PMID(sorted ascending)
anti-gal: an abundant human natural antibody of multiple pathogeneses and clinical benefits.anti-gal is the most abundant natural antibody in humans, constituting ~ 1% of immunoglobulins. anti-gal is naturally produced also in apes and old world monkeys. the ligand of anti-gal is a carbohydrate antigen called the 'α-gal epitope' with the structure galα1-3galβ1-4glcnac-r. the α-gal epitope is present as a major carbohydrate antigen in non-primate mammals, prosimians and new world monkeys. anti-gal can contributes to several immunological pathogeneses. anti-gal ige produced in some indiv ...023578170
comparison of a real-time pcr method with serology and blood smear analysis for diagnosis of human anaplasmosis: importance of infection time course for optimal test utilization.anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. we compared the performance of a published real-time pcr assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate anaplasma and ehrlichia species with blo ...201323637292
the genome sequence of lone star virus, a highly divergent bunyavirus found in the amblyomma americanum tick.viruses in the family bunyaviridae infect a wide range of plant, insect, and animal hosts. tick-borne bunyaviruses in the phlebovirus genus, including severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) in china, heartland virus (hrtv) in the united states, and bhanja virus in eurasia and africa have been associated with acute febrile illness in humans. here we sought to characterize the growth characteristics and genome of lone star virus (lsv), an unclassified bunyavirus originally isola ...201323637969
plane of nutrition x tick burden interaction in cattle: effect on fecal composition.effective tick management on grazing animals is facilitated by accurate noninvasive detection methods. fecal analysis provides information about animal health and nutrition. diet affects fecal composition; stress may do likewise. the constituents in feces that may be affected by tick burdens and in turn affect near-infrared spectra have not been reported. our objective was to examine the interaction between plane of nutrition and tick burden on fecal composition in cattle. angus cross steers (n ...201323658354
age-dependent expression of stress and antimicrobial genes in the hemocytes and siphon tissue of the antarctic bivalve, laternula elliptica, exposed to injury and starvation.increasing temperatures and glacier melting at the western antarctic peninsula (wap) are causing rapid changes in shallow coastal and shelf systems. climate change-related rising water temperatures, enhanced ice scouring, as well as coastal sediment runoff, in combination with changing feeding conditions and microbial community composition, will affect all elements of the nearshore benthic ecosystem, a major component of which is the antarctic soft-shelled clam laternula elliptica. a 454-based r ...201323666709
aggregate-reactivation activity of the molecular chaperone clpb from ehrlichia chaffeensis.rickettsiale diseases, including human monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis, are the second leading cause of the tick-borne infections in the usa and a growing health concern. little is known about how e. chaffeensis survives the host-induced stress in vertebrate and tick hosts. a molecular chaperone clpb from several microorganisms has been reported to reactivate aggregated proteins in cooperation with the co-chaperones dnak/dnaj/grpe (kje). in this study, we performed the fir ...201323667479
a conceptual model of the amblyomma americanum life cycle in northeast missouri.the geographic distribution of amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick) has increased as has its role as a pathogen vector. the objectives of this study were to determine seasonal activity patterns of each life stage of a. americanum in the northwestern part of the species range and the relationship of these activity patterns among life stages and degree days. tick activity was monitored over four years since 2007 in a forest and old field habitat located in northeast missouri. every other week ...201323701610
tick bites and red meat allergy.a novel form of anaphylaxis has been described that is due to ige antibody (ab) directed against a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). ongoing work regarding the cause and distribution of this ige response is reviewed.201323743512
efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collar (seresto®, bayer) for preventing the transmission of cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats by amblyomma americanum.infection of cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats produces a severe disease characterised by fever, lethargy, inappetence, anorexia, depression, dehydration, icterus and often death. transmission of c. felis to cats is dependent on being fed upon by infected amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). the purpose of the present study was to determine if application of a 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar (seresto®, bayer) on cats prevents transmission of c. felis by repelling ticks. twenty cats ...201323760871
a crayfish insulin-like-binding protein: another piece in the androgenic gland insulin-like hormone puzzle is revealed.across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ilp) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. recently, a gender-specific ilp was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in crustacea. however, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (ag) cdna library prepared from the crayfish cherax quadricarinatus, we have identifie ...201323775079
prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsia spp. and ehrlichia spp. in coyotes (canis latrans) in oklahoma and texas, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) are commonly infested with ticks, including amblyomma americanum, the predominant vector of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii; dermacentor variabilis, an important vector of rickettsia rickettsii; and amblyomma maculatum, a major vector of rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia. to determine the degree to which coyotes are infected with or exposed to tick-borne bacterial disease agents, serum samples collected from coyotes in oklahoma and tex ...201323778619
