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modeling and biological control of mosquitoes.models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. at an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. when more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. there are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however, t ...017853610
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds c1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement cascade.in this study we characterized amblyomma americanum (aam) tick calreticulin (crt) homolog in tick feeding physiology. in nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. this suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. from this perspective it's plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as crt to regulate and facilitate feedin ...025454607
tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in mexico.tick-borne rickettsial diseases (tbrd) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. the control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. the geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. a total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 sta ...026726019
arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies, and analysis.effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium "advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis" presented at the 58th annual meeting of the entomological society of america in san diego, ca. interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring f ...026543242
frequency and distribution of rickettsiae, borreliae, and ehrlichiae detected in human-parasitizing ticks, texas, usa.to describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in texas, usa, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008-2014 for rickettsia, borrelia, and ehrlichia spp. thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial dna from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested.026811941
an insight into the microbiome of the amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with rickettsia parkeri. pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16s rrna was used to determine the total bacterial population in a. maculatum. pyrosequencing analysis identified rickettsia in a. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. the identity of rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the ric ...024605461
delayed anaphylaxis to red meat in patients with ige specific for galactose alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal).anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. in instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. our recent work has identified a novel ige antibody (ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intra ...023054628
delayed anaphylaxis involving ige to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.hypersensitivity in the allergic setting refers to immune reactions, stimulated by soluble antigens that can be rapidly progressing and, in the case of anaphylaxis, are occasionally fatal. as the number of known exposures associated with anaphylaxis is limited, identification of novel causative agents is important in facilitating both education and other allergen-specific approaches that are crucial to long-term risk management. within the last 10 years, several seemingly separate observations w ...026130470
heartland virus neutralizing antibodies in vertebrate wildlife, united states, 2009-2014.since its discovery in 2009, the tickborne heartland virus (hrtv) has caused human illness in missouri, oklahoma, and tennessee usa. to better assess the geographic distribution of hrtv, we used wildlife serology as an indicator. this retrospective evaluation determined that hrtv is widespread within the central and eastern united states.026401988
fatal monocytic ehrlichiosis in woman, mexico, 2013.human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. in mexico, a case of e. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. this diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels.027088220
exploring the link between pholcodine exposure and neuromuscular blocking agent anaphylaxis.neuromuscular blocking agents (nmbas) are the most commonly implicated drugs in ige-mediated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia that can lead to perioperative morbidity and mortality. the rate of nmba anaphylaxis shows marked geographical variation in patients who have had no known prior exposure to nmbas, suggesting that there may be external or environmental factors that contribute to the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of reactions. substituted ammonium ions are shared among nmbas and ar ...024251966
anti-gal: an abundant human natural antibody of multiple pathogeneses and clinical benefits.anti-gal is the most abundant natural antibody in humans, constituting ~ 1% of immunoglobulins. anti-gal is naturally produced also in apes and old world monkeys. the ligand of anti-gal is a carbohydrate antigen called the 'α-gal epitope' with the structure galα1-3galβ1-4glcnac-r. the α-gal epitope is present as a major carbohydrate antigen in non-primate mammals, prosimians and new world monkeys. anti-gal can contributes to several immunological pathogeneses. anti-gal ige produced in some indiv ...023578170
