ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern brazil.from 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (parque zoobotânico arruda câmara and parque estadual dois irmãos) located in northeastern brazil were identified. ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., parque estadual dois irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. the following tick-host associations were recorded: amblyomma fuscum neumann on boa constrictor l.; amblyo ...201019693679
ticks (acari: ixodidae) within various phytophysiognomies of a cerrado reserve in uberlândia, minas gerais, brazil.cerrado biome, the south american savannah, covers about 2 million km(2) and is very rich in endemic species but threatened by agriculture. in this report free-living tick species are presented, and their seasonal and relative distribution within the various phytophysiognomies in a small cerrado reserve in minas gerais state, brazil. overall 2,694 free-living ticks were found during a 2 years sampling period with co(2) traps and cloth dragging. of these, 73.5% were amblyomma cajennense and 0.6% ...201019693680
alternate pathway of infection with hepatozoon americanum and the epidemiologic importance of predation.the range of american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is expanding from the southern usa northward. transmission of hepatozoon americanum occurs by ingestion of infected gulf coast ticks, amblyomma maculatum. the source of the protozoan for the tick remains undetermined; infected dogs are unusual hosts for the tick.200919709355
development of the immature stages of amblyomma lepidum (acari: ixodidae) under field conditions.according to this study, the effect of seasonality on the development of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma lepidum was highly significant (p< or =0.001). the moulting of larvae was only possible in the rainy season, where means of 76.8 and 73.1% were recorded in the first and the second year, respectively. nymphs, in the same period, achieved 68.8 and 71.8% moult. in winter, only 11.8 and 12.2% of nymphs succeeded to moult in the first and the second year, respectively. males outnumbered females, b ...200919709816
detection of theileria parva antibodies in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of zambia.a serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of theileria parva antibodies in 176 african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of zambia. rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus species, and amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. t. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at mlanga and nanzhila bordering the kafue national parks and in the ...200919733007
efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide containing dinotefuran, pyriproxyfen, and permethrin against amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick) on dogs.amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick) are important disease vectors for both dogs and humans. this article describes two studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new topical spot-on ectoparasiticide containing dinotefuran, permethrin, and pyriproxyfen (vectra 3d, summit vetpharm) against a. maculatum and a. americanum in dogs. dogs were treated on day 0 and infested on days -1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 with approximately 40 ticks each day. live tick coun ...200919742444
isolation and characterization of a novel borrelia group of tick-borne borreliae from imported reptiles and their associated ticks.the members of the genus borrelia are transmitted by arthropods and known to be infectious to vertebrates. here we found isolates and dnas belonging to the borrelia turcica and unknown borrelia species from imported reptiles and their ectoparasites. the borrelia strains were isolated from blood and multiple organs of exotic tortoises, and were experimentally infectious to captive-bred tortoises. these findings suggest that these tortoises may be a candidate as the reservoir host of the borrelia ...201019758349
influence of prescribed burns on the abundance of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in the missouri ozarks.the increasingly widespread use of prescribed burns to manage oak (quercus spp.)-hickory (carya spp.) forests in the missouri ozarks, usa, has considerable potential to alter the abundance of amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae), the lone star tick, an important vector of several emerging pathogens. in particular, responses of important tick hosts, primarily white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), to fire management and the resultant changes in the distribution and abundance of a. ame ...200919769033
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting birds in an atlantic rain forest region of brazil.brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (acari: ixodidae) parazitizing birds. the aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an atlantic rain forest region of brazil. during 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. a total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. in total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of amblyomm ...200919769058
