a quantitative comparison of two sample methods for collecting amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) in studies of tick communities, sampling methodology may influence observed patterns. the objective of this study was to compare two sampling methods, dragging and dry ice baiting, in two habitats to assess abundance of off-host ticks. tick communities were monitored from march to december in a forested and an old-field habitat in northeast missouri. in each habitat, eight drag and eight dry ice bait samples were collected every 2 weeks on a permanent grid. the most common ticks collected were a ...201020585839
moulting and survival of amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) nymphs in quasi-natural conditions in burkina faso; tick predators as an important limiting factor.the survival rate of amblyomma variegatum engorged nymphs was studied in 9 cohorts released during the first part of the dry season (i.e. the nymph infestation period in the region) and placed on a natural savannah, either in plastic containers or in cages driven into the soil and open at the bottom. all nymphs put in the containers placed in the sun died rapidly, while a high moulting rate (94%) was observed in containers placed in the shade. this rate reached 63% for the ticks released in the ...201020593224
antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes of goats repeatedly infested by the cayenne tick amblyomma cajennense nymphs.resistance to tick feeding has been previously shown to be an acquired, immunologically mediated phenomenon in goats, associated with cutaneous basophilia to nymphs of amblyomma cajennense, the cayenne tick, after repeated infestations. on the other hand, it is well known that antigen-presenting cells (apcs) play an important role in the host immune reaction to tick infestations. the most able apcs for th cells are the well defined dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes and b-lymphocytes. immun ...201120596885
beauveria bassiana (ascomycota: hypocreales) as a management agent for free-living amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in ohio.unfed adult amblyomma americanum were exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana and placed in the field. ticks exposed to the fungus experienced higher mortality than those in the control group (p = 0.001). it is recommended that for inclusion in a tick management program, the fungus be applied in the late evening during the months march through june as this is when ticks are most active and conditions suitable for fungal activity occur.201120607363
effects of a lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) burden on performance and metabolic indicators in growing beef steers.we examined the response of selected animal performance, endocrine, immune, and metabolic factors from 13 steers (254+/-6.1 kg) with and without a lone star (amblyomma americanum) tick burden during progressive days of the tick feeding cycle. steers were randomly assigned to either non-treated controls or treated with 300 adult pair of a. americanum per animal. animals were weighed and blood sampled on days -7, 0, 10, 14, 21, 28, and 35 relative to tick treatment. tick treatment did not affect ( ...201020609519
spread of parasites transported with their hosts: case study of two species of cattle all parasites, ticks can be spread easily along with their hosts. ticks are obligate parasites of vertebrates, to which they attach themselves for varying periods of time, and are well-adapted to this mode of transport. once the transport stage is complete and they have detached at destination, they are also able to wait several months for the arrival of a new host on which they will continue their life cycle. this leads to the establishment of a secondary tick population. two tropical catt ...201020617654
detection of lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, including three novel genotypes in ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from songbirds (passeriformes) across canada.lyme disease is reported across canada, but pinpointing the source of infection has been problematic. in this three-year, bird-tick-pathogen study (2004-2006), 366 ticks representing 12 species were collected from 151 songbirds (31 passerine species/subspecies) at 16 locations canada-wide. of the 167 ticks/pools tested, 19 (11.4%) were infected with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). sequencing of the rrf-rrl intergenic spacer gene revealed four borrelia genotypes: b. burgdorferi sensu stri ...201020618658
brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in southern brazil.brazilian spotted fever (bsf) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium rickettsia rickettsii. the disease is generally transmitted to humans by amblyomma spp. ticks. serological evidence of past infection by r. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of r. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for bsf human in thes ...201020624353
host selection by questing female amblyomma maculatum koch, to cattle with feeding male ticks in southern texas.the feeding associations among male and female gulf coast ticks, amblyomma maculatum koch, were examined using archived data obtained from untreated free-ranging cattle pastured on native rangeland. there was significant evidence of a relationship between male and female tick presence on hosts (p-value <0.0001), suggesting that a. maculatum females will more frequently be attracted and attach to grazing cattle with feeding males than those without. seasonal data were tested to develop prediction ...201020627588
social network structure and parasite infection patterns in a territorial reptile, the tuatara (sphenodon punctatus).we investigated whether the parasite load of an individual could be predicted by its position in a social network. specifically, we derived social networks in a solitary, territorial reptile (the tuatara, sphenodon punctatus), with links based on the sharing of space, not necessarily synchronously, in overlapping territories. tuatara are infected by ectoparasitic ticks (amblyomma sphenodonti), mites (neotrombicula spp.) and a blood parasite (hepatozoon tuatarae) which is transmitted by the tick. ...201020637210
acaricidal activity of the essential oils from eucalyptus citriodora and cymbopogon nardus on larvae of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) and anocentor nitens (acari: ixodidae).the present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from eucalyptus citriodora and cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of amblyomma cajennense and anocentor nitens. in order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (deltametrine). for each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed ...201020640444
cuticular plasticization in the tick, amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae): possible roles of monoamines and cuticular ph.the degree of plasticization of the alloscutal cuticle of a 'hard' (ixodid) tick, amblyomma hebraeum, and a 'soft' (argasid) tick, ornithodoros moubata, was assessed throughout the blood-feeding period. cuticle viscosity was calculated from rate of creep of cuticle under constant load using a maxwell model. feeding-related plasticization (i.e. increased rate of extension under a constant load) occurred in a. hebraeum but not in o. moubata. maxwell viscosity of unfed a. hebraeum cuticle was relat ...201020675552
