PMID(sorted ascending)
comparison of dna and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope-based techniques for identification of prior vertebrate hosts of ticks.identification of the vertebrate hosts upon which hematophagous arthropods feed provides key information for understanding the ecology and transmission of vector-borne diseases. bloodmeal analysis of ticks presents unique challenges relative to other vectors, given the long interval between bloodmeal acquisition and host-seeking, during which dna degradation occurs. this study evaluates dna-based and stable isotope-based bloodmeal analysis methodologies for the lone star tick, amblyomma american ...201526336205
rickettsia parkeri transmission to amblyomma americanum by cofeeding with amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae) and potential for spillover.amblyomma americanum (l.) is a human-biting ixodid tick distributed throughout much of the southeastern united states. rickettsia parkeri is a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae and causes a febrile illness in humans commonly referred to as "tidewater spotted fever" or "r. parkeri rickettsiosis." although the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch, is the primary vector of r. parkeri, a small proportion of a. americanum have also been shown to harbor r. parkeri. the purpose of this ...201526336226
county scale distribution of amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae) in oklahoma: addressing local deficits in tick maps based on passive reporting.geographic distribution records for the lone star tick [amblyomma americanum (l.)] in the peer-reviewed literature are incomplete for oklahoma, preventing accurate disease risk assessments. to address this issue and document the presence of a. americanum in available habitats throughout the state, county-scale tick records published in u.s. department of agriculture-cooperative economic insect reports and specimens maintained at the k.c. emerson entomology museum, oklahoma state university, were ...201526336311
survey of ticks collected from tennessee cattle and their pastures for anaplasma and ehrlichia species.anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (ba) and ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. ba is common in the united states and frequently reported in western tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental united states. because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for eac ...201626348980
heartland virus neutralizing antibodies in vertebrate wildlife, united states, 2009-2014.since its discovery in 2009, the tickborne heartland virus (hrtv) has caused human illness in missouri, oklahoma, and tennessee usa. to better assess the geographic distribution of hrtv, we used wildlife serology as an indicator. this retrospective evaluation determined that hrtv is widespread within the central and eastern united states.026401988
human infection with ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, united states, 2007-2013(1).an ehrlichia muris-like (eml) pathogen was detected among 4 patients in minnesota and wisconsin during 2009. we characterized additional cases clinically and epidemiologically. during 2004-2013, blood samples from 75,077 patients from all 50 united states were tested by pcr from the groel gene for ehrlichia spp. and anaplasma phagocytophilum. during 2007-2013, samples from 69 (0.1%) patients were positive for the eml pathogen; patients were from 5 states: indiana (1), michigan (1), minnesota (33 ...201526402378
detection of rickettsia bellii and rickettsia amblyommii in amblyomma longirostre (acari: ixodidae) from bahia state, northeast brazil.studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the northeast region of brazil have been confined to the detection of rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of bahia, and in immatures and females of amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of pernambuco. the current study extends the distribution of r ...201526413074
avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the united states.migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. we systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the united states from the neotropics for ticks. we screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including rickettsia species and borrelia burgdorferi. over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ti ...201526431964
the diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in eastern siberia (russian federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. in eastern siberia, ixodes persulcatus, dermacentor nuttalli, dermacentor silvarum and haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. we studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick ...201626443685
solving a bloody mess: b-vitamin independent metabolic convergence among gammaproteobacterial obligate endosymbionts from blood-feeding arthropods and the leech haementeria officinalis.endosymbiosis is a common phenomenon in nature, especially between bacteria and insects, whose typically unbalanced diets are usually complemented by their obligate endosymbionts. while much interest and focus has been directed toward phloem-feeders like aphids and mealybugs, blood-feeders such as the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum), glossina flies, and the human body louse (pediculus humanus corporis) depend on obligate endosymbionts which complement their b-vitamin-deficient diets, and t ...201526454017
mutual medication in capuchin monkeys - social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. however, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. the function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. by manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two group ...201526456539
naturally occurring ehrlichia ewingii and mycoplasma sp. co-infection in a goat. 201526473432
