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evasins: therapeutic potential of a new family of chemokine-binding proteins from ticks.blood-sucking parasites, such as ticks, remain attached to their hosts for relatively long periods of time in order to obtain their blood meal without eliciting an immune response. one mechanism used to avoid rejection is the inhibition of the recruitment of immune cells, which can be achieved by a class of chemokine-binding proteins (ckbps) known as evasins. we have identified three distinct evasins produced by the salivary glands of the common brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. they dis ...201627375615
unique strain of borrelia miyamotoi in ixodes pacificus ticks, california, usa. 201627479523
antiplasmodial activity is an ancient and conserved feature of tick defensins.ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. the genome of the european tick vector, ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. these pathogens include fungi, gram-negative, and gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks duri ...201627822206
in vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus.the acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (rhipicephalus microplus). engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of southern brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (juniperus communis), palmarosa (cymbopogon martinii), cedar (cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (cymbopogon citratus), ginger (zingiber officinale), geranium (pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (citrus aurantium var bergamia) ...201627857849
the red meat allergy syndrome in sweden.in the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. the allergic responses are due to ige antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) found in mammalian meat. this review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-gal-containing proteins ...201627656352
arsenophonus nasoniae and rickettsiae infection of ixodes ricinus due to parasitic wasp ixodiphagus hookeri.arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified a. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. we confirmed that 28.1% of ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by a. nasoniae. moreover, in examined i. ricinus nymphs, a. nasoniae was detected on ...201626901622
first report of cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat from portugal.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging and life-threatening tick-borne feline disease caused by haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus cytauxzoon. information regarding epidemiological and clinical presentation of infections by species other than cytauxzoon felis is scant. a case of cytauxzoon sp. infection is described in a 2-year-old mixed breed male domestic cat from portugal, presenting a history of acute lethargy, anorexia and pyrexia.201627160193
population and evolutionary genomics of amblyomma americanum, an expanding arthropod disease vector.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is an important disease vector and the most frequent tick found attached to humans in the eastern united states. the lone star tick has recently experienced a rapid range expansion into the northeast and midwest, but despite this emerging infectious threat to wildlife, livestock, and human health, little is known about the genetic causes and consequences of the geographic expansion. in the first population genomic analysis of any tick species, we charact ...201627190204
development and validation of an improved pcr method using the 23s-5s intergenic spacer for detection of rickettsiae in dermacentor variabilis ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals.a novel nested pcr assay was developed to detectrickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23s-5s intergenic spacer (igs) ofrickettsiaspp. the newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic dna from 11rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherrickettsia-specific pcr targets (ompa,glta, and the 17-kda protein ...201626818674
tick-borne diseases in turkey: a review based on one health perspective.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (tbds) with zoonotic characteristics. in turkey, almost 19 tbds have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acantho ...201627977689
gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and humans.world-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. in the united sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. of these diseases, lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. gray wolves (canis lupus) recolonized wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of ...201627898670
brazilian borreliosis with special emphasis on humans and horses.borreliosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called lyme disease in many countries of the northern hemisphere and lyme-like or baggio-yoshinari syndrome in brazil. however, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. brazilian lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and amblyomma and rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. thus, domes ...201627769883
bunyaviruses are common in male and female ixodes scapularis ticks in central pennsylvania.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the united states and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. recently, several novel viruses in the family bunyaviridae (south bay virus (sbv) and blacklegged tick phlebovirus (btpv)) were identified infecting female i. scapularis ticks collected in new york state. we used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female i. scapularis ticks collected in centr ...201627602290
systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.four general properti ...201627502490
passive surveillance of ixodes scapularis (say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in massachusetts.a passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the university of massachusetts for pcr testing. the vast majority of these ticks were ixodes scapularis from massachusetts (n = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. two taqman duplex qpcr assays were developed to test i. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesi ...201627248292