first record of amblyomma scalpturatum neumann (acari: ixodidae) in the states of paraná and roraima, brazil.amblyomma scalpturatum neumann has been reported in brazil in the northern (states of amazonas, pará and rondônia) and mid-western regions (states of mato grosso and mato grosso do sul). it has been found in association with large and medium sized mammals, as artiodactyla, perissodactyla, xenarthra and carnivora. in this paper, this tick species is reported for the first time in the brazilian states of paraná and roraima, southern and northern regions, respectively.201020676523
amblyomma imitator ticks as vectors of rickettsia rickettsii, mexico.real-time pcr of amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in nuevo leon state, mexico, identified a rickettsia species. sequence analyses of 17-kd common antigen and outer membrane protein a and b gene fragments showed to it to be r. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium.201020678325
amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae): new north american collection records, including the first from the united distribution records for the neotropical tick, amblyomma triste koch, are identified from 27 specimens in 18 separate collections. these collections originated from six now recognized geographical foci in two states in the united states (cochise and santa cruz counties, arizona, and brewster and jeff davis counties, texas) and from import cattle, bos taurus l., presented for entry at the united states border and originating in three mexican states (coahuila, durango, and sonora). for at leas ...201020695268
formulations of deet, picaridin, and ir3535 applied to skin repel nymphs of the lone star tick (acari: ixodidae) for 12 hours.the efficacies of a 20% 1-methyl-propyl-2- (hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate (picaridin) spray, 20% 3-(n-acetyl-n-butyl)aminopropionic acid ethyl ester (ir3535) spray, 20% picaridin lotion, 10% ir3535 lotion, and 33% n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) cream in repelling nymphal lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), were determined at 2-h intervals over 12 h using human subjects. a repellent formulation was applied in a 5-cm-wide band encircling a volunteer's lower leg. for each chal ...201020695288
ticks collected from birds in the northern provinces of south africa, 2004-2006.approximately 3000 birds, mainly passerines, caught in mist nets in the northern provinces of south africa, were examined for ticks. a total of 178 ticks, belonging to 14 species, were recovered from 83 birds of 43 different species. hyalomma rufipes was the most numerous tick, with 26 larvae and 109 nymphs collected, followed by amblyomma marmoreum, with 13 larvae and two nymphs. despite the study being conducted within the distribution range of amblyomma hebraeum, it was not seen on any passer ...200920698437
the comparative prevalence of five ixodid tick species infesting cattle and goats in maputo province, mozambique.this study compares the prevalence of ixodid tick species on cattle and goats in maputo province. adult ticks as well as the nymphs of three species, and only the adults of two species were collected from sets of five cattle at 21 localities throughout the province and compared with those collected from similar sets of goats at the same places. amblyomma hebraeum adults and/or nymphs were present on cattle and on goats at all 21 localities, and 90 cattle and 22 goats were infested with adult tic ...200920698440
tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of matabeleland south, zimbabwe.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in gwanda district of matabeleland south province, zimbabwe. eight tick species were identified: amblyomma hebraeum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus zambeziensis and rhipicephalus ...200920698443
female ixodid ticks grow endocuticle during the rapid phase of engorgement.lees (proc zool soc lond 121:759-772, 1952) concluded that the ixodid tick ixodes ricinus grows endocuticle during the slow but not during the rapid, phase of engorgement, a conclusion supported by andersen and roepstorff (insect biochem mol biol 35:1181-1188, 2005) for the same species. in this study analysis of dimensional data and cuticle weight measurements from female ixodid ticks (amblyomma hebraeum) were used to test this hypothesis. both approaches showed that endocuticle growth continue ...201120711799
secretory process of salivary glands of female amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) ticks fed on resistant rabbits.ticks have great economic and health importance since infested animals have reduced milk and meat production, and, besides that, they are expensive ectoparasites to control. while feeding, ticks can transmit to their hosts a large amount of pathogens, including rickettsia rickettsii responsible for the "spotted fever" or "fever of the mountains." it is known that animals infested with ticks or artificially immunized with their salivary gland extracts develop resistance, which is related to a dec ...201120711802
refuge sharing network predicts ectoparasite load in a in social groups facilitates cross-infection by parasites. however, empirical studies on indirect transmission within wildlife populations are scarce. we investigated whether asynchronous overnight refuge sharing among neighboring sleepy lizards, tiliqua rugosa, facilitates indirect transmission of its ectoparasitic tick, amblyomma limbatum. we fitted 18 neighboring lizards with gps recorders, observed their overnight refuge use each night over 3 months, and counted their ticks every fort ...201020802788
absence of rickettsia rickettsii and occurrence of other spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from tennessee.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) is the most common tick-borne illness in tennessee. little is known about the occurrence of r. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in tennessee. to better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 amblyomma, dermacentor, and ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. additionally, we tested 231 amblyomma americanum larvae. ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel ...201020810834
cattle and the natural history of rickettsia parkeri in mississippi.abstract cattle have been recognized as hosts for amblyomma maculatum, the gulf coast tick, for over 100 years. for nearly as long, a. maculatum have been known to harbor the spotted fever group rickettsia (sfgr), now known as rickettsia parkeri. however, human infection with r. parkeri was not documented until 2004. results presented herein describe a laboratory and a field study evaluating cattle and the natural history of a. maculatum and r. parkeri in mississippi. in the laboratory study, se ...201120846012