from within host dynamics to the epidemiology of infectious disease: scientific overview and challenges.since their earliest days, humans have been struggling with infectious diseases. caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, or even higher organisms like worms, these diseases depend critically on numerous intricate interactions between parasites and hosts, and while we have learned much about these interactions, many details are still obscure. it is evident that the combined host-parasite dynamics constitutes a complex system that involves components and processes at multiple scales of time, space, ...201526474512
a dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate and climate-independent factors on the lifecycle of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern united states. to model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. in this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasona ...201626502753
expanding range of amblyomma americanum and simultaneous changes in the epidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in the united states.spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia species are etiologic agents of a wide range of human infections from asymptomatic or mild infections to severe, life-threatening disease. in the united states, recent passive surveillance for sfg rickettsiosis shows an increased incidence and decreased severity of reported cases. the reasons for this are not well understood; however, we hypothesize that less pathogenic rickettsiae are causing more human infections, while the incidence of disease caused by mo ...201526503270
development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein of heartland virus.heartland virus (hrtv), a phlebovirus first isolated from two missouri farmers in 2009, has been proposed to be transmitted to humans by the bite of infected amblyomma americanum ticks. it is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) from china, another previously unrecognized phlebovirus that has subsequently been associated with hundreds of cases of severe disease in humans. to expand diagnostic capacity to detect hrtv infections, 20 hybridoma clones secretin ...201526503274
note on ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, and "borrelia lonestari" infection in lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae), nebraska, usa.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae), is established in southeastern nebraska yet the prevalence of tick-associated microorganisms is not known. an initial pcr-based analysis for ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, and borrelia infection in host-seeking adult ticks collected in southeast nebraska was conducted. a total of 251 adult ticks collected in six sites in southeast nebraska were tested. e. chaffeensis, e. ewingii, and borrelia spp. were present, and the p ...201626515060
arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies, and analysis.effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium "advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis" presented at the 58th annual meeting of the entomological society of america in san diego, ca. interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring f ...026543242
global transcriptome analysis of the tentacle of the jellyfish cyanea capillata using deep sequencing and expressed sequence tags: insight into the toxin- and degenerative disease-related transcripts.jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. however, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods.201526551022
changing dynamics of human-rickettsial interactions. 201526556832
evaluation of human attachment by larval amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the tick, amblyomma maculatum koch (gulf coast tick), has recently been shown to be an important disease vector of both medical and veterinary concern. although much is known about the behavior and ecology of adults, little is known of the immatures. larval feeding on humans has never been demonstrated (and thus, there are no collection records from humans). in this experiment, 10 larval a. maculatum, amblyomma americanum (l.) (a positive control), and dermacentor variabilis (say) (a negative co ...201626576936
new records of ixodes affinis (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern virginia.ixodes affinis neumann (acari: ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern united states. although i. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. this study presents evidence of i. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. during 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ...201626586535
low rate of cetuximab hypersensitivity reactions in northeast tennessee: an appalachian effect?cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody with a known risk of hypersensitivity reactions. early studies showed hypersensitivity reaction rates of 3%, but there appears to be a higher incidence in the southeastern united states. to confirm the findings from nearby institutions that cetuximab-associated hypersensitivity reactions occur in approximately 20% of patients in the southeastern united states.201626590031
evaluation of deet and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).deet and eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of n,n-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. ...201626590930
borrelia miyamotoi disease: neither lyme disease nor relapsing fever.borrelia miyamotoi disease (bmd) is a newly recognized borreliosis globally transmitted by ticks of the ixodes persulcatus species complex. once considered to be a tick symbiont with no public health implications, b miyamotoi is increasingly recognized as the agent of a nonspecific febrile illness often misdiagnosed as acute lyme disease without rash, or as ehrlichiosis. the frequency of its diagnosis in the northeastern united states is similar to that of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. a diag ...201526593262
emerging horizons for tick-borne pathogens: from the 'one pathogen-one disease' vision to the pathobiome paradigm.ticks, as vectors of several notorious zoonotic pathogens, represent an important and increasing threat for human and animal health in europe. recent applications of new technology revealed the complexity of the tick microbiome, which may affect its vectorial capacity. appreciation of these complex systems is expanding our understanding of tick-borne pathogens, leading us to evolve a more integrated view that embraces the 'pathobiome'; the pathogenic agent integrated within its abiotic and bioti ...201526610021
simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. we developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central united states, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low hos ...201526611958
sustained efficacy of the novel topical repellent tt-4302 against mosquitoes and ticks.mosquitoes and ticks are blood-feeding pests of humans and animals that can vector many important aetiological agents of disease. previous research demonstrated that tt-4302 (guardian(®) wilderness) containing 5% geraniol applied to human subjects gave 5-6 h of repellency against mosquitoes (depending on species) and was repellent to ticks in vitro. this study was conducted to obtain an independent third-party evaluation of tt-4302 against stegomyia aegypti (= aedes aegypti) (diptera: culicidae) ...201626614394
increasing incidence of ehrlichiosis in the united states: a summary of national surveillance of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii infections in the united states, 2008-2012.human ehrlichiosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii. cases of ehrlichiosis are reported to centers for disease control and prevention through two national surveillance systems: nationally notifiable diseases surveillance system (nndss) and case report forms. during 2008-2012, 4,613 cases of e. chaffeensis infections were reported through nndss. the incidence rate (ir) was 3.2 cases per million person-years (pys). the hospitalization rate (hr) w ...201526621561
the characterization and manipulation of the bacterial microbiome of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor north america, ticks are the most economically impactful vectors of human and animal pathogens. the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni (acari: ixodidae), transmits rickettsia rickettsii and anaplasma marginale to humans and cattle, respectively. in recent years, studies have shown that symbiotic organisms are involved in a number of biochemical and physiological functions. characterizing the bacterial microbiome of d. andersoni is a pivotal step towards understanding symbiont-hos ...201526653035
habitat and vegetation variables are not enough when predicting tick populations in the southeastern united states.two tick-borne diseases with expanding case and vector distributions are ehrlichiosis (transmitted by amblyomma americanum) and rickettiosis (transmitted by a. maculatum and dermacentor variabilis). there is a critical need to identify the specific habitats where each of these species is likely to be encountered to classify and pinpoint risk areas. consequently, an in-depth tick prevalence study was conducted on the dominant ticks in the southeast. vegetation, soil, and remote sensing data were ...201526656122
rickettsia amblyommii infecting amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern brazil.the rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (sf) disease. in the present study, a sf group rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected amblyomma sculptum (amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a brazilian sf endemic site in southeastern brazil, in the municipality of juiz de fora, state of minas gerais. genetic analysis based on genes ompa,ompb and htra showed that the detected strain, named r. amblyommii str. jf, is ...201526676317
discovery of filarial nematode dna in amblyomma americanum in northern virginia.ticks collected in 2011 were screened for the presence of filarial nematode genetic material, and positive samples were sequenced for analysis. monanema-like filarial nematode dna was recently discovered in amblyomma americanum in northern virginia, marking the first time genetic material from this parasite has been discovered in ticks in the state. phylogenetic analysis revealed that this material was directly related to a previously discovered filarial nematode in a. americanum populations in ...201526707835
tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in mexico.tick-borne rickettsial diseases (tbrd) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. the control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. the geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. a total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 sta ...026726019
panola mountain ehrlichia in amblyomma maculatum from the united states and amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) from the caribbean and africa.panola mountain ehrlichia (pme) has been suggested as an emerging pathogen of humans and dogs. domestic goats and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are also susceptible and likely serve as reservoirs. experimentally, both the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum (l.)) and the gulf coast tick (amblyomma maculatum koch) can transmit pme among deer and goats. in the current study, we detected pme in adult wild-caught a. maculatum from the united states and amblyomma variegatum (f.) from th ...201626744465
target validation of highly conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serine protease inhibitor 19.amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor (serpin, aas) 19, is a highly conserved protein that is characterized by its functional domain being 100% conserved across tick species. we also reported that aas19 was an immunogenic tick saliva protein with anti-haemostatic functions and an inhibitor of trypsin-like proteases including five of the eight serine protease factors in the blood clotting cascade. in this study the goal was to validate the importance of aas19 in a. americanum tick p ...201626746129
ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins sequentially secreted every 24 h during blood feeding.ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa. this study describes lc-ms/ms identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of i. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (bd), and spontaneously detached (sd). the 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity ...201626751078