novel borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, bothriocroton concolor, in australia.to date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. recently, a borrelia sp. related to the relapsing fever (rf) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (tachyglossus aculeatus). the present study investigated the presence of borrelia in 97 bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in queensland, new south wales, and victoria, australia, using nested pcr with borrelia-specific primers ...201627301754
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from texas.lyme disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector ixodes scapularis. it is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the united states. to determine the seroprevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493) collected during the 2001-2015 hunting seasons, using indirect elisa. samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above) than the negative con ...201627366674
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in amblyomma americanum ticks in the southeastern united states: the case of selective compatibility. 201627222323
use of peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by immunofluorescence assay to document ehrlichia chaffeensis as a cause of febrile illness in nicaragua.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the united states. limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including central and south america but not nicaragua to date. diagnosis of e. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but ifa is impracti ...201627053675
rickettsia parkeri colonization in amblyomma maculatum: the role of superoxide dismutases.the gulf coast tick (amblyomma maculatum) is an arthropod vector of rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of american boutonneuse fever and an infectious agent of public health significance. in this study, we evaluated the biological significance of the superoxide dismutases (sods) of a. maculatum in hematophagy and r. parkeri colonization within the tick host.201627206371
disease vectors in the era of next generation sequencing.almost 20 % of all infectious human diseases are vector borne and, together, are responsible for over one million deaths per annum. over the past decade, the decreasing costs of massively parallel sequencing technologies have facilitated the agnostic interrogation of insect vector genomes, giving medical entomologists access to an ever-expanding volume of high-quality genomic and transcriptomic data. in this review, we highlight how genomics resources have provided new insights into the physiolo ...201627154554
expanded geographic distribution and clinical characteristics of ehrlichia ewingii infections, united states.ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis, spread through the bites of infected ticks, that is most commonly caused in the united states by infection with the bacterium ehrlichia chaffeensis. we retrospectively reviewed samples from an 18-month study of ehrlichiosis in the united states and found that e. ewingii was present in 10 (9.2%) of 109 case-patients with ehrlichiosis, a higher rate of infection with this species than had previously been reported. two patients resided in new jersey and indiana ...201627089171
erratum for stromdahl et al., borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern united states. 201627114565
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis at hamilton-wentworth, ontario.lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in canada, where the etiological agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. this study explores the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, collected at dundas, ontario (a locality within the region of hamilton-wentworth). using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and c ...201627226771
update on canine and feline blood donor screening for blood-borne pathogens.an update on the 2005 american college of veterinary internal medicine (acvim) consensus statement on blood donor infectious disease screening was presented at the 2015 acvim forum in indianapolis, indiana, followed by panel and audience discussion. the updated consensus statement is presented below. the consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate blood-borne pathogen testing for canine and feline blood donors in north america.201626806261
ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins sequentially secreted every 24 h during blood feeding.ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa. this study describes lc-ms/ms identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of i. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (bd), and spontaneously detached (sd). the 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity ...201626751078
parasite infection of public databases: a data mining approach to identify apicomplexan contaminations in animal genome and transcriptome assemblies.contaminations from various exogenous sources are a common problem in next-generation sequencing. another possible source of contaminating dna are endogenous parasites. on the one hand, undiscovered contaminations of animal sequence assemblies may lead to erroneous interpretation of data; on the other hand, when identified, parasite-derived sequences may provide a valuable source of information.201728103801
molecular detection of rickettsia species in ticks collected from the southwestern provinces of the republic of korea.rickettsiae constitute a group of arthropod-borne, gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of diseases ranging from mild to life threatening that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide.201728069059
repellency of the origanum onites l. essential oil and constituents to the lone star tick and yellow fever mosquito.the oregano, origanum onites l., essential oil (eo) was tested in laboratory behavioural bioassays for repellent activity against amblyomma americanum (l.) and aedes aegypti (l.). the o. onites eo was characterised using gc-fid and gc-ms. carvacrol (75.70%), linalool (9.0%), p-cymene (4.33%) and thymol (1.9%) were the most abundant compounds. at a concentration of 0.413 mg oil/cm(2) of filter paper, o. onites eo repelled 100% of the ticks tested and at 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) of filter paper, 66.7% o ...201728278656
ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to amblyomma americanum av422: determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. one of the promising candidates for developing such a test is av422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. in this study, we demonstrate the potential of the av422 homologue from ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both prostriata and metastriata. we expressed recombinant (r) i. ricinus (ir) av422 in e. coli ...201728119040