tick surveillance in great britain.the ability for public/veterinary health agencies to assess the risks posed by tick-borne pathogens is reliant on an understanding of the main tick vector species. crucially, the status, distribution, and changing trends in tick distribution and abundance are implicit requirements of any risk assessment; however, this is contingent on the quality of tick distribution data. since 2005 the health protection agency has promoted an enhanced tick surveillance program. through engagement with a variet ...201120849277
tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural senegal.rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in west africa.201020856858
identification of chelicerate neuropeptides using bioinformatics of publicly accessible expressed sequence tags.while numerous investigations have focused on the identification of neuropeptides in arthropods, most have been conducted on members of the hexapoda or crustacea, and little is currently known about those in the chelicerata. here, publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ests) were mined for putative chelicerate neuropeptide-encoding transcripts; the peptides encoded by the ests were deduced using on-line peptide prediction programs and homology to known isoforms. fifty-eight ests representi ...201020888826
invasive honeysuckle eradication reduces tick-borne disease risk by altering host dynamics.despite the ubiquity of invasive organisms and their often deleterious effects on native flora and fauna, the consequences of biological invasions for human health and the ecological mechanisms through which they occur are rarely considered. here we demonstrate that a widespread invasive shrub in north america, amur honeysuckle (lonicera maackii), increases human risk of exposure to ehrlichiosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by bacterial pathogens transmitted by the lone star tick (ambl ...201020937859
the gulf coast tick: a review of the life history, ecology, distribution, and emergence as an arthropod of medical and veterinary importance.the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch (acari: ixodidae), is a unique univoltine ectoparasite of seven vertebrate host classes in the western hemisphere that is increasingly recognized as a pest of livestock and wildlife, a vector of pathogens to humans and canines, and a putative vector of ehrlichia ruminantium, the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal foreign animal disease of ruminants resident in the caribbean. this review assembles current and historical literature encompassing the bi ...201020939363
confirmation of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) as a vector for cytauxzoon felis (piroplasmorida: theileriidae) to domestic cats.amblyomma americanum was confirmed as a competent vector in the transmission of cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats. infection with c. felis was produced and replicated in four domestic felines by the bite of a. americanum adults that were acquisition fed as nymphs on a domestic cat that survived cytauxzoonosis. numerous attempts to transmit c. felis with dermacentor variabilis at the same time were not successful. all cats upon which infected a. americanum were transmission fed exhibited disease ...201020939386
survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) and their rickettsia in an atlantic rain forest reserve in the state of são paulo, brazil.the current study investigated the occurrence of ticks and their rickettsiae in the serra do mar state park, which encompasses one of the largest atlantic rain forest reserves of brazil. from july 2008 to june 2009, a total of 2439 ticks (2,196 free living and 243 collected on hosts) was collected, encompassing the following 13 species: amblyomma aureolatum (pallas), amblyomma brasiliense aragao, amblyomma dubitatum neumann, amblyomma fuscum neumann, amblyomma incisum neumann, amblyomma longiros ...201020939390
occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on human hosts, in three municipalities in the state of pará, brazil.assuming the existence of tick parasitism in humans in the state of pará, an aggregate observational study was developed along a transversal line in three cities of the state, during two years. interviews and examinations of 2,160 townspeople and tourists were carried out, without discrimination of ethnic, sex, age, or social status, and classified for effects analyzed for four bands of age, six types of activities in the society, and two sexes. larvae, nymphs, and adults of ticks had been ident ...201020943016
amblyomma rotundatum (koch, 1844) (acari: ixodidae) two-host life-cycle on viperidae snakes.amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. this tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. it was described in brazil and several other countries of south, central and north america. although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and lumi ...201020943022
amblyomma aureolatum (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing margay (leopardus wiedii) in rio grande do sul.we report the finding of amblyomma aureolatum (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing margay (leopardus wiedii) in the locality of gravataí (29° 47' 12.9" s and 50° 53' 44.1" w; 241 m alt.), state of rio grande do sul, southern brazil. this is the first report of this species of ixodidae on margay in southern brazil. this finding indicates an increased number of hosts for this tick species.201020943026
new tick records in rondônia, western brazilian the present study, we provide new tick records from vilhena municipality, in the southeast of the state of rondônia, northern brazil. ticks collected from a capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma romitii tonelli-rondelli (1 female), and amblyomma sp. (1 larva). ticks collected from a harpy eagle, harpia harpyja (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) (16 nymphs) and haemaphysalis juxtakochi cooley (1 nymph). ticks collected from a ...201020943027
rickettsial infections of dogs, horses and ticks in juiz de fora, southeastern brazil, and isolation of rickettsia rickettsii from rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.the present study was performed in an area endemic for brazilian spotted fever (bsf) in juiz de fora, state of minas gerais, brazil, during the years 2007 and 2008, when fatal cases of bsf (caused by rickettsia rickettsii) were reported. adult ticks (acari: ixodidae) identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) and amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) were collected from dogs and horses, respectively, and tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). overall, 13.1% of the rh. sanguineus ticks and ...201020950356
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting wild birds in the atlantic forest in northeastern brazil, with notes on rickettsial infection in ticks.a total of 232 individuals representing 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks in a region of the atlantic forest, state of bahia, brazil. thirty-eight (16.4%) of these birds representing 17 species were found infested by immature stages of amblyomma ticks, namely, amblyomma longirostre (koch, 1844) (15 larvae and seven nymphs), amblyomma nodosum (neumann, 1899) (nine nymphs), amblyomma calcaratum (neumann, 1899) (five nymphs), amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (seven l ...201020953629