sensitivity of host-seeking nymphal lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae) to immersion in heated nymphal amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) were placed into heated water, and their survival or their torpidity was recorded as a function of exposure time. exposures were determined that either kill the nymphs or affect their mobility. all nymphs died when exposed for a minute or more to a temperature > 51 degrees c. nearly all nymphs remained motionless for a period of time when exposed for 3 min to a temperature > 44 degrees c.200919769061
morphological description of amblyomma brasiliense aragão, 1908 (acari: ixodidae) larvae and nymphs.the immature stages of neotropical ticks are poorly known and in many cases have not been described. tis work presents a morphological description of amblyomma brasiliense larvae (f1) and a redescription of nymphs (f1). a. brasiliense is reported as one of the most aggressive ticks to humans in brazil. immature ticks obtained from a laboratory colony initiated from adult specimens collected in the parque estadual intervales (24 degrees 18 degrees s and 48 degrees 24' w), são paulo, brazil, were ...200919772770
ticks on domestic animals in pernambuco, northeastern brazil.the objective of this article was to discuss some aspects of ticks associated with domestic animals in the state of pernambuco, northeastern brazil, based on a literature review and present new data obtained from recent tick collections carried out in this northeastern brazilian state. from august 2007 to june 2008, 1,405 ticks were collected and five species were identified: amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787), amblyomma ovale koch, 1844, dermacentor nitens neumann, 1897, rhipicephalus (boop ...200919772771
ectoparasite infestation on rural dogs in the municipality of são vicente férrer, pernambuco, northeastern brazil.this article presents the results of a study on ectoparasites infesting rural dogs in pernambuco, northeastern brazil. forty-one dogs from a rural community of pernambuco were examined and 70.7% were infested by ectoparasites. the prevalence rates of infestation by ticks, fleas, and lice were 58.5, 43.9 and 22%, respectively. of 24 dogs parasitized by ticks, 15 were exclusively infested by rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (32 females, 66 males, 9 nymphs; prevalence, 48.8%; mean intensity, 5. ...200919772781
anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis - maine, 2008.anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are rickettsial tickborne diseases that have had at least a twofold increase in prevalence in the united states since 2000. despite similar clinical presentations, the causative organisms are carried by different ticks with distinct geographic and ecologic associations. surveillance efforts are complicated by ambiguous terminology and serologic testing with antibody cross-reactivity. although anaplasmosis historically has been reported in maine, ehrlichiosis has bee ...200919779398
macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression and protein localization in amblyomma americanum (ixodidae).amblyomma americanum (l.) ticks continue to emerge as disease vectors in many areas of the united states. tick macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) was first identified in a. americanum females and has been demonstrated to inhibit macrophage movement to the same extent as human mif. this study was conducted to further characterize and elucidate the physiological role for mif in tick feeding. a relative quantitative pcr assay was developed to determine the level of mif gene expression dur ...201019784782
rickettsia parkeri in amblyomma americanum ticks, tennessee and georgia, determine the geographic distribution of the newly recognized human pathogen rickettsia parkeri, we looked for this organism in ticks from tennessee and georgia, usa. using pcr and sequence analysis, we identified r. parkeri in 2 amblyomma americanum ticks. this rickettsiosis may be underdiagnosed in the eastern united states.200919788817
pathogen prevalence and blood meal identification in amblyomma ticks as a means of reservoir host determination for ehrlichial pathogens. 200919793129
comparative efficacy of bioud to other commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis on cotton cloth.bioud is an arthropod repellent that contains the active ingredient 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato plants. repellency of bioud was compared with five commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks amblyomma americanum (l.) and dermacentor variabilis say in two-choice bioassays on treated versus untreated cotton cheesecloth. overall mean percentage repellency against both species was greatest for and did not differ significantly between bioud (7.75% 2-undecanone) ...200919815887
natural history of ehrlichia chaffeensis: vertebrate hosts and tick vectors from the united states and evidence for endemic transmission in other countries.ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular gram-negative zoonotic bacterium, is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hme). in humans, the disease can range from a mild, non-specific illness with few to no clinical signs to a moderately severe to fatal disease, especially those with compromised immune systems. e. chaffeensis is maintained in a complex cycle involving white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) as a primary reservoir and the lone star tick (lst; amblyomma ame ...201019819631