the microbiome of ehrlichia-infected and uninfected lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of anaplasma and ehrlichia. amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. our objective was to compare bacterial c ...201626751816
comparison of novel and conventional methods of trapping ixodid ticks in the southeastern u.s.a.tick-borne disease surveillance and research rely on resource-effective methods for tick collection. this study compared the respective performances of several trapping methods in a mixed grassland-forest habitat in western tennessee. to test for temporal differences in effectiveness, sites were sampled monthly (april-august 2013) using dry ice, dragging, flagging, sweep netting, carbon dioxide (co2 ) dragging and co2 flagging methods. to evaluate the effect of habitat on method effectiveness, f ...201626801319
update on canine and feline blood donor screening for blood-borne update on the 2005 american college of veterinary internal medicine (acvim) consensus statement on blood donor infectious disease screening was presented at the 2015 acvim forum in indianapolis, indiana, followed by panel and audience discussion. the updated consensus statement is presented below. the consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate blood-borne pathogen testing for canine and feline blood donors in north america.201626806261
frequency and distribution of rickettsiae, borreliae, and ehrlichiae detected in human-parasitizing ticks, texas, describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in texas, usa, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008-2014 for rickettsia, borrelia, and ehrlichia spp. thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial dna from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested.026811941
development and validation of an improved pcr method using the 23s-5s intergenic spacer for detection of rickettsiae in dermacentor variabilis ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals.a novel nested pcr assay was developed to detectrickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23s-5s intergenic spacer (igs) ofrickettsiaspp. the newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic dna from 11rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherrickettsia-specific pcr targets (ompa,glta, and the 17-kda protein ...201626818674
maximum entropy-based ecological niche model and bio-climatic determinants of lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) niche.the potential distribution of amblyomma americanum ticks in kansas was modeled using maximum entropy (maxent) approaches based on museum and field-collected species occurrence data. various bioclimatic variables were used in the model as potentially influential factors affecting the a. americanum niche. following reduction of dimensionality among predictor variables using principal components analysis, which revealed that the first two principal axes explain over 87% of the variance, the model i ...201626824880
a comparison of the performance of regression models of amblyomma americanum (l.) (ixodidae) using life cycle or landscape data from administrative divisions.the distribution of amblyomma americanum (l.) in the continental united states has been modelled using the reported distribution in counties as "established" (six or more ticks or two or more life stages were recorded during a specified time period), "reported" (fewer than six ticks of a single life stage were recorded), or "absent" (neither of the above categories were met) and a set of environmental and biotic explanatory variables. categorical (vegetation, climate, and habitat suitability for ...201626826973
growth of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. the disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family canidae worldwide. e. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line dh82 and in non-vector ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from ...201626837859
vaccination with an attenuated mutant of ehrlichia chaffeensis induces pathogen-specific cd4+ t cell immunity and protection from tick-transmitted wild-type challenge in the canine host.ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. transmitted by the amblyomma americanum tick, e. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. we have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of e. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type e. chaffeens ...201626841025
the putative role of rhipicephalus microplus salivary serpins in the tick-host relationship.inflammation and hemostasis are part of the host's first line of defense to tick feeding. these systems are in part serine protease mediated and are tightly controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, in the serpin superfamily (serine protease inhibitors). from this perspective ticks are thought to use serpins to evade host defenses during feeding. the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus encodes at least 24 serpins, of which rms-3, rms-6, and rms-17 were previously identified in saliva of this ti ...201626844868
temporal gene expression analysis and rna silencing of single and multiple members of gene family in the lone star tick amblyomma americanum.saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time pcr. the information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. we analyzed the temporal expression of seven ...201626872360
ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in florida, usa.voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across florida, usa, were conducted over a 10 month period. of the 1337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis. most ticks were collected from dogs (98.4%) with the most predominant species being r. sanguineus (94.3%). of the ticks collected from cats (1.6%), a. americ ...201626888081
comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (simparica) and afoxolaner (nexgard) against induced infestations of amblyomma americanum on dogs.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, infests dogs and cats in north america and is the vector of the pathogens that cause monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans. a parasiticide's speed of kill is important to minimize the direct and deleterious effects of tick infestation and especially to reduce the risk of transmission of tick-borne pathogens. in this study, speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (simparica chewable tablets), a ...201626897175
arsenophonus nasoniae and rickettsiae infection of ixodes ricinus due to parasitic wasp ixodiphagus hookeri.arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified a. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. we confirmed that 28.1% of ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by a. nasoniae. moreover, in examined i. ricinus nymphs, a. nasoniae was detected on ...201626901622
successful treatment of human monocytic ehrlichiosis with rifampin.currently recommended treatment regimens for human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) include doxycycline or tetracycline. antibiotic susceptibility studies demonstrate that rifampin has in vitro bactericidal activity against ehrlichia. case reports have suggested clinical response with rifampin treatment of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga). we report the first case of hme successfully treated with rifampin.201626918212
factors associated with tick bites and pathogen prevalence in ticks parasitizing humans in georgia, usa.the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in the united states during the past 30 years, yet few large-scale epidemiological studies have been performed on individuals bitten by ticks. epidemiological information, including disease development, may provide valuable information regarding effectiveness of tick bite prevention education, pathogen transmission, human-disease dynamics, and potential implications for under reporting of tick-borne diseases.201626935205
efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the united states.the efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (simparica™, zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the united states. a total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or beagle dogs. in each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult a ...201626935819
determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. in the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with dermacentor reticulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. fleas and ticks were ...201626948830
molecular detection and identification of piroplasms in sika deer (cervus nippon) from jilin province, china.piroplasmosis is an important disease of domestic animals and wildlife and is caused by organisms from the genera theileria and babesia. wildlife such as sika deer play an important role as reservoir hosts for several species of theileria and babesia. using blood samples collected from sika deer, we investigated the epidemiology of theileria spp. and babesia spp. in sika deer from jilin province in china and identified those species that cause pathogenic infections in sika deer.201626984286
risk factors for bartonella species infection in blood donors from southeast brazil.bacteria from the genus bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. however, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. in humans, bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scrat ...201626999057
the retinoid x receptor from mud crab: new insights into its roles in ovarian development and related signaling arthropods, retinoid x receptor (rxr) is a highly conserved nuclear hormone receptor. by forming a heterodimeric complex with the ecdysone receptor (ecr), rxr is known to be vital importance for various physiological processes. however, in comparison to ecr, the rxr signaling pathway and its roles in crustacean reproduction are poorly understood. in the present study, the rxr mrna was detected in the ovarian follicular cells of mud crab scylla paramamosain (sprxr) and during ovarian maturatio ...201627009370
surveillance for heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) in missouri during 2013: first detection of virus in adults of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).during 2013, we collected and tested ticks for heartland virus (hrtv), a recently described human pathogen in the genus phlebovirus (bunyaviridae), from six sites in northwestern missouri. five sites were properties owned by hrtv patients, and the sixth was a conservation area that yielded virus in ticks during 2012. we collected 39,096 ticks representing five species; however, two species, amblyomma americanum (l.) (97.6%) and dermacentor variabilis (say) (2.3%), accounted for nearly all ticks ...201627032416
geographical distribution of amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) ticks (parasitiformes: ixodidae) in brazil, with description of the nymph of a. cajennense (sensu stricto).until recently, amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) was considered to represent a single tick species in the new world. recent studies have split this taxon into six species. while the a. cajennense species complex or a. cajennense (sensu lato) (s.l.) is currently represented by two species in brazil, a. cajennense (sensu stricto) (s.s.) and amblyomma sculptum berlese, 1888, their geographical distribution is poorly known.201627036324
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
use of peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by immunofluorescence assay to document ehrlichia chaffeensis as a cause of febrile illness in nicaragua.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), has been extensively studied as a cause of acute febrile illness and an emerging tick-borne zoonosis in the united states. limited data suggest its presence in other regions, including central and south america but not nicaragua to date. diagnosis of e. chaffeensis infection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) is the reference standard due to its presumed high sensitivity and specificity, but ifa is impracti ...201627053675