ecdysteroid 7,9(11)-dien-6-ones as potential photoaffinity labels for ecdysteroid binding proteins.three ecdysteroid 7,9(11)-dien-7-ones (dacryhainansterone, 25-hydroxydacryhainansterone and kaladasterone) were prepared by dehydration of the corresponding 11a-hydroxy ecdysteroids (ajugasterone c, turkesterone and muristerone a, respectively). the biological activities of the dienones in the drosophila melanogaster b(ii) cell bioassay, which reflect the affinity for the ecdysteroid receptor complex, showed that the dienones retain high biological activity. irradiation at 350 nm of the ecdyster ...015455045
molecular determinants of differential ligand sensitivities of insect ecdysteroid receptors.the functional receptor for insect ecdysteroid hormones is a heterodimer consisting of two nuclear hormone receptors, ecdysteroid receptor (ecr) and the retinoid x receptor homologue ultraspiracle (usp). although ecdysone is commonly thought to be a hormone precursor and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20e), the physiologically active steroid, little is known about the relative activity of ecdysteroids in various arthropods. as a step toward characterization of potential differential ligand recognition, we ...010805730
vertebrate host susceptibility to heartland virus.heartland virus (hrtv) is a recently described phlebovirus initially isolated in 2009 from 2 humans who had leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. serologic assessment of domestic and wild animal populations near the residence of 1 of these persons showed high exposure rates to raccoons, white-tailed deer, and horses. to our knowledge, no laboratory-based assessments of viremic potential of animals infected with hrtv have been performed. we experimentally inoculated several vertebrates (raccoons, goat ...027869591
donning your enemy's cloak: ground squirrels exploit rattlesnake scent to reduce predation risk.ground squirrels (spermophilus spp.) have evolved a battery of defences against the rattlesnakes (crotalus spp.) that have preyed on them for millions of years. the distinctive behavioural reactions by these squirrels to rattlesnakes have recently been shown to include self-application of rattlesnake scent-squirrels apply scent by vigorously licking their fur after chewing on shed rattlesnake skins. here, we present evidence that this behaviour is a novel antipredator defence founded on exploita ...018198147
basophils and type 2 immunity.mechanisms involved in the development of in-vivo type 2 immunity are poorly defined. basophils are potent il-4-producing cells and may contribute to the process of polarizing immune responses.018043247
unlocking holocentric chromosomes: new perspectives from comparative and functional genomics?the presence of chromosomes with diffuse centromeres (holocentric chromosomes) has been reported in several taxa since more than fifty years, but a full understanding of their origin is still lacking. comparative and functional genomics are nowadays furnishing new data to better understand holocentric chromosome evolution thus opening new perspectives to analyse karyotype rearrangements in species with holocentric chromosomes in particular evidencing unusual common features, such as the uniform ...023372420
bartonella spp. bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from lyme disease-endemic region.bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against bartonella henselae, b. koehlerae, or b. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. conditions diagnosed before referral included lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). b. henselae bacteremia w ...022516098
determinants of food allergy.food allergy is an emerging epidemic in the united states and the western world. the determination of factors that make certain foods allergenic is still not clearly understood. only a tiny fraction of thousands of proteins and other molecules is responsible for inducing food allergy. in this review, the authors present 3 examples of food allergies with disparate clinical presentations: peanut, soy, and mammalian meat. the potential relationships between allergen structure and function, emphasiz ...022244230
do noxious neighbors spread disease? 021123147
application of rna interference in tick salivary gland research.ticks are obligate ectoparasites that feed on a variety of hosts including mammals, birds and reptiles. prolonged attachment on the host and an ability to transmit a wide variety of pathogens are the special features of tick feeding. salivary glands are the major route for secretion of excess fluid, several proteins, and factors that counteract the host immune response and hence play a significant role in the success of tick feeding. rna interference (rnai) enables scientists to silence genes en ...016522848
mast cells in allergy and infection: versatile effector and regulatory cells in innate and adaptive immunity.mast cells are widely distributed in tissues, particularly near surfaces exposed to the environment. mast cells can be activated to secrete diverse mediators and cytokines by ige and specific ag and many other stimuli, including products derived from either pathogens or the host during innate immune responses. although mast cells are best known for their role in ige-associated allergic disorders, mast cells can also exacerbate models of autoimmunity, enhance the sensitization and/or effector pha ...020583030
rite of amblyomma americanum associated with possible tick paralysis. 194720340890