a redescription of haemogregarina fitzsimonsi dias, 1953 and some comments on haemogregarina parvula dias, 1953 (adeleorina: haemogregarinidae) from southern african tortoises (cryptodira: testudinidae), with new host data and distribution records.blood films were examined from 154 wild and captive tortoises from four provinces of south africa, including gauteng, kwazulu-natal, north west and western cape. the five species ofchelonians studied were chersina angulata (schweigger), kinixys belliana belliana (gray), k. lobatsiana power, k. natalensis hewitt, and stigmochelys pardalis (bell). two species of haemogregarines, previously reported from mozambique, were identified in blood films, namely haemogregarina fitzsimonsi dias, 1953 and ha ...200919827360
analysis of amblyomma surveillance data in the caribbean: lessons for future control programmes.amblyomma variegatum, the tropical bont tick (tbt), is the principal vector of heartwater and is associated with dermatophilosis, major causes of losses in animal production and mortality in caribbean livestock. from 1995 to 2007, the caribbean amblyomma programme (cap) supported treatment and surveillance activities in 11 islands of the eastern caribbean with an initial objective of eradicating tbt. in addition to control activities, surveillance data were collected between 1997 and 2006 in a u ...201019833441
seasonal distribution of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma tigrinum koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae).the seasonality of immature stages of amblyomma tigrinum was studied in an area of the chaco phytogeographical province in córdoba, argentina by monthly collection of larvae from ground feeding birds and sigmodontinae rodents, and nymphs from caviidae rodents from may 2005 to april 2007. an apparent peak of abundance was found from december to may but differences with other months of the year were not significant (p>0.05). these and previous results suggest that the parasitic stages of a. trigri ...200919833442
ovary and oocyte maturation of the tick amblyomma brasiliense aragão, 1908 (acari: ixodidae).this study describes the ovary anatomy and dynamics of oocytes maturation process of amblyomma brasiliense ticks. the ovary is of panoistic type lacking nurse and follicular cells. this organ consists of a single continuous tubular structure comprising a lumen delimited by the ovarian wall. oocytes of this tick species are classified into five stages (i-v) and described based on cytoplasm appearance, presence of germ vesicle, yolk granules aspects, and chorium deposition. oocytes of various size ...201019833523
anti-chemokine activities of ixodid ticks depend on tick species, developmental stage, and duration of feeding.ixodid ticks require comparatively large bloodmeals for their development and survival. blood-feeding elicits signaling events in the host leading to wound healing responses (hemostasis, inflammation, and tissue repair) and immunity. bioactive molecules present in tick saliva sabotage these host responses at several levels. one of them is neutralization of cellular communication by binding of specific saliva molecules to cytokines that have important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. chemok ...201019836889
natural history of ehrlichia ruminantium.ehrlichia ruminantium is an obligately intracellular proteobacterium which causes a disease known as heartwater or cowdriosis in some wild, and all domestic, ruminants. the organism is transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma, and it is of serious economic importance wherever the natural vectors occur, an area which includes all of sub-saharan africa, and several islands in the caribbean. the disease was first recognized in south africa in the 19th century, where its tick-borne nature was det ...201019836892
a new factor xa inhibitor from amblyomma cajennense with a unique domain composition.bioactive compounds of great interest are found in the saliva of hematophagous organisms. while exploring a cdna library derived from the salivary glands of the tick amblyomma cajennense, a transcript that codes for a protein with unique structure (containing an n-terminal kunitz-type domain and a c-terminus with no homology to any annotated sequences) was found. the recombinant mature form of this protein ( approximately 13.5kda) was produced in escherichia coli bl21 (de3), and it was able to i ...201019853573
the distribution of rickettsia in the tissues of insects and the absence of a satisfactory definition of rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and gram-negative. rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: amblyomma americana, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, atomus sp., casinaria infesta, chrysopa oculata, ctenocephalus canis, dermacentor variabilis, lepisma saccharina, lucoppia curviseta, margaropus annulatus, margaropus annulatus australis, ...192319868737
distribution of antibodies reactive to borrelia lonestari and borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) populations in the eastern united states.southern tick-associated rash illness is a lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum). to better understand the prevalence and distribution of borrelia exposure among wtd, we tested wtd from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to b. lo ...200919874183
molecular detection of rickettsia amblyommii in amblyomma americanum parasitizing humans.a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and quantify a portion of the outer membrane protein b gene (ompb) of rickettsia amblyommii was employed to assess the threat of r. amblyommii exposure to humans parasitized by amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick). a total of 72 pools of lone star ticks removed from humans were acquired from two collections and used in this study: 44 pools of a. americanum submitted to the department of defense human tick test kit program in ...201019877809
prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in ticks from tennessee.human ehrlichiosis is the second most common tick-borne disease reported in tennessee after rocky mountain spotted fever. two closely related ehrlichiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, are both causative agents of human disease and are transmitted by amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. prevalence rates and distribution patterns of these pathogens among ticks in tennessee are currently unknown. to understand prevalence and exposure risk of ehrlichia spp., we tested 616 ticks ( ...201019877819
repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.repellence responses of amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of melia azedarach, cymbopogon nardus, spiranthera odoratissima, chenopodium ambrosioides, ageratum conyzoides, mentha pulegium, ruta graveolens, and memora nodosa were studied. among these the extract of c. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. the essential oil of h. ...201019897309
histopathology and ultrastructure features of the midgut of adult females of the tick amblyomma cajennense fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae) in various feeding stages and submitted to three infestations.the digestive tube of the tick amblyomma cajennense is responsible for the digestion during feeding on the host. this study analyzed the midgut of unfed, partially engorged, and fully engorged fed females as well as three infestations in rabbits. in a. cajennense, the digestive tube is long and from the midgut, two pairs of diverticula ramify and lead to a blind end. in some midgut regions were observed for the first time in ticks, structures termed here "nodules." the midgut of unfed females po ...200919929171
ectoparasites (sucking lice, fleas and ticks) of small mammals in southeastern kenya.during 1998-2000, at least 14 species (n = 309) of small mammals were live-trapped and examined for ectoparasites in moist forests of the taita and shimba hills and drier savannah habitats of nguruman, southeastern kenya. ectoparasites were recorded from 11 species of mammals. five species of sucking lice [hoplopleura inexpectans johnson, h. intermedia kellogg & ferris, polyplax reclinata (nitzsch), p. waterstoni bedford and schizophthirus graphiuri ferris], six species of fleas (ctenophthalmus ...200919941604
whartonacarus floridensis sp. nov. (acari: trombiculidae), with a taxonomic review and the first record of whartonacarus chiggers in the continental united states.among several unusual species collected during surveillance of ectoparasites on wildlife hosts in the southeastern united states and caribbean region, the larvae of a new species of whartonacarus were encountered in 2003 on a cattle egret, bubulcus ibis (l.), in the florida keys. this is the first record for a member of whartonacarus in the continental united states. the mite is described and named as whartonacarus floridensis mertins, and the possible significance of this discovery with respect ...200919960669
effects of photoperiod on reproduction, nymphal developmental timing, and diapause in amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).female engorgement weight, oviposition, and molting times of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma maculatum koch (acari: ixodidae) were studied at various photoperiods under constant humidity and temperature in the laboratory. ticks were held at photoperiods of 0:24, 10:14, 12:12, or 14:10 (l:d) h from egg through unfed nymphal stage and then at either the same or a different regime from fed nymphs to adults. no significant effects were observed on oviposition, female engorgement weights, survival, or ...200919960673
influence of photoperiod and temperature on the larval behavioral diapause of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).larval behavioral diapause was shown to be the major factor controlling the 1-yr generation pattern of amblyomma cajennense (f.) (acari: ixodidae) in brazil. during fieldwork, this behavior was shown to coincide with long daylength (>12 h) and high mean ground temperature (approximately =25 degrees c), which prevail during spring-summer in brazil. the current study evaluated biological parameters of engorged females, their eggs, and the resultant larvae inside plastic pots planted with the grass ...200919960674
strains of ehrlichia chaffeensis in southern indiana, kentucky, mississippi, and north carolina.rates of infection of amblyomma americanum (l.) by ehrlichia chaffeensis were compared in 100 ticks collected from sites in each of four states: indiana, north carolina, kentucky, and mississippi. the overall infection rates were similar among sites, ranging from 1 to 4%. because pathogenic differences may exist between e. chaffeensis strains, nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of the variable-length pcr target (vlpt), and sequencing of the amplicons were performed to different ...200919960699
surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae)-infested livestock in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands.surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum (f.) (acari: ixodidae), in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands. small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann); and feral cattle, bos taurus l., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western st. croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested prem ...200919960701