physiological effects upon amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) infected with beauveria bassiana (ascomycota: hypocreales).unfed adult amblyomma americanum were exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana. ticks exposed to the fungus exhibited reduced survival and increased water loss as indicated by change in weight. treated ticks survived 7.2 ± 0.22 days (mean ± se) and controls survived 17.9 ± 0.73 days (p = 0.01; df = 57). at death, ticks exposed to the fungus had lost 25.2 ± 0.84% of their starting weight; control ticks had lost 14.1 ± 0.85% of their starting weight (p = 0.01; df = 96). water loss ...201020957415
biological differences between two allopatric populations of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) in argentina.the fertility of hybrids from two distinct populations of amblyomma cajennense from different ecological regions of northern argentina was analyzed. two colonies of a. cajennense from el rey national park (rnp), salta province (24º41's, 64º36'w), and copo national park (cnp), santiago del estero province (25º55's, 61º43'w) were established infesting rabbits with adults collected from vegetation. reproductive parameters of the first generation in laboratory of each colony and their crosses were e ...201020972702
monitoring of resistance or susceptibility of adults and larvae of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) to synthetic acaricides in goiás, brazil.amblyomma cajennense or the cayenne tick is a three-host ixodid tick species of low parasitic specificity that is the principal vector of brazilian spotted fever. the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the possible development of resistance by adult specimens of a. cajennense to deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and the principal miticide/acaricide commercially available in the region. the second objective was to monitor the susceptibility and/or resistance of larvae ...201020976616
distribution and prevalence of cytauxzoon felis in bobcats (lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states.cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the united states. the bobcat (lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as florida panthers (puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. experimentally, two tick species, dermacentor variabilis and amblyomma americanum, have demonstrated the ability to transm ...201021071149
first report of the repellency of 2-tridecanone against ticks.2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone are both found naturally in the trichomes of wild tomato plants and are important in plant resistance to herbivory. 2-undecanone is the u.s. environmental protection agency (epa)-registered active ingredient in the commercially available arthropod repellent, bioud(®) . the goal of this study was to examine the tick repellency of 2-tridecanone. two-choice bioassays were conducted using 8% 2-tridecanone vs. the repellent carrier (absolute ethanol) and compared with t ...201021073492
[parasitism by amblyomma sp (acari: ixodidae) in humans in the city of recife, state of pernambuco, brazil].the amblyomma genus is widely distribution in brazil and is important regarding the public health risk represented by the transmission of pathogens.201021085878
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assays for rapid detection of ehrlichia ruminantium.the rickettsial bacterium ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent of heartwater, a potential zoonotic disease of ruminants transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma. the disease is distributed in nearly all of sub-saharan africa and some islands of the caribbean, from where it threatens the american mainland. this report describes the development of two different loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assays for sensitive and specific detection of e. ruminantium.201021087521
species composition and geographic distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in a temperate and in a subtropical region of south-east africa.the species and distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa and maputo province, mozambique were determined from collections made from these animals at 72 localities in the former region and 30 in the latter. eleven ixodid and one argasid species were recovered in the eastern cape province and 15 ixodid species in maputo province. the most common ticks infesting cattle and goats in both provinces were amblyomma hebraeum, ...200921105593
a potential role for ixodid (hard) tick vectors in the transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an economically important cattle disease. the disease is endemic in many african countries, but outbreaks have also been reported in madagascar and the middle east. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ixodid (hard) ticks in the transmission of the disease. cattle were infected with a virulent, south african field isolate of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). three common african tick species (genera rhipicephalus, amblyomma and rhipicephalus ( ...201021114790
novel field assays and the comparative repellency of bioud(®) , deet and permethrin against amblyomma americanum.two new field bioassay methods were developed to compare the repellent activity of bioud(®) (containing 7.75% 2-undecanone), 98.1% deet and 0.5% permethrin against natural populations of nymphal amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae). in a cloth sheet assay, pieces of material measuring 41 × 58 cm, separately treated with one of the test materials or the appropriate solvent carrier, were placed at random on the ground and baited with dry ice for 1 h. mean numbers of ticks on repellent-treat ...201021118283
ticks (acari: ixodidae) from yellow armadillo, euphractus sexcinctus (cingulata: dasypodidae), in brazil's pantanal wetlands.tick species parasitizing yellow armadillo, euphractus sexcinctus, were recorded from october 2006 to october 2007 in pantanal. a total of 89 ticks were collected from 23 yellow armadillos. most ticks (n=50) were identified as amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) (32 males and 18 females). the only other species found was amblyomma parvum (aragão) (three females and two males). the remaining ticks were immatures of amblyomma (29 nymphs and five larvae). the prevalence of a. cajennense was 55%, the m ...201021120394
infrequency of rickettsia rickettsii in dermacentor variabilis removed from humans, with comments on the role of other human-biting ticks associated with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the united states.abstract from 1997 to 2009, the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army public health command (usaphc) (formerly the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine) screened 5286 dermacentor variabilis ticks removed from department of defense (dod) personnel, their dependents, and dod civilian personnel for spotted fever group rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. rickettsia montanensis (171/5286 = 3.2%) and ricke ...201021142953
