implications of xenoglycan sensitivity for increased cancer risk. 201525713132
targeted and random mutagenesis of ehrlichia chaffeensis for the identification of genes required for in vivo infection.ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick transmitted pathogen responsible for the disease human monocytic ehrlichiosis. research to elucidate gene function in rickettsial pathogens is limited by the lack of genetic manipulation methods. mutational analysis was performed, targeting to specific and random insertion sites within the bacterium's genome. targeted mutagenesis at six genomic locations by homologous recombination and mobile group ii intron-based methods led to the consistent identification of mu ...201323459099
differentially expressed genes in hirudo medicinalis ganglia after acetyl-l-carnitine treatment.acetyl-l-carnitine (alc) is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supra-physiological concentration, is neuroprotective. it is involved in membrane stabilization and in enhancement of mitochondrial functions. it is a molecule of considerable interest for its clinical application in various neural disorders, including alzheimer's disease and painful neuropathies. alc is known to improve the cognitive capability of aged animals chronically treated with the drug and, recently, ...201323308261
unlocking holocentric chromosomes: new perspectives from comparative and functional genomics?the presence of chromosomes with diffuse centromeres (holocentric chromosomes) has been reported in several taxa since more than fifty years, but a full understanding of their origin is still lacking. comparative and functional genomics are nowadays furnishing new data to better understand holocentric chromosome evolution thus opening new perspectives to analyse karyotype rearrangements in species with holocentric chromosomes in particular evidencing unusual common features, such as the uniform ...023372420
a peculiar cause of anaphylaxis: no more steak? the journey to discovery of a newly recognized allergy to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose found in mammalian recent years, a newly recognized allergic disease has been uncovered, and seemingly idiopathic causes of anaphylaxis now have an explanation. individuals bitten by the lone star tick may develop ige antibodies to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). upon exposure of sensitized subjects to mammalian meat containing alpha-gal on glycoproteins or glycolipids, delayed anaphylaxis may ensue, often three to six hours after ingestion.1 many of these individuals have negative aller ...201222815061
fusion to snowdrop lectin magnifies the oral activity of insecticidal ω-hexatoxin-hv1a peptide by enabling its delivery to the central nervous system.the spider-venom peptide ω-hexatoxin-hv1a (hv1a) targets insect voltage-gated calcium channels, acting directly at sites within the central nervous system. it is potently insecticidal when injected into a wide variety of insect pests, but it has limited oral toxicity. we examined the ability of snowdrop lectin (gna), which is capable of traversing the insect gut epithelium, to act as a "carrier" in order to enhance the oral activity of hv1a.201222761779
determination of wolbachia diversity in butterflies from western ghats, india, by a multigene approach.members of the genus wolbachia are intracellular bacteria that are widespread in arthropods and establish diverse symbiotic associations with their hosts, ranging from mutualism to parasitism. here we present the first detailed analyses of wolbachia in butterflies from india with screening of 56 species. twenty-nine species (52%) representing five families were positive for wolbachia. this is the first report of wolbachia infection in 27 of the 29 species; the other two were reported previously. ...201222504801
transmission electron microscopy reveals distinct macrophage- and tick cell-specific morphological stages of ehrlichia chaffeensis.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an emerging tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. despite the induction of an active host immune response, the pathogen has evolved to persist in its vertebrate and tick hosts. understanding how the organism progresses in tick and vertebrate host cells is critical in identifying effective strategies to block the pathogen transmission. our recent molecular and proteomic studies revealed differences in numerous expressed proteins of ...201222615806
bartonella spp. bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from lyme disease-endemic region.bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against bartonella henselae, b. koehlerae, or b. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. conditions diagnosed before referral included lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). b. henselae bacteremia w ...022516098
galactose-α-1,3-galactose-specific ige is associated with anaphylaxis but not asthma.ige antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern united states. these antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract.201222281828
determinants of food allergy is an emerging epidemic in the united states and the western world. the determination of factors that make certain foods allergenic is still not clearly understood. only a tiny fraction of thousands of proteins and other molecules is responsible for inducing food allergy. in this review, the authors present 3 examples of food allergies with disparate clinical presentations: peanut, soy, and mammalian meat. the potential relationships between allergen structure and function, emphasiz ...022244230
prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology.we treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (pgs) and their known receptors in insect biology. pgs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (aa) and two other c20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. pgs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. the actions of most pgs are mediated by specific receptors. ...201122654840
distribution and infection frequency of 'candidatus rickettsia amblyommii' in maryland populations of the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) and culture in an anopheles gambiae mosquito cell line.amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) is a broadly distributed tick that transmits multiple pathogens of humans and domestic animals. 'candidatus rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted-fever group rickettsial species that is potentially associated with human disease. in 2008 and 2009, we assayed over 500 unfed adult ticks from 19 maryland populations for the presence of 'candidatus r. amblyommii'. infection frequencies ranged from 33% to 100%, with an average infection rate of 60% in 2008 and 6 ...201122309857
do noxious neighbors spread disease? 021123147
phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence.mites (acari) have traditionally been treated as monophyletic, albeit composed of two major lineages: acariformes and parasitiformes. yet recent studies based on morphology, molecular data, or combinations thereof, have increasingly drawn their monophyly into question. furthermore, the usually basal (molecular) position of one or both mite lineages among the chelicerates is in conflict to their morphology, and to the widely accepted view that mites are close relatives of ricinulei.201020678229
pharmacology of signaling induced by dopamine d(1)-like receptor activation.dopamine d(1)-like receptors consisting of d(1) and d(5) subtypes are intimately implicated in dopaminergic regulation of fundamental neurophysiologic processes such as mood, motivation, cognitive function, and motor activity. upon stimulation, d(1)-like receptors initiate signal transduction cascades that are mediated through adenylyl cyclase or phosphoinositide metabolism, with subsequent enhancement of multiple downstream kinase cascades. the latter actions propagate and further amplify the r ...201020547182
chemical methods for the synthesis and modification of neoclerodane diterpenes.diterpenes are a structural class of molecules that are derived from four isoprene subunits and are widespread throughout nature. a number of neoclerodane diterpenes have been found to have biological activity but a limited number of chemical investigations have been conducted. recently, the neoclerodane diterpene, salvinorin a (12) has been investigated due to its unique pharmacological profile. this review will discuss the chemical methods used to chemically modify and synthesize 12.200919679471
key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of lepidoptera.moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. acyl-coa desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in lepidoptera. a novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays delta11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomic ...200818831750
relaxation of selective constraints causes independent selenoprotein extinction in insect genomes.selenoproteins are a diverse family of proteins notable for the presence of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. until very recently, all metazoan genomes investigated encoded selenoproteins, and these proteins had therefore been believed to be essential for animal life. challenging this assumption, recent comparative analyses of insect genomes have revealed that some insect genomes appear to have lost selenoprotein genes.200818698431
donning your enemy's cloak: ground squirrels exploit rattlesnake scent to reduce predation risk.ground squirrels (spermophilus spp.) have evolved a battery of defences against the rattlesnakes (crotalus spp.) that have preyed on them for millions of years. the distinctive behavioural reactions by these squirrels to rattlesnakes have recently been shown to include self-application of rattlesnake scent-squirrels apply scent by vigorously licking their fur after chewing on shed rattlesnake skins. here, we present evidence that this behaviour is a novel antipredator defence founded on exploita ...018198147
basophils and type 2 immunity.mechanisms involved in the development of in-vivo type 2 immunity are poorly defined. basophils are potent il-4-producing cells and may contribute to the process of polarizing immune responses.018043247
gene knockdown by rnai in the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum.rna interference (rnai) is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner.200717903251
structural and functional characterization of a novel type of ligand-independent rxr-usp receptor.retinoid x receptor (rxr) and ultraspiracle (usp) play a central role as ubiquitous heterodimerization partners of many nuclear receptors. while it has long been accepted that a wide range of ligands can activate vertebrate/mollusc rxrs, the existence and necessity of specific endogenous ligands activating rxr-usp in vivo is still matter of intense debate. here we report the existence of a novel type of rxr-usp with a ligand-independent functional conformation. our studies involved tribolium usp ...200717673910
survey of ticks collected from tennessee cattle and their pastures for anaplasma and ehrlichia species.anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (ba) and ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. ba is common in the united states and frequently reported in western tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental united states. because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for eac ...201626348980
prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsia spp. and ehrlichia spp. in coyotes (canis latrans) in oklahoma and texas, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) are commonly infested with ticks, including amblyomma americanum, the predominant vector of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii; dermacentor variabilis, an important vector of rickettsia rickettsii; and amblyomma maculatum, a major vector of rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia. to determine the degree to which coyotes are infected with or exposed to tick-borne bacterial disease agents, serum samples collected from coyotes in oklahoma and tex ...201323778619
anaplasma phagocytophilum in small mammals and ticks in northeast florida.human anaplasmosis is an emerging tick-borne disease in the united states, but few studies of the causative agent, anaplasma phagocytophilum, have been conducted in southeastern states. the aim of this study was to determine if a. phagocytophilum is present in small mammals and ticks in northeast florida. polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify portions of the major surface protein 2 gene (p44), 16s rdna, and groesl operons were used to test rodent blood and tick dna samples for the ...201222548563
borrelia burgdorferi dna absent, multiple rickettsia spp. dna present in ticks collected from a teaching forest in north central florida.tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the united states. in florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as b. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in north central fl ...201727720381
detection of borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast missouri.we evaluated amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and dermacentor variabilis (american dog tick) in northeast missouri for the presence of borrelia, ehrlichia, and rickettsia bacteria. we collected actively questing ticks from four sites within adair county, missouri. a total of 15,162 ticks were collected, of which 13,980 were grouped in 308 pools (lone star ticks, 288 pools; american dog ticks, 20 pools) and tested for presence/absence of bacteria using polymerase chain reaction. infection ra ...201627133163
prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in host-seeking amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) and odocoileus virginianus (artiodactyla: cervidae) in florida.amblyomma americanum (l.), the lone star tick, is an aggressive tick that is expanding its geographic range within the united states. this tick is the vector for the human and veterinary pathogens ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii and is associated with other microbes of unspecified pathogenicity including rickettsia amblyommii, panola mountain ehrlichia, and borrelia lonestari in florida, there has been sparse contemporary data on the prevalence of these organisms in host-seeking lone ...201627117680
note on ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, and "borrelia lonestari" infection in lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae), nebraska, usa.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae), is established in southeastern nebraska yet the prevalence of tick-associated microorganisms is not known. an initial pcr-based analysis for ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, and borrelia infection in host-seeking adult ticks collected in southeast nebraska was conducted. a total of 251 adult ticks collected in six sites in southeast nebraska were tested. e. chaffeensis, e. ewingii, and borrelia spp. were present, and the p ...201626515060
detection of bacterial agents in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from georgia, usa, and the use of a multiplex assay to differentiate ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii.amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, is the most common and most aggressive human biting tick in the southeastern united states. it is known to transmit the agents of human ehrlichioses, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii. in addition, it carries agents of unspecified pathogenicity to humans, including rickettsia amblyommii, borrelia lonestari, and the newly emerging panola mountain ehrlichia (pme). surveillance of these ticks for recognized or emerging pathogens is necessary for a ...201425118421
not all erythema migrans lesions are lyme disease.lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the us, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. however, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. this article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with lyme disease ...201727612442
new records of ixodes affinis (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing avian hosts in southeastern virginia.ixodes affinis neumann (acari: ixodidae) is a hard-bodied tick species distributed throughout much of the southeastern united states. although i. affinis does not parasitize humans, it is a competent vector of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative-agent of lyme disease, and thus contributes to the enzootic maintenance of this pathogen. this study presents evidence of i. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. during 2012-2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ...201626586535
the diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in eastern siberia (russian federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. in eastern siberia, ixodes persulcatus, dermacentor nuttalli, dermacentor silvarum and haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. we studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick ...201626443685
prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central oklahoma.ticks are common on horses, but there is a dearth of contemporary data on infestation prevalence, predominant species, and tick-borne disease agents important in this host. to determine the species of ticks most common on horses and the prevalence of equine exposure to and infection with tick-borne disease agents, ticks and blood samples were collected from 73 horses during may, june, and july of 2010. adult ticks were identified to species, and antibodies to ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., and ...201324843940
exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in gettysburg national military park, south-central pennsylvania, 2009.since 1998, lyme disease cases have increased in south-central pennsylvania, which includes gettysburg national military park (nmp). limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among gettysburg nmp employees are available. to address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within gettysburg nmp during april-septe ...201424689815
ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) distribution surveys in the chicago metropolitan region.considering recent studies confirming an increased risk of contracting lyme disease near metropolitan chicago, we surveyed a more comprehensive area to assess whether the geographical distribution and establishment of ixodes scapularis (say) populations across northeast illinois are widespread or limited in occurrence. from may through october 2008 and from april through october 2009, 602 i. scapularis ticks of all three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) were collected from sites in cook, dupage ...201222897059
parasitology and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in north carolina, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern us and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. we examined free-ranging coyotes from central north carolina, us, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. we detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (dirofilaria immiti ...201525984773
coxiella symbionts are widespread into hard ticks.ticks are blood-feeding arthropods and can harbor several bacteria, including the worldwide zoonotic disease q-fever agent coxiella burnetii. recent studies have reported a distinct group of coxiella mostly associated with ixodidae ticks, including the primary endosymbionts of amblyomma americanum. in the present work, a screening for coxiella infection was performed by 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) gene analyses in 293 tick samples of 15 different species sampled worldwide, including brazil, colombi ...201627595990
concurrent examination of bobcats and ticks reveals high prevalence of cytauxzoon felis in southern illinois.cytauxzoon felis is an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan of felids enzootic in the southeastern united states. in domestic cats (felis catus), this parasite can result in the highly fatal disease cytauxzoonosis or bobcat fever. bobcats (lynx rufus) are the wild animal reservoir host. to date, the characterization of prevalence of c. felis in bobcats is mostly based on broad-scale surveys from hunter-harvested specimens collected across large geographic areas, usually consisting of multiple states. ...201728355128
minimum transmission time of cytauxzoon felis by amblyomma americanum to domestic cats in relation to duration of infestation, and investigation of ingestion of infected ticks as a potential route of transmission.objectives the objectives of the present study were to determine the duration of infestation by amblyomma americanum necessary for transmission of cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats and to determine if ingestion of c felis-infected a americanum by cats is a route of transmission. methods forty-nine cats were assigned to one of seven groups, with seven cats per group. cats were infested with a americanum adults, acquisition fed as nymphs on a cytauxzoonosis survivor cat, for 12 h (group 1), 18 h ( ...201728151047