ehrlichia meningitis mimicking aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case study for medical decision-making heuristics.thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (sah). subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (ct) scan to ascertain sah bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (csf) red blood cells (rbcs), which would be consistent with an a ...201527053985
partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum 77acari: ixodidae) ticks.hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts' rejection and achieve engorgement. successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. these chemicals in saliva could inhibit host i ...201527065646
fatal monocytic ehrlichiosis in woman, mexico, 2013.human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. in mexico, a case of e. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. this diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels.027088220
expanded geographic distribution and clinical characteristics of ehrlichia ewingii infections, united states.ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis, spread through the bites of infected ticks, that is most commonly caused in the united states by infection with the bacterium ehrlichia chaffeensis. we retrospectively reviewed samples from an 18-month study of ehrlichiosis in the united states and found that e. ewingii was present in 10 (9.2%) of 109 case-patients with ehrlichiosis, a higher rate of infection with this species than had previously been reported. two patients resided in new jersey and indiana ...201627089171
thermacell and off! clip-on devices tested for repellency and mortality against amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodida: amblyommidae).the thermacell with allethrin and off! clip-on with metofluthrin were tested in a 939 m(2) vented enclosure against nymphal lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.). repellency assays were conducted at varying distances relative to product specifications for repellency range. nymphal ticks acclimated for 24 h in chambers attached to 10 repellency tracks per repetition. devices were turned on, and the tick travel distance and delay until beginning to travel were recorded. mortality of ticks was ...201627113108
erratum for stromdahl et al., borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern united states. 201627114565
prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in host-seeking amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) and odocoileus virginianus (artiodactyla: cervidae) in florida.amblyomma americanum (l.), the lone star tick, is an aggressive tick that is expanding its geographic range within the united states. this tick is the vector for the human and veterinary pathogens ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii and is associated with other microbes of unspecified pathogenicity including rickettsia amblyommii, panola mountain ehrlichia, and borrelia lonestari in florida, there has been sparse contemporary data on the prevalence of these organisms in host-seeking lone ...201627117680
structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern united states and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. to remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with ...201627118479
detection of borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast missouri.we evaluated amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and dermacentor variabilis (american dog tick) in northeast missouri for the presence of borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia bacteria. we collected actively questing ticks from four sites within adair county, missouri. a total of 15,162 ticks were collected, of which 13,980 were grouped in 308 pools (lone star ticks, 288 pools; american dog ticks, 20 pools) and tested for presence/absence of bacteria using polymerase chain reaction. infection ra ...201627133163
disease vectors in the era of next generation sequencing.almost 20 % of all infectious human diseases are vector borne and, together, are responsible for over one million deaths per annum. over the past decade, the decreasing costs of massively parallel sequencing technologies have facilitated the agnostic interrogation of insect vector genomes, giving medical entomologists access to an ever-expanding volume of high-quality genomic and transcriptomic data. in this review, we highlight how genomics resources have provided new insights into the physiolo ...201627154554
correction: the microbiome of ehrlichia-infected and uninfected lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146651.].201627158898
first report of cytauxzoon sp. infection in a domestic cat from portugal.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging and life-threatening tick-borne feline disease caused by haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus cytauxzoon. information regarding epidemiological and clinical presentation of infections by species other than cytauxzoon felis is scant. a case of cytauxzoon sp. infection is described in a 2-year-old mixed breed male domestic cat from portugal, presenting a history of acute lethargy, anorexia and pyrexia.201627160193
population and evolutionary genomics of amblyomma americanum, an expanding arthropod disease vector.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is an important disease vector and the most frequent tick found attached to humans in the eastern united states. the lone star tick has recently experienced a rapid range expansion into the northeast and midwest, but despite this emerging infectious threat to wildlife, livestock, and human health, little is known about the genetic causes and consequences of the geographic expansion. in the first population genomic analysis of any tick species, we charact ...201627190204