borrelia burgdorferi dna absent, multiple rickettsia spp. dna present in ticks collected from a teaching forest in north central florida.tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the united states. in florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as b. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in north central fl ...201727720381
not all erythema migrans lesions are lyme disease.lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the us, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. however, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. this article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with lyme disease ...201727612442
risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the u.s. great plains.the prevalence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in many urban areas of the u.s., yet little is known about the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in relation to characteristics of north american urban and suburban landscapes. this study aimed to begin identification of the risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens within a rapidly expanding metropolitan area in the u.s. great plains region. ten sites across oklahoma city, oklahoma were selected for tick sampling ...201727773826
amblyomma americanum ticks infected with in vitro cultured wild-type and mutants of ehrlichia chaffeensis are competent to produce infection in naïve deer and dogs.monocytic ehrlichiosis in people caused by the intracellular bacterium, ehrlichia chaffeensis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. tick transmission disease models for ehrlichiosis require at least two hosts and two tick blood feeding episodes to recapitulate the natural transmission cycle. one blood feeding is necessary for the tick to acquire the infection from an infected host and the next feeding is needed to transmit the bacterium to a ...201727729288
concurrent examination of bobcats and ticks reveals high prevalence of cytauxzoon felis in southern illinois.cytauxzoon felis is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan of felids enzootic in the southeastern united states. in domestic cats (felis catus), this parasite can result in the highly fatal disease cytauxzoonosis or bobcat fever. bobcats (lynx rufus) are the wild animal reservoir host. to date, the characterization of prevalence of c. felis in bobcats is mostly based on broad-scale surveys from hunter-harvested specimens collected across large geographic areas, usually consisting of multiple states. ...201728355128
minimum transmission time of cytauxzoon felis by amblyomma americanum to domestic cats in relation to duration of infestation, and investigation of ingestion of infected ticks as a potential route of transmission.objectives the objectives of the present study were to determine the duration of infestation by amblyomma americanum necessary for transmission of cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats and to determine if ingestion of c felis-infected a americanum by cats is a route of transmission. methods forty-nine cats were assigned to one of seven groups, with seven cats per group. cats were infested with a americanum adults, acquisition fed as nymphs on a cytauxzoonosis survivor cat, for 12 h (group 1), 18 h ( ...201728151047
ability of three general-use pesticides to suppress nymphal ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).we evaluated 3 over-the-counter pesticides for their ability to suppress host-seeking ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum nymphs. we applied liquid concentrate and granular formulations of bayer advanced complete insect killer, spectracide triazicide insect killer, and ortho bug-b-gon to forest plots using equipment available for purchase at retail home improvement outlets. all 3 liquid formulations provided rapid knockdown (≥98% control) of both species 1 day after application. liquid or ...201728388324
the conclusion of a comparative efficacy study of fluralaner and sarolaner against the tick amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on results obtained at study times that are outside the fluralaner label recommendations.the only fluralaner-related conclusion presented in a study comparing the efficacy of fluralaner and sarolaner for control of the tick amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on study times that are outside the label administration recommendations. label recommendations for fluralaner treatment of a. americanum on dogs in the usa require re-administration at 56 days. this 56 day re-administration was not conducted in the study; therefore, all assessed time points following 56 days post-treatment i ...201728340604
a repertoire of protease inhibitor families in amblyomma americanum and other tick species: inter-species comparative analyses.protease inhibitors (pis) are important regulators of physiology and represent anti-parasitic druggable and vaccine targets. we conducted bioinformatic analyses of genome and transcriptome data to determine the protease inhibitor (pi) repertoire in amblyomma americanum and in 25 other ixodid tick species. for a. americanum, we compared the pi repertoires in fed and unfed, male and female a. americanum ticks. we also analyzed pi repertoires of female 48, 96 and 120 h-fed midgut (mg) and salivary ...201728330502
what's eating you? lone star tick (amblyomma americanum).amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern united states. since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. today, a americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. in addition to others, species of rickettsia, ehrlichia, and borrelia are all transmitted by the lone star tick. recently described conditions such as southern tick-associated rash illness and anaphylaxis to red meat following tick bites ha ...201728319627
use of a tick-borne disease manual increases accuracy of tick identification among primary care providers in lyme disease endemic areas.given the high incidence of tick bites and tick-borne diseases in the united states, it is important for primary care providers to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit. if a patient has removed and saved an attached tick, identifying the tick helps guide clinical management and determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis for lyme disease is appropriate. to investigate providers' ability to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit, we asked 76 primary care pro ...201727916581