rickettsial infection in domestic mammals and their ectoparasites in el valle de antón, coclé, panamá.the present research evaluated the presence of rickettsia spp. on ectoparasites of horses and dogs (using pcr techniques), and their sera (using immunofluorescence assay) in el valle de antón town in panama. a total of 20 horses and 20 dogs were sampled, finding four species of ectoparasites on dogs (the ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma oblongoguttatum, and the flea ctenocephalides felis), and two tick species on horses (amblyomma cajennense and dermacentor nitens). dna ...201021144663
rickettsia africae in amblyomma variegatum and domestic ruminants on eight caribbean islands.we used pcrs with omp a primers to determine if spotted fever group rickettsiae occurred in amblyomma variegatum from 6 caribbean islands. positive amplicons were obtained from ticks from the u.s. virgin islands (9/18; 50%), dominica (39/171; 30%), montserrat (2/5; 40%), nevis (17/34; 50%), st. kitts (46/227; 20%), and st. lucia (1/14; 7%). sequences for a convenience sample of reaction products obtained from a. variegatum on st. kitts (7), american virgin islands (4), montserrat (2), and st. lu ...201021158615
high-prevalence borrelia miyamotoi [scapin wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in tennessee.during spring and fall 2009, 60 wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) harvested by tennessee hunters were surveyed for borrelia spp. by sampling their blood, tissue, and attached ticks. in both seasons, 70% of turkeys were infested with juvenile amblyomma americanum; one spring turkey hosted an adult female ixodes brunneus. polymerase chain reaction assays followed by dna sequencing indicated that 58% of the turkeys were positive for the spirochete borrelia miyamotoi, with tissue testing positive m ...201021175079
ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern brazil with new host and locality records.from september 2008 to march 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern brazil. six tick species were identified, including amblyomma auricularium (conil) on tamandua tetradactyla (l.), amblyomma dubitatum neumann on hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (l.), nectomys rattus (pelzen) and t. tetradactyla, amblyomma parvum aragão on t. tetradactyla, amblyomma rotundatum koch on boa constrictor l., chelonoidis ...201021175080
ticks on birds in a forest fragment of brazilian cerrado (savanna) in the municipality of uberlândia, state of minas gerais, brazil.this is a report of tick species, parasite prevalence and infestation intensity of birds in a forest fragment (18° 56' 57'' s and 48° 12' 14'' w) within the brazilian cerrado (savanna), in the municipality of uberlândia, state of minas gerais, brazil. a total of 162 birds from 26 species were captured. one adult tick, 296 larvae and 67 nymphs were found on passerine birds. of these, it was identified 31 larvae and 27 nymphs of amblyomma longirostre, 17 nymphs of a. nodosum, one a. cajennense lar ...201021184702
a first record of amblyomma dissimile (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing the lizard ameiva ameiva (teiidae) in brazil.a non-engorged adult female amblyomma dissimile and two amblyomma sp. larvae were found parasitizing the lizard ameiva ameiva in the municipality of chapadinha, state of maranhão. this is the first record in the state of maranhão and fills a gap in the distribution of a. dissimile in brazil. the lizard a. ameiva represents a new host for a. dissimile, and also the first record of this tick species infesting lizards of the family teiidae in brazil.201021184707
parasitisation and localisation of ticks (acari: ixodida) on exotic reptiles imported into a result of examinations, the following species of ticks have been found parasitising on python regius brought from africa to poland: amblyomma latum, amblyomma transversale, amblyomma spp., on varanus exanthematicus: amblyomma exornatum, amblyomma flavomaculatum, amblyomma latum, amblyomma nuttalli, amblyomma spp., on varanus salvator brought from indonesia to poland: amblyomma varanensis. there were 58 specimens of monitor lizard (v. salvator and v. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens of pytho ...201021186765
emergence of rickettsia africae, oceania.we detected rickettsia africae, the agent of african tick-bite fever (atbf), by amplification of fragments of glta, ompa, and ompb genes from 3 specimens of amblyomma loculosum ticks collected from humans and birds in new caledonia. clinicians who treat persons in this region should be on alert for atbf.201121192865
a case of amblyomma testudinarium tick bite in a korean woman.a case of tick bite was found in the inguinal region of a 74-year-old korean woman. she was attacked by the tick while working in her vegetable garden in the vicinity of mountain located in suncheon city, the southern coastal area of the korean peninsula. on admission she complained of mild discomfort and itching around the bite area. the causative tick was 23 mm long and had slender pedipalps. the scutum was quite ornate and had eyes at the edge. the genital aperture was located anterior to the ...201021234234
veterinary extension on sampling techniques related to heartwater research.heartwater, a tick-borne disease caused by ehrlichia ruminantium, is considered to be a significant cause of mortality amongst domestic and wild ruminants in south africa. the main vector is amblyomma hebraeum and although previous epidemiological studies have outlined endemic areas based on mortalities, these have been limited by diagnostic methods which relied mainly on positive brain smears. the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa) has a low specificity for heartwater organisms as it cros ...201021247042
ecology and dynamics of the blood parasite, hepatozoon tuatarae (apicomplexa), in tuatara (sphenodon punctatus) on stephens island, new zealand.we explored infection patterns and temporal dynamics of the protozoan blood parasite hepatozoon tuatarae (apicomplexa) infecting the tuatara (sphenodon punctatus), a protected reptile living on stephens island, new zealand. in march 2006, we surveyed tuatara in five study sites to examine spatial variation in infection prevalence, and four times, from may 2005 to november 2006, we recaptured marked individuals within three study sites to examine the temporal dynamics of infection. we also examin ...201121270002
amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) tick salivary gland serine protease inhibitor (serpin) 6 is secreted into tick saliva during tick order to successfully feed and transmit disease agents, ticks are thought to inject serine protease inhibitors (serpins) into the host to modulate host defense responses to tick feeding, such as inflammation, the complement activation pathway and blood coagulation. in this study, we show that amblyomma americanum (aam) serpin (s) 6 is putatively injected into the host during tick feeding, in that the antibody to recombinant (r) aams6 specifically reacted with the expected ~43/45 kda aams6 pro ...201121270316
