PMID(sorted ascending)
the prevalence of rickettsial and ehrlichial organisms in amblyomma americanum ticks collected from ohio and surrounding areas between 2000 and 2010.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, feeds upon a variety of hosts and is a known vector of several human pathogens. in ohio, populations of a. americanum have been expanding their range and increasing in abundance and distribution, thereby elevating the public health concerns regarding bites from this species. we used a set of pcr assays to detect the presence of ehrlichial and rickettsial species in a. americanum ticks submitted to the ohio department of health zoonotic disease program ov ...201425108789
multiplex qpcr assay for identification and differentiation of amblyomma americanum, amblyomma cajennense, and amblyomma maculatum (ixodida: ixodidae) tick species in the eastern united states.many ticks of the genus amblyomma are vectors of human pathogens, and the correct species identification is medically and epidemiologically important. morphological identification is time-consuming and requires a high level of expertise. identification of engorged, immature, or damaged ticks and the differentiation of closely related species remain problematic. here, we report the development of a real-time taqman assay for the genomic identification and differentiation of amblyomma americanum ( ...201425118411
detection of bacterial agents in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from georgia, usa, and the use of a multiplex assay to differentiate ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii.amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, is the most common and most aggressive human biting tick in the southeastern united states. it is known to transmit the agents of human ehrlichioses, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii. in addition, it carries agents of unspecified pathogenicity to humans, including rickettsia amblyommii, borrelia lonestari, and the newly emerging panola mountain ehrlichia (pme). surveillance of these ticks for recognized or emerging pathogens is necessary for a ...201425118421
lyme disease. 201425119621
high-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in europe.due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout europe. therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. to accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (tbps), a large scale epidemiological study was conducted on 7050 ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from france, denmark, and the netherlands using a powerful new high-throughput approach. this advanced methodology permitted the simultaneous detect ...201425120960
prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis collected from southeastern virginia, 2010-2011.amblyomma americanum is the most commonly encountered tick species in southeastern virginia, representing approximately 95% of the human-biting tick population in this area. here we investigated the prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in questing amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis ticks collected from multiple sites in southeastern virginia from 2010 to 2011. although both ehrlichia species were detected in amblyomma americanum, no evidence of either pathogen w ...201425155340
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
seroepidemiologic study of human infections with spotted fever group rickettsiae in north carolina.increasing entomologic and epidemiologic evidence suggests that spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) other than rickettsia rickettsii are responsible for spotted fever rickettsioses in the united states. a retrospective seroepidemiologic study was conducted on stored acute- and convalescent-phase sera that had been submitted for rocky mountain spotted fever testing to the north carolina state laboratory of public health. we evaluated the serologic reactivity of the paired sera to r. rickettsii ...201425187639
dual silencing of long and short amblyomma americanum acidic chitinase forms weakens the tick cement cone stability.this study demonstrates that amblyomma americanum (aam) constitutively and ubiquitously expresses the long (l) and short (s) putative acidic chitinases (ach) that are distinguished by a 210 base pair (bp) deletion in aamach-s. full-length aamach-l and aamach-s cdna are 1959 and 1718 bp long, containing 1332 and 1104 bp open reading frames that code for 443 and 367 amino acid residues proteins with the former predicted to be extracellular and the latter intracellular. both aamach-l and aamach-s m ...201425189365
porcine or bovine valve replacement in 3 patients with ige antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose. 201425213067
bioinformatic analyses of male and female amblyomma americanum tick expressed serine protease inhibitors (serpins).serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a diverse family of proteins that is conserved across taxa. the diversity of amblyomma americanum serpins (aas) is far more complex than previously thought as revealed by discovery of 57 and 33 aas transcripts that are respectively expressed in male and female a. americanum ticks, with 30 found in both. while distinct reproductively, both male and female metastriate ticks, such as a. americanum, require a blood meal. thus, 30 aas sequences found in both m ...201425238688
case report: molecular evidence of anaplasma platys infection in two women from venezuela.this article presents two case reports of anaplasma platys detection in two women from venezuela. both patients were exposed to rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling a. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and a. platys dna was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. these ca ...201425266347
lyme disease, virginia, usa, 2000-2011.lyme disease, caused by the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern united states by the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis), is increasing in incidence and expanding geographically. recent environmental modeling based on extensive field collections of host-seeking i. scapularis ticks predicted a coastal distribution of ticks in mid-atlantic states and an elevational limit of 510 m. however, human lyme disease cases are increasing most dramatically at higher elevations in ...201425272308
ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in the reservoir host (white-tailed deer) and in an incidental host (dog) is impacted by its prior growth in macrophage and tick cell environments.ehrlichia chaffeensis, transmitted from amblyomma americanum ticks, causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis. it also infects white-tailed deer, dogs and several other vertebrates. deer are its reservoir hosts, while humans and dogs are incidental hosts. e. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by its growth in macrophages and tick cells. we report here infection progression in deer or dogs infected intravenously with macrophage- or tick cell-grown e. chaffeensis or by tick transmission in dee ...201425303515
relationship between degenerative joint disease, pain, and bartonella spp. seroreactivity in domesticated cats.recently, a potential association was identified between bartonella exposure and arthritides in mammalian species other than cats.201425327962
macrophage activation syndrome secondary to human monocytic present a case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) that was complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (mas), also known as secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (shlh).201325332563
reproducible and quantitative model of infection of dermacentor variabilis with the live vaccine strain of francisella tularensis.pathogen life cycles in mammalian hosts have been studied extensively, but studies with arthropod vectors represent considerable challenges. in part this is due to the difficulty of delivering a reproducible dose of bacteria to follow arthropod-associated replication. we have established reproducible techniques to introduce known numbers of francisella tularensis strain lvs from mice into dermacentor variabilis nymphs. using this model infection system, we performed dose-response infection exper ...201425362054
the phenology of ticks and the effects of long-term prescribed burning on tick population dynamics in southwestern georgia and northwestern florida.some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. one promising management strategy is prescribed burning. however, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a fa ...201425375797
identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from german and danish the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from german (n = 2297) and danish (n = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-qpcr).201425420461
pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the mexico-us border along the rio grande.transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. the complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. the rio grande serve ...201425453027
amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds c1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement this study we characterized amblyomma americanum (aam) tick calreticulin (crt) homolog in tick feeding physiology. in nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. this suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. from this perspective it's plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as crt to regulate and facilitate feedin ...025454607
comparison of phenology and pathogen prevalence, including infection with the ehrlichia muris-like (eml) agent, of ixodes scapularis removed from soldiers in the midwestern and the northeastern united states over a 15 year period (1997-2012).since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the department of defense human tick test kit program (httkp) of the us army public health command have been tested for pathogens by pcr. we noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. the aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of i. scapularis submitted from ...201425465046
mosquito akirin as a potential antigen for malaria control.the control of vector-borne diseases is important to improve human and animal health worldwide. malaria is one of the world's deadliest diseases and is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium, which are transmitted by anopheles spp. mosquitoes. recent evidences using subolesin (sub) and akirin (akr) vaccines showed a reduction in the survival and/or fertility of blood-sucking ectoparasite vectors and the infection with vector-borne pathogens. these experiments suggested the possibi ...201425472895
tickbot: a novel robotic device for controlling tick populations in the natural environment.a semi-autonomous 4-wheeled robot (tickbot) was fitted with a denim cloth treated with an acaricide (permethrin™) and tested for its ability to control ticks in a tick-infested natural environment in portsmouth, virginia. the robot's sensors detect a magnetic field signal from a guide wire encased in 80m polyethylene tubing, enabling the robot to follow the trails, open areas and other terrain where the tubing was located. to attract ticks to the treated area, co2 was distributed through the sam ...201525499615
transmission-blocking vaccines: focus on anti-vector vaccines against tick-borne diseases.tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. with the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. in this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking v ...201425503555
prevalence of rickettsiales in ticks removed from the skin of outdoor workers in north carolina.tick-transmitted rickettsial diseases, such as ehrlichiosis and spotted fever rickettsiosis, are significant sources of morbidity and mortality in the southern united states. because of their exposure in tick-infested woodlands, outdoor workers experience an increased risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. as part of a double blind randomized-controlled field trial of the effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing in preventing tick bites, we identified tick species removed from the skin ...201425533148