food allergy to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal): four case reports and a review.until recently, food allergies to mammalian meats have been considered to be very rare. the observation that patients not previously exposed to the monoclonal chimeric antibody cetuximab suffered from severe anaphylaxis upon first exposure, led to the identification of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose as a new relevant carbohydrate allergen. these patients later often suffered from anaphylactic reactions to red meat. epidemiological data indicated that bites by the tick amblyomma americanum in the ...201727873733
heparan sulfate/heparin glycosaminoglycan binding alters inhibitory profile and enhances anticoagulant function of conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19.some serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulators of essential life pathways bind glycosaminoglycans (gags) to enhance inhibitory functions and achieve physiologically relevant rates. this study demonstrates that highly conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19 (aas19), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of hemostasis and inflammation system proteases and anticoagulant, can bind heparan sulfate/heparin (hs)gags and that this interaction alters its function. substrate hydrolysis and unpaired ...201727845251
retrospective case reports of two central north carolina residents: frequency of tick bites and associated illnesses, 2001-2014.background tick bites are a source of illness and disease agents that may lead to morbidity and occasional fatalities in north carolina. public health interest in tick-borne illness and disease has increased due to continuing discoveries of tick-borne diseases and their increasing geographic spread and disease incidence. there are no data published on lay individuals with cumulative tick bites and associated illnesses over a period of years.methods we learned of a married couple living on a cent ...201728576950
involvement of invasive eastern red cedar (juniperus virginiana) in the expansion of amblyomma americanum in oklahoma. 201728504442
response to the letter to the editor by rob armstrong.in a recent letter to the editor, armstrong raises concern that the design of the study reported by six et al. was not consistent with the product label for treatment of amblyomma americanum, since fluralaner was not re-administered 56 days after the initial treatment. the authors disagree with this assessment and confirm that the design was appropriate, and therefore the results and conclusions for the entire study period are valid.201728446205
tick-host range adaptation: changes in protein profiles in unfed adult ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum saliva stimulated to feed on different hosts.understanding the molecular basis of how ticks adapt to feed on different animal hosts is central to understanding tick and tick-borne disease (tbd) epidemiology. there is evidence that ticks differentially express specific sets of genes when stimulated to start feeding. this study was initiated to investigate if ticks such as ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum that are adapted to feed on multiple hosts utilized the same sets of proteins to prepare for feeding. we exposed i. scapularis a ...201729312895
morphometric analysis of chemoreception organ in male and female ticks (acari: ixodidae).the haller's organ plays a crucial role in a tick's ability to detect hosts. even though this sensory organ is vital to tick survival, the morphology of this organ is not well understood. the objective of this study was to characterize variation in the morphological components of the haller's organ of three medically important tick species using quantitative methods. the haller's organs of ixodes scapularis say (ixodida: ixodidae) (black-legged tick), amblyomma americanum (l.) (ixodida: ixodidae ...201729309667
a survey of tick species in a recently reintroduced elk ( cervus elaphus canadensis) population in southeastern kentucky with potential implications for interstate translocation of zoonotic disease vectors.in the late 20th century, elk ( cervus elaphus canadensis) were reintroduced into southeastern kentucky, us. this population has since been used as a stock population for additional elk reintroductions in other eastern states. although reintroduction and translocation practices are effective, they can disseminate vectors and pathogens. therefore, we surveyed tick species residing on elk hosts a decade after elk reintroduction in kentucky by examining 263 captured individuals (female=86; male=177 ...201729286258
identification and characterization of proteins in the amblyomma americanum tick cement cone.the adaptation of hard ticks to feed for long periods is facilitated by the cement cone, which securely anchors the tick mouthparts onto host skin and protects the tick from being groomed off by the host. thus, preventing tick cement deposition is an attractive target for the development of innovative tick control. we used lc-ms/ms sequencing to identify 160 amblyomma americanum tick cement proteins that include glycine-rich proteins (grp, 19%), protease inhibitors (12%), proteins of unknown fun ...201729258831
evaluation of four commercial natural products for repellency and toxicity against the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).lone star ticks are aggressive ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. these ticks can transmit many pathogens that cause disease including erhlichia and tularemia. common compounds used for personal protection and area sprays are n-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet) and permethrin, but public concern over personal and environmental safety require the development of new, safer products. in the current study, four commercially available products (wondercide, essentria ic3, v ...201729168105
bourbon virus in field-collected ticks, missouri, usa.bourbon virus (brbv) was first isolated in 2014 from a resident of bourbon county, kansas, usa, who died of the infection. in 2015, an ill payne county, oklahoma, resident tested positive for antibodies to brbv, before fully recovering. we retrospectively tested for brbv in 39,096 ticks from northwestern missouri, located 240 km from bourbon county, kansas. we detected brbv in 3 pools of amblyomma americanum (l.) ticks: 1 pool of male adults and 2 pools of nymphs. detection of brbv in a. america ...201729148395