diversity of piroplasms detected in blood-fed and questing ticks from several states in the united states.piroplasms in the genera babesia, theileria, and cytauxzoon are tick-borne parasites that may be animal and human pathogens. most piroplasms with known life cycles are transmitted by ixodid ticks; however, for many species, the vector is unknown. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and diversity of piroplasms in ticks from several us states. piroplasm-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were used to test 1631 ticks from georgia (n=486), kentucky (n=103), pennsylvania ...201424709338
efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collar (seresto®, bayer) for preventing the transmission of cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats by amblyomma americanum.infection of cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats produces a severe disease characterised by fever, lethargy, inappetence, anorexia, depression, dehydration, icterus and often death. transmission of c. felis to cats is dependent on being fed upon by infected amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). the purpose of the present study was to determine if application of a 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar (seresto®, bayer) on cats prevents transmission of c. felis by repelling ticks. twenty cats ...201323760871
occurrence of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) and human infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis in wisconsin, 2008-2015.because of the increasing incidence of human ehrlichiosis in wisconsin, we assessed reports of human infections by ehrlichia chaffeensis and the distribution of its vector, the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum (l.)). from 2008 through 2015, 158 probable and confirmed human cases of e. chaffeensis infections were reported to the wisconsin department of health services. five cases without travel history outside of wisconsin were confirmed as e. chaffeensis by polymerase chain reaction. surveil ...201628011735
risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the u.s. great plains.the prevalence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in many urban areas of the u.s., yet little is known about the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in relation to characteristics of north american urban and suburban landscapes. this study aimed to begin identification of the risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens within a rapidly expanding metropolitan area in the u.s. great plains region. ten sites across oklahoma city, oklahoma were selected for tick sampling ...201727773826
amblyomma americanum ticks infected with in vitro cultured wild-type and mutants of ehrlichia chaffeensis are competent to produce infection in naïve deer and dogs.monocytic ehrlichiosis in people caused by the intracellular bacterium, ehrlichia chaffeensis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. tick transmission disease models for ehrlichiosis require at least two hosts and two tick blood feeding episodes to recapitulate the natural transmission cycle. one blood feeding is necessary for the tick to acquire the infection from an infected host and the next feeding is needed to transmit the bacterium to a ...201727729288
use of extracorporeal support in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to ehrlichiosis.ehrlichiosis, caused by transmission of ehrlichia chaffeensis to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick, can lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (hlh), a life-threatening condition caused by uncontrolled activation of the cellular immune system. we describe a child with hlh secondary to ehrlichiosis who developed multiorgan failure and was successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ecmo). a 9-year-old boy developed headaches, fever, and sore th ...201627633921
heterogeneous associations of ecological attributes with tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in a periurban landscape.the variations in prevalence levels of two tick-borne rickettsial pathogens, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, in a periurban environment were evaluated along with their ecological determinants. tick life stage and sex, month of tick collection, landscape fragmentation, and ecological covariates specific to pasture and woodland sites were considered as explanatory covariates. questing lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) were collected by flagging for an hour once every week during ...201627454144
molecular identification of ehrlichia species and host bloodmeal source in amblyomma americanum l. from two locations in tennessee, united states.the current status of tick-borne diseases in the southeastern united states is challenging to define due to emerging pathogens, uncertain tick/host relationships, and changing disease case definitions. a golf-oriented retirement community on the cumberland plateau in tennessee experienced an ehrlichiosis outbreak in 1993, prompting efforts to reduce the local tick population using '4-poster' acaricide devices targeting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). in 2009, the prevalence of ehrlic ...201525682494
the prevalence of rickettsial and ehrlichial organisms in amblyomma americanum ticks collected from ohio and surrounding areas between 2000 and 2010.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, feeds upon a variety of hosts and is a known vector of several human pathogens. in ohio, populations of a. americanum have been expanding their range and increasing in abundance and distribution, thereby elevating the public health concerns regarding bites from this species. we used a set of pcr assays to detect the presence of ehrlichial and rickettsial species in a. americanum ticks submitted to the ohio department of health zoonotic disease program ov ...201425108789
rickettsiae and ehrlichiae within a city park: is the urban dweller at risk?tick-borne diseases, such as spotted fever rickettsioses and ehrlichioses, are potentially severe and life-threatening infections. the incidences of these infections increase during warm weather months as ticks become active. clinicians often consider outdoor activities in rural areas to be a risk factor for exposure to ticks and the pathogens they carry, but are those who live, work, and play within an urban environment excluded from this risk? in this study, we collected ticks from two urban p ...201424528097
