechanism of protein secretion in vertebrate and invertebrate neuronal and non-neuronal cells. proteins in the salivary glands of partially fed female lone star ticks cross-react individually with antibodies to s ...200212429123
analysis of transcriptionally active gene clusters of major outer membrane protein multigene family in ehrlichia canis and e. chaffeensis.ehrlichia canis and e. chaffeensis are tick-borne obligatory intramonocytic ehrlichiae that cause febrile systemic illness in humans and dogs, respectively. the current study analyzed the pleomorphic multigene family encoding approximately 30-kda major outer membrane proteins (omps) of e. canis and e. chaffeensis. upstream from seca and downstream of hypothetical transcriptional regulator, 22 paralogs of the omp gene family were found to be tandemly arranged except for one or two genes with oppo ...200111254561
identity and synthesis of prostaglandins in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), as assessed by radio-immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.high concentrations of pge(2) and pgf(2alpha) were identified by radio-immunoassay (ria) and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) in the hemolymph, salivary glands and saliva of the lone star tick amblyomma americanum (l.). binding studies indicated that pge(2) was free and not bound to any proteins in the hemolymph. a small amount of 6-keto-pgf(1alpha) (breakdown product of pgi(2); prostacyclin) was also found in the salivary glands but not in the hemolymph or saliva. neither pgd(2) ...200211804805
ticks (acari: ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a georgia barrier island.from september 1997 through july 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on st. catherine's island, liberty county, ga. seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature s ...200111296828
effects of selected meterological factors on diurnal questing of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidade).the diurnal questing behavior of adult ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) were monitored in the field to determine whether ticks would be collected with greater frequency during certain times of the day and under certain ambient meteorological conditions. temperature and relative humidity explained a significant amount of the total variation in tick collections. although both species were collected during every period, i. scapularis adults tended to quest earlier and later in th ...200111296842
detection of borrelia lonestari in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from tennessee.genetic sequences characteristic of borrelia lonestari (barbour et al. 1996) were detected in two pools of adult amblyomma americanum (l.) from tennessee, corresponding to an estimated minimum field infection rate of 8.4 infected ticks/1000 adults. dna amplification was conducted using primers derived from the b. lonestari flagellin gene that would also amplify borrelia burgdorferi (johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner). species-specific, internal probes were then used to differentiat ...200312597661
efficacy of granular deltamethrin against ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidade) nymphs.a single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of ixodes scapularis say nymphs. the application also suppressed the population of amblyomma americanum (l.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. the efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.200111296847
borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an amblyomma americanum tick.erythematous rashes that are suggestive of early lyme disease have been associated with the bite of amblyomma americanum ticks, particularly in the southern united states. however, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, has not been cultured from skin biopsy specimens from these patients, and diagnostic serum antibodies usually have not been found. borrelia lonestari sp nov, an uncultured spirochete, has been detected in a. americanum ticks by dna amplification techniques, bu ...200111372036
borrelia lonestari dna in adult amblyomma americanum ticks, alabama.polymerase chain reaction analysis of 204 amblyomma americanum and 28 a. maculatum ticks collected in august 1999 near the homes of patients with southern tick-associated rash illness and in control areas in choctaw county, alabama, showed borrelia lonestari flagellin gene sequence from two adult a. americanum. the presence of b. lonestari in a. americanum ticks from alabama suggests that this suspected pathogen may be widespread in the southeastern united states.200111384533
invasion and intracellular development of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in tick cell culture.human granulocytotropic ehrlichias are tick-borne bacterial pathogens that cause an acute, life-threatening illness, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). ehrlichias within neutrophil granulocytes that invade tick bite sites are likely ingested by the vector, to be transmitted to another mammalian host during the tick's next blood meal. thus, the cycle of replication and development in the vector is prerequisite to mammalian infection, and yet these events have not been described. we report tic ...199910405394
quantitative analyses of variations in the injury of endothelial cells elicited by 11 isolates of rickettsia rickettsii.eleven isolates of spotted fever group rickettsiae from the blood of patients or ixodid ticks from north and south america were characterized. all isolates were identified as rickettsia rickettsii using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 532-bp rompa gene fragment obtained by pcr. the ability of the r. rickettsii isolates to elicit cytopathic effects and parameters of oxidative injury were examined in cultured human ea.hy 926 endothelial cells. cytopathic effects were determi ...200111427428
a method for extraction and analysis of high quality genomic dna from ixodid ticks.currently, no published methods describe the extraction of high molecular weight genomic dna from ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) and commonly used methods of extraction are not well adapted for use with members of this family. a method for extraction of minimally degraded genomic dna from ixodid ticks that can be completed in one or two days is described. the method produces dna which is of sufficient size (>24 kb) for use in southern analysis and which is readily digestible by restriction endon ...200312823841
serodiagnosis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by using novel combinations of immunoreactive recombinant proteins.a panel of seven recombinant antigens, derived from ehrlichia phagocytophila (the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), was evaluated by class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for utility in the diagnosis of the infection. fourteen genomic fragments, obtained by serologic expression screening, contained open reading frames (orfs) encoding 16 immunodominant antigens. eleven of these antigens were members of the major surface protein (msp) multigene family. alignment of th ...200111427556
genetic heterogeneity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the southern united states based on restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis.fifty-six strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in missouri, south carolina, georgia, florida, and texas, were identified and characterized by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons. a total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5s) and rrl (23s) was amplified by pcr. msei and drai restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these ...200111427560