distribution and host associations of ixodid ticks collected from wildlife in florida, usa.a tick survey was conducted to document tick-host associations with florida (usa) wildlife, and to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ixodid ticks throughout the state. the survey was conducted using collection kits distributed to licensed florida hunters as well as the examination of archived specimens from ongoing state wildlife research programs. collected tick samples were obtained from 66% of florida counties and were collected from nine wildlife hosts, including black bea ...201729110170
laboratory evaluations of the immediate and sustained efficacy of lotilaner (credelio™) against four common species of ticks affecting dogs in north america.effective control of tick infestations on dogs is important to reduce the risk of transmission of bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens. laboratory studies were initiated to determine the efficacy of lotilaner against common ticks infesting dogs in the united states.201729089057
a tick-acquired red meat allergy: a case series.allergic reaction is a common clinical picture in the emergency department (ed). most allergic reactions are from food or drugs. a detailed history is an integral aspect of determining the causative agent of an allergy. galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) allergy is a tick-acquired red meat allergy that causes delayed-onset allergic reaction or anaphylaxis due to molecular mimicry. alpha-gal allergy may not be widely known as a cause of allergic reactions. lack of universal awareness of th ...201729074067
investigating the adult ixodid tick populations and their associated anaplasma, ehrlichia, and rickettsia bacteria at a rocky mountain spotted fever hotspot in western tennessee.ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern united states. ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by amblyomma maculatum and dermacentor variabilis. these ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. the objective of this study was to identify anaplasma, ehrlichia, and rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a rocky mounta ...201728598270
prevalence of cytauxzoon felis infection in healthy free-roaming cats in north-central oklahoma and central iowa.case summary cytauxzoonosis is a tick-borne disease of cats, and oklahoma (ok), usa, is considered an enzootic state. to determine the prevalence of cytauxzoon felis, blood was collected from free-roaming cats, as they are frequently exposed to tick vectors. our objective was to determine the prevalence of c felis infection in free-roaming cats in north-central oklahoma and central iowa (ia). infection with c felis was determined using dna extracted from blood and pcr amplification. blood was co ...201728491429
prevalence of babesia spp., ehrlichia spp., and tick infestations in oklahoma black bears (ursus americanus).american black bears (ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. to characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with babesia spp. and past or current infection with ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern oklahoma, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). we ev ...201728657860
transcriptional profiling of rickettsia prowazekii coding and non-coding transcripts during in vitro host-pathogen and vector-pathogen interactions.natural pathogen transmission of rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, to humans is associated with arthropods, including human body lice, ticks, and ectoparasites of eastern flying squirrel. recently, we have documented the presence of small rnas in rickettsia species and expression of r. prowazekii srnas during infection of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (hmecs), which represent the primary target cells during human infections. bacterial noncoding trans ...201728709615
vector competence of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) for rickettsia rickettsii.rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) - is widely spread across the americas. in the us, dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of r. rickettsii and rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the southwest. conversely, ticks of the genus amblyomma are recognized vectors of rmsf in central and south america, but not in the us. a. americanum is one of the most aggressive h ...201728433728
isolation of rickettsia amblyommatis in huvec line.rickettsia amblyommatis, formerly named rickettsia amblyommii and 'candidatus rickettsia amblyommii' is an intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group rickettsia. it is highly prevalent in amblyomma americanum and in other amblyomma spp. throughout the western hemisphere. r. amblyommatis has been cultivated in chicken fibroblast, primary embryonated chicken eggs, vero cells and arthropod-derived cells. because of the affinity of rickettsiae to invade vascular endothelial cells, ...201829321939
surveillance for tick-borne viruses near the location of a fatal human case of bourbon virus (family orthomyxoviridae: genus thogotovirus) in eastern kansas, 2015.bourbon virus (family orthomyxoviridae: genus thogotovirus) was first isolated from a human case-patient residing in bourbon county, kansas, who subsequently died. before becoming ill in late spring of 2014, the patient reported several tick bites. in response, we initiated tick surveillance in bourbon county and adjacent southern linn county during spring and summer of 2015. we collected 20,639 host-seeking ticks representing four species from 12 sites. amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodida ...201829365128
botanical compound p-anisaldehyde repels larval lone star tick (acari: ixodidae), and halts reproduction by gravid adults.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), widely distributed across eastern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of the united states and south into mexico, is an obligate blood feeder that attaches to three hosts during the larval, nymphal, and adult stages. white-tailed deer and wild turkey are common hosts, as well as a wide variety of other avian and mammalian hosts. amblyomma americanum is the most frequently reported species of tick to bite humans in the southeastern and southcentral ...201829029346
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