dual silencing of long and short amblyomma americanum acidic chitinase forms weakens the tick cement cone stability.this study demonstrates that amblyomma americanum (aam) constitutively and ubiquitously expresses the long (l) and short (s) putative acidic chitinases (ach) that are distinguished by a 210 base pair (bp) deletion in aamach-s. full-length aamach-l and aamach-s cdna are 1959 and 1718 bp long, containing 1332 and 1104 bp open reading frames that code for 443 and 367 amino acid residues proteins with the former predicted to be extracellular and the latter intracellular. both aamach-l and aamach-s m ...201425189365
bioinformatic analyses of male and female amblyomma americanum tick expressed serine protease inhibitors (serpins).serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a diverse family of proteins that is conserved across taxa. the diversity of amblyomma americanum serpins (aas) is far more complex than previously thought as revealed by discovery of 57 and 33 aas transcripts that are respectively expressed in male and female a. americanum ticks, with 30 found in both. while distinct reproductively, both male and female metastriate ticks, such as a. americanum, require a blood meal. thus, 30 aas sequences found in both m ...201425238688
a systems biology approach to the characterization of stress response in dermacentor reticulatus tick unfed larvae.dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) is distributed in europe and asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. however, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of d. reticulatus. tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted a ...201424586875
genome characterization of long island tick rhabdovirus, a new virus identified in amblyomma americanum ticks.ticks are implicated as hosts to a wide range of animal and human pathogens. the full range of microbes harbored by ticks has not yet been fully explored.201424517260
solving a bloody mess: b-vitamin independent metabolic convergence among gammaproteobacterial obligate endosymbionts from blood-feeding arthropods and the leech haementeria officinalis.endosymbiosis is a common phenomenon in nature, especially between bacteria and insects, whose typically unbalanced diets are usually complemented by their obligate endosymbionts. while much interest and focus has been directed toward phloem-feeders like aphids and mealybugs, blood-feeders such as the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum), glossina flies, and the human body louse (pediculus humanus corporis) depend on obligate endosymbionts which complement their b-vitamin-deficient diets, and t ...201526454017
modeling the present and future geographic distribution of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (ixodida: ixodidae), in the continental united states.the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum l.) is the primary vector for pathogens of significant public health importance in north america, yet relatively little is known about its current and potential future distribution. building on a published summary of tick collection records, we used an ensemble modeling approach to predict the present-day and future distribution of climatically suitable habitat for establishment of the lone star tick within the continental united states. of the nine clima ...201526217042
francisella tularensis: no evidence for transovarial transmission in the tularemia tick vectors dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus.tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the francisella tularensis, a highly infectious gram-negative coccobacillus. due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category a select agent by the cdc. tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir compete ...201526244842
immunoproteomic profiling of rickettsia parkeri and rickettsia amblyommii.rickettsia parkeri is an amblyomma-associated, spotted fever group rickettsia species that causes an eschar-associated, febrile illness in multiple countries throughout the western hemisphere. many other rickettsial species of known or uncertain pathogenicity have been detected in amblyomma spp. ticks in the americas, including rickettsia amblyommii, "candidatus rickettsia andeanae" and rickettsia rickettsii. in this study, we utilized an immunoproteomic approach to compare antigenic profiles of ...201526234571
amblyomma americanum tick saliva insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 binds insulin but not insulin-like growth factors.silencing amblyomma americanum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (aamigfbp-rp1) mrna prevented ticks from feeding to repletion. in this study, we used recombinant (r)aamigfbp-rp1 in a series of assays to obtain further insight into the role(s) of this protein in tick feeding regulation. our results suggest that aamigfbp-1 is an antigenic protein that is apparently exclusively expressed in salivary glands. we found that both males and females secrete aamigfbp-rp1 into t ...201526108887
distinctive genome reduction rates revealed by genomic analyses of two coxiella-like endosymbionts in ticks.genome reduction is a hallmark of symbiotic genomes, and the rate and patterns of gene loss associated with this process have been investigated in several different symbiotic systems. however, in long-term host-associated coevolving symbiont clades, the genome size differences between strains are normally quite small and hence patterns of large-scale genome reduction can only be inferred from distant relatives. here we present the complete genome of a coxiella-like symbiont from rhipicephalus tu ...201526025560
a coxiella-like endosymbiont is a potential vitamin source for the lone star tick.amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) is an important disease vector in the united states. it transmits several human pathogens, including the agents of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, and southern tick-associated rash illness. blood-feeding insects (class insecta) depend on bacterial endosymbionts to provide vitamins and cofactors that are scarce in blood. it is unclear how this deficiency is compensated in ticks (class arachnida) that feed exclusively on mammalian blood. a bacterium r ...201525618142