isolation of tacaribe virus, a caribbean arenavirus, from host-seeking amblyomma americanum ticks in florida.arenaviridae are a family of single stranded rna viruses of mammals and boid snakes. twenty-nine distinct mammalian arenaviruses have been identified, many of which cause severe hemorrhagic disease in humans, particularly in parts of sub-saharan africa, and in central and south america. humans typically become infected with an arenavirus through contact with excreta from infected rodents. tacaribe virus (tcrv) is an arenavirus that was first isolated from bats and mosquitoes during a rabies surv ...201425536075
five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.this study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (dpp); fipronil and (s)-methoprene (fm) or imidacloprid and permethrin (ip). dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for fou ...201425547077
reverse genetics system for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus.severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that was first reported in china in 2009. phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome showed that sfts virus represents a new lineage within the phlebovirus genus, distinct from the existing sandfly fever and uukuniemi virus groups, in the family bunyaviridae. sfts disease is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, chills, joint pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and some hemorrhagic mani ...201425552716
delayed anaphylaxis to red meat associated with specific ige antibodies to galactose.a novel delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, associated with tick bites and ige antibodies against galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (α-gal), was reported in 2009 in the us, australia and europe. in this case, serum specific ige to galactose-α-1, 3-galactose (>100 ku/l) and ige to multiple non-primate mammalian proteins were positive. however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. we report the first case in asia of delayed anaphylactic reaction to red meat, which was induced by bites ...201425553269
rhipicephalus microplus serine protease inhibitor family: annotation, expression and functional characterisation assessment.rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus evades the host's haemostatic system through a complex protein array secreted into tick saliva. serine protease inhibitors (serpins) conform an important component of saliva which are represented by a large protease inhibitor family in ixodidae. these secreted and non-secreted inhibitors modulate diverse and essential proteases involved in different physiological processes.201525564202
prevalence of cytauxzoon felis infection in healthy cats from enzootic areas in arkansas, missouri, and oklahoma.infection with cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats can cause fever, lethargy, depression, inappetence, icterus, and often death. with a high mortality rate, cytauxzoonosis was historically considered a fatal disease. within the last 15 years, cats with or without treatment have been recognized as chronically infected survivors of c. felis infection. our objective was to determine the prevalence of c. felis in healthy domestic cats from arkansas, missouri, and oklahoma.201525566776
molecular characterization of a defensin gene from a hard tick, dermacentor silvarum.ticks are distributed worldwide and considered as vectors of many human diseases. tick defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides, form the first line of defense against pathogens.201525588982
a coxiella-like endosymbiont is a potential vitamin source for the lone star tick.amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) is an important disease vector in the united states. it transmits several human pathogens, including the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, and southern tick-associated rash illness. blood-feeding insects (class insecta) depend on bacterial endosymbionts to provide vitamins and cofactors that are scarce in blood. it is unclear how this deficiency is compensated in ticks (class arachnida) that feed exclusively on mammalian blood. a bacterium r ...201525618142
guideline for veterinary practitioners on canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in europe.canine ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are important tick-borne diseases with a worldwide distribution. information has been continuously collected on these infections in europe, and publications have increased in recent years. prevalence rates are high for ehrlichia and anaplasma spp. infections in dogs from different european countries. the goal of this article was to provide a practical guideline for veterinary practitioners on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ehrlichiosis and anapla ...201525649069
tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance.serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of australia and the united states, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this alle ...201525653915
carbohydrates as food allergens.the literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. they bind weakly to ige antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. these epitopes cause confusion in in vitro ige testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. there are two ...201525653916
molecular identification of ehrlichia species and host bloodmeal source in amblyomma americanum l. from two locations in tennessee, united states.the current status of tick-borne diseases in the southeastern united states is challenging to define due to emerging pathogens, uncertain tick/host relationships, and changing disease case definitions. a golf-oriented retirement community on the cumberland plateau in tennessee experienced an ehrlichiosis outbreak in 1993, prompting efforts to reduce the local tick population using '4-poster' acaricide devices targeting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). in 2009, the prevalence of ehrlic ...201525682494