cross-mating experiments with geographically different populations of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).the present study evaluated the reproductive compatibility of the crosses between adult ticks of the following three geographically different populations of amblyomma cajennense: state of são paulo (sp), southeastern brazil; state of rondônia (ro), northern brazil; and colombia (co). in addition, crosses between a. cajennense ticks from argentina (ar) and sp ticks were also performed. the argentinean population (ar) was compatible with sp because their crosses resulted in high % egg hatching (me ...201121286933
salivary glands of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae): a histological and an ultrastructural overview.the present study on the salivary glands of semi-engorged amblyomma cajennense females has identified the various cell types present in this tissue and allowed its morphohistochemical characterization. marking techniques were applied to detect polysaccharides (pas), proteins (bromophenol blue), lipids (nile blue) and calcium (von kossa), as well as those of scanning electron microscopy (sem) and transmission electron microscopy (tem). the results obtained by tem showed and confirmed that these i ...201121301932
first reports of ectoparasites collected from wild-caught exotic reptiles in florida.we collected ectoparasites from 27 of 51 wild-caught, free-ranging exotic reptiles examined in florida from 2003 to 2008. sampled animals represented eight species, five of which yielded ectoparasites. reported new parasite distribution records for the united states include the following: the first collection of the african tick amblyomma latum (koch) from a wild-caught animal [ball python, python regius (shaw)] in the united states; the first collection of the lizard scale mite hirstiella stami ...201121337954
response of nkedi zebu and ankole cattle to tick infestation and natural tick-borne, helminth and trypanosome infections in uganda.a cross-sectional study was conducted in soroti district of uganda to establish important traits of nkedi zebu and ankole cattle regarding their production performance responses to natural infections of trypanosomes, gastrointestinal nematodes, theileria parva, babesia bigemina, anaplasma marginale and tick infestations. over four visits between october 2006 to august 2007, tick counts were performed and blood, faecal samples and sera were collected from the nkedi zebu (295) and ankole (165) cat ...201121350849
life cycle of the tick amblyomma parvum aragão, 1908 (acari: ixodidae) and suitability of domestic hosts under laboratory conditions.amblyomma parvum is a widespread neotropical tick found on several domestic animals and is known to harbor a rickettsia species of yet unknown pathogenicity. however its life cycle on, and suitability of, several of these hosts has not been described. in this work the biology of a. parvum is presented when fed on seven domestic hosts (chicken, dog, rabbit, horse, guinea pig, cattle and goat). the complete life cycle of the tick varied from 96.8 to 102 days. highest engorgement weight of larvae w ...201121353392
detection of theileria and babesia in brown brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in the state of minas gerais, brazil.intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera theileria and babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family ixodidae. the prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living mazama gouazoubira, two captive m. gouazoubira and four captive blastocerus dichotomus from the state of minas gerais, brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr). t ...201021354704
a further insight into the sialome of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum.ticks--vectors of medical and veterinary importance--are themselves also significant pests. tick salivary proteins are the result of adaptation to blood feeding and contain inhibitors of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, and angiogenesis, as well as vasodilators and immunomodulators. a previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome (from the greek sialo, saliva) of amblyomma variegatum is revisited in light of recent advances in tick sialomes and provides a database to perform a proteomic study ...201121362191
an acarologic survey and amblyomma americanum distribution map with implications for tularemia risk in the united states, tickborne diseases occur focally. missouri represents a major focus of several tickborne diseases that includes spotted fever rickettsiosis, tularemia, and ehrlichiosis. our study sought to determine the potential risk of human exposure to human-biting vector ticks in this area. we collected ticks in 79 sites in southern missouri during june 7-10, 2009, which yielded 1,047 adult and 3,585 nymphal amblyomma americanum, 5 adult amblyomma maculatum, 19 adult dermacentor variab ...201121363979
gotch ear in a goat: a case report.abstract a 1-year-old castrated male saanen goat was observed to have drooping and edema of the left ear consistent with published accounts of gotch ear in cattle associated with a tick bite. the goat's left ear was edematous from the tip of the pinna to the base of the ear. no signs of trauma or infectious processes were observed. three engorged gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) were observed attached inside the ear. ticks were removed and the ear biopsied at tick attachment sites. the aff ...201121395411
tick paralysis caused by amblyomma maculatum on the mexican pacific coast.tick paralysis is a rare entity in which it is necessary to identify the cause and remove the arthropod to have a rapid remission of symptoms. in the absence of an early diagnosis, the outcome can be fatal, as toxins are released from the tick's saliva as it feeds. to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical report of the disease in mexico and latin america. a 22-year-old man from a rural area, who was in contact with cattle, developed ascending flaccid paralysis secondary ...201121395426
experimental primary and secondary infections of domestic dogs with ehrlichia this study, the infection dynamics of ehrlichia ewingii, causative agent of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, was examined in experimentally infected dogs by using a combination of physical examination, hematologic and biochemical analyses, and molecular and serologic assays. for the experimental trials, blood from an e. ewingii-infected dog was inoculated intravenously into two na+»ve dogs and two dogs with prior experimental exposure to e. ewingii (both were negative for e. ...201121397411
anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of citrus spp. or other rutaceae. these anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. we measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemat ...201121409496
distribution and molecular characterization of wolbachia endosymbionts and filarial nematodes in maryland populations of the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum).the lone star tick amblyomma americanum is host to a wide diversity of endosymbiotic bacteria. we identified a novel wolbachia symbiont infecting a. americanum. multilocus sequence typing phylogenetically placed the endosymbiont in the increasingly diverse f supergroup. we assayed a total of 1031 ticks (119 females, 78 males and 834 nymphs in 89 pools) from 16 maryland populations for infection. infection frequencies in the natural populations were approximately 5% in females and <2% (minimum in ...201121410491