infestation of a raccoon by amblyomma americanum. 194720264533
insecticides to control the european corn borer in field corn. 194720264508
natural occurrence of tularemia in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanus (linn.), and in dogs in arkansas. 195413138839
the multiplication of tularemia organisms in the lone star tick. 195514376386
multiplication of tularemia organisms in the lone star tick. 195517648838
allergy in a horse due to amblyomma americanum. 196514296518
engorgement and reproduction of lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum (l.)) treated with gamma-radiation. 19665296972
control of the lone star tick on cattle. 19676081042
insecticides for control of the lone star tick tested in the laboratory and as high- and ultra-low-volume sprays in wooded areas. 19685662002
ecology of tick vectors of american spotted fever.the author reviews the natural history of the tick vectors of american spotted fever. the discussion concerns the ecology of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni, the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis, and the lone-star tick, amblyomma americanum, all of which are proven vectors of rocky mountain spotted fever to man. also included are the rabbit tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris and dermacentor parumapertus, which very rarely bite man but which are considered of import ...19695306621
arbovirus studies in the ohio-mississippi basin, 1964-1967. vii. lone star virus, a hitherto unknown agent isolated from the tick amblyomma americanum (linn). 19695810802
effect of age on the attachment rate of the parasitic stages of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (linnaeus) (acarina: ixodidae), in the laboratory. 19705435814
effect of age on the susceptibility of nymphs of the lone star tick to insecticides. 19705488795
environmental alteration in recreational areas by mechanical and chemical treatment as a means of lone star tick control. 19705441234
mating behavior and reproduction of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. 19705449398
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). i. the relationship between vegetative habitat type and tick abundance and distribution in cherokee co., oklahoma. 19715118876
the ecology of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), in two contrasting habitats in virginia (acarina: ixodidae). 19715153583
fine structure of tarsal sensilla in the tick amblyomma americanum (l.). 19715541841
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). ii. activity and survival in different ecological habitats. 19715153595
measurement of physical parameters to determine the suitability of modified woodlots as lone star tick habitat. 19715153596
water balance in the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae): the effects of relative humidity and temperature on weight changes and total water content. 19715160247
further observations on the control of lone star ticks (acarina: ixodidae) through integrated control procedures. 19715153597
age and susceptibility of nymphal lone star ticks to selected ixodicides. 19725008957
permeability of tarsal sensilla in the tick amblyomma americanum l. (acarina, ixodidae). 19724647364
ultrastructure of haller's organ in the tick amblyomma americanum (l.). 19724334800
a method of collecting nymphal and adult lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.) (acarina: ixodidae), from woodlots. 19725036200
preliminary observations on controlled burning for lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae) control in woodlots. 19725080432
chemo-attraction in the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). i. response of different developmental stages to carbon dioxide administered via traps. 19725057498
fine structural analysis of palpal receptors in the tick amblyomma americanum(l.). 19725042252
2,6-dichlorophenol, sex pheromone of the lone star tick.the compound 2,6-dichlorophenol was identified from female lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum, and is believed to be a sex pheromone of this arthropod. the natural occurrence of a chlorinated organic compound in a land animal is new. the presence of similar compounds of exogenous origin is common in animals, but efforts to implicate an outside source for the halogenated phenol have failed.19725054146
permeability of tarsal sensilla in the tick amblyomma americanum l. (acarina, ixodidae).ticks were submerged in silver-protein solution, prior to fixation for electron microscopy, in order to trace the pathway of molecules in supposed tarsal chemoreceptors. sensilla with radially arranged cuticular canals (100-200 a in diameter) leading to the centrally located dendrites show silver granules inside the canals and in the central lumen, thus directly making contact with the dendrites. sensilla with large, plugged pores (1200 a) exhibit an accumulation of silver granules in the pore o ...197218631584
the effects of desiccation and rehydration on the lone star tick. 19734773930
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). iv. the daily and seasonal activity patterns of adults in different habitat types. 19734744033
lone star tick: laboratory tests of acaricides. 19734770947
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). v. abundance and seasonal distribution in different habitat types. 19734779928