comparison of ehrlichia chaffeensis recombinant proteins for serologic diagnosis of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis.diagnosis of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme) generally depends on serology that detects the antibody response to immunodominant proteins of ehrlichia chaffeensis. protein immunoblotting was used to evaluate the reaction of the antibodies in patients' sera with the recombinant e. chaffeensis 120- and 28-kda proteins as well as the 106- and the 37-kda proteins. the cloning of the genes encoding the latter two proteins is described in this report. immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that ...199910405403
coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a walker hound kennel in north carolina.both dogs and humans can be coinfected with various ehrlichia, bartonella, rickettsia, and babesia species. we investigated a kennel of sick walker hounds and their owners in southeastern north carolina for evidence of tick-borne infections and associated risk factors. a high degree of coinfection was documented in the dog population. of the 27 dogs, 26 were seroreactive to an ehrlichia sp., 16 to babesia canis, and 25 to bartonella vinsonii, and 22 seroconverted to rickettsia rickettsii antigen ...199910405413
molecular and antigenic comparison of ehrlichia canis isolates from dogs, ticks, and a human in venezuela.we previously culture isolated a strain of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in venezuela. in the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with e. canis in venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. pcr analysis using e. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of the 55 dog blood samples (31%) and all three pools of four rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks each were positive. an ehrlichial agent (venezuelan ...200111473993
developmental profiles of ecdysteroids, ecdysteroid receptor mrnas and dna binding properties of ecdysteroid receptors in the ixodid tick amblyomma americanum (l.).total body ecdysteroid titers were determined at specific stages during the larval and nymphal life of amblyomma americanum (l.). one ecdysteroid peak was observed following the completion of larval apolysis. however, two distinct ecdysteroid peaks occurred at a comparable stage in the nymphal molting cycle. the first occurred following apolysis and the second peak occurred at about the time of ecdysis. when whole body profiles of ecr and rxr mrnas were examined during the molting cycle using rt ...200211886781
ticks parasitizing dogs in northwestern georgia.from january 1998 through september 1999, 324 dogs in three northwestern georgia counties were examined for ticks. six species of ticks were recovered. the three most commonly collected ticks were the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say) (310 male male, 352 female female; prevalence, 97%; mean intensity 2.1); the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (118 male male, 119 female female, 38 nymphs; prevalence, 22%; mean intensity, 3.8); and the lone star tick, amblyomma am ...200211931241
a survey for nymphs of host-seeking ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) on tree trunks in deciduous forests.trunks of 83 trees in a mixed deciduous forests in maryland were sampled for the presence of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, and the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.). although one or more nymphs of either i. scapularis or a. americanum was found in leaf litter and substrate < or = 1 m from the bases of 47% of the trees sampled, a total of 6 i. scapularis nymphs was found on the trunks of only five trees. no nymphs were found on the trunks of 12 dead trees. no a. a ...200211931264
evaluation of three commercial tick removal evaluate three commercially available tick removal tools against medium-tipped nontissue tweezers.199811990185
comparison of differentially expressed genes in the salivary glands of male ticks, amblyomma americanum and dermacentor andersoni.genes expressed differentially in the salivary glands of unfed and fed male ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), were identified, cloned and sequenced, and some were compared with those expressed in the salivary glands of dermacentor andersoni. total protein and rna increased sixfold in the salivary glands of fed male a. americanum, while in fed male d. andersoni salivary glands, rna increased approximately 3.5 times. feeding d. andersoni in the presence of females increased total rna by 25% over t ...200212020839
analysis of serum and whole blood values in relation to helminth and ectoparasite infections of feral pigs in the summers of 1996 and 1997, 60 wild pigs (sus scrofa) were necropsied from three sites in south texas (usa) to test the hypothesis that serum and whole blood parameters vary significantly (p < or = 0.05) with the prevalence and intensity of parasites infecting wild pigs. we found ten parasite species: five nematodes (metastrongylus salmi, metastrongylus pudentotectus, stephanurus dentatus, oesophagostomum dentatum, and physocephalus sexalatus); four ixodid ticks (amblyomma cajennense, ambly ...200212038138
the omp-1 major outer membrane multigene family of ehrlichia chaffeensis is differentially expressed in canine and tick hosts.sixteen of 22 omp-1 paralogs encoding 28-kda-range immunodominant outer membrane proteins of ehrlichia chaffeensis were transcribed in blood monocytes of dogs throughout a 56-day infection period. only one paralog was transcribed by e. chaffeensis in three developmental stages of amblyomma americanum ticks before or after e. chaffeensis transmission to naïve dogs.200212117987
transmission of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa: adeleorina) by ixodids (acari: ixodidae).american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) caused by hepatozoon americanum vincent-johnson, macintire, lindsay, lenz, baneth, and shkap is an emerging, often fatal, tick-borne protozoal disease of dogs in the united states of america. dogs acquire infection by ingesting ticks that contain oocysts. to understand the invertebrate (definitive) host range of h. americanum, experiments were carried out using four ixodids, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille), dermacentor variabilis say, amblyomma americanu ...200212144294
determination of novel borrelia genospecies in swedish ixodes ricinus ticks.a total of 301 adult questing ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of sweden to determine the borrelia genospecies diversity. thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested pcr with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16s rrna gene and the flagellin gene. five different borrelia species were found. the nucleotide sequence of the borrelia dna found in two ...200212202571
the ascendancy of amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the united states.until the 1990s, amblyomma americanum was regarded primarily as a nuisance species, but a tick of minor importance as a vector of zoonotic pathogens affecting humans. with the recent discoveries of ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, and "borrelia lonestari," the public health relevance of lone star ticks is no longer in question. during the next 25 years, the number of cases of human disease caused by a. americanum-associated pathogens will probably increase. based on current trajectories ...200312414740
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