lyme borreliosis in human patients in florida and georgia, usa.the aim of this study was to determine the cause of illness in several human patients residing in florida and georgia, usa, with suspected lyme disease based upon em-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated lyme borreliosis. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays developed specifically for lyme group borrelia spp., followed by dna sequencing for confirmation, we identified borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato dna in samples of blood and skin and als ...201323781138
preliminary assessment of microbiome changes following blood-feeding and survivorship in the amblyomma americanum nymph-to-adult transition using semiconductor sequencing.the physiology of ticks supports a diverse community of non-pathogenic and pathogenic organisms. this study aims to initially characterize the microbial community present within colony-reared amblyomma americanum using pcr of the variable region 5 of the 16s rrna gene followed by semiconductor sequencing and classification of sequence data using the ribosomal database project and mg-rast analysis tools. comparison of amplicon library datasets revealed changes in the microbiomes in newly engorged ...201323826210
identification and expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in sarcoptes scabiei.macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced by many mammalian tissues including skin. it is also found in many invertebrate parasites of mammals including ticks and may function to aid the parasite to evade the innate and adaptive immune responses in the host. in this study, the cdna for a mif gene was sequenced from sarcoptes scabiei, the scabies mite, using rt-pcr and race molecular techniques. the resulting nucleotide sequence had a length o ...201323831036
host blood meal-dependent growth ensures transovarial transmission and transstadial passage of rickettsia sp. phylotype g021 in the western black-legged tick (ixodes pacificus).in this study, we explored the growth dynamics of rickettsia sp. phylotype g021 during transovarial transmission and transstadial passage by ixodes pacificus using real-time quantitative pcr. four parental engorged i. pacificus females were allowed to complete their developmental stages until the f2-generation eggs yielded unfed larvae. all eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults tested through 2 generations were found to be infected with phylotype g021. hence, we conclude that the efficiency of transo ...201323876278
first detection of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods.heartland virus (hrtv), the first pathogenic phlebovirus (family: bunyaviridae) discovered in the united states, was recently described from two missouri farmers. in 2012, we collected 56,428 ticks representing three species at 12 sites including both patients' farms. amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis accounted for nearly all ticks collected. ten pools composed of deplete nymphs of a. americanum collected at a patient farm and a nearby conservation area were reverse transcription-p ...201323878186
anaplasma phagocytophilum--a widespread multi-host pathogen with highly adaptive strategies.the bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (tbf) in domestic ruminants in ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern europe. in recent years, the bacterium has been found associated with ixodes-tick species more or less worldwide on the northern hemisphere. a. phagocytophilum has a broad host range and may cause severe disease in several mammalian species, including humans. however, the clinical symptoms vary from subclinical to fatal ...201323885337
activity of the plant-based repellent, tt-4302 against the ticks amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis and rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).the plant-based repellent tt-4302 (5 % geraniol) was compared to deet (15 %) in laboratory two-choice bioassays against the ticks amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, and rhipicephalus sanguineus. at 2.5 and 3.5 h after treatment of filter paper with tt-4302, 100 % repellency was observed for all species at both time points with the exception of i. scapularis at the 3.5 h evaluation where repellency was 95.8 %. deet was 100 % repellent at both time points for d. varia ...201423907554
tick salivary compounds: their role in modulation of host defences and pathogen transmission.ticks require blood meal to complete development and reproduction. multifunctional tick salivary glands play a pivotal role in tick feeding and transmission of pathogens. tick salivary molecules injected into the host modulate host defence responses to the benefit of the feeding ticks. to colonize tick organs, tick-borne microorganisms must overcome several barriers, i.e., tick gut membrane, tick immunity, and moulting. tick-borne pathogens co-evolved with their vectors and hosts and developed m ...201323971008
a novel candidate vaccine for cytauxzoonosis inferred from comparative apicomplexan genomics.cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease of domestic cats (felis catus) caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite cytauxzoon felis. the growing epidemic, with its high morbidity and mortality points to the need for a protective vaccine against cytauxzoonosis. unfortunately, the causative agent has yet to be cultured continuously in vitro, rendering traditional vaccine development approaches beyond reach. here we report the use of comparative genomics to computationally and experiment ...201323977000
merogonic stages of theileria cervi in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).in february 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern oklahoma to a facility in southeastern oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. the deer were heavily infested with amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasi ...201324029405
increasing frequency of feline cytauxzoonosis cases diagnosed in western kentucky from 2001 to 2011.feline cytauxzoonosis is a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease in domestic cats caused by the tick-borne pathogen, cytauxzoon felis. the primary reservoir host for this protozoan parasite is the bobcat (lynx rufus). in this retrospective study, we have examined the positive cases of feline cytauxzoonosis identified at murray state university's breathitt veterinary center, a regional diagnostic facility located in hopkinsville, kentucky, between january 2001 and december 2011. center re ...201324035030