identification, distribution and population dynamics of francisella-like endosymbiont in haemaphysalis doenitzi (acari: ixodidae).francisella-like endosymbionts (fles) with significant homology to francisella tularensis (γ-proteobacteria) have been characterized in several tick species, whereas knowledge on their distribution and population dynamics in ticks remains meager. hence, in the current study, we identified a novel francisella-like endosymbiont (fles-hd) from the tick haemaphysalis doenitzi and evaluated the putative functions of this symbiont. results indicated that fles-hd had 100% infection rate and a perfect v ...201627731377
ecology of tularemia in central us endemic region.tularemia is a zoonotic disease that occurs in the northern hemisphere caused by the gammabacterium francisella tularensis. the most severe form of human tularemia occurs in the central usa and involves a rabbit enzootic cycle, ixodid tick vectors, and f. tularensis subspecies tularensis genotype a1. enzootic tularemia is thought to have a spring-summer seasonality corresponding to the questing activity of its primary tick vectors. domestic cats, another common incidental host, acquire the infec ...201627525215
factors associated with tick bites and pathogen prevalence in ticks parasitizing humans in georgia, usa.the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in the united states during the past 30 years, yet few large-scale epidemiological studies have been performed on individuals bitten by ticks. epidemiological information, including disease development, may provide valuable information regarding effectiveness of tick bite prevention education, pathogen transmission, human-disease dynamics, and potential implications for under reporting of tick-borne diseases.201626935205
the microbiome of ehrlichia-infected and uninfected lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of anaplasma and ehrlichia. amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. our objective was to compare bacterial c ...201626751816
ehrlichia moonlighting effectors and interkingdom interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular gram negative bacterium with a small genome that thrives in mammalian mononuclear phagocytes by exploiting eukaryotic processes. herein, we discuss the latest findings on moonlighting tandem repeat protein effectors and their secretion mechanisms, and novel molecular interkingdom interactions that provide insight into the intracellular pathobiology of ehrlichiae.201324141087
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
arbovirosis and potential transmission blocking vaccines.infectious diseases caused by arboviruses (viruses transmitted by arthropods) are undergoing unprecedented epidemic activity and geographic expansion. with the recent introduction of west nile virus (1999), chikungunya virus (2013) and zika virus (2015) to the americas, stopping or even preventing the expansion of viruses into susceptible populations is an increasing concern. with a few exceptions, available vaccines protecting against arboviral infections are nonexistent and current disease pre ...201627664127
longipin: an amyloid antimicrobial peptide from the harvestman acutisoma longipes (arachnida: opiliones) with preferential affinity for anionic contrast to vertebrate immune systems, invertebrates lack an adaptive response and rely solely on innate immunity in which antimicrobial peptides (amps) play an essential role. most of them are membrane active molecules that are typically unstructured in solution and adopt secondary/tertiary structures upon binding to phospholipid bilayers. this work presents the first characterization of a constitutive amp from the hemolymph of an opiliones order animal: the harvestman acutisoma longipes. th ...201627997568
spider-venom peptides as bioinsecticides.over 10,000 arthropod species are currently considered to be pest organisms. they are estimated to contribute to the destruction of ~14% of the world's annual crop production and transmit many pathogens. presently, arthropod pests of agricultural and health significance are controlled predominantly through the use of chemical insecticides. unfortunately, the widespread use of these agrochemicals has resulted in genetic selection pressure that has led to the development of insecticide-resistant a ...201222741062
the salivary secretome of the biting midge, culicoides sonorensis.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about culicoides genomics and proteomics. detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding dipteran families, including those of mosquito (culicidae) and black fly (simuliidae), have shown that protein components with ...201424949243
the case for a 'one health' approach to combating vector-borne diseases. 201526027713
serological investigation of heartland virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in missouri 2012-2013.heartland virus (hrtv; bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) has recently emerged as a causative agent of human disease characterized by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in the united states. the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum l.) has been implicated as a vector. to identify candidate vertebrate amplification hosts associated with enzootic maintenance of the virus, sera and ticks were sampled from 160 mammals (8 species) and 139 birds (26 species) captured near 2 human case residences in andrew and no ...201525870419
west nile virus adaptation to ixodid tick cells is associated with phenotypic trade-offs in primary hosts.west nile virus (wnv; flaviviridae, flavivirus) is the most geographically widespread arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the world and is found in multiple ecologically distinct settings. despite the likelihood of frequent exposure to novel hosts, studies evaluating the capacity and correlates of host range expansions or shifts of wnv and other arboviruses are generally lacking. we utilized experimental evolution of wnv in an amblyomma americanum tick cell line to model an invertebrate host sh ...201525863877