transstadial transmission of borrelia turcica in hyalomma aegyptium ticks.borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other borrelia groups. the novel group of borrelia was initially isolated from hyalomma aegyptium ticks in turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from jordan to japan. however, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the patho ...201525695663
implications of xenoglycan sensitivity for increased cancer risk. 201525713132
fatal multiple deer tick-borne infections in an elderly patient with advanced liver disease.we present a case of a 66-year-old woman with decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis and poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who was admitted with a 1 day history of altered mental status, high-grade fevers, worsening jaundice and generalised malaise with subsequent development of hypotension requiring intensive care. she was diagnosed with severe babesiosis with high-grade parasitaemia. she was also found to have lyme disease coinfection. despite aggressive therapeutic me ...201525733088
the alpha-gal story: lessons learned from connecting the dots.anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal, and therefore establishing its cause is pivotal to long-term risk management. our recent work has identified a novel ige antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). ige to alpha-gal has been associated with 2 distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate-onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab and (2) delayed-onset anaphylaxis 3 to ...201525747720
proteomic screening of antigenic proteins from the hard tick, haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. for detection of antigens from haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-de) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. reactivity bands and 2-de immunoblotting were performed following 2-de electrophoresis t ...201525748713
characterization of a novel rxr receptor in the salmon louse (lepeophtheirus salmonis, copepoda) regulating growth and female reproduction.nuclear receptors have crucial roles in all metazoan animals as regulators of gene transcription. a wide range of studies have elucidated molecular and biological significance of nuclear receptors but there are still a large number of animals where the knowledge is very limited. in the present study we have identified an rxr type of nuclear receptor in the salmon louse (lepeophtheirus salmonis) (i.e. lsrxr). rxr is one of the two partners of the ecdysteroid receptor in arthropods, the receptor f ...201525765704
high prevalence of "candidatus rickettsia andeanae" and apparent exclusion of rickettsia parkeri in adult amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae) from kansas and oklahoma.amblyomma maculatum (the gulf coast tick), an aggressive, human-biting, nearctic and neotropical tick, is the principal vector of rickettsia parkeri in the united states. this pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsia species has been identified in 8-52% of questing adult gulf coast ticks in the southeastern united states. to our knowledge, r. parkeri has not been reported previously from adult specimens of a. maculatum collected in kansas or oklahoma. a total of 216 adult a. maculatum ticks wer ...201525773931
persistent ehrlichia ewingii infection in dogs after natural tick infestation.ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the united states, but little is known about how long e. ewingii infection persists in dogs.201525776536
borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern united states.the predominant human-biting tick throughout the southeastern united states is amblyomma americanum. its ability to transmit pathogens causing lyme disease-like illnesses is a subject of ongoing controversy. results of previous testing by the department of defense human tick test kit program and other laboratories indicated that it is highly unlikely that a. americanum transmits any pathogen that causes lyme disease. in contrast, a recent publication by clark and colleagues (k. l. clark, b. leyd ...201525788545
metagenomic profile of the viral communities in rhipicephalus spp. ticks from yunnan, china.besides mosquitoes, ticks are regarded as the primary source of vector-borne infectious diseases. indeed, a wide variety of severe infectious human diseases, including those involving viruses, are transmitted by ticks in many parts of the world. to date, there are no published reports on the use of next-generation sequencing for studying viral diversity in ticks or discovering new viruses in these arthropods from china. here, ion-torrent sequencing was used to investigate the presence of viruses ...201525799057
the role of cd8 t lymphocytes in rickettsial infections.arthropod-borne obligately intracellular bacteria pose a difficult challenge to the immune system. the genera rickettsia, orientia, ehrlichia, and anaplasma evolved mechanisms of immune evasion, and each interacts differently with the immune system. the roles of cd8 t cells include protective immunity and immunopathology. in rickettsia infections, cd8 t cells are protective mediated in part by cytotoxicity toward infected cells. in contrast, tnf-α overproduction by cd8 t cells is pathogenic in l ...201525823954
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
a review of theileria diagnostics and extensive range of serological and molecular diagnostic assays exist for most of the economically important theileira species such as t. annulata, t. equi, t. lestoquardi, t. parva, t. uilenbergi and other more benign species. diagnostics of theileria is considered with regard to sensitivity and specificity of current molecular and serological assays and their use in epidemiology. in the case of serological assays, cross-reactivity of genetically closely related species reduces the use of the ...201525830110
anaphylaxis to the carbohydrate side chain 2007, the monoclonal antibody cetuximab caused severe hypersensitivity reactions during the first infusion in a region of the southeastern united states. investigation of pretreatment sera established that they contained immunoglobulin (ig) e against the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), which is present on the fab of cetuximab. alpha-gal is a blood group substance of nonprimate mammals. these ige antibodies are also associated with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat (ie ...201525841549
west nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts.west nile virus (wnv; flaviviridae, flavivirus) is the most geographically widespread arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the world and is found in multiple ecologically distinct settings. despite the likelihood of frequent exposure to novel hosts, studies evaluating the capacity and correlates of host range expansions or shifts of wnv and other arboviruses are generally lacking. we utilized experimental evolution of wnv in an amblyomma americanum tick cell line to model an invertebrate host sh ...201525863877
serological investigation of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in missouri 2012-2013.heartland virus (hrtv; bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) has recently emerged as a causative agent of human disease characterized by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in the united states. the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum l.) has been implicated as a vector. to identify candidate vertebrate amplification hosts associated with enzootic maintenance of the virus, sera and ticks were sampled from 160 mammals (8 species) and 139 birds (26 species) captured near 2 human case residences in andrew and no ...201525870419
landscape genetics of schistocephalus solidus parasites in threespine stickleback (gasterosteus aculeatus) from alaska.the nature of gene flow in parasites with complex life cycles is poorly understood, particularly when intermediate and definitive hosts have contrasting movement potential. we examined whether the fine-scale population genetic structure of the diphyllobothriidean cestode schistocephalus solidus reflects the habits of intermediate threespine stickleback hosts or those of its definitive hosts, semi-aquatic piscivorous birds, to better understand complex host-parasite interactions. seventeen lakes ...201525874710
vector potential and population dynamics for amblyomma inornatum.we studied the natural life cycle of amblyomma inornatum and its vector potential in south texas. this tick is distributed throughout south texas and most of central america. a. inornatum represented 1.91% of the ticks collected by carbon dioxide traps during a study of free-living ticks in the tamaulipan biotic province in south texas. the life cycle of a. inornatum in south texas showed a clear seasonal pattern consistent with one generation per year. nymphs emerged in the spring with a peak i ...201525881916
rhipicephalus microplus and ixodes ovatus cystatins in tick blood digestion and evasion of host immune response.cystatins are a group of cysteine protease inhibitors responsible for physiological proteolysis regulation and present in a wide range of organisms. studies about this class of inhibitors in parasites have contributed to clarify their roles in important physiological processes, like blood digestion and modulation of host immune response during blood feeding. thus, cystatins are a subject of research on the development of new parasite control methods. additionally, the characterization of protein ...201525889092
canine vector-borne infections in mauritius.canine vector-borne diseases have a worldwide distribution, but to the best of our knowledge, no research has been carried out to evaluate their presence on the indian ocean island of mauritius. an investigation into canine vector-borne infections was conducted in dogs (n = 78) resident at an animal shelter in port louis, mauritius using a combination of traditional microscopy and serological methods.201525889893
attenuated mutants of ehrlichia chaffeensis induce protection against wild-type infection challenge in the reservoir host and in an incidental host.ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-borne rickettsial organism, causes the disease human monocytic ehrlichiosis. the pathogen also causes disease in several other vertebrates, including dogs and deer. in this study, we assessed two clonally purified e. chaffeensis mutants with insertions within the genes ech_0379 and ech_0660 as vaccine candidates in deer and dogs. infection with the ech_0379 mutant and challenge with wild-type e. chaffeensis 1 month following inoculation with the mutant resulted in t ...201525916990
tick microbiome: the force within.ticks are obligate blood-feeders and serve as vectors of human and livestock pathogens worldwide. defining the tick microbiome and deciphering the interactions between the tick and its symbiotic bacteria in the context of tick development and pathogen transmission will likely reveal new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. descriptive observations on the tick microbiome that began almost a century ago serve as forerunners to the gathering momentum to define the tick m ...201525936226
challenges posed by tick-borne rickettsiae: eco-epidemiology and public health implications.rickettsiae are obligately intracellular bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors, primarily by fleas and ticks. once transmitted or experimentally inoculated into susceptible mammals, some rickettsiae may cause febrile illness of different morbidity and mortality, and which can manifest with different types of exhanthems in humans. however, most rickettsiae circulate in diverse sylvatic or peridomestic reservoirs without having obvious impacts on their vert ...201525954738
conserved amblyomma americanum tick serpin19, an inhibitor of blood clotting factors xa and xia, trypsin and plasmin, has anti-haemostatic functions.tick saliva serine protease inhibitors (serpins) facilitate tick blood meal feeding through inhibition of protease mediators of host defense pathways. we previously identified a highly conserved amblyomma americanum serpin 19 that is characterised by its reactive center loop being 100% conserved in ixodid ticks. in this study, biochemical characterisation reveals that the ubiquitously transcribed a. americanum serpin 19 is an anti-coagulant protein, inhibiting the activity of five of the eight s ...201525957161