a white-tailed deer/lone star tick model for studying transmission of ehrlichia chaffeensis.animal models for ehrlichia chaffeensis have been unsuccessful in recapitulating the natural disease cycle. we have developed an animal model for tick feeding and transmission using white-tailed deer (odocoileus virgianus), the intracellular bacterium (ehrlichia chaffeensis), and the lone star tick vector (amblyomma americanum). here, we report the acquisition and transmission of e. chaffeensis infections by refeeding male ticks in this experimental model. this finding is important because techn ...201323421885
laboratory-infected ehrlichia chaffeensis female adult amblyomma americanum salivary glands reveal differential gene expression.ticks are efficient ectoparasites that are able to steal blood, a rich source of nutrients, from their vertebrate hosts. the nymphal developmental stage of ticks plays an important role for pathogen transmission to human and other animal hosts. in this article, we describe a bloodmeal-based sex differentiation tool to generate adult female ticks infected with ehrlichia chaffeensis to investigate vector-pathogen interactions (functional genomics and gene expression studies). we demonstrate that t ...201222679861
isolation and short-term persistence of ehrlichia ewingii in cell culture.ehrlichia ewingii is the causative agent of human and canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis. since its discovery in 1970, little work has been done to characterize the pathogen or study the transmission dynamics due to the inability to grow the agent in vitro. the aim of this study was to assess the suitability of multiple cell lines and media formulations for propagation of e. ewingii in cell culture. in this study, we present an overview of attempts to isolate e. ewingii from the buffy coat of goat ...201627228133
ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to amblyomma americanum av422: determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. one of the promising candidates for developing such a test is av422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. in this study, we demonstrate the potential of the av422 homologue from ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both prostriata and metastriata. we expressed recombinant (r) i. ricinus (ir) av422 in e. coli ...201728119040
plane of nutrition x tick burden interaction in cattle: effect on fecal composition.effective tick management on grazing animals is facilitated by accurate noninvasive detection methods. fecal analysis provides information about animal health and nutrition. diet affects fecal composition; stress may do likewise. the constituents in feces that may be affected by tick burdens and in turn affect near-infrared spectra have not been reported. our objective was to examine the interaction between plane of nutrition and tick burden on fecal composition in cattle. angus cross steers (n ...201323658354
molecular detection of rickettsia species within ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from arkansas united states.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), caused by the etiological agent rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the united states, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. with the discoveries of rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as rmsf are truly caused by r. rickettsii or other sfgr. arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of rmsf in the ...201526334827
evaluation of human attachment by larval amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the tick, amblyomma maculatum koch (gulf coast tick), has recently been shown to be an important disease vector of both medical and veterinary concern. although much is known about the behavior and ecology of adults, little is known of the immatures. larval feeding on humans has never been demonstrated (and thus, there are no collection records from humans). in this experiment, 10 larval a. maculatum, amblyomma americanum (l.) (a positive control), and dermacentor variabilis (say) (a negative co ...201626576936
rickettsia parkeri transmission to amblyomma americanum by cofeeding with amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae) and potential for spillover.amblyomma americanum (l.) is a human-biting ixodid tick distributed throughout much of the southeastern united states. rickettsia parkeri is a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae and causes a febrile illness in humans commonly referred to as "tidewater spotted fever" or "r. parkeri rickettsiosis." although the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch, is the primary vector of r. parkeri, a small proportion of a. americanum have also been shown to harbor r. parkeri. the purpose of this ...201526336226
"rickettsia amblyommii" and r. montanensis infection in dogs following natural exposure to determine the risk of canine infection with spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia spp. following natural tick exposure, 10 dogs determined to be free of evidence of exposure to or infection with tick-borne disease agents were exposed to ticks via weekly walks in a wooded area in north-central oklahoma. after each walk, dogs were examined and the number and species of ticks present were recorded. the dogs were then returned to outdoor kennels to allow the infestations and subsequent transmissio ...201424359419
target validation of highly conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serine protease inhibitor 19.amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor (serpin, aas) 19, is a highly conserved protein that is characterized by its functional domain being 100% conserved across tick species. we also reported that aas19 was an immunogenic tick saliva protein with anti-haemostatic functions and an inhibitor of trypsin-like proteases including five of the eight serine protease factors in the blood clotting cascade. in this study the goal was to validate the importance of aas19 in a. americanum tick p ...201626746129
merogonic stages of theileria cervi in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).in february 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern oklahoma to a facility in southeastern oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. the deer were heavily infested with amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasi ...201324029405
repellency of the origanum onites l. essential oil and constituents to the lone star tick and yellow fever mosquito.the oregano, origanum onites l., essential oil (eo) was tested in laboratory behavioural bioassays for repellent activity against amblyomma americanum (l.) and aedes aegypti (l.). the o. onites eo was characterised using gc-fid and gc-ms. carvacrol (75.70%), linalool (9.0%), p-cymene (4.33%) and thymol (1.9%) were the most abundant compounds. at a concentration of 0.413 mg oil/cm(2) of filter paper, o. onites eo repelled 100% of the ticks tested and at 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) of filter paper, 66.7% o ...201728278656