hematological changes in white-tailed deer fawns, odocoileus virgianianus, infested with theileria-infected lone star ticks. 19734202517
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). 3. the effect of season on molting time and post-molt behavior of engorged nymphs and adults. 19734707757
fine structure of the central nervous system of dermacentor variabilis (say), amblyomma americanum (l.), and argas arboreus kaiser, hoogstraal, and kohls (ixodoidea). 19744852052
control of 36c1 uptake by isolated salivary glands of the lone star tick. 19744412631
resistance of purebred brahman, hereford, and brahman times hereford crossbred cattle to the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acarina: ixodidae). 19744455918
control of fluid secretion by isolated salivary glands of the lone star tick. 19751194704
a review of the evidence in retrospect for a rickettsial etiology in bullis fever.the authors have presented evidence through work done 25-30 years ago for the rickettsial etiology of bullis fever, a forgotten epidemic which occurred with over a 1,000 cases among world war ii troops in training at camp bullis, texas. rickettsiae were recovered from blood and lymph nodes of patients and from ticks, amblyomma americanum, collected in the area. all patients gave a history of tick-bites. the human and tick strains of rickettsiae, carried in chick embryo culture and in animal pass ...19751103350
rocky mountain spotted fever (tick-borne typhus) in south carolina: an educational program and tick/rickettsial survey in 1973 and 1974.because the incidence of spotted fever is increasing in south carolina, campaigns were carried out in 1973 and 1974 to provide the public and medical practitioners, through pamphlets and news media, with information about spotted fever and the ticks which transmit the causative agent, rickettsia rickettsii. people were also invited to save and submit live ticks removed from vegetation, animals and humans, for examination by the hemolymph test. a total of 1,186 ticks consisting of 987 dermacentor ...1975811127
ion and water balance in the feeding lone star tick. 1975240578
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). vii. pre- and post-molt behavior of engorged nymphs and larvae. 19751223302
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). vi. response of unfed adults to certain environmental parameters. 19751223301
reproduction in ticks (acari: ixodoidea). 4. effects of mechanical and chemical stimulation on oocyte development in amblyomma americanum. 19751172534
the ecology and behavior of the lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae). x. adult overwintering and survival in woodlots. 1976978696
trypanosomes in amblyomma americanum from oklahoma. 1976978370
field evaluation of arthropod repellent netting as a ground cloth against ticks.tick repellent, wide-mesh net ground cloths were tested against amblyomma americanum (linnaeus) by the co2 bait technique. two repellents, n,n-diethyl-metatoluamide (deet) and 3 acetyl-2-(dimethyl-5-heptenyl)-oxazoladine, and two netting fabrics were compared. all combinations tested provided over 90% protection. the effectiveness of repellent ground cloths against chiggers is discussed.1976961999
amblyomma americanum: area control with granules or concentrated sprays of diazinon, propoxur, and chlorpyrifos. 197657127
adrenaline and cyclic amp stimulated uptake of chloride and fluid secretion by isolated salivary glands of the lone star tick. 19765239
the microanatomy of the eye of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) and resultant implications of its structure. 1977886559
effect of imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) invasion on lone star tick (acarina: ixodidae) populations. 1977606827
distribution and prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from south carolina, with an epidemiological survey of persons bitten by infected ticks.live ticks removed from human hosts were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae from 1974 through 1976. spotted fever group rickettsiae were detected in dermacentor variabilis, amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, and ixodes scapularis. persons from whom positive ticks were removed in 1974 and 1975 were questioned about ensuing illness. eleven of 51 persons from whom rickettsia-positive d. variabilis were removed reported some unexplained combination of symptoms compati ...1978103448
the relationship of phosphodiesterase and cyclic amp to the process of fluid secretion in the salivary glands of the ixodid tick amblyomma americanum.phosphodiesterase (pde) activity in the salivary glands of the female. amblyomma americanum decreased as the tick progressed from a slow to a rapid phase of feeding, while the rate of fluid secretion increased when glands were stimulated with cyclic amp and theophylline. dopamine stimulated pde activity and an 'inhibitory' factor was found in glands obtained from rapidly engorging ticks which decreased pde activity. these findings are discussed as they relate to the process of fluid secretion by ...1978212286
comparisons of the foveae dorsales in male and female ixodid ticks amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, dermacentor andersoni and d. variabilis (acari: ixodidae). 1979537001