rickettsia parkeri colonization in amblyomma maculatum: the role of superoxide dismutases.the gulf coast tick (amblyomma maculatum) is an arthropod vector of rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of american boutonneuse fever and an infectious agent of public health significance. in this study, we evaluated the biological significance of the superoxide dismutases (sods) of a. maculatum in hematophagy and r. parkeri colonization within the tick host.201627206371
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in amblyomma americanum ticks in the southeastern united states: the case of selective compatibility. 201627222323
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis at hamilton-wentworth, ontario.lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in canada, where the etiological agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. this study explores the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, collected at dundas, ontario (a locality within the region of hamilton-wentworth). using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and c ...201627226771
isolation and short-term persistence of ehrlichia ewingii in cell culture.ehrlichia ewingii is the causative agent of human and canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis. since its discovery in 1970, little work has been done to characterize the pathogen or study the transmission dynamics due to the inability to grow the agent in vitro. the aim of this study was to assess the suitability of multiple cell lines and media formulations for propagation of e. ewingii in cell culture. in this study, we present an overview of attempts to isolate e. ewingii from the buffy coat of goat ...201627228133
passive surveillance of ixodes scapularis (say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in massachusetts.a passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the university of massachusetts for pcr testing. the vast majority of these ticks were ixodes scapularis from massachusetts (n = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. two taqman duplex qpcr assays were developed to test i. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesi ...201627248292
novel borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, bothriocroton concolor, in date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. recently, a borrelia sp. related to the relapsing fever (rf) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (tachyglossus aculeatus). the present study investigated the presence of borrelia in 97 bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in queensland, new south wales, and victoria, australia, using nested pcr with borrelia-specific primers ...201627301754
hacker within! ehrlichia chaffeensis effector driven phagocyte reprogramming strategy.ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. it is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme), an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. mechanisms by which e. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. ...201627303657
neuronal projections from the haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of amblyomma americanum§.the present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an ixodidae tick species. the tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. a neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. the synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. neuronal ar ...201627304521
the chemosensory appendage proteome of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) reveals putative odorant-binding and other chemoreception-related proteins.proteomic analyses were done on 2 chemosensory appendages of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. proteins in the fore tarsi, which contain the olfactory haller's organ, and in the palps, that include gustatory sensilla, were compared with proteins in the third tarsi. also, male and female ticks were compared. proteins were identified by sequence similarity to known proteins, and by 3-dimensional homology modeling. proteomic data were also compared with organ-specific transcriptomes from th ...201627307202
transmission of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) by experimentally infected amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).heartland virus (hrtv; bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) is a recently described cause of human illness in the united states. after field studies conducted in 2012 implicated amblyomma americanum (l.) as a vector of hrtv, we initiated experiments to assess the vector competence of a. americanum larval and nymphal ticks were immersed in high-titered suspensions of hrtv, and then tested for virus at various intervals postimmersion. in a later trial larval ticks were immersed in hrtv, followed by engorgem ...201627330103
neuronal projections from the haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of amblyomma americanum§.the present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an ixodidae tick species. the tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. a neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. the synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. neuronal ar ...201627334823
morphologic and molecular characterization of a demodex (acari: demodicidae) species from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).demodex mites, although usually nonpathogenic, can cause a wide range of dermatological lesions ranging from mild skin irritation and alopecia to severe furunculosis. recently, a case of demodicosis from a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) revealed a demodex species morphologically distinct from demodex odocoilei. all life cycle stages were considerably larger than d. odocoilei and although similar in size to d. kutzeri and d. acutipes from european cervids, numerous morphometrics disti ...201327335854
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from texas.lyme disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector ixodes scapularis. it is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the united states. to determine the seroprevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493) collected during the 2001-2015 hunting seasons, using indirect elisa. samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above) than the negative con ...201627366674