sustained efficacy of the novel topical repellent tt-4302 against mosquitoes and ticks.mosquitoes and ticks are blood-feeding pests of humans and animals that can vector many important aetiological agents of disease. previous research demonstrated that tt-4302 (guardian(®) wilderness) containing 5% geraniol applied to human subjects gave 5-6 h of repellency against mosquitoes (depending on species) and was repellent to ticks in vitro. this study was conducted to obtain an independent third-party evaluation of tt-4302 against stegomyia aegypti (= aedes aegypti) (diptera: culicidae) ...201626614394
efficacy of chemical repellents against otobius megnini (acari: argasidae) and three species of ixodid ticks.otobius megnini (dugès), often referred to as the ear tick or spinose ear tick, is a one-host tick native to the southwestern united states and mexico. infestations of this species can cause severe irritation and may affect breeding behavior in the host. although chemical repellents are commonly used as an alternative approach to conventional arthropod vector control, information on repellency against o. megnini is lacking. this study compared repellency of ammonia, bioud(®), 98.25% deet, garlic ...201424659519
ability of three general-use pesticides to suppress nymphal ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).we evaluated 3 over-the-counter pesticides for their ability to suppress host-seeking ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum nymphs. we applied liquid concentrate and granular formulations of bayer advanced complete insect killer, spectracide triazicide insect killer, and ortho bug-b-gon to forest plots using equipment available for purchase at retail home improvement outlets. all 3 liquid formulations provided rapid knockdown (≥98% control) of both species 1 day after application. liquid or ...201728388324
the conclusion of a comparative efficacy study of fluralaner and sarolaner against the tick amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on results obtained at study times that are outside the fluralaner label recommendations.the only fluralaner-related conclusion presented in a study comparing the efficacy of fluralaner and sarolaner for control of the tick amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on study times that are outside the label administration recommendations. label recommendations for fluralaner treatment of a. americanum on dogs in the usa require re-administration at 56 days. this 56 day re-administration was not conducted in the study; therefore, all assessed time points following 56 days post-treatment i ...201728340604
a repertoire of protease inhibitor families in amblyomma americanum and other tick species: inter-species comparative analyses.protease inhibitors (pis) are important regulators of physiology and represent anti-parasitic druggable and vaccine targets. we conducted bioinformatic analyses of genome and transcriptome data to determine the protease inhibitor (pi) repertoire in amblyomma americanum and in 25 other ixodid tick species. for a. americanum, we compared the pi repertoires in fed and unfed, male and female a. americanum ticks. we also analyzed pi repertoires of female 48, 96 and 120 h-fed midgut (mg) and salivary ...201728330502
what's eating you? lone star tick (amblyomma americanum).amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern united states. since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. today, a americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. in addition to others, species of rickettsia, ehrlichia, and borrelia are all transmitted by the lone star tick. recently described conditions such as southern tick-associated rash illness and anaphylaxis to red meat following tick bites ha ...201728319627
use of a tick-borne disease manual increases accuracy of tick identification among primary care providers in lyme disease endemic areas.given the high incidence of tick bites and tick-borne diseases in the united states, it is important for primary care providers to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit. if a patient has removed and saved an attached tick, identifying the tick helps guide clinical management and determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis for lyme disease is appropriate. to investigate providers' ability to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit, we asked 76 primary care pro ...201727916581
food allergy to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal): four case reports and a review.until recently, food allergies to mammalian meats have been considered to be very rare. the observation that patients not previously exposed to the monoclonal chimeric antibody cetuximab suffered from severe anaphylaxis upon first exposure, led to the identification of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose as a new relevant carbohydrate allergen. these patients later often suffered from anaphylactic reactions to red meat. epidemiological data indicated that bites by the tick amblyomma americanum in the ...201727873733
heparan sulfate/heparin glycosaminoglycan binding alters inhibitory profile and enhances anticoagulant function of conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19.some serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulators of essential life pathways bind glycosaminoglycans (gags) to enhance inhibitory functions and achieve physiologically relevant rates. this study demonstrates that highly conserved amblyomma americanum tick saliva serpin 19 (aas19), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of hemostasis and inflammation system proteases and anticoagulant, can bind heparan sulfate/heparin (hs)gags and that this interaction alters its function. substrate hydrolysis and unpaired ...201727845251
low rate of cetuximab hypersensitivity reactions in northeast tennessee: an appalachian effect?cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody with a known risk of hypersensitivity reactions. early studies showed hypersensitivity reaction rates of 3%, but there appears to be a higher incidence in the southeastern united states. to confirm the findings from nearby institutions that cetuximab-associated hypersensitivity reactions occur in approximately 20% of patients in the southeastern united states.201626590031
ectoparasites of free-roaming domestic cats in the central united domestic cat (felis catus) populations serve as a valuable resource for studying ectoparasite prevalence. while they share a similar environment as owned cats, free-roaming cats do not receive routine veterinary care or ectoparasiticide application, giving insight into parasite risks for owned animals. we examined up to 673 infested cats presented to a trap-neuter-return (tnr) clinic in the central united states. ectoparasite prevalences on cats were as follows: fleas (71.6%), ticks ...201627692321