from within host dynamics to the epidemiology of infectious disease: scientific overview and challenges.since their earliest days, humans have been struggling with infectious diseases. caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, or even higher organisms like worms, these diseases depend critically on numerous intricate interactions between parasites and hosts, and while we have learned much about these interactions, many details are still obscure. it is evident that the combined host-parasite dynamics constitutes a complex system that involves components and processes at multiple scales of time, space, ...201526474512
modeling and biological control of mosquitoes.models can be useful at many different levels when considering complex issues such as biological control of mosquitoes. at an early stage, exploratory models are valuable in exploring the characteristics of an ideal biological control agent and for guidance in data collection. when more data are available, models can be used to explore alternative control strategies and the likelihood of success. there are few modeling studies that explicitly consider biological control in mosquitoes; however, t ...017853610
analysis of multiple tsetse fly populations in uganda reveals limited diversity and species-specific gut microbiota.the invertebrate microbiome contributes to multiple aspects of host physiology, including nutrient supplementation and immune maturation processes. we identified and compared gut microbial abundance and diversity in natural tsetse flies from uganda using five genetically distinct populations of glossina fuscipes fuscipes and multiple tsetse species (glossina morsitans morsitans, g. f. fuscipes, and glossina pallidipes) that occur in sympatry in one location. we used multiple approaches, includin ...201424814785
detection of rickettsia amblyommii in ticks collected from missouri, usa. 201426038740
a blood meal-induced ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. an understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. this study characterizes a blood meal-induced i. scapularis (ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (s)), in-house referred to as ixscs-1e1. the ...201424583183
deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein.we previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive amblyomma americanum (aam) av422 gene. this study demonstrates that aamav422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: c(23)-x7/9-c(33)-x23/24-c(58)-x8-c(67)-x7-c(75)-x23-c(99)-x15-c(115)-x10-c(126)-x24/25/33-c(150)c(151)-x7-c(159)-x8-c(168)-x23/24-c(192)-x9/10-c(202) predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. we show that aamav422 protein is a ubiq ...201323428900
virus discovery using tick cell lines.while ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorpor ...201627679414
detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. dna and rna extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the roslin w ...201222743047
metagenomic profile of the viral communities in rhipicephalus spp. ticks from yunnan, china.besides mosquitoes, ticks are regarded as the primary source of vector-borne infectious diseases. indeed, a wide variety of severe infectious human diseases, including those involving viruses, are transmitted by ticks in many parts of the world. to date, there are no published reports on the use of next-generation sequencing for studying viral diversity in ticks or discovering new viruses in these arthropods from china. here, ion-torrent sequencing was used to investigate the presence of viruses ...201525799057
safety evaluation of parastar(®) plus in dogs and assessment of transferable residue of fipronil and cyphenothrin from dogs to humans.dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. the present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of parastar(®) plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. six healthy, ...201627747219
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
anaplasma phagocytophilum--a widespread multi-host pathogen with highly adaptive strategies.the bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (tbf) in domestic ruminants in ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern europe. in recent years, the bacterium has been found associated with ixodes-tick species more or less worldwide on the northern hemisphere. a. phagocytophilum has a broad host range and may cause severe disease in several mammalian species, including humans. however, the clinical symptoms vary from subclinical to fatal ...201323885337
molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent anaplasma phagocytophilum (foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in brazil.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. the objective of the current study was a) detect a. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr); and b) determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of a. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in rio de janeiro, brazil.201324330631
molecular detection and identification of piroplasms in sika deer (cervus nippon) from jilin province, china.piroplasmosis is an important disease of domestic animals and wildlife and is caused by organisms from the genera theileria and babesia. wildlife such as sika deer play an important role as reservoir hosts for several species of theileria and babesia. using blood samples collected from sika deer, we investigated the epidemiology of theileria spp. and babesia spp. in sika deer from jilin province in china and identified those species that cause pathogenic infections in sika deer.201626984286