elemol and amyris oil repel the ticks ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in laboratory bioassays.the essential oil from amyris balsamifera (rutaceae) and elemol, a principal constituent of the essential oil of osage orange, maclura pomifera (moraceae) were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, and the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. both bioassays took advantage of the tendency of these host-seeking ticks to climb slender vertical surfaces. in one bioassay, the central porti ...201020016930
identification of protective antigens by rna interference for control of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, vectors pathogens of emerging diseases of humans and animals in the united states. currently, measures are not available for effective control of a. americanum infestations. development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. however, the limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. herein, we report the application of rna i ...201020018267
innovative approach for transcriptomic analysis of obligate intracellular pathogen: selective capture of transcribed sequences of ehrlichia ruminantium.whole genome transcriptomic analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the pathogenesis of obligate intracellular bacteria. however, the major hurdle resides in the low quantity of prokaryotic mrnas extracted from host cells. our model ehrlichia ruminantium (er), the causative agent of heartwater, is transmitted by tick amblyomma variegatum. this bacterium affects wild and domestic ruminants and is present in sub-saharan africa and the caribbean islands. be ...200920034374
possible acquired resistance of dogs successively infested by amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.the present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of immune resistance in dogs successively infested with amblyomma cajennense nymphs. five animals were submitted to four consecutive infestations with a. cajennense nymphs, at fourteen-day intervals. for each infestation, 50 nymphs were used per animal and data on the parasitic and non-parasitic periods were recorded. the average recovering rate of engorged nymphs in the successive infestations were 52.0, 29.2, 9.6 and 12.8%, respectively, with ...200920040189
prevalence of equine piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the state of são paulo, brazil.serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the state of são paulo and tick (acari: ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (cft) and a competitive inhibition elisa (celisa) for babesia caballi and theileria equi. logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for b. caballi or t. equi) as a function of the independent ...200920040201
notes on population dynamics of amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) in brazil.previous population dynamics data, generated for amblyomma parvum aragão and amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) in argentina and southeastern brazil, have indicated that these ticks complete 1 generation per year, with larvae predominating in autumn, nymphs in winter, and mostly adults during spring and summer. the present study reports population dynamics data for free-living amblyomma spp. ticks in northern brazil (amazon forest, latitude 10 degrees s, 63 degrees w), and for amblyomma spp. ticks ...200920050009
dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in europe by migrating birds.migratory birds are known to play a role as long-distance vectors for many microorganisms. to investigate whether this is true of rickettsial agents as well, we characterized tick infestation and gathered ticks from 13,260 migratory passerine birds in sweden. a total of 1127 ixodes spp. ticks were removed from these birds and the extracted dna from 957 of them was available for analyses. the dna was assayed for detection of rickettsia spp. using real-time pcr, followed by dna sequencing for spec ...201020052286
severe ehrlichia infection in pediatric oncology and stem cell transplant patients.ehrlichiosis, a tickborne illness transmitted by tick vectors amblyomma americanum and ixodes scapularis, can be acquired in endemic areas. clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fulminant in nature. we report three cases of ehrlichiosis in pediatric oncology patients, one of whom was a stem cell transplant recipient. early symptoms included fever, malaise, and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. laboratory abnormalities were initially attributed to chemotherapy toxicity. illness was se ...201020052776
biological parameters of ticks (amblyomma cajennense fabricius, 1787) under field and laboratory conditions in pedro leopoldo, state of minas gerais, brazil.this study evaluated the biological parameters of the duration of the pre-oviposition and egg incubation periods and maximum survival of unfed larvae, under field and laboratory conditions, with the aim of providing support for more rational measures for controlling amblyomma cajennense. this study was conducted at the experimental farm of the veterinary school of the federal university of minas gerais. every 14 days, from september 1997 to march 1998 and from october 1998 to april 1999, six net ...200820059808