prevalence of parasitism by amblyomma americanum on wild turkey poults as influenced by prescribed burning.captive-raised eastern wild turkey (meleagris gallopavo silvestris) poults were allowed to forage on either recently burned plots or on plots that had not been burned during the previous 3 years. following a two hour exposure on the study plots, external parasites were recovered from all poults. the louse (menacanthus stramineus) and the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) were the only parasites recovered. fifty-nine poults exposed to the burned plots had a significantly (p less than 0.001) l ...1979459047
laboratory evaluation of a sustained-release famphur bolus against gulf coast and lone star ticks feeding on hereford heifers. 1979536488
localized tick bite reaction.a woman presented with a localized tick bite reaction. the tick (amblyomma americanum, the "lone star" tick) was still attached to the erythematous, indurated skin of the upper back. after several unsuccessful attempts at removal, a punch biopsy was performed, and the resultant histologic sections incorporated both tick and involved skin. the various systemic and localized tick bite reactions are discussed, as are the diagnostic dilemmas which may arise when the organism is no longer present. pu ...1979477386
a comparison of lone star ticks on brahman and hereford cattle. 1979528749
ectoparasites collected from bobwhite quail in the southeastern united states.twenty-one species of ectoparasites representing 19 genera were collected from 481 bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus) from nine areas in four southeastern states. sixteen species, amblyomma americanum, haemaphysalis chordeilis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, eutrombicula alfreddugesi alfreddugesi, neoschoengastia americana, boydaia colini, pterolichus sp., colinophilus wilsoni, megninia sp., apionacarus wilsoni, colinoptes cubanensis, menacanthus pricei, colinicola numidiana, gonoides ortygis ...19807463603
amblyomma americanum: sequential histological analysis of larval and nymphal feeding sites on guinea pigs. 19807364007
amblyomma americanum: sequential histological analysis of adult feeding sites on guinea pigs. 19807371734
experimental transmission of african swine fever virus by ornithodoros coriaceus, an argasid tick indigenous to the united states.three ticks, indigenous to the united states, were assessed for their ability to maintain and transmit african swine fever virus (asfv). amblyomma americanum and a cajennense adults and nymphs maintained virus for 4 to 7 days after engorging on infected swine blood; however, virus was not carried through the subsequent molt of nymphs and it was not transmitted vertically to the eggs and larvae of the infected females. on refeeding of the ticks, infection was not transmitted to healthy swine. orn ...19807406278
fecundity and development of the lone star tick on woodlot-pastured braford and hereford heifers. 19807430489
control of the lone star tick in oklahoma parks through vegetative management. 19817320314
acaricide susceptibility in the lone star tick: assay techniques and baseline data. 19817320318
success of tick feeding on calves immunized with amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) extract. 19817265136
response of hypersensitized guinea pigs to the feeding of amblyomma americanum ticks.guinea pigs acquired resistance to the feeding of immature amblyomma americanum ticks after a single infestation. the initial larval and nymphal feedings resulted in cumulative mortalities of 27.2 and 28.9%, respectively. the second and third larval infestations yielded cumulative mortalities of 50.5 and 52.4%, compared to 18.9 and 24.4% cumulative mortality from controls. second and third nymphal feedings resulted in 75.7 and 73.4%, and ticks from controls exhibited 36.6 and 34.7% cumulative mo ...19817267146
suitability of birds and mammals as hosts for immature stages of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae). 19817288841
cutaneous basophil responses and immune resistance of guinea pigs to ticks: passive transfer with peritoneal exudate cells or serum.resistance to infestation by larval amblyomma americanum or rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks was transferred to naive guinea pigs with peritoneal exudate cells (pec) or serum from donors immunized by prior infestation with homologous tick larvae. in the a. americanum system, pec transfer induced 87% tick rejection, which was similar to the level of resistance in actively sensitized hosts. in the r. sanguineus system, pec conferred resistance (39% rejection) that was weaker than in actively sensiti ...19817299125
human 'seed tick' infestation. amblyomma americanum larvae. 19817316562
resistance and cross-resistance of guinea pigs to dermacentor andersoni stiles, d. variabilis (say), amblyomma americanum (linnaeus), and ixodes scapularis say.the ability of guinea pigs to acquire resistance to dermacentor andersoni and amblyomma americanum was determined by repeatedly infesting separate sets of guinea pigs with tick larvae. resistance was measured in terms of reduced numbers successfully engorging and reduced weight of those ticks that engorged. an 83% reduction in numbers of larvae engorging and a 64.5% reduction in the weight of engorged larvae were seen between the first and second infestations with d. andersoni. guinea pigs exhib ...19817328454
neurons sensitive to 2,6-dichlorophenol on the tarsi of the tick amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae). 19817328604
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