PMID(sorted ascending)
the intracellular bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum selectively manipulates the levels of vertebrate host proteins in the tick vector ixodes scapularis.the intracellular bacteria anaplasma phagocytophilum are emerging zoonotic pathogens affecting human and animal health, and a good model for the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. this tick-borne pathogen is transmitted by ixodes scapularis in the united states where it causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. tick midguts and salivary glands play a major role during tick feeding and development, and in pathogen acquisition, multiplication and transmission. vertebrate host proteins are fou ...201627561965
coxiella symbionts are widespread into hard ticks.ticks are blood-feeding arthropods and can harbor several bacteria, including the worldwide zoonotic disease q-fever agent coxiella burnetii. recent studies have reported a distinct group of coxiella mostly associated with ixodidae ticks, including the primary endosymbionts of amblyomma americanum. in the present work, a screening for coxiella infection was performed by 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) gene analyses in 293 tick samples of 15 different species sampled worldwide, including brazil, colombi ...201627595990
bunyaviruses are common in male and female ixodes scapularis ticks in central pennsylvania.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the united states and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. recently, several novel viruses in the family bunyaviridae (south bay virus (sbv) and blacklegged tick phlebovirus (btpv)) were identified infecting female i. scapularis ticks collected in new york state. we used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female i. scapularis ticks collected in centr ...201627602290
not all erythema migrans lesions are lyme disease.lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the us, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. however, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. this article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with lyme disease ...201727612442
emerging tick-borne rickettsia and ehrlichia at joint base langley-eustis, fort eustis, virginia.four species of ticks known to parasitize humans (amblyomma americanum (lone star tick), dermacentor variabilis (american dog tick), amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick), and ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick)) were collected at joint base langley-eustis, fort eustis, virginia during 2009. these ticks were tested individually (adults and nymphs) and in pools of 15 (larvae) for pathogens of public health importance within the genera: rickettsia, borrelia, and ehrlichia, by quantitative real-t ...201627613206
use of extracorporeal support in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to ehrlichiosis.ehrlichiosis, caused by transmission of ehrlichia chaffeensis to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick, can lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (hlh), a life-threatening condition caused by uncontrolled activation of the cellular immune system. we describe a child with hlh secondary to ehrlichiosis who developed multiorgan failure and was successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ecmo). a 9-year-old boy developed headaches, fever, and sore th ...201627633921
rickettsia amblyommatis sp. nov., a spotted fever group rickettsia associated with multiple species of amblyomma ticks in north, central and south 1973, investigators isolated a rickettsial organism, designated strain wb-8-2t, from an adult amblyomma americanum tick collected at land between the lakes national recreation area, tn, usa. this organism is now recognized as highly prevalent in a. americanum, as well as several other amblyomma species found throughout the western hemisphere. it has been suggested that cross-reactivity to wb-8-2t and similar strains contributes to the increasing number of spotted fever cases reported in the u ...201627638476
manual for maintenance of multi-host ixodid ticks in the laboratory.use of laboratory animals as hosts for blood-sucking arthropods remains a time-proven and the most efficient method for establishment and propagation of slowly feeding ixodid ticks, despite introduction of techniques involving artificial feeding on either animal skins or synthetic membranes. new zealand white rabbits are usually the most accessible and most suitable hosts routinely used for establishment and maintenance of a large variety of multi-host tick species. here we describe standard pro ...201627651325
the red meat allergy syndrome in the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. the allergic responses are due to ige antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) found in mammalian meat. this review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-gal-containing proteins ...201627656352
arbovirosis and potential transmission blocking vaccines.infectious diseases caused by arboviruses (viruses transmitted by arthropods) are undergoing unprecedented epidemic activity and geographic expansion. with the recent introduction of west nile virus (1999), chikungunya virus (2013) and zika virus (2015) to the americas, stopping or even preventing the expansion of viruses into susceptible populations is an increasing concern. with a few exceptions, available vaccines protecting against arboviral infections are nonexistent and current disease pre ...201627664127
virus discovery using tick cell lines.while ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorpor ...201627679414