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
red meat allergy in sweden: association with tick sensitization and b-negative blood groups. 201324094548
emerging antigens involved in allergic allergic diseases can 'emerge' because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has chang ...201324095162
ehrlichia chaffeensis uses its surface protein etpe to bind gpi-anchored protein dnase x and trigger entry into mammalian cells.ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular rickettsial pathogen, enters and replicates in monocytes/macrophages and several non-phagocytic cells. e. chaffeensis entry into mammalian cells is essential not only for causing the emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but also for its survival. it remains unclear if e. chaffeensis has evolved a specific surface protein that functions as an 'invasin' to mediate its entry. we report a novel entry triggering protein of ehrlichia, etpe ...201324098122
empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study.the skin lesion of early lyme disease, erythema migrans (em), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. because other skin lesions may resemble em, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of em is appropriate in regions where lyme disease is rare. we constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of em: treat all, observe, and serology as a function of the probability that a ...201324107201
ehrlichia moonlighting effectors and interkingdom interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular gram negative bacterium with a small genome that thrives in mammalian mononuclear phagocytes by exploiting eukaryotic processes. herein, we discuss the latest findings on moonlighting tandem repeat protein effectors and their secretion mechanisms, and novel molecular interkingdom interactions that provide insight into the intracellular pathobiology of ehrlichiae.201324141087
a nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva.arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. however, whether and how arthropod saliva counters nod-like (nlr) sensing remains elusive. nlrs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved i ...201324155744
diversity of rickettsiales in the microbiome of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.ticks are important vectors for many emerging pathogens. however, they are also infected with many symbionts and commensals, often competing for the same niches. in this paper, we characterize the microbiome of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae), the lone star tick, in order to better understand the evolutionary relationships between pathogens and nonpathogens. multitag pyrosequencing of prokaryotic 16s rrna genes (16s rrna) was performed on 20 lone star ticks (including males, females, and ...201424162580
molecular and functional characterization of vacuolar-atpase from the american dog tick dermacentor variabilis.vacuolar (v)-atpase is a proton-translocating enzyme that acidifies cellular compartments for various functions such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and protein degradation. previous studies in dermacentor variabilis chronically infected with rickettsia montanensis have identified v-atpase as one of the tick-derived molecules transcribed in response to rickettsial infection. to examine the role of the tick v-atpase in tick-rickettsia interactions, a full-length 2887-b ...201324164319
single-tube real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ixodes affinis and ixodes scapularis.ixodes affinis neumann (1899) and ixodes scapularis say (1821) are tick vectors of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. ixodes affinis and i. scapularis are morphologically very similar, and as they are sympatric in the mid- and south-atlantic u.s. coastal states, their accurate identification is crucial to studies of disease and vector ecology in this area. this work describes a rapid, single-tube sybr(®) green-based real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ...201324192510
ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern virginia.the incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern united states has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. the results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern virginia. since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected ...201324201057
exploring the link between pholcodine exposure and neuromuscular blocking agent anaphylaxis.neuromuscular blocking agents (nmbas) are the most commonly implicated drugs in ige-mediated anaphylaxis during anaesthesia that can lead to perioperative morbidity and mortality. the rate of nmba anaphylaxis shows marked geographical variation in patients who have had no known prior exposure to nmbas, suggesting that there may be external or environmental factors that contribute to the underlying aetiology and pathophysiology of reactions. substituted ammonium ions are shared among nmbas and ar ...024251966
chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from benin against anopheles gambiae (giles).insecticide resistance in sub-saharan africa and especially in benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. each anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. in this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in benin, were investigate ...201324298981
amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae), the cayenne tick: phylogeography and evidence for allopatric speciation.amblyomma cajennense f. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the new world because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. in the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine ...201324320199
the ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with babesia bovis.cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, babesia bovis. babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus rhipicephalus. the most prevalent species is rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. the transmission of b. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the r. microplus ovarian proteome ide ...201324330595
molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent anaplasma phagocytophilum (foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in brazil.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. the objective of the current study was a) detect a. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr); and b) determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of a. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in rio de janeiro, brazil.201324330631
hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus.parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite psoroptes cuniculi. therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better ut ...201324354923
"rickettsia amblyommii" and r. montanensis infection in dogs following natural exposure to determine the risk of canine infection with spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia spp. following natural tick exposure, 10 dogs determined to be free of evidence of exposure to or infection with tick-borne disease agents were exposed to ticks via weekly walks in a wooded area in north-central oklahoma. after each walk, dogs were examined and the number and species of ticks present were recorded. the dogs were then returned to outdoor kennels to allow the infestations and subsequent transmissio ...201424359419
arthropod bites.the phylum arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. the two medically important spiders in the united states are widow spiders (latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. most recluse bites resolve uneventfully witho ...201324364549
comparative proteomics for the characterization of the most relevant amblyomma tick species as vectors of zoonotic pathogens worldwide.ticks transmit zoonotic pathogens worldwide. nevertheless, very little information is available on their genome, transcriptome and proteome. herein, we characterized the proteome of amblyomma americanum adults and nymphs because of their role in pathogen transmission and compared the proteome of a. americanum, a. cajennense and a. variegatum adult ticks. we also used de novo sequencing proteomics data for the analysis of the phylogenetic relationships between the three amblyomma spp. in a proof ...201424382551
insecticide/acaricide resistance in fleas and ticks infesting dogs and cats.this review defines insecticide/acaricide resistance and describes the history, evolution, types, mechanisms, and detection of resistance as it applies to chemicals currently used against fleas and ticks of dogs and cats and summarizes resistance reported to date. we introduce the concept of refugia as it applies to flea and tick resistance and discuss strategies to minimize the impact and inevitable onset of resistance to newer classes of insecticides. our purpose is to provide the veterinary p ...201424393426
laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.the collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. the public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. the focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the united states. o ...201424396136
the ticks (acari: ixodida: argasidae, ixodidae) of bolivia.the tick species reported in bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: ornithodoros echimys, o. guaporensis, o. hasei, o. kohlsi, o. mimon, o. peropteryx, o. rostratus, otobius megnini, amblyomma auricularium, a. cajennense, a. calcaratum, a. coelebs, a. dubitatum, a. humerale, a. incisum, a. longirostre, a. naponense, a. nodosum, a. oblongoguttatum, a. ovale, a. parvitarsum, a. parvum, a. pecarium, a. pseudoconcolor, a. rotundatum, a. scalpturatum, a. tigrinum, a. triste, dermace ...201424406053
present and future potential of plant-derived products to control arthropods of veterinary and medical significance.the use of synthetic pesticides and repellents to target pests of veterinary and medical significance is becoming increasingly problematic. one alternative approach employs the bioactive attributes of plant-derived products (pdps). these are particularly attractive on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries that should limit development of pest resistance against them.several pesticides and repellents based on pdps are already available, and ...201424428899
drug allergens and food--the cetuximab and galactose-α-1,3-galactose story.a novel form of food allergy has been described that initially became apparent from ige reactivity with the drug cetuximab. ongoing work regarding the etiology, distribution, clinical management, and cellular mechanisms of the ige response to the oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) is reviewed.201324468247
microbial communities and symbionts in the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae) from north china.close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in china, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. however, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in h. longicornis under natural conditions. in the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities ...201324499619
macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). we determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) in italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel para ...201424505348
genome characterization of long island tick rhabdovirus, a new virus identified in amblyomma americanum ticks.ticks are implicated as hosts to a wide range of animal and human pathogens. the full range of microbes harbored by ticks has not yet been fully explored.201424517260
rickettsiae and ehrlichiae within a city park: is the urban dweller at risk?tick-borne diseases, such as spotted fever rickettsioses and ehrlichioses, are potentially severe and life-threatening infections. the incidences of these infections increase during warm weather months as ticks become active. clinicians often consider outdoor activities in rural areas to be a risk factor for exposure to ticks and the pathogens they carry, but are those who live, work, and play within an urban environment excluded from this risk? in this study, we collected ticks from two urban p ...201424528097