conjunctival attachment of a live paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus, in a child: a case report.we describe a rare clinical finding of conjunctival tick attachment in a child. a 10-year-old boy presented to the clinic with right-eye itch. he was found to have a live tick firmly attached to his right temporal conjunctiva. the tick was identified as the larval stage of the paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus. the tick was removed completely by conjunctival excision. although various methods of removing a tick have been described in the literature, the goal of treatment is the safe and complete ...201525969685
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
parasitology and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in north carolina, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern us and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. we examined free-ranging coyotes from central north carolina, us, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. we detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (dirofilaria immiti ...201525984773
cloning and characterization of calreticulin and its association with salinity stress in p. trituberculatus.calreticulin (crt) is a highly conserved and multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (er) chaperone protein and plays important roles in salinity stress response. portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important fishery species, and water salinity conditions influence its commercial farming significantly. in order to research the function of calreticulin under salinity stress, the full-length cdna sequence of calreticulin from p. trituberculatus (ptcrt) was firstly cloned and characterized. th ...201525995067
distinctive genome reduction rates revealed by genomic analyses of two coxiella-like endosymbionts in ticks.genome reduction is a hallmark of symbiotic genomes, and the rate and patterns of gene loss associated with this process have been investigated in several different symbiotic systems. however, in long-term host-associated coevolving symbiont clades, the genome size differences between strains are normally quite small and hence patterns of large-scale genome reduction can only be inferred from distant relatives. here we present the complete genome of a coxiella-like symbiont from rhipicephalus tu ...201526025560
the case for a 'one health' approach to combating vector-borne diseases. 201526027713
detection of rickettsia amblyommii in ticks collected from missouri, usa. 201426038740
modeling the biotic and abiotic factors that describe the number of active off-host amblyomma americanum larvae.amblyomma americanum (l.) is a three-host tick that spends most of its life off-host and is an important vector of pathogens in the eastern united states. our objectives were to develop a predictive statistical model that describes the number of active, off-host larvae from 2007 to 2011 and to determine the environmental variables associated with this pattern. data used in this study came from monitoring conducted in northeast missouri in which off-host ticks were collected from a permanent plot ...201526047177
abundance and infection rates of ixodes scapularis nymphs collected from residential properties in lyme disease-endemic areas of connecticut, maryland, and new york. 201526047204
attempts to feed larval amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) on three different arthropod hosts. 201526047205
collembolan transcriptomes highlight molecular evolution of hexapods and provide clues on the adaptation to terrestrial life.collembola (springtails) represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor.201526075903
phylogeographic structure in penguin ticks across an ocean basin indicates allopatric divergence and rare trans-oceanic dispersal.the association of ticks (acarina) and seabirds provides an intriguing system for assessing the influence of long-distance dispersal on the evolution of parasitic species. recent research has focused on host-parasite evolutionary relationships and dispersal capacity of ticks parasitising flighted seabirds. evolutionary research on the ticks of non-flighted seabirds is, in contrast, scarce. we conducted the first phylogeographic investigation of a hard tick species (ixodes eudyptidis) that parasi ...201526083353
saliva from nymph and adult females of haemaphysalis longicornis: a proteomic study.haemaphysalis longicornis is a major vector of theileria spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia spp. and coxiella burnetti in east asian countries. all life stages of ixodid ticks have a destructive pool-feeding style in which they create a pool-feeding site by lacerating host tissue and secreting a variety of biologically active compounds that allows the tick to evade host responses, enabling the uptake of a blood meal. the identification and functional characterization of tick saliva protein ...201526104117
amblyomma americanum tick saliva insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 binds insulin but not insulin-like growth factors.silencing amblyomma americanum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (aamigfbp-rp1) mrna prevented ticks from feeding to repletion. in this study, we used recombinant (r)aamigfbp-rp1 in a series of assays to obtain further insight into the role(s) of this protein in tick feeding regulation. our results suggest that aamigfbp-1 is an antigenic protein that is apparently exclusively expressed in salivary glands. we found that both males and females secrete aamigfbp-rp1 into t ...201526108887
amblyomma americanum as a bridging vector for human infection with francisella tularensis.the γ-proteobacterium francisella tularensis causes seasonal tick-transmitted tularemia outbreaks in natural rabbit hosts and incidental infections in humans in the south-central united states. although dermacentor variabilis is considered a primary vector for f. tularensis, amblyomma americanum is the most abundant tick species in this endemic region. a systematic study of f. tularensis colonization of a. americanum was undertaken to better understand its potential to serve as an overwintering ...201526121137