challenges posed by tick-borne rickettsiae: eco-epidemiology and public health implications.rickettsiae are obligately intracellular bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors, primarily by fleas and ticks. once transmitted or experimentally inoculated into susceptible mammals, some rickettsiae may cause febrile illness of different morbidity and mortality, and which can manifest with different types of exhanthems in humans. however, most rickettsiae circulate in diverse sylvatic or peridomestic reservoirs without having obvious impacts on their vert ...201525954738
platelet aggregation inhibitors from hematophagous animals.salivary glands from blood-sucking animals (e.g., mosquitoes, bugs, sand flies, fleas, ticks, leeches, hookworms, bats) are a rich source of bioactive molecules that counteract hemostasis in a redundant and synergistic manner. this review discusses recent progress in the identification of salivary inhibitors of platelet aggregation, their molecular characterization, and detailed mechanism of action. diversity of inhibitors is remarkable, with distinct families of proteins characterized as apyras ...200920035779
tick-box for 3'-end formation of mitochondrial transcripts in ixodida, basal chelicerates and drosophila.according to the trna punctuation model, the mitochondrial genome (mtdna) of mammals and arthropods is transcribed as large polycistronic precursors that are maturated by endonucleolytic cleavage at trna borders and rna polyadenylation. starting from the newly sequenced mtdna of ixodes ricinus and using a combination of mitogenomics and transcriptional analyses, we found that in all currently-sequenced tick lineages (prostriata, metastriata and argasidae) the 3'-end of the polyadenylated nad1 an ...201223077630
the sialotranscriptome of antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food.the hosts for antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. the mouthparts of nymphal and adult a. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. how a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. adults of a. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always ...201222306723
geographical distribution of amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) ticks (parasitiformes: ixodidae) in brazil, with description of the nymph of a. cajennense (sensu stricto).until recently, amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) was considered to represent a single tick species in the new world. recent studies have split this taxon into six species. while the a. cajennense species complex or a. cajennense (sensu lato) (s.l.) is currently represented by two species in brazil, a. cajennense (sensu stricto) (s.s.) and amblyomma sculptum berlese, 1888, their geographical distribution is poorly known.201627036324
rickettsia amblyommii infecting amblyomma sculptum in endemic spotted fever area from southeastern brazil.the rickettsia bacteria include the aetiological agents for the human spotted fever (sf) disease. in the present study, a sf group rickettsia amblyommii related bacterium was detected in a field collected amblyomma sculptum (amblyomma cajennense species complex) tick from a brazilian sf endemic site in southeastern brazil, in the municipality of juiz de fora, state of minas gerais. genetic analysis based on genes ompa,ompb and htra showed that the detected strain, named r. amblyommii str. jf, is ...201526676317
growth of ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. the disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family canidae worldwide. e. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line dh82 and in non-vector ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from ...201626837859
partial characterization of a novel anti-inflammatory protein from salivary gland extract of hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum 77acari: ixodidae) ticks.hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts' rejection and achieve engorgement. successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. these chemicals in saliva could inhibit host i ...201527065646
amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds c1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement this study we characterized amblyomma americanum (aam) tick calreticulin (crt) homolog in tick feeding physiology. in nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. this suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. from this perspective it's plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as crt to regulate and facilitate feedin ...025454607
acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of tagetes patula l. (asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille, 1806).the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia ricketsii, rickettsia conorii, among others. studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. tagetes patula (asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the ...201223244493
laboratory study on biological control of ticks (acari: ixodidae) by entomopathogenic indigenous fungi (beauveria bassiana).chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. entomopathogenic fungi such as beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. in this study, two iranian indigenous strains of b. bassiana (b. bassiana 5197 and b. bassiana evin) were selected and grown on specific media. the pathogenic effects of these strains were eval ...200922808380
migratory birds, ticks, and bartonella.bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus and possibly also bartonella. thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the mediterranean islands capri and antikythera were screened for bartonella spp. rna. one or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds. m ...201122957116
arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies, and analysis.effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium "advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis" presented at the 58th annual meeting of the entomological society of america in san diego, ca. interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring f ...026543242