manual for maintenance of multi-host ixodid ticks in the laboratory.use of laboratory animals as hosts for blood-sucking arthropods remains a time-proven and the most efficient method for establishment and propagation of slowly feeding ixodid ticks, despite introduction of techniques involving artificial feeding on either animal skins or synthetic membranes. new zealand white rabbits are usually the most accessible and most suitable hosts routinely used for establishment and maintenance of a large variety of multi-host tick species. here we describe standard pro ...201627651325
rickettsia amblyommatis sp. nov., a spotted fever group rickettsia associated with multiple species of amblyomma ticks in north, central and south 1973, investigators isolated a rickettsial organism, designated strain wb-8-2t, from an adult amblyomma americanum tick collected at land between the lakes national recreation area, tn, usa. this organism is now recognized as highly prevalent in a. americanum, as well as several other amblyomma species found throughout the western hemisphere. it has been suggested that cross-reactivity to wb-8-2t and similar strains contributes to the increasing number of spotted fever cases reported in the u ...201627638476
emerging tick-borne rickettsia and ehrlichia at joint base langley-eustis, fort eustis, virginia.four species of ticks known to parasitize humans (amblyomma americanum (lone star tick), dermacentor variabilis (american dog tick), amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick), and ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick)) were collected at joint base langley-eustis, fort eustis, virginia during 2009. these ticks were tested individually (adults and nymphs) and in pools of 15 (larvae) for pathogens of public health importance within the genera: rickettsia, borrelia, and ehrlichia, by quantitative real-t ...201627613206
new records of ticks (acari: ixodidae) from dogs, cats, humans, and some wild vertebrates in alaska: invasion potential.during 2010-2016, tick specimens were solicited from veterinarians, biologists, and members of the public in alaska. eight species of ticks were recorded from domestic dogs. some ticks were collected from dogs with recent travel histories to other countries or other u.s. states, which appears to explain records of ticks not native to alaska such as amblyomma americanum (l.) (lone star tick), ixodes scapularis (say) (blacklegged tick), and ixodes ricinus (l.). however, we recorded dermacentor var ...201627524823
repellency to ticks (acari: ixodidae) of extracts of nigella sativa (ranunculaceae) and the anti-inflammatory dogsbestfriend™.motivated by observations that the canine anti-inflammatory cream dogsbestfriend™ (dbf) appeared to deter flies, mosquitoes, and ticks from treated animals, repellent efficacy bioassays using four species of ticks were conducted with three extracts of nigella sativa l. (ranunculaceae), a constituent of dbf. the dbf cream was tested against nymphs of lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.). in vertical filter paper assays, the three extracts applied at 0.413 mg extract/cm(2) filter paper repell ...201627394440
neuronal projections from the haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of amblyomma americanum§.the present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an ixodidae tick species. the tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. a neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. the synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. neuronal ar ...201627334823
transmission of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) by experimentally infected amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).heartland virus (hrtv; bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) is a recently described cause of human illness in the united states. after field studies conducted in 2012 implicated amblyomma americanum (l.) as a vector of hrtv, we initiated experiments to assess the vector competence of a. americanum larval and nymphal ticks were immersed in high-titered suspensions of hrtv, and then tested for virus at various intervals postimmersion. in a later trial larval ticks were immersed in hrtv, followed by engorgem ...201627330103
the chemosensory appendage proteome of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) reveals putative odorant-binding and other chemoreception-related proteins.proteomic analyses were done on 2 chemosensory appendages of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. proteins in the fore tarsi, which contain the olfactory haller's organ, and in the palps, that include gustatory sensilla, were compared with proteins in the third tarsi. also, male and female ticks were compared. proteins were identified by sequence similarity to known proteins, and by 3-dimensional homology modeling. proteomic data were also compared with organ-specific transcriptomes from th ...201627307202
neuronal projections from the haller's organ and palp sensilla to the synganglion of amblyomma americanum§.the present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an ixodidae tick species. the tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. a neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. the synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. neuronal ar ...201627304521
structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern united states and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. to remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with ...201627118479
thermacell and off! clip-on devices tested for repellency and mortality against amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodida: amblyommidae).the thermacell with allethrin and off! clip-on with metofluthrin were tested in a 939 m(2) vented enclosure against nymphal lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.). repellency assays were conducted at varying distances relative to product specifications for repellency range. nymphal ticks acclimated for 24 h in chambers attached to 10 repellency tracks per repetition. devices were turned on, and the tick travel distance and delay until beginning to travel were recorded. mortality of ticks was ...201627113108
surveillance for heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) in missouri during 2013: first detection of virus in adults of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).during 2013, we collected and tested ticks for heartland virus (hrtv), a recently described human pathogen in the genus phlebovirus (bunyaviridae), from six sites in northwestern missouri. five sites were properties owned by hrtv patients, and the sixth was a conservation area that yielded virus in ticks during 2012. we collected 39,096 ticks representing five species; however, two species, amblyomma americanum (l.) (97.6%) and dermacentor variabilis (say) (2.3%), accounted for nearly all ticks ...201627032416