ectoparasites of free-roaming domestic cats in the central united domestic cat (felis catus) populations serve as a valuable resource for studying ectoparasite prevalence. while they share a similar environment as owned cats, free-roaming cats do not receive routine veterinary care or ectoparasiticide application, giving insight into parasite risks for owned animals. we examined up to 673 infested cats presented to a trap-neuter-return (tnr) clinic in the central united states. ectoparasite prevalences on cats were as follows: fleas (71.6%), ticks ...201627692321
efficient enrichment of bacterial mrna from host-bacteria total rna samples.despite numerous advances in genomics and bioinformatics, technological hurdles remain to examine host-microbe transcriptomics. sometimes the transcriptome of either or both can be ascertained merely by generating more sequencing reads. however, many cases exist where bacterial mrna needs to be enriched further to enable cost-effective sequencing of the pathogen or endosymbiont. while a suitable method is commercially available for mammalian samples of this type, development of such methods has ...201627713560
borrelia burgdorferi dna absent, multiple rickettsia spp. dna present in ticks collected from a teaching forest in north central florida.tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the united states. in florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as b. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in north central fl ...201727720381
a review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation.piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. they cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. there are currently nine recognized species of babesia ...201627724937
amblyomma americanum ticks infected with in vitro cultured wild-type and mutants of ehrlichia chaffeensis are competent to produce infection in naïve deer and dogs.monocytic ehrlichiosis in people caused by the intracellular bacterium, ehrlichia chaffeensis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. tick transmission disease models for ehrlichiosis require at least two hosts and two tick blood feeding episodes to recapitulate the natural transmission cycle. one blood feeding is necessary for the tick to acquire the infection from an infected host and the next feeding is needed to transmit the bacterium to a ...201727729288
identification, distribution and population dynamics of francisella-like endosymbiont in haemaphysalis doenitzi (acari: ixodidae).francisella-like endosymbionts (fles) with significant homology to francisella tularensis (γ-proteobacteria) have been characterized in several tick species, whereas knowledge on their distribution and population dynamics in ticks remains meager. hence, in the current study, we identified a novel francisella-like endosymbiont (fles-hd) from the tick haemaphysalis doenitzi and evaluated the putative functions of this symbiont. results indicated that fles-hd had 100% infection rate and a perfect v ...201627731377
safety evaluation of parastar(®) plus in dogs and assessment of transferable residue of fipronil and cyphenothrin from dogs to humans.dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. the present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of parastar(®) plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. six healthy, ...201627747219
coxiella detection in ticks from wildlife and livestock in malaysia.recent studies have shown that ticks harbor coxiella-like bacteria, which are potentially tick-specific endosymbionts. we recently described the detection of coxiella-like bacteria and possibly coxiella burnetii in ticks found from rural areas in malaysia. in the present study, we collected ticks, including haemaphysalis bispinosa, haemaphysalis hystricis, dermacentor compactus, dermacentor steini, and amblyomma sp. from wildlife and domesticated goats from four different locations in malaysia. ...201627763821
brazilian borreliosis with special emphasis on humans and horses.borreliosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called lyme disease in many countries of the northern hemisphere and lyme-like or baggio-yoshinari syndrome in brazil. however, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. brazilian lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and amblyomma and rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. thus, domes ...201627769883
risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the u.s. great plains.the prevalence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in many urban areas of the u.s., yet little is known about the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in relation to characteristics of north american urban and suburban landscapes. this study aimed to begin identification of the risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens within a rapidly expanding metropolitan area in the u.s. great plains region. ten sites across oklahoma city, oklahoma were selected for tick sampling ...201727773826
antiplasmodial activity is an ancient and conserved feature of tick defensins.ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. the genome of the european tick vector, ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. these pathogens include fungi, gram-negative, and gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks duri ...201627822206
small regulatory rnas of rickettsia conorii.small regulatory rnas comprise critically important modulators of gene expression in bacteria, yet very little is known about their prevalence and functions in rickettsia species. r. conorii, the causative agent of mediterranean spotted fever, is a tick-borne pathogen that primarily infects microvascular endothelium in humans. we have determined the transcriptional landscape of r. conorii during infection of human microvascular endothelial cells (hmecs) by strand-specific rna sequencing to ident ...201627834404