revealing pancrustacean relationships: phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear dna recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of dna sequences. one of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. this discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial dna datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. here, we re-evaluate the position of collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences.200818366624
molecular detection of rickettsia species in ticks collected from the southwestern provinces of the republic of korea.rickettsiae constitute a group of arthropod-borne, gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are the causative agents of diseases ranging from mild to life threatening that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide.201728069059
neural control of salivary glands in ixodid ticks.studies of tick salivary glands (sgs) and their components have produced a number of interesting discoveries over the last four decades. however, the precise neural and physiological mechanisms controlling sg secretion remain enigmatic. major studies of sg control have identified and characterized many pharmacological and biological compounds that activate salivary secretion, including dopamine (da), octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba), ergot alkaloids, pilocarpine (pc), and their pharmacolog ...201122119563
risk factors for bartonella species infection in blood donors from southeast brazil.bacteria from the genus bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. however, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. in humans, bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scrat ...201626999057
host blood meal-dependent growth ensures transovarial transmission and transstadial passage of rickettsia sp. phylotype g021 in the western black-legged tick (ixodes pacificus).in this study, we explored the growth dynamics of rickettsia sp. phylotype g021 during transovarial transmission and transstadial passage by ixodes pacificus using real-time quantitative pcr. four parental engorged i. pacificus females were allowed to complete their developmental stages until the f2-generation eggs yielded unfed larvae. all eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults tested through 2 generations were found to be infected with phylotype g021. hence, we conclude that the efficiency of transo ...201323876278
the phenology of ticks and the effects of long-term prescribed burning on tick population dynamics in southwestern georgia and northwestern florida.some tick populations have increased dramatically in the past several decades leading to an increase in the incidence and emergence of tick-borne diseases. management strategies that can effectively reduce tick populations while better understanding regional tick phenology is needed. one promising management strategy is prescribed burning. however, the efficacy of prescribed burning as a mechanism for tick control is unclear because past studies have provided conflicting data, likely due to a fa ...201425375797
present and future potential of plant-derived products to control arthropods of veterinary and medical significance.the use of synthetic pesticides and repellents to target pests of veterinary and medical significance is becoming increasingly problematic. one alternative approach employs the bioactive attributes of plant-derived products (pdps). these are particularly attractive on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries that should limit development of pest resistance against them.several pesticides and repellents based on pdps are already available, and ...201424428899
detection of rickettsia bellii and rickettsia amblyommii in amblyomma longirostre (acari: ixodidae) from bahia state, northeast brazil.studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the northeast region of brazil have been confined to the detection of rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of bahia, and in immatures and females of amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of pernambuco. the current study extends the distribution of r ...201526413074
tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in mexico.tick-borne rickettsial diseases (tbrd) are commonly encountered in medical and veterinary clinical settings. the control of these diseases is difficult, requiring disruption of a complex transmission chain involving a vertebrate host and ticks. the geographical distribution of the diseases is related to distribution of the vector, which is an indicator of risk for the population. a total of 1107 were collected by tick drag from forests, ecotourism parks and hosts at 101 sites in 22 of the 32 sta ...026726019
high prevalence of "candidatus rickettsia andeanae" and apparent exclusion of rickettsia parkeri in adult amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae) from kansas and oklahoma.amblyomma maculatum (the gulf coast tick), an aggressive, human-biting, nearctic and neotropical tick, is the principal vector of rickettsia parkeri in the united states. this pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsia species has been identified in 8-52% of questing adult gulf coast ticks in the southeastern united states. to our knowledge, r. parkeri has not been reported previously from adult specimens of a. maculatum collected in kansas or oklahoma. a total of 216 adult a. maculatum ticks wer ...201525773931
tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance.serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of australia and the united states, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this alle ...201525653915
proteomic screening of antigenic proteins from the hard tick, haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. for detection of antigens from haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-de) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. reactivity bands and 2-de immunoblotting were performed following 2-de electrophoresis t ...201525748713
identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from german and danish the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from german (n = 2297) and danish (n = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-qpcr).201425420461