ixodid ticks associated with feral swine in texas.ixodid ticks were collected from feral swine in eight texas ecoregions from 2008-2011. sixty-two percent of 806 feral swine were infested with one or more of the following species: amblyomma americanum, a. cajennense, a. maculatum, dermacentor albipictus, d. halli, d. variabilis, and ixodes scapularis. juvenile and adult feral swine of both sexes were found to serve as host to ixodid ticks. longitudinal surveys of feral swine at four geographic locations show persistent year-round tick infestati ...201324581367
comparative bioinformatics, temporal and spatial expression analyses of ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting anion-transporting polypeptides (oatps) are an integral part of the detoxification mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates. these cell surface proteins are involved in mediating the sodium-independent uptake and/or distribution of a broad array of organic amphipathic compounds and xenobiotic drugs. this study describes bioinformatics and biological characterization of 9 oatp sequences in the ixodes scapularis genome. these sequences have been annotated on the basis of 12 transmembrane ...201424582512
a blood meal-induced ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. an understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. this study characterizes a blood meal-induced i. scapularis (ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (s)), in-house referred to as ixscs-1e1. the ...201424583183
a systems biology approach to the characterization of stress response in dermacentor reticulatus tick unfed larvae.dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) is distributed in europe and asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. however, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of d. reticulatus. tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted a ...201424586875
what's eating you? turkey mite and lone star tick (amblyomma americanum). 201424605342
an insight into the microbiome of the amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with rickettsia parkeri. pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16s rrna was used to determine the total bacterial population in a. maculatum. pyrosequencing analysis identified rickettsia in a. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. the identity of rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the ric ...024605461
detection of lyme borrelia in questing ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and small mammals in louisiana.lyme borreliosis is caused by spirochetes from the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. in the united states, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.; johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner) is the most common cause of human lyme borreliosis. with >25,000 cases reported annually, it is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. although approximately 90% of cases are contained to the northeastern and great lake states, areas in canada and some southern states are ...201424605479
emerging phleboviruses.the bunyavidae family is the largest grouping of rna viruses and arguably the most diverse. bunyaviruses have a truly global distribution and can infect vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. the majority of bunyaviruses are vectored by arthropods and thus have the remarkable capability to replicate in hosts of disparate phylogeny. the family has provided many examples of emerging viruses including sin nombre and related viruses responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the americas ...201424607799
gene cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the protective antigen subolesin in dermacentor silvarum.subolesin (4d8), the ortholog of insect akirins, is a highly conserved protective antigen and thus has the potential for development of a broad-spectrum vaccine against ticks and mosquitoes. to date, no protective antigens have been characterized nor tested as candidate vaccines against dermacentor silvarum bites and transmission of associated pathogens. in this study, we cloned the open reading frame (orf) of d. silvarum 4d8 cdna (ds4d8), which consisted of 498 bp encoding 165 amino acid residu ...201424623890
massive infection of seabird ticks with bacterial species related to coxiella burnetii.seabird ticks are known reservoirs of bacterial pathogens of medical importance; however, ticks parasitizing tropical seabirds have received less attention than their counterparts from temperate and subpolar regions. recently, rickettsia africae was described to infect seabird ticks of the western indian ocean and new caledonia, constituting the only available data on bacterial pathogens associated with tropical seabird tick species. here, we combined a pyrosequencing-based approach with a class ...201424657860
efficacy of chemical repellents against otobius megnini (acari: argasidae) and three species of ixodid ticks.otobius megnini (dugès), often referred to as the ear tick or spinose ear tick, is a one-host tick native to the southwestern united states and mexico. infestations of this species can cause severe irritation and may affect breeding behavior in the host. although chemical repellents are commonly used as an alternative approach to conventional arthropod vector control, information on repellency against o. megnini is lacking. this study compared repellency of ammonia, bioud(®), 98.25% deet, garlic ...201424659519
notes from the field: heartland virus disease - united states, 2012-2013.heartland virus is a newly identified phlebovirus that was first isolated from two northwestern missouri farmers hospitalized with fever, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in 2009. based on the patients' clinical findings and their reported exposures, the virus was suspected to be transmitted by ticks. after this discovery, cdc worked with state and local partners to define the ecology and modes of transmission of heartland virus, develop diagnostic assays, and identify additional cases to descri ...201424670929
the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in ixodes scapularis collected in the hudson valley, new york state.ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick, is capable of transmitting the pathogens that cause lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi), babesiosis (babesia microti), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum), and to a lesser extent powassan encephalitis (deer tick virus [dtv]). these pathogens represent significant public health problems, but little is known about the occurrence and co-infection prevalence of these pathogens in i. scapularis. here, we used standard pcr and pathogen-specific primers to ...201424689680
exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in gettysburg national military park, south-central pennsylvania, 2009.since 1998, lyme disease cases have increased in south-central pennsylvania, which includes gettysburg national military park (nmp). limited information is available about tick populations or pathogens in this area, and no data regarding frequency of tick bites or prevention measures among gettysburg nmp employees are available. to address these gaps, ticks were collected, classified, and replaced (to minimize disruptions to tick populations) at two sites within gettysburg nmp during april-septe ...201424689815
a case of tick-bite-induced red meat allergy.delayed hypersensitivity disorders and food allergies are often challenging for the clinician and patient alike. a recent discovery of an ige antibody specific to galactose-α-1,3-galactose, which is a carbohydrate abundantly expressed on cells and tissues of beef, pork, and lamb, adds one more tool to aid the clinician in making the appropriate diagnosis. a link has been discovered between the bite of the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) and the development of sensitivity to galactose-α-1,3 ...201424690977
rnai in arthropods: insight into the machinery and applications for understanding the pathogen-vector interface.the availability of genome sequencing data in combination with knowledge of expressed genes via transcriptome and proteome data has greatly advanced our understanding of arthropod vectors of disease. not only have we gained insight into vector biology, but also into their respective vector-pathogen interactions. by combining the strengths of postgenomic databases and reverse genetic approaches such as rnai, the numbers of available drug and vaccine targets, as well as number of transgenes for su ...201224705082
tick community composition in midwestern us habitats in relation to sampling method and environmental conditions.the ranges of many tick species are changing due to climate change and human alteration of the landscape. understanding tick responses to environmental conditions and how sampling method influences measurement of tick communities will improve our assessment of human disease risk. we compared tick sampling by three collection methods (dragging, co2 trapping and rodent surveys) in adjacent forested and grassland habitats in the lower midwest, usa, and analyzed the relationship between tick abundan ...201424705853
diversity of piroplasms detected in blood-fed and questing ticks from several states in the united states.piroplasms in the genera babesia, theileria, and cytauxzoon are tick-borne parasites that may be animal and human pathogens. most piroplasms with known life cycles are transmitted by ixodid ticks; however, for many species, the vector is unknown. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and diversity of piroplasms in ticks from several us states. piroplasm-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were used to test 1631 ticks from georgia (n=486), kentucky (n=103), pennsylvania ...201424709338
spatial distribution of counties in the continental united states with records of occurrence of amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae).in addition to being a major nuisance biter, the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), is increasingly recognized as an important vector of pathogens affecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. despite its notoriety, efforts have been lacking to define the spatial occurrence ofa. americanum in the continental united states with precision beyond that conveyed in continental-scale distribution maps. here we present a county-level distribution map for a. americanum generated by compiling ...201424724282
occurrence and county-level distribution of ticks (acari: ixodoidea) in nebraska using passive surveillance.a 100 yr (1911-2011) examination of tick submissions was compiled from the u.s. national tick collection and three state databases to determine tick species occurrence in nebraska sixteen tick species were identified including amblyomma americanum (l.), dermacentor variabilis (say), dermacentor albipictus (packard), dermacentor andersoni stiles, haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille), and otobius megrini (dughs). amblyomma maculatum koch and ixodes scapula ...201424724283
ehrlichia and spotted fever group rickettsiae surveillance in amblyomma americanum in virginia through use of a novel six-plex real-time pcr assay.the population of the lone star tick amblyomma americanum has expanded in north america over the last several decades. it is known to be an aggressive and nondiscriminatory biter and is by far the most common human-biting tick encountered in virginia. few studies of human pathogen prevalence in ticks have been conducted in our state since the mid-twentieth century. we developed a six-plex real-time pcr assay to detect three ehrlichia species (e. chaffeensis, e. ewingii, and panola mountain ehrli ...201424746145
proteomic analysis of cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, r. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. so far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick ...201424762651
clinical practice. lyme disease. 201424785207
delayed anaphylaxis to red meat masquerading as idiopathic anaphylaxis.anaphylaxis is traditionally recognized as a rapidly developing combination of symptoms that often includes hives and hypotension or respiratory symptoms. furthermore, when a specific cause is identified, exposure to this cause is usually noted to have occurred within minutes to 2 hours before the onset of symptoms. this case is of a 79-year-old woman who developed a severe episode of anaphylaxis 3 hours after eating pork. before 2012, she had not experienced any symptoms after ingestion of meat ...201424811014
phylogeny of a relapsing fever borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick ixodes scapularis.the discovery of borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. one of these newly-identified organisms is the borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain lb-2001 from north america and transmitted by ixodes scapularis. this or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little i ...201424813576