determination of the effective dose of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (simparica™) for the treatment and month-long control of fleas and ticks on dogs.three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the appropriate dose of sarolaner, a novel isoxazoline, for the treatment and month-long control of infestations of fleas and ticks on dogs. in the first study, dogs were treated orally with sarolaner suspension formulations at 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0mg/kg, and infested with dermacentor reticulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and with ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea) prior to treatment and then weekly for up to 8 weeks. fleas and ticks were ...201626948830
efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the united states.the efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (simparica™, zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the united states. a total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or beagle dogs. in each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult a ...201626935819
ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in florida, usa.voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across florida, usa, were conducted over a 10 month period. of the 1337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis. most ticks were collected from dogs (98.4%) with the most predominant species being r. sanguineus (94.3%). of the ticks collected from cats (1.6%), a. americ ...201626888081
the putative role of rhipicephalus microplus salivary serpins in the tick-host relationship.inflammation and hemostasis are part of the host's first line of defense to tick feeding. these systems are in part serine protease mediated and are tightly controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, in the serpin superfamily (serine protease inhibitors). from this perspective ticks are thought to use serpins to evade host defenses during feeding. the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus encodes at least 24 serpins, of which rms-3, rms-6, and rms-17 were previously identified in saliva of this ti ...201626844868
a comparison of the performance of regression models of amblyomma americanum (l.) (ixodidae) using life cycle or landscape data from administrative divisions.the distribution of amblyomma americanum (l.) in the continental united states has been modelled using the reported distribution in counties as "established" (six or more ticks or two or more life stages were recorded during a specified time period), "reported" (fewer than six ticks of a single life stage were recorded), or "absent" (neither of the above categories were met) and a set of environmental and biotic explanatory variables. categorical (vegetation, climate, and habitat suitability for ...201626826973
maximum entropy-based ecological niche model and bio-climatic determinants of lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) niche.the potential distribution of amblyomma americanum ticks in kansas was modeled using maximum entropy (maxent) approaches based on museum and field-collected species occurrence data. various bioclimatic variables were used in the model as potentially influential factors affecting the a. americanum niche. following reduction of dimensionality among predictor variables using principal components analysis, which revealed that the first two principal axes explain over 87% of the variance, the model i ...201626824880
comparison of novel and conventional methods of trapping ixodid ticks in the southeastern u.s.a.tick-borne disease surveillance and research rely on resource-effective methods for tick collection. this study compared the respective performances of several trapping methods in a mixed grassland-forest habitat in western tennessee. to test for temporal differences in effectiveness, sites were sampled monthly (april-august 2013) using dry ice, dragging, flagging, sweep netting, carbon dioxide (co2 ) dragging and co2 flagging methods. to evaluate the effect of habitat on method effectiveness, f ...201626801319
panola mountain ehrlichia in amblyomma maculatum from the united states and amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) from the caribbean and africa.panola mountain ehrlichia (pme) has been suggested as an emerging pathogen of humans and dogs. domestic goats and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are also susceptible and likely serve as reservoirs. experimentally, both the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum (l.)) and the gulf coast tick (amblyomma maculatum koch) can transmit pme among deer and goats. in the current study, we detected pme in adult wild-caught a. maculatum from the united states and amblyomma variegatum (f.) from th ...201626744465
simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. we developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central united states, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low hos ...201526611958
evaluation of deet and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).deet and eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of n,n-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. ...201626590930
a dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate and climate-independent factors on the lifecycle of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, is a disease vector of significance for human and animal health throughout much of the eastern united states. to model the potential effects of climate change on this tick, a better understanding is needed of the relative roles of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent (day-length-dependent behavioral or morphogenetic diapause) processes acting on the tick lifecycle. in this study, we explored the roles of these processes by simulating seasona ...201626502753
county scale distribution of amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae) in oklahoma: addressing local deficits in tick maps based on passive reporting.geographic distribution records for the lone star tick [amblyomma americanum (l.)] in the peer-reviewed literature are incomplete for oklahoma, preventing accurate disease risk assessments. to address this issue and document the presence of a. americanum in available habitats throughout the state, county-scale tick records published in u.s. department of agriculture-cooperative economic insect reports and specimens maintained at the k.c. emerson entomology museum, oklahoma state university, were ...201526336311
comparison of dna and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope-based techniques for identification of prior vertebrate hosts of ticks.identification of the vertebrate hosts upon which hematophagous arthropods feed provides key information for understanding the ecology and transmission of vector-borne diseases. bloodmeal analysis of ticks presents unique challenges relative to other vectors, given the long interval between bloodmeal acquisition and host-seeking, during which dna degradation occurs. this study evaluates dna-based and stable isotope-based bloodmeal analysis methodologies for the lone star tick, amblyomma american ...201526336205
cutaneous lesions due to bites by larval amblyomma americanum ticks. 201526309141
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