unique strain of borrelia miyamotoi in ixodes pacificus ticks, california, usa. 201627479523
ixodes pacificus ticks maintain embryogenesis and egg hatching after antibiotic treatment of rickettsia endosymbiont.rickettsia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that causes a variety of diseases in humans and other mammals and associates with a diverse group of arthropods. although rickettsia appears to be common in ticks, most rickettsia-tick relationships remain generally uncharacterized. the most intimate of these associations is rickettsia species phylotype g021, a maternally and transstadially transmitted endosymbiont that resides in 100% of i. pacificus in california. we investigated the effects of t ...201425105893
experimental infection of rhipicephalus sanguineus with ehrlichia chaffeensis.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen that is infective to a wide range of mammals, including dogs and people. amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, is considered the primary vector of e. chaffeensis, but this pathogen has been detected in other tick species, including the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. we hypothesized that the arkansas strain of e. chaffeensis is infective to r. sanguineus, and used a nove ...201424894131
emerging antigens involved in allergic allergic diseases can 'emerge' because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has chang ...201324095162
disintegrins from hematophagous sources.bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. in hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland ...201222778902
saliva from nymph and adult females of haemaphysalis longicornis: a proteomic study.haemaphysalis longicornis is a major vector of theileria spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia spp. and coxiella burnetti in east asian countries. all life stages of ixodid ticks have a destructive pool-feeding style in which they create a pool-feeding site by lacerating host tissue and secreting a variety of biologically active compounds that allows the tick to evade host responses, enabling the uptake of a blood meal. the identification and functional characterization of tick saliva protein ...201526104117
arachnids of medical importance in brazil: main active compounds present in scorpion and spider venoms and tick saliva.arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. these animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. several protein and non-protein compo ...201526273285
scafos: a tool for selection, concatenation and fusion of sequences for phylogenomics.phylogenetic analyses based on datasets rich in both genes and species (phylogenomics) are becoming a standard approach to resolve evolutionary questions. however, several difficulties are associated with the assembly of large datasets, such as multiple copies of a gene per species (paralogous or xenologous genes), lack of some genes for a given species, or partial sequences. the use of undetected paralogous or xenologous genes in phylogenetic inference can lead to inaccurate results, and the us ...200717288575
molecular characterization of a defensin gene from a hard tick, dermacentor silvarum.ticks are distributed worldwide and considered as vectors of many human diseases. tick defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides, form the first line of defense against pathogens.201525588982
r2 dynamics in triops cancriformis (bosc, 1801) (crustacea, branchiopoda, notostraca): turnover rate and 28s concerted evolution.the r2 retrotransposon is here characterized in bisexual populations of the european crustacean triops cancriformis. the isolated element matches well with the general aspects of the r2 family and it is highly differentiated from that of the congeneric north american triops longicaudatus. the analysis of 5' truncations indicates that r2 dynamics in t. cancriformis populations show a high turnover rate as observed in drosophila simulans. for the first time in the literature, though, individuals h ...201020628416
cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: part 15 of the series molecular allergology.arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. in addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage p ...201426146603
conjunctival attachment of a live paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus, in a child: a case report.we describe a rare clinical finding of conjunctival tick attachment in a child. a 10-year-old boy presented to the clinic with right-eye itch. he was found to have a live tick firmly attached to his right temporal conjunctiva. the tick was identified as the larval stage of the paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus. the tick was removed completely by conjunctival excision. although various methods of removing a tick have been described in the literature, the goal of treatment is the safe and complete ...201525969685
the genome of the crustacean parhyale hawaiensis, a model for animal development, regeneration, immunity and lignocellulose digestion.the amphipod crustacean parhyale hawaiensis is a blossoming model system for studies of developmental mechanisms and more recently regeneration. we have sequenced the genome allowing annotation of all key signaling pathways, transcription factors, and non-coding rnas that will enhance ongoing functional studies. parhyale is a member of the malacostraca clade, which includes crustacean food crop species. we analysed the immunity related genes of parhyale as an important comparative system for the ...201627849518
a review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation.piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. they cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. there are currently nine recognized species of babesia ...201627724937