analysis of multiple tsetse fly populations in uganda reveals limited diversity and species-specific gut microbiota.the invertebrate microbiome contributes to multiple aspects of host physiology, including nutrient supplementation and immune maturation processes. we identified and compared gut microbial abundance and diversity in natural tsetse flies from uganda using five genetically distinct populations of glossina fuscipes fuscipes and multiple tsetse species (glossina morsitans morsitans, g. f. fuscipes, and glossina pallidipes) that occur in sympatry in one location. we used multiple approaches, includin ...201424814785
prevalence and species of ticks on horses in central oklahoma.ticks are common on horses, but there is a dearth of contemporary data on infestation prevalence, predominant species, and tick-borne disease agents important in this host. to determine the species of ticks most common on horses and the prevalence of equine exposure to and infection with tick-borne disease agents, ticks and blood samples were collected from 73 horses during may, june, and july of 2010. adult ticks were identified to species, and antibodies to ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., and ...201324843940
detection of a borrelia species in questing gulf coast ticks, amblyomma maculatum.borrelia spp. are agents of lyme disease and relapsing fever, diseases which use ixodes hard ticks and ornithodoros soft ticks, respectively, as primary vectors. some relapsing fever spirochetes, such as b. miyamotoi, are also found in hard ticks. to date, no borrelia sp. is known to use the hard tick, amblyomma maculatum, as a vector. however, both b. burgdorferi and b. lonestari were recently detected in a. maculatum removed from hosts. in our study, dna extracts from 306 questing adult a. mac ...201424844970
entamoeba histolytica and e. dispar calreticulin: inhibition of classical complement pathway and differences in the level of expression in amoebic liver abscess.the role of calreticulin (crt) in host-parasite interactions has recently become an important area of research. information about the functions of calreticulin and its relevance to the physiology of entamoeba parasites is limited. the present work demonstrates that crt of both pathogenic e. histolytica and nonpathogenic e. dispar species specifically interacted with human c1q inhibiting the activation of the classical complement pathway. using recombinant ehcrt protein, we demonstrate that crt i ...201424860808
history and complexity in tick-host dynamics: discrepancies between 'real' and 'visible' tick populations.numerical responses of ticks to changes in densities of their hosts can be complex and apparently unpredictable. manipulations even of deterministic models can produce counter-intuitive results, including tick populations that either rise or fall under increasing host densities, depending on initial conditions.201424885852
experimental infection of rhipicephalus sanguineus with ehrlichia chaffeensis.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen that is infective to a wide range of mammals, including dogs and people. amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, is considered the primary vector of e. chaffeensis, but this pathogen has been detected in other tick species, including the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. we hypothesized that the arkansas strain of e. chaffeensis is infective to r. sanguineus, and used a nove ...201424894131
frequency of piroplasms babesia microti and cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern italy.emerging diseases caused by piroplasms pose a health risk for man and other animals, and domestic cats have been proposed as potential reservoirs for some piroplasm infections. the aim of this study was to identify the frequency of the piroplasms babesia microti and cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern italy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these infections. blood samples from 260 stray cats enrolled in a trap-neuter-release (tnr) program in northern italy were exami ...201424895629
solvent, drying time, and substrate affect the responses of lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae) to the repellents deet and picaridin.behavioral bioassays remain a standard tool in the discovery, development, and registration of arthropod repellents. tick repellent bioassays are generally uncomplicated, but their results can be affected by basic variables (e.g., dimensions of testing materials, substrate, timing, temperature) of the assay. using lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), nymphs in climbing bioassays, we tested for the effects of substrate, solvent, and drying time on tick responses. in dose-response tests, the ...201424897855
suppression of amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae) for short-term field operations utilizing cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin.tick-borne diseases pose significant risks to u.s. military personnel who conduct operations, both domestic and abroad. to determine the feasibility of protecting personnel from tick vectors during short-term field deployments, acaricides cypermethrin (demon wp, syngenta, greensboro, nc) and lambda-cyhalothrin (surrender pestabs, csi, pasadena, tx) were applied to plots within two separate field sites on camp blanding joint training center in starke, fl, from may to june 2011. we analyzed their ...201424897866
cultivation of rickettsia amblyommii in tick cells, prevalence in florida lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).rickettsia amblyommii is a bacterium in the spotted fever group of organisms associated with the lone star tick (lst), amblyomma americanum. the lst is the most commonly reported tick to parasitize humans in the southeastern us. within this geographic region, there have been suspected cases of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) where the causative agent, r. rickettsii, was not identified in the local tick population. in these areas, patients with clinical signs of rmsf had low or no detectable ...201424927809