evasins: therapeutic potential of a new family of chemokine-binding proteins from ticks.blood-sucking parasites, such as ticks, remain attached to their hosts for relatively long periods of time in order to obtain their blood meal without eliciting an immune response. one mechanism used to avoid rejection is the inhibition of the recruitment of immune cells, which can be achieved by a class of chemokine-binding proteins (ckbps) known as evasins. we have identified three distinct evasins produced by the salivary glands of the common brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. they dis ...201627375615
repellency to ticks (acari: ixodidae) of extracts of nigella sativa (ranunculaceae) and the anti-inflammatory dogsbestfriend™.motivated by observations that the canine anti-inflammatory cream dogsbestfriend™ (dbf) appeared to deter flies, mosquitoes, and ticks from treated animals, repellent efficacy bioassays using four species of ticks were conducted with three extracts of nigella sativa l. (ranunculaceae), a constituent of dbf. the dbf cream was tested against nymphs of lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.). in vertical filter paper assays, the three extracts applied at 0.413 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper repell ...201627394440
comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (simparica™ chewables) and fluralaner (bravecto(®)) against induced infestations of amblyomma americanum on dogs.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, infests dogs and cats in north america and transmits the pathogens ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, which cause monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, and cytauxzoon felis which causes cytauxzoonosis in cats. a parasiticide's speed of kill is important to minimize the direct deleterious effects [related to blood-feeding] of tick infestation and reduce the risk of transmission of tick-borne pathogens. in this study the spe ...201627430425
heterogeneous associations of ecological attributes with tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in a periurban landscape.the variations in prevalence levels of two tick-borne rickettsial pathogens, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, in a periurban environment were evaluated along with their ecological determinants. tick life stage and sex, month of tick collection, landscape fragmentation, and ecological covariates specific to pasture and woodland sites were considered as explanatory covariates. questing lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) were collected by flagging for an hour once every week during ...201627454144
is the antitumor property of trypanosoma cruzi infection mediated by its calreticulin?eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with trypanosoma cruzi. however, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of chagas' disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. similar to other pathogens, t. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. studies, performed 80 years ago in the soviet union, proposed that t. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. an antagoni ...201627462315
unique strain of borrelia miyamotoi in ixodes pacificus ticks, california, usa. 201627479523
systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.four general properti ...201627502490
saliva of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (acari: ixodidae) inhibits classical and alternative complement pathways.rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. for a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. in spite of the importance of r. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. the current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by r. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by puta ...201627515662
new records of ticks (acari: ixodidae) from dogs, cats, humans, and some wild vertebrates in alaska: invasion potential.during 2010-2016, tick specimens were solicited from veterinarians, biologists, and members of the public in alaska. eight species of ticks were recorded from domestic dogs. some ticks were collected from dogs with recent travel histories to other countries or other u.s. states, which appears to explain records of ticks not native to alaska such as amblyomma americanum (l.) (lone star tick), ixodes scapularis (say) (blacklegged tick), and ixodes ricinus (l.). however, we recorded dermacentor var ...201627524823
ecology of tularemia in central us endemic region.tularemia is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the northern hemisphere caused by the gammabacterium francisella tularensis. the most severe form of human tularemia occurs in the central usa and involves a rabbit enzootic cycle, ixodid tick vectors, and f. tularensis subspecies tularensis genotype a1. enzootic tularemia is thought to have a spring-summer seasonality corresponding to the questing activity of its primary tick vectors. domestic cats, another common incidental host, acquire the infec ...201627525215
molecular diagnosis and genetic diversity of tick-borne anaplasmataceae agents infecting the african buffalo syncerus caffer from marromeu reserve in mozambique.tick-borne diseases (tbds) are very important in relation to domestic ruminants, but their occurrence among wild ruminants, mainly in the african buffalo syncerus caffer, remains little known.201627531003
male tarsi specific odorant-binding proteins in the diving beetle cybister japonicus sharp.odorant binding proteins (obps) play critical roles in chemical communication of insects, as they recognize and transport environmental chemical signals to receptors. the diving beetle cybister japonicus sharp shows a remarkable sexual dimorphism. the foreleg tarsi of males are equipped with large suction cups, believed to help holding the female during underwater courtship and mating. here, we identified two obps highly and specifically expressed in male tarsi, suggesting important functions of ...201627545810
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