delayed anaphylaxis involving ige to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.hypersensitivity in the allergic setting refers to immune reactions, stimulated by soluble antigens that can be rapidly progressing and, in the case of anaphylaxis, are occasionally fatal. as the number of known exposures associated with anaphylaxis is limited, identification of novel causative agents is important in facilitating both education and other allergen-specific approaches that are crucial to long-term risk management. within the last 10 years, several seemingly separate observations w ...026130470
an insight into the sialome of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, with a glimpse on its time dependent gene expression.hard ticks feed for several days or weeks on their hosts. blood feeding is assisted by tick saliva, which is injected in the host skin regularly, alternating with blood ingestion. tick saliva contains hundreds or thousands of different peptides and other bioactive compounds that assist feeding by inhibiting their hosts' blood clotting, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, as well as pain and itching. immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides are also found in tick saliva. molecular characte ...201526131772
cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: part 15 of the series molecular allergology.arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. in addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage p ...201426146603
variation in the microbiota of ixodes ticks with regard to geography, species, and sex.ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of lyme disease on the east coast and in the upper midwest regions of the united states, yet the tick is also present in the southeast, where lyme disease is absent or rare. a closely related species, i. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the south but does not seem to transmit it to humans. in order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult i. scapularis and 13 adult i. affinis ticks captured i ...201526150449
comparative efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto®) and an oral afoxolaner chewable (nexgard®) against tick (dermacentor variabilis and amblyomma americanum) infestations on dogs: a randomised controlled trial.this randomised controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto(®), bayer) for the control of ticks (dermacentor variabilis, amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours postinfestation on dogs when compared to oral afoxolaner (nexgard(®), merial). dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) / flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) afoxolaner chewable (dosage 3.1 - 6.2 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated c ...201526152410
comparative efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto®) and an oral fluralaner chewable tablet (bravecto®) against tick (dermacentor variabilis and amblyomma americanum) infestations on dogs: a randomised controlled trial.this controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (seresto(®), bayer) for the control of ticks (dermacentor variabilis, amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (bravecto(®), merck). dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. ticks (50/ ...201526152411
comparative metagenomic profiling of symbiotic bacterial communities associated with ixodes persulcatus, ixodes pavlovskyi and dermacentor reticulatus ticks.ixodes persulcatus, ixodes pavlovskyi, and dermacentor reticulatus ticks inhabiting western siberia are responsible for the transmission of a number of etiological agents that cause human and animal tick-borne diseases. because these ticks are abundant in the suburbs of large cities, agricultural areas, and popular tourist sites and frequently attack people and livestock, data regarding the microbiomes of these organisms are required. using metagenomic 16s profiling, we evaluate bacterial commun ...201526154300
efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. this study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (bravecto®, merck animal health) administered to dogs against adult ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.201526160349
variation in baiting intensity among co2-baited traps used to collect hematophagous arthropods.hematophagous arthropods transmit the etiological agents of numerous diseases and as a result are frequently the targets of sampling to characterize vector and pathogen populations. arguably, the most commonly used sampling approach involves traps baited with carbon dioxide. we report results of a laboratory study in which the performance of carbon dioxide-baited traps was evaluated using measures of baiting intensity, the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit time during trap deployment. w ...201526160803
mutations in ehrlichia chaffeensis causing polar effects in gene expression and differential host specificities.ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-borne rickettsial, is responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. in this study, we assessed e. chaffeensis insertion mutations impacting the transcription of genes near the insertion sites. we presented evidence that the mutations within the e. chaffeensis genome at four genomic locations cause polar effects in altering gene expressions. we also reported mutations causing attenuated growth in deer (the pathogen's reservoir host) and in dog (an incidental host), b ...201526186429
modulation of host immunity by tick generation sequencing and proteomics have helped to comprehensively characterize gene expression in tick salivary glands at both the transcriptome and the proteome level. functional data are, however, lacking. given that tick salivary secretions are critical to the success of the tick transmission lifecycle and, as a consequence, for host colonization by the pathogens they spread, we thoroughly review here the literature on the known interactions between tick saliva (or tick salivary gland ...201526189360