heparan sulfate/heparin glycosaminoglycan binding alters inhibitory profile and enhances anticoagulant function of conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19.some serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulators of essential life pathways bind glycosaminoglycans (gags) to enhance inhibitory functions and achieve physiologically relevant rates. this study demonstrates that highly conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19 (aas19), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of hemostasis and inflammation system proteases and anticoagulant, can bind heparan sulfate/heparin (hs)gags and that this interaction alters its function. substrate hydrolysis and unpaired ...201727845251
the genome of the crustacean parhyale hawaiensis, a model for animal development, regeneration, immunity and lignocellulose digestion.the amphipod crustacean parhyale hawaiensis is a blossoming model system for studies of developmental mechanisms and more recently regeneration. we have sequenced the genome allowing annotation of all key signaling pathways, transcription factors, and non-coding rnas that will enhance ongoing functional studies. parhyale is a member of the malacostraca clade, which includes crustacean food crop species. we analysed the immunity related genes of parhyale as an important comparative system for the ...201627849518
in vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus.the acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (rhipicephalus microplus). engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of southern brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10) in order to test the following oils: juniper (juniperus communis), palmarosa (cymbopogon martinii), cedar (cedrus atlantica), lemon grass (cymbopogon citratus), ginger (zingiber officinale), geranium (pelargonium graveolens) and bergamot (citrus aurantium var bergamia) ...201627857849
vertebrate host susceptibility to heartland virus.heartland virus (hrtv) is a recently described phlebovirus initially isolated in 2009 from 2 humans who had leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. serologic assessment of domestic and wild animal populations near the residence of 1 of these persons showed high exposure rates to raccoons, white-tailed deer, and horses. to our knowledge, no laboratory-based assessments of viremic potential of animals infected with hrtv have been performed. we experimentally inoculated several vertebrates (raccoons, goat ...027869591
food allergy to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal): four case reports and a review.until recently, food allergies to mammalian meats have been considered to be very rare. the observation that patients not previously exposed to the monoclonal chimeric antibody cetuximab suffered from severe anaphylaxis upon first exposure, led to the identification of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose as a new relevant carbohydrate allergen. these patients later often suffered from anaphylactic reactions to red meat. epidemiological data indicated that bites by the tick amblyomma americanum in the ...201727873733
gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. in the united sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. of these diseases, lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. gray wolves (canis lupus) recolonized wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of ...201627898670
use of a tick-borne disease manual increases accuracy of tick identification among primary care providers in lyme disease endemic areas.given the high incidence of tick bites and tick-borne diseases in the united states, it is important for primary care providers to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit. if a patient has removed and saved an attached tick, identifying the tick helps guide clinical management and determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis for lyme disease is appropriate. to investigate providers' ability to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit, we asked 76 primary care pro ...201727916581
tick-borne diseases in turkey: a review based on one health perspective.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (tbds) with zoonotic characteristics. in turkey, almost 19 tbds have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acantho ...201627977689
longipin: an amyloid antimicrobial peptide from the harvestman acutisoma longipes (arachnida: opiliones) with preferential affinity for anionic contrast to vertebrate immune systems, invertebrates lack an adaptive response and rely solely on innate immunity in which antimicrobial peptides (amps) play an essential role. most of them are membrane active molecules that are typically unstructured in solution and adopt secondary/tertiary structures upon binding to phospholipid bilayers. this work presents the first characterization of a constitutive amp from the hemolymph of an opiliones order animal: the harvestman acutisoma longipes. th ...201627997568
occurrence of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) and human infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis in wisconsin, 2008-2015.because of the increasing incidence of human ehrlichiosis in wisconsin, we assessed reports of human infections by ehrlichia chaffeensis and the distribution of its vector, the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum (l.)). from 2008 through 2015, 158 probable and confirmed human cases of e. chaffeensis infections were reported to the wisconsin department of health services. five cases without travel history outside of wisconsin were confirmed as e. chaffeensis by polymerase chain reaction. surveil ...201628011735