saliva of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (acari: ixodidae) inhibits classical and alternative complement pathways.rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. for a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. in spite of the importance of r. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. the current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by r. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by puta ...201627515662
frequency and distribution of rickettsiae, borreliae, and ehrlichiae detected in human-parasitizing ticks, texas, describe the presence and distribution of tickborne bacteria and their vectors in texas, usa, we screened ticks collected from humans during 2008-2014 for rickettsia, borrelia, and ehrlichia spp. thirteen tick species were identified, and 23% of ticks carried bacterial dna from at least 1 of the 3 genera tested.026811941
amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae), the cayenne tick: phylogeography and evidence for allopatric speciation.amblyomma cajennense f. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the new world because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. in the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine ...201324320199
chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from benin against anopheles gambiae (giles).insecticide resistance in sub-saharan africa and especially in benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. each anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. in this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in benin, were investigate ...201324298981
phylogeography and demographic history of amblyomma variegatum (fabricius) (acari: ixodidae), the tropical bont tick.the genetic diversity of amblyomma variegatum (fabricius) from four caribbean islands and five african countries was compared by analyzing the sequences of three gene fragments, two mitochondrial (12srdna and d-loop-dl), and one nuclear (intergenic transcribed spacer 2 [its2]). genetic variability of the its2 dna fragment consisted of only uninformative single nucleotide mutations, and therefore this gene was excluded from further analyses. mitochondrial gene divergences among african population ...201222448720
are ticks venomous animals?as an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of metazoa. as haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many ixodida genera ...201425006341
comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (simparica™ chewables) and fluralaner (bravecto(®)) against induced infestations of amblyomma americanum on dogs.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, infests dogs and cats in north america and transmits the pathogens ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, which cause monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, and cytauxzoon felis which causes cytauxzoonosis in cats. a parasiticide's speed of kill is important to minimize the direct deleterious effects [related to blood-feeding] of tick infestation and reduce the risk of transmission of tick-borne pathogens. in this study the spe ...201627430425
evasins: therapeutic potential of a new family of chemokine-binding proteins from ticks.blood-sucking parasites, such as ticks, remain attached to their hosts for relatively long periods of time in order to obtain their blood meal without eliciting an immune response. one mechanism used to avoid rejection is the inhibition of the recruitment of immune cells, which can be achieved by a class of chemokine-binding proteins (ckbps) known as evasins. we have identified three distinct evasins produced by the salivary glands of the common brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. they dis ...201627375615
expanding range of amblyomma americanum and simultaneous changes in the epidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in the united states.spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia species are etiologic agents of a wide range of human infections from asymptomatic or mild infections to severe, life-threatening disease. in the united states, recent passive surveillance for sfg rickettsiosis shows an increased incidence and decreased severity of reported cases. the reasons for this are not well understood; however, we hypothesize that less pathogenic rickettsiae are causing more human infections, while the incidence of disease caused by mo ...201526503270
discovery of filarial nematode dna in amblyomma americanum in northern virginia.ticks collected in 2011 were screened for the presence of filarial nematode genetic material, and positive samples were sequenced for analysis. monanema-like filarial nematode dna was recently discovered in amblyomma americanum in northern virginia, marking the first time genetic material from this parasite has been discovered in ticks in the state. phylogenetic analysis revealed that this material was directly related to a previously discovered filarial nematode in a. americanum populations in ...201526707835
rhipicephalus microplus serine protease inhibitor family: annotation, expression and functional characterisation assessment.rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus evades the host's haemostatic system through a complex protein array secreted into tick saliva. serine protease inhibitors (serpins) conform an important component of saliva which are represented by a large protease inhibitor family in ixodidae. these secreted and non-secreted inhibitors modulate diverse and essential proteases involved in different physiological processes.201525564202
prevalence of rickettsiales in ticks removed from the skin of outdoor workers in north carolina.tick-transmitted rickettsial diseases, such as ehrlichiosis and spotted fever rickettsiosis, are significant sources of morbidity and mortality in the southern united states. because of their exposure in tick-infested woodlands, outdoor workers experience an increased risk of infection with tick-borne pathogens. as part of a double blind randomized-controlled field trial of the effectiveness of permethrin-treated clothing in preventing tick bites, we identified tick species removed from the skin ...201425533148