[seasonal dynamics of amblyomma ticks (acari:ixodidae) in an urban park of londrina city, parana, brazil].ticks are important to public health due to diseases they transmit to animals and humans and, economic losses they cause to livestock production. among other agents, such as babesia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, the rickettsia are the most important pathogens transmitted by ticks in brazil. worldwide there are about 870 tick species described and, of these, 55 species were already reported in brazil, being the genus amblyomma the most numerous with 33 species. the a. cajennense is the principal tick in ...200820059815
[ectoparasites of small wild mammals from the adjacent areas of itapecuru river and environmental preservation area of inhamum, state of maranhão, brazil].during fauna studies, thirty-six wild mammals were collected in adjacent areas of itapecuru river and environmental preservation area of inhamum, state of maranhão, brazil. they were sampled for ectoparasites. the following specimens of the order rodentia and its respective ectoparasites were identified: akodon sp. (androlaelaps sp. and laelaps sp.), oecomys sp. (androlaelaps sp. and amblyomma cajennense), oligoryzomys sp. (androlaelaps sp. laelaps sp. and amblyomma sp.) e oryzomys megacephalus ...200820059819
[seasonal dynamics of the free-living stages of amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum (acari: ixodidae) in an endemic area for spotted fever in coronel pacheco region, minas gerais state].a study on the population behavior of amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum larvae, nymphs and adult free-living stages was carried out in coronel pacheco county, minas gerais state, brazil, a spotted feverendemic area from may 2006 to april 2008. larvae of amblyomma sp. were collected from pasture using the technique of drag sampling with flannelette during may to october 2006, starting from february 2007 to november 2007 and starting from march 2008. well-defined peaks of populations oc ...200820059821
[transfer of exotic ticks (acari: ixodida) on reptiles (reptilia) imported to poland].in the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: testudo, iguana, varanus, gongylophis, python, spalerosophis, psammophis. the material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "animals" ltd from swietochłowice (upper silesia, poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. the reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected wit ...200920066784
ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in a lyme disease endemic area of new jersey.we evaluated the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae). aqueous formulations of 1 and 5% nootkatone applied by backpack sprayer to the forest litter layer completely suppressed i. scapularis nymphs through 2 d. thereafter, the level of reduction gradually declined to < or =50% at 28 d postapplication. against a. americanum nymphs, 1% nootkatone was less effective, but at a 5% con ...200920069863
[ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis].ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are zoonoses caused by bacteria from the family anaplasmataceae, including human and animal pathogens. the human pathogens are ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), anaplasma phagocytophilum, the pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), e. ewingii and neorickettsia sennetsu, granulocytotropic and monocytotropic ehrlichia species, respectively. ehrlichia spp. are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular b ...200920077398
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum in amblyomma flavomaculatum ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from lizard varanus exanthematicus imported to poland.adults and nymphs of amblyomma exornatum, a. flavomaculatum, a. latum, amblyomma spp. and hyalomma aegyptium, were collected from savannah monitors, royal python (africa, ghana) and marginated tortoises (europe, greece) imported to poland, in 2004-2007. altogether 345 ticks were examined by polymerase chain reaction for rickettsial agents. none of the tested ticks was positive for the glta gene of rickettsia spp. dna of 16s rrna gene from anaplasma phagocytophilum was amplified and sequenced fro ...201020084536
hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16s rdna) of amblyomma dubitatum (acari: ixodidae).we supply information about hosts and distribution of amblyomma dubitatum. in addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of a. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other neotropical amblyomma species, using sequences of 16s rdna gene. although specimens of a. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, tapirus terrestris, mazama gouazoubira, tayassu pecari, sus scrofa, cerdocyon thous, myocastor coypus, allouata caraya, glo ...201020084537
ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of china.this paper presents results of an investigation and listing of tick species found in china during a survey in all 28 provinces. this will be a step towards a definitive list of tick species and their distribution. to date, the tick fauna of this area consists of 117 species in the following families: argasidae-argas (7 species), carios (4 species) and ornithodoros (2 species); ixodidae-amblyomma (8 species), anomalohimalaya (2 species), dermacentor (12 species), haemaphysalis (44 species), hyalo ...201020101443