molecular detection of rickettsia species in ticks collected from the southwestern provinces of the republic of korea.rickettsiae constitute a group of arthropod-borne, gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of diseases ranging from mild to life threatening that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide.201728069059
parasite infection of public databases: a data mining approach to identify apicomplexan contaminations in animal genome and transcriptome assemblies.contaminations from various exogenous sources are a common problem in next-generation sequencing. another possible source of contaminating dna are endogenous parasites. on the one hand, undiscovered contaminations of animal sequence assemblies may lead to erroneous interpretation of data; on the other hand, when identified, parasite-derived sequences may provide a valuable source of information.201728103801
ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to amblyomma americanum av422: determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. one of the promising candidates for developing such a test is av422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. in this study, we demonstrate the potential of the av422 homologue from ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both prostriata and metastriata. we expressed recombinant (r) i. ricinus (ir) av422 in e. coli ...201728119040
minimum transmission time of cytauxzoon felis by amblyomma americanum to domestic cats in relation to duration of infestation, and investigation of ingestion of infected ticks as a potential route of transmission.objectives the objectives of the present study were to determine the duration of infestation by amblyomma americanum necessary for transmission of cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats and to determine if ingestion of c felis-infected a americanum by cats is a route of transmission. methods forty-nine cats were assigned to one of seven groups, with seven cats per group. cats were infested with a americanum adults, acquisition fed as nymphs on a cytauxzoonosis survivor cat, for 12 h (group 1), 18 h ( ...201728151047
repellency of the origanum onites l. essential oil and constituents to the lone star tick and yellow fever mosquito.the oregano, origanum onites l., essential oil (eo) was tested in laboratory behavioural bioassays for repellent activity against amblyomma americanum (l.) and aedes aegypti (l.). the o. onites eo was characterised using gc-fid and gc-ms. carvacrol (75.70%), linalool (9.0%), p-cymene (4.33%) and thymol (1.9%) were the most abundant compounds. at a concentration of 0.413 mg oil/cm(2) of filter paper, o. onites eo repelled 100% of the ticks tested and at 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) of filter paper, 66.7% o ...201728278656
what's eating you? lone star tick (amblyomma americanum).amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern united states. since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. today, a americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. in addition to others, species of rickettsia, ehrlichia, and borrelia are all transmitted by the lone star tick. recently described conditions such as southern tick-associated rash illness and anaphylaxis to red meat following tick bites ha ...201728319627
a repertoire of protease inhibitor families in amblyomma americanum and other tick species: inter-species comparative analyses.protease inhibitors (pis) are important regulators of physiology and represent anti-parasitic druggable and vaccine targets. we conducted bioinformatic analyses of genome and transcriptome data to determine the protease inhibitor (pi) repertoire in amblyomma americanum and in 25 other ixodid tick species. for a. americanum, we compared the pi repertoires in fed and unfed, male and female a. americanum ticks. we also analyzed pi repertoires of female 48, 96 and 120 h-fed midgut (mg) and salivary ...201728330502
the conclusion of a comparative efficacy study of fluralaner and sarolaner against the tick amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on results obtained at study times that are outside the fluralaner label recommendations.the only fluralaner-related conclusion presented in a study comparing the efficacy of fluralaner and sarolaner for control of the tick amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on study times that are outside the label administration recommendations. label recommendations for fluralaner treatment of a. americanum on dogs in the usa require re-administration at 56 days. this 56 day re-administration was not conducted in the study; therefore, all assessed time points following 56 days post-treatment i ...201728340604
concurrent examination of bobcats and ticks reveals high prevalence of cytauxzoon felis in southern illinois.cytauxzoon felis is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan of felids enzootic in the southeastern united states. in domestic cats (felis catus), this parasite can result in the highly fatal disease cytauxzoonosis or bobcat fever. bobcats (lynx rufus) are the wild animal reservoir host. to date, the characterization of prevalence of c. felis in bobcats is mostly based on broad-scale surveys from hunter-harvested specimens collected across large geographic areas, usually consisting of multiple states. ...201728355128
ability of three general-use pesticides to suppress nymphal ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).we evaluated 3 over-the-counter pesticides for their ability to suppress host-seeking ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum nymphs. we applied liquid concentrate and granular formulations of bayer advanced complete insect killer, spectracide triazicide insect killer, and ortho bug-b-gon to forest plots using equipment available for purchase at retail home improvement outlets. all 3 liquid formulations provided rapid knockdown (≥98% control) of both species 1 day after application. liquid or ...201728388324