seroepidemiologic study of human infections with spotted fever group rickettsiae in north carolina.increasing entomologic and epidemiologic evidence suggests that spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) other than rickettsia rickettsii are responsible for spotted fever rickettsioses in the united states. a retrospective seroepidemiologic study was conducted on stored acute- and convalescent-phase sera that had been submitted for rocky mountain spotted fever testing to the north carolina state laboratory of public health. we evaluated the serologic reactivity of the paired sera to r. rickettsii ...201425187639
spotted fever group rickettsiae in multiple hard tick species from fairfax county, virginia.spotted fever group rickettsiosis (sfgr) is a potentially fatal disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the united states in recent years. the most well-known and severe type of this disease is rocky mountain spotted fever, but there are other mild forms that occur. recently, human infection with rickettsia parkeri has been reported and linked with the tick amblyomma maculatum. in 2010, a population of r. parkeri-infected a. maculatum was discovered in fairfax county, virginia, leadin ...201424978651
cultivation of rickettsia amblyommii in tick cells, prevalence in florida lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum).rickettsia amblyommii is a bacterium in the spotted fever group of organisms associated with the lone star tick (lst), amblyomma americanum. the lst is the most commonly reported tick to parasitize humans in the southeastern us. within this geographic region, there have been suspected cases of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) where the causative agent, r. rickettsii, was not identified in the local tick population. in these areas, patients with clinical signs of rmsf had low or no detectable ...201424927809
ehrlichia and spotted fever group rickettsiae surveillance in amblyomma americanum in virginia through use of a novel six-plex real-time pcr assay.the population of the lone star tick amblyomma americanum has expanded in north america over the last several decades. it is known to be an aggressive and nondiscriminatory biter and is by far the most common human-biting tick encountered in virginia. few studies of human pathogen prevalence in ticks have been conducted in our state since the mid-twentieth century. we developed a six-plex real-time pcr assay to detect three ehrlichia species (e. chaffeensis, e. ewingii, and panola mountain ehrli ...201424746145
an insight into the microbiome of the amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).the aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of amblyomma maculatum koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with rickettsia parkeri. pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16s rrna was used to determine the total bacterial population in a. maculatum. pyrosequencing analysis identified rickettsia in a. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. the identity of rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the ric ...024605461
molecular characterization and functional significance of the vti family of snare proteins in tick salivary glands.exocytosis involves membrane fusion between secretory vesicles and the plasma membrane. the soluble n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins (snaps) and their receptor proteins (snares) interact to fuse vesicles with the membrane and trigger the release of their sialosecretome out of the tick salivary gland cells. in this study, we examined the functional significance of the vti family of snare proteins of blood-feeding amblyomma maculatum and amblyomma americanum. vti1a and vti1b h ...201323499931
rna interference-mediated depletion of n-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein and synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kda results in the inhibition of blood feeding of the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum.the signalling pathways in tick salivary glands that control 'sialo-secretome' secretion at the tick-host interface remain elusive; however, this complex process is essential for successful feeding and manipulation of the host haemostatic response. exocytosis of the sialo-secretome in the salivary glands requires a core of soluble n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (nsf) attachment proteins (snaps) and receptor proteins (snares). snares have been identified as the key components in regulating the ...201323437815
cyp52x1, representing new cytochrome p450 subfamily, displays fatty acid hydroxylase activity and contributes to virulence and growth on insect cuticular substrates in entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.infection of insects by the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana proceeds via attachment and penetration of the host cuticle. the outermost epicuticular layer or waxy layer of the insect represents a structure rich in lipids including abundant amounts of hydrocarbons and fatty acids. a member of a novel cytochrome p450 subfamily, cyp52x1, implicated in fatty acid assimilation by b. bassiana was characterized. b. bassiana targeted gene knockouts lacking bbcyp52x1 displayed reduced virulence ...201222393051
arsenophonus nasoniae and rickettsiae infection of ixodes ricinus due to parasitic wasp ixodiphagus hookeri.arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified a. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. we confirmed that 28.1% of ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by a. nasoniae. moreover, in examined i. ricinus nymphs, a. nasoniae was detected on ...201626901622
mutual medication in capuchin monkeys - social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. however, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. the function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. by manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two group ...201526456539
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 1263