colonization of grande comore island by a lineage of rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks.union of the comoros suffered a severe east coast fever epidemic in 2004. rhipicephalus appendiculatus was probably involved in pathogen transmission as this competent tick species, although previously absent from comoros, was sampled on 4 animals on one geographical site during the epidemic. we carried out an entomological survey on all three islands of union of the comoros to establish cattle tick species distribution with a special emphasis on r. appendiculatus. we investigated r. appendicula ...201121414194
plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.the recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, chagas disease (american trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (brill-zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human african trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, lyme di ...201121432748
case of tick bite with infestation of an extraordinary number of larval amblyomma testudinarium ticks. 201121434986
the relevance of tick bites to the production of ige antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-a-1, 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat that is related to serum ige antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-a-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. the implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these ige antibodies.201121453959
risk factors for african tick-bite fever in rural central africa.african tick-bite fever is an emerging infectious disease caused by the spotted fever group rickettsia, rickettsia africae, and is transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma. to determine the seroprevalence of exposure to r. africae and risk factors associated with infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of persons in seven rural villages in distinct ecological habitats of cameroon. we examined 903 plasma samples by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to r. africae ...201121460018
susceptibility of four tick species, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, and rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), ixodes scapularis say, and rhipicephalus sanguineus latreille. we determined the 50% lethal concentration (lc50) and 90% lethal concentration (lc90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with lc50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and lc90 values of 1.001, ...201121485368
efficacy of spinosad against acaricide-resistant and -susceptible rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and acaricide-susceptible amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis.various acaricide-resistant strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, representative of the major resistance mechanisms found in mexico and brazil, were exposed to spinosad using the food and agriculture organization of the united nations larval packet test and adult immersion test (ait). larvae of all strains tested were found to be susceptible to spinosad. conversely, spinosad did not show toxic activity toward engorged females used in the ait. in vitro tests against larvae, nymphs, and ...201121485374
rickettsia rickettsii (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from kansas.the role of lone star ticks as vectors for rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) remains poorly described. we compared the entomological inoculation rates (eirs) for rickettsia spp. for representative sites in missouri and kansas, states that frequently report rmsf each year. host-seeking ticks were collected during 2006 and pooled tick homogenates analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect probable r. rickettsii, with confirmation for multiple gene targets performed on individual ticks from ...201121485390
ehrlichia ruminantium in amblyomma variegatum and domestic ruminants in the caribbean.the highly sensitive nested pcs20 polymerase chain reaction assay for ehrlichia ruminantium was negative on 506 amblyomma variegatum from caribbean islands where clinical heartwater has not been reported, mainly the united states virgin islands (18), dominica (170), montserrat (5), nevis (34), st. kitts (262), and st. lucia (17). positive results were obtained with positive controls (crystal springs strain) and a. variegatum from countries in africa where infections are endemic, mainly tanzania ...201121485394
failure of the amblyomma cajennense nymph to become infected by theileria equi after feeding on acute or chronically infected horses.tick-borne diseases in horses are caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites theileria equi and babesia caballi. although t. equi is highly endemic in latin america, the new world vector of this important parasite is controversial. the aim of this study was to test the ability of nymph amblyomma cajennense ticks acquire infection by t. equi following feeding on infected horses. three experiments were performed: tick acquisition of t. equi from an experimentally infected horse, tick acqu ...201121501609
distribution and habitat utilization of the gopher tortoise tick ( amblyomma tuberculatum ) in southern mississippi.abstract the distribution of the gopher tortoise tick ( amblyomma tuberculatum ) has been considered intrinsically linked to the distribution of its primary host, gopher tortoises ( gopherus polyphemus ). however, the presence of g. polyphemus does not always equate to the presence of a. tuberculatum . there is a paucity of data on the ecology, habitat preferences, and distribution of a. tuberculatum . the goals of this study were to assess the distribution of a. tuberculatum in southern mississ ...201121506776
suppression of host-seeking ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in new jersey.we evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) in a lyme disease endemic area of new jersey. an aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of i. scapularis through 7 d. control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. nootkatone provided >90% control of a. amer ...201121510219
experimental infection of amblyomma aureolatum ticks with rickettsia rickettsii.we experimentally infected amblyomma aureolatum ticks with the bacterium rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf). these ticks are a vector for rmsf in brazil. r. rickettsii was efficiently conserved by both transstadial maintenance and vertical (transovarial) transmission to 100% of the ticks through 4 laboratory generations. however, lower reproductive performance and survival of infected females was attributed to r. rickettsii infection. therefore, bec ...201121529391