the mitochondrial genome of the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum).amblyomma americanum is an abundant tick in the southeastern, midwestern, and northeastern united states. it is a vector of multiple diseases, but limited genomic resources are available for it. we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of a single female a. americanum collected in georgia using the illumina platform. the consensus sequence was 14,709 bp long, and the mean coverage across the assembly was >12,000×. all expected tick genomic features were present, including two "tick-box" mo ...201526189992
modeling the present and future geographic distribution of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae), in the continental united states.the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum l.) is the primary vector for pathogens of significant public health importance in north america, yet relatively little is known about its current and potential future distribution. building on a published summary of tick collection records, we used an ensemble modeling approach to predict the present-day and future distribution of climatically suitable habitat for establishment of the lone star tick within the continental united states. of the nine clima ...201526217042
immunoproteomic profiling of rickettsia parkeri and rickettsia amblyommii.rickettsia parkeri is an amblyomma-associated, spotted fever group rickettsia species that causes an eschar-associated, febrile illness in multiple countries throughout the western hemisphere. many other rickettsial species of known or uncertain pathogenicity have been detected in amblyomma spp. ticks in the americas, including rickettsia amblyommii, "candidatus rickettsia andeanae" and rickettsia rickettsii. in this study, we utilized an immunoproteomic approach to compare antigenic profiles of ...201526234571
francisella tularensis: no evidence for transovarial transmission in the tularemia tick vectors dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus.tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the francisella tularensis, a highly infectious gram-negative coccobacillus. due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category a select agent by the cdc. tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir compete ...201526244842
estimated herd prevalence and sequence types of coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from commercial dairies in indiana.coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of q fever, a zoonotic disease causing influenza-like illness, pregnancy loss, cardiovascular disease and chronic fatigue syndrome in people. c. burnetii is considered to be enzootic in ruminants, but clinical signs of infection do not always manifest. national studies have documented the presence of c. burnetii in dairy herds in indiana. this represents an opportunity to better characterize the distribution and prevalence of c. burnetii infection at the ...201526248712
comparative population genetics of two invading ticks: evidence of the ecological mechanisms underlying tick range expansions.two species of ixodid tick, ixodes affinis neumann and amblyomma maculatum koch, are simultaneously expanding their ranges throughout the mid-atlantic region of the us. although we have some understanding of the ecology and life history of these species, the ecological mechanisms governing where and how new populations establish and persist are unclear. to assess population connectivity and ancestry, we sequenced a fragment of the 16s mitochondrial rrna gene from a representative sample of indiv ...201526254575
arachnids of medical importance in brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva.arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. these animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. several protein and non-protein compo ...201526273285
ticknet-a collaborative public health approach to tickborne disease surveillance and research.ticknet, a public health network, was created in 2007 to foster greater collaboration between state health departments, academic centers, and the centers for disease control and prevention on surveillance and prevention of tickborne diseases. research activities are conducted through the emerging infections program and include laboratory surveys, high-quality prevention trials, and pathogen discovery.201526291549
reliability of molecular host-identification methods for ticks: an experimental in vitro study with ixodes ricinus.reliable information on host use by arthropod vectors is required to study pathogen transmission ecology and to predict disease risk. direct observation of host use is often difficult or impossible and indirect methods are therefore necessary. however, the reliability of currently available methods to identify the last host of blood-feeding arthropods has not been evaluated, and may be particularly problematic for ticks because host blood has been digested at capture. biases in host detection ma ...201526296344
identification and evaluation of vaccine candidate antigens from the poultry red mite (dermanyssus gallinae).an aqueous extract of the haematophagous poultry ectoparasite, dermanyssus gallinae, was subfractionated using anion exchange chromatography. six of these subfractions were used to immunise hens and the blood from these hens was fed, in vitro, to poultry red mites. mite mortality following these feeds was indicative of protective antigens in two of the subfractions, with the risks of mites dying being 3.1 and 3.7 times higher than in the control group (p<0.001). a combination of two-dimensional ...201526296690
cutaneous lesions due to bites by larval amblyomma americanum ticks. 201526309141
molecular detection of rickettsia species within ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from arkansas united states.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), caused by the etiological agent rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the united states, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. with the discoveries of rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as rmsf are truly caused by r. rickettsii or other sfgr. arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of rmsf in the ...201526334827
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