the salivary secretome of the biting midge, culicoides sonorensis.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about culicoides genomics and proteomics. detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding dipteran families, including those of mosquito (culicidae) and black fly (simuliidae), have shown that protein components with ...201424949243
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
review: unraveling lyme disease. 201424965960
spotted fever group rickettsiae in multiple hard tick species from fairfax county, virginia.spotted fever group rickettsiosis (sfgr) is a potentially fatal disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the united states in recent years. the most well-known and severe type of this disease is rocky mountain spotted fever, but there are other mild forms that occur. recently, human infection with rickettsia parkeri has been reported and linked with the tick amblyomma maculatum. in 2010, a population of r. parkeri-infected a. maculatum was discovered in fairfax county, virginia, leadin ...201424978651
bayesian spatio-temporal analysis and geospatial risk factors of human monocytic ehrlichiosis.variations in spatio-temporal patterns of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) infection in the state of kansas, usa were examined and the relationship between hme relative risk and various environmental, climatic and socio-economic variables were evaluated. hme data used in the study was reported to the kansas department of health and environment between years 2005-2012, and geospatial variables representing the physical environment [national land cover/land use, nasa moderate resolution imaging ...201424992684
are ticks venomous animals?as an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of metazoa. as haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many ixodida genera ...201425006341
characterization of the bacterial communities of life stages of free living lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) is an abundant and aggressive biter of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in the southeastern-central usa and an important vector of several known and suspected zoonotic bacterial pathogens. however, the biological drivers of bacterial community variation in this tick are still poorly defined. knowing the community context in which tick-borne bacterial pathogens exist and evolve is required to fully understand the ecology and immunobiology of the tic ...201425054227
virome analysis of amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis ticks reveals novel highly divergent vertebrate and invertebrate viruses.a wide range of bacterial pathogens have been identified in ticks, yet the diversity of viruses in ticks is largely unexplored. in the united states, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis are among the principal tick species associated with pathogen transmission. we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the viromes of these tick species and identified the presence of powassan virus and eight novel viruses. these included the most divergent nairovirus descr ...201425056893
understanding anaplasmataceae pathogenesis using "omics" approaches.this paper examines how "omics" approaches improve our understanding of anaplasmataceae pathogenesis, through a global and integrative strategy to identify genes and proteins involved in biochemical pathways key for pathogen-host-vector interactions. the anaplasmataceae family comprises obligate intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods. these bacteria are responsible for major human and animal endemic and emerging infectious diseases with important economic and public health impac ...201425072029
tick-borne pathogen - reversed and conventional discovery of disease.molecular methods have increased the number of known microorganisms associated with ticks significantly. some of these newly identified microorganisms are readily linked to human disease while others are yet unknown to cause human disease. the face of tick-borne disease discovery has changed with more diseases now being discovered in a "reversed way," detecting disease cases only years after the tick-borne microorganism was first discovered. compared to the conventional discovery of infectious d ...201425072045
effect of latitude on the rate of change in incidence of lyme disease in the united states.tick-borne illnesses represent an important class of emerging zoonoses, with climate change projected to increase the geographic range within which tick-borne zoonoses might become endemic. we evaluated the impact of latitude on the rate of change in the incidence of lyme disease in the united states, using publicly available data.201325077101
microbial population analysis of the salivary glands of ticks; a possible strategy for the surveillance of bacterial pathogens.ticks are one of the most important blood-sucking vectors for infectious microorganisms in humans and animals. when feeding they inject saliva, containing microbes, into the host to facilitate the uptake of blood. an understanding of the microbial populations within their salivary glands would provide a valuable insight when evaluating the vectorial capacity of ticks. three tick species (ixodes ovatus, i. persulcatus and haemaphysalis flava) were collected in shizuoka prefecture of japan between ...201425089898
ixodes pacificus ticks maintain embryogenesis and egg hatching after antibiotic treatment of rickettsia endosymbiont.rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. although rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. the most intimate of these associations is rickettsia species phylotype g021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of i. pacificus in california. we investigated the effects of t ...201425105893
expression of bovine genes associated with local and systemic immune response to infestation with the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum linnaeus 1758 (acari; ixodidae), causes considerable production losses to the southern u.s. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wound sites, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. increasing environmental concerns, along with the potential for chemical residue in food products, have led to more emphasis on alternative tick control strategies, such as sele ...201425108787
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