vector competence of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) for rickettsia rickettsii.rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) - is widely spread across the americas. in the us, dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of r. rickettsii and rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the southwest. conversely, ticks of the genus amblyomma are recognized vectors of rmsf in central and south america, but not in the us. a. americanum is one of the most aggressive h ...201728433728
response to the letter to the editor by rob a recent letter to the editor, armstrong raises concern that the design of the study reported by six et al. was not consistent with the product label for treatment of amblyomma americanum, since fluralaner was not re-administered 56 days after the initial treatment. the authors disagree with this assessment and confirm that the design was appropriate, and therefore the results and conclusions for the entire study period are valid.201728446205
prevalence of cytauxzoon felis infection in healthy free-roaming cats in north-central oklahoma and central summary cytauxzoonosis is a tick-borne disease of cats, and oklahoma (ok), usa, is considered an enzootic state. to determine the prevalence of cytauxzoon felis, blood was collected from free-roaming cats, as they are frequently exposed to tick vectors. our objective was to determine the prevalence of c felis infection in free-roaming cats in north-central oklahoma and central iowa (ia). infection with c felis was determined using dna extracted from blood and pcr amplification. blood was co ...201728491429
involvement of invasive eastern red cedar (juniperus virginiana) in the expansion of amblyomma americanum in oklahoma. 201728504442
retrospective case reports of two central north carolina residents: frequency of tick bites and associated illnesses, 2001-2014.background tick bites are a source of illness and disease agents that may lead to morbidity and occasional fatalities in north carolina. public health interest in tick-borne illness and disease has increased due to continuing discoveries of tick-borne diseases and their increasing geographic spread and disease incidence. there are no data published on lay individuals with cumulative tick bites and associated illnesses over a period of years.methods we learned of a married couple living on a cent ...201728576950
investigating the adult ixodid tick populations and their associated anaplasma, ehrlichia, and rickettsia bacteria at a rocky mountain spotted fever hotspot in western tennessee.ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern united states. ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by amblyomma maculatum and dermacentor variabilis. these ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. the objective of this study was to identify anaplasma, ehrlichia, and rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a rocky mounta ...201728598270
prevalence of babesia spp., ehrlichia spp., and tick infestations in oklahoma black bears (ursus americanus).american black bears (ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. to characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with babesia spp. and past or current infection with ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern oklahoma, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). we ev ...201728657860
transcriptional profiling of rickettsia prowazekii coding and non-coding transcripts during in vitro host-pathogen and vector-pathogen interactions.natural pathogen transmission of rickettsia prowazekii, the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, to humans is associated with arthropods, including human body lice, ticks, and ectoparasites of eastern flying squirrel. recently, we have documented the presence of small rnas in rickettsia species and expression of r. prowazekii srnas during infection of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (hmecs), which represent the primary target cells during human infections. bacterial noncoding trans ...201728709615
botanical compound p-anisaldehyde repels larval lone star tick (acari: ixodidae), and halts reproduction by gravid adults.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), widely distributed across eastern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of the united states and south into mexico, is an obligate blood feeder that attaches to three hosts during the larval, nymphal, and adult stages. white-tailed deer and wild turkey are common hosts, as well as a wide variety of other avian and mammalian hosts. amblyomma americanum is the most frequently reported species of tick to bite humans in the southeastern and southcentral ...201829029346
a tick-acquired red meat allergy: a case series.allergic reaction is a common clinical picture in the emergency department (ed). most allergic reactions are from food or drugs. a detailed history is an integral aspect of determining the causative agent of an allergy. galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) allergy is a tick-acquired red meat allergy that causes delayed-onset allergic reaction or anaphylaxis due to molecular mimicry. alpha-gal allergy may not be widely known as a cause of allergic reactions. lack of universal awareness of th ...201729074067
laboratory evaluations of the immediate and sustained efficacy of lotilaner (credelio™) against four common species of ticks affecting dogs in north america.effective control of tick infestations on dogs is important to reduce the risk of transmission of bacterial, viral, and protozoal pathogens. laboratory studies were initiated to determine the efficacy of lotilaner against common ticks infesting dogs in the united states.201729089057