rickettsia rickettsii transmission by a lone star tick, north carolina.only indirect or circumstantial evidence has been published to support transmission of rickettsia rickettsii by amblyomma americanum (lone star) ticks in north america. this study provides molecular evidence that a. americanum ticks can function, although most likely infrequently, as vectors of rocky mountain spotted fever for humans.201121529399
rickettsia parkeri in gulf coast ticks, southeastern virginia, usa.we report evidence that amblyomma maculatum tick populations are well established in southeastern virginia. we found that 43.1% of the adult gulf coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in or visiting southeastern virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen.201121529406
seasonal dynamics and hosts of amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae) in argentina.the seasonal dynamics and host usage of amblyomma triste in argentina were analyzed. adults of a. triste were present from early winter to mid-summer, with the peak of abundance from late winter to mid-spring (august to october). larvae and nymphs were found from december to june, with the peak of abundance in summer. there were no differences among the biological parameters (pre-moult period of larvae and nymphs, pre-oviposition period of females, and minimum incubation period of eggs) of engor ...201121536384
dermoscopy for tick bite: reconfirmation of the usefulness for the initial diagnosis.ticks transmit a variety of infectious diseases. diagnosis requires verification of a tick's presence. here, we describe a 61-year-old woman bitten by an eight-legged nymphal amblyomma testudinarium. we re-emphasize the usefulness of dermoscopy for identifying signs of the bite and determining the species of the biting tick.201121577370
coxiella symbionts in the cayenne tick amblyomma cajennense.members of the coxiella genus are intracellular bacteria that can infect a variety of animals including humans. a symbiotic coxiella was recently described in amblyomma americanum ticks in the northern hemisphere with no further investigations of other amblyomma species in other geographic regions. these ixodid ticks represent a group of important vectors for human infectious agents. in the present work, we have demonstrated that symbiotic coxiella (scox) are widespread, occurring in south ameri ...201121611689
tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (panthera onca) in pantanal, brazil.abstract tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the pantanal biome, brazil. jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using rickettsia rickettsii, rickettsia parkeri, rickettsia amblyommii, rickettsia rhipicephali, rickettsia felis, rickettsia bellii, ehrlichia canis, and coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. all 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥64) to at least one rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with e. canis and c. burneti ...201121612532
first report of the isolation and molecular characterization of rickettsia amblyommii and rickettsia felis in central america.abstract during 2010, 15 adult ticks, identified as amblyomma cajennense, were collected from horses in cahuita and turrialba districts, whereas 7 fleas, identified as ctenocephalides felis, were collected from a dog in san jose city, costa rica. in the laboratory, three a. cajennense specimens, two from cahuita and one from turrialba, were individually processed for rickettsial isolation in cell culture, as was a pool of seven fleas. rickettsiae were successfully isolated and established in ver ...201121612539
perspectives on canine and feline hepatozoonosis.two species of hepatozoon are currently known to infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. hepatozoon canis prevalent in africa, asia, southern europe, south america and recently shown to be present also in the usa causes infection mainly of hemolymphoid organs, whereas hepatozoon americanum prevalent in the southeastern usa causes myositis and severe lameness. h. americanum is transmitted by ingestion of the gulf coast tick amblyomma maculatum and also by predation on infected prey. h. canis is ...201121620568
meteorological indicators for amblyomma cajennense and population dynamics in the tamaulipan biotic province in texas.we studied the population dynamics of free-living ticks in the tamaulipan biotic province in south texas from march, 2005 to november, 2008. we collected 70,873 ticks using carbon dioxide traps. amblyomma cajennense represented 93.6% of the ticks identified. a. cajennense is distributed from northern argentina to south texas in the tamaulipan biotic province. emergence of larval a. cajennense ticks was observed two to five weeks after significant rain events (p<0.0001) and had a strong negative ...201121635651
prevalence and species composition of ixodid ticks infesting horses in three agroecologies in central oromia, ethiopia.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the species composition and prevalence of ixodid ticks infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central ethiopia. for this purpose, a total of 1,168 horses were examined for tick infestation. an overall prevalence of 39.04% of tick infestation on horses was recorded. a total of 917 adult ticks were collected from infested horses. amblyomma, boophilus, rhipicephalus, and hyalomma genera with the respective prevalence of 3.2%, 1.8%, 29.2% ...201121656133
tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western ghats of total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from november 2008 to march 2010. only two species of snakes, ptyas mucosa (l., 1758) (indian rat snake) and naja naja (l., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. all ticks collected were identified to be amblyomma gervaisi [previously aponomma gervaisi (lucas, 1847) 1. the average prevalence of these ticks on indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abu ...201121661308
distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in select tissues of experimentally infected and field-collected gulf coast ticks.salivary glands, midgut, malpighian tubules, and ovaries were dissected from infected, colony-derived amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast ticks) injected as nymphs with either rickettsia parkeri (a spotted fever group rickettsia [sfgr]; treatment) or phosphate-buffered saline (negative control). for comparison, similar tissues were dissected from hemolymph-positive, field-collected ticks. tissues were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests. all phosphate-buffered saline-injected ticks ...201121661331
efficacy of dry ice-baited traps for sampling amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) varies with life stage but not habitat.the carbon dioxide-baited trap is the most common and effective method for sampling vector life-stage amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae), although confounding environmental variables are rarely considered. a mark-recapture experiment was designed to compare recapture proportions of a. americanum nymphs and adults between two habitat types: old field and oak-hickory forest. powdered fluorescent dye was used to mark a. americanum ticks released in 1-m increments from carbon dioxide-baited ...201121661336
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