distribution and host associations of ixodid ticks collected from wildlife in florida, usa.a tick survey was conducted to document tick-host associations with florida (usa) wildlife, and to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ixodid ticks throughout the state. the survey was conducted using collection kits distributed to licensed florida hunters as well as the examination of archived specimens from ongoing state wildlife research programs. collected tick samples were obtained from 66% of florida counties and were collected from nine wildlife hosts, including black bea ...201729110170
bourbon virus in field-collected ticks, missouri, usa.bourbon virus (brbv) was first isolated in 2014 from a resident of bourbon county, kansas, usa, who died of the infection. in 2015, an ill payne county, oklahoma, resident tested positive for antibodies to brbv, before fully recovering. we retrospectively tested for brbv in 39,096 ticks from northwestern missouri, located 240 km from bourbon county, kansas. we detected brbv in 3 pools of amblyomma americanum (l.) ticks: 1 pool of male adults and 2 pools of nymphs. detection of brbv in a. america ...201729148395
evaluation of four commercial natural products for repellency and toxicity against the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).lone star ticks are aggressive ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. these ticks can transmit many pathogens that cause disease including erhlichia and tularemia. common compounds used for personal protection and area sprays are n-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet) and permethrin, but public concern over personal and environmental safety require the development of new, safer products. in the current study, four commercially available products (wondercide, essentria ic3, v ...201729168105
identification and characterization of proteins in the amblyomma americanum tick cement cone.the adaptation of hard ticks to feed for long periods is facilitated by the cement cone, which securely anchors the tick mouthparts onto host skin and protects the tick from being groomed off by the host. thus, preventing tick cement deposition is an attractive target for the development of innovative tick control. we used lc-ms/ms sequencing to identify 160 amblyomma americanum tick cement proteins that include glycine-rich proteins (grp, 19%), protease inhibitors (12%), proteins of unknown fun ...201729258831
a survey of tick species in a recently reintroduced elk ( cervus elaphus canadensis) population in southeastern kentucky with potential implications for interstate translocation of zoonotic disease the late 20th century, elk ( cervus elaphus canadensis) were reintroduced into southeastern kentucky, us. this population has since been used as a stock population for additional elk reintroductions in other eastern states. although reintroduction and translocation practices are effective, they can disseminate vectors and pathogens. therefore, we surveyed tick species residing on elk hosts a decade after elk reintroduction in kentucky by examining 263 captured individuals (female=86; male=177 ...201729286258
morphometric analysis of chemoreception organ in male and female ticks (acari: ixodidae).the haller's organ plays a crucial role in a tick's ability to detect hosts. even though this sensory organ is vital to tick survival, the morphology of this organ is not well understood. the objective of this study was to characterize variation in the morphological components of the haller's organ of three medically important tick species using quantitative methods. the haller's organs of ixodes scapularis say (ixodida: ixodidae) (black-legged tick), amblyomma americanum (l.) (ixodida: ixodidae ...201729309667
tick-host range adaptation: changes in protein profiles in unfed adult ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum saliva stimulated to feed on different hosts.understanding the molecular basis of how ticks adapt to feed on different animal hosts is central to understanding tick and tick-borne disease (tbd) epidemiology. there is evidence that ticks differentially express specific sets of genes when stimulated to start feeding. this study was initiated to investigate if ticks such as ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum that are adapted to feed on multiple hosts utilized the same sets of proteins to prepare for feeding. we exposed i. scapularis a ...201729312895
isolation of rickettsia amblyommatis in huvec line.rickettsia amblyommatis, formerly named rickettsia amblyommii and 'candidatus rickettsia amblyommii' is an intracellular bacterium belonging to the spotted fever group rickettsia. it is highly prevalent in amblyomma americanum and in other amblyomma spp. throughout the western hemisphere. r. amblyommatis has been cultivated in chicken fibroblast, primary embryonated chicken eggs, vero cells and arthropod-derived cells. because of the affinity of rickettsiae to invade vascular endothelial cells, ...201829321939
surveillance for tick-borne viruses near the location of a fatal human case of bourbon virus (family orthomyxoviridae: genus thogotovirus) in eastern kansas, 2015.bourbon virus (family orthomyxoviridae: genus thogotovirus) was first isolated from a human case-patient residing in bourbon county, kansas, who subsequently died. before becoming ill in late spring of 2014, the patient reported several tick bites. in response, we initiated tick surveillance in bourbon county and adjacent southern linn county during spring and summer of 2015. we collected 20,639 host-seeking ticks representing four species from 12 sites. amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodida ...201829365128
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