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting wild birds in the eastern amazon, northern brazil, with notes on rickettsial infection in ticks.the aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds in a region of the eastern brazilian amazon and evaluate the rickettsial infection of these ticks. wild birds captured by mist nets were examined for the presence of ticks, which were collected and identified to species by morphology or molecular methods. in addition, part of these ticks was individually tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting portions of the rickettsial genes glta and ompa. among 331 captured birds, repres ...201020140452
performance of a metarhizium anisopliae-treated semiochemical-baited trap in reducing amblyomma variegatum populations in the field.experiments were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of metarhizium anisopliae (metsch.) sorok. (ascomycota: hypocreales)-treated semiochemical-baited traps for control of amblyomma variegatum fabriscius (acari: ixodidae) under field conditions. unfed a. variegatum adults (118) were seeded in each 100-m plot and allowed to acclimatise for 3 days. on the fourth day (day 4), an emulsifiable formulation of m. anisopliae (consisting of 49.5% sterile distilled water, fungal conidia, 49.5% corn oil a ...201020153931
the international trade in reptiles (reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (acari: ixodida) to poland.the problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (acari: ixodida) on reptiles (reptilia) imported to poland is presented. in the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: testudo, iguana, varanus, gongylophis, python, spalerosophis, psammophis. the reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to poland from ghana in africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: varanus exanthematicus and python regius. as a result of t ...201020153933
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
detection of a new arsenophonus-type bacterium in canadian populations of the rocky mountain wood tick, dermacentor andersoni.ticks of the genus dermacentor are important vectors of human and animal pathogens in north america. they also carry a variety of endosymbiotic (i.e. non-pathogenic) bacteria. the american dog tick, d. variabilis, is known to be infected with gammaproteobacteria of the genus arsenophonus. however, there have been no previous reports of arsenophonus-type bacteria in the rocky mountain wood tick, d. andersoni, a species that is sympatric with d. variabilis in the western parts of its distributiona ...201020186465
detection of "candidatus rickettsia sp. strain argentina"and rickettsia bellii in amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) from northern argentina.ixodid ticks were collected from vegetation and from humans, wild and domestic mammals in a rural area in the semi-arid argentine chaco in late spring 2006 to evaluate their potential role as vectors of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae. a total of 233 adult ticks, identified as amblyomma parvum, amblyomma tigrinum and amblyomma pseudoconcolor, was examined for rickettsia spp. we identified an sfg rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "candidatus rickettsia sp. strain argentina", in a. parvum ...201020186466
ectoparasites are the major causes of various types of skin lesions in small ruminants in ethiopia.ectoparasites are the major causes of skin lesions in animals. clinical, skin scraping examination, and histopathological studies were conducted to identify and characterize skin lesions in small ruminants caused by ectoparasites. mange mites, lice, sheep keds, and ticks were collected from the skin of affected animals for species identification. skin biopsies were collected from affected part of the skin and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. of 1,000 sheep and 600 goats ...201020195754
blood meal analysis to identify reservoir hosts for amblyomma americanum ticks.efforts to identify wildlife reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens are frequently limited by poor understanding of tick-host interactions and potentially transient infectivity of hosts under natural conditions. to identify reservoir hosts for lone star tick (amblyomma americanum)-associated pathogens, we used a novel technology. in field-collected ticks, we used pcr to amplify a portion of the 18s rrna gene in remnant blood meal dna. reverse line blot hybridization with host-specific probes was th ...201020202418
isolation of rickettsia parkeri and identification of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia sp. from gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) in the united states.until recently, amblyomma maculatum (the gulf coast tick) had garnered little attention compared to other species of human-biting ticks in the united states. a. maculatum is now recognized as the principal vector of rickettsia parkeri, a pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsia (sfgr) that causes an eschar-associated illness in humans that resembles rocky mountain spotted fever. a novel sfgr, distinct from other recognized rickettsia spp., has also been detected recently in a. maculatum specime ...201020208020
silencing of three amblyomma americanum (l.) insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related proteins prevents ticks from feeding to repletion.the insulin-like growth factor (igf) binding proteins (igfbp) family is the regulatory arm of the igf signaling system that control mitogenic and anabolic actions of igf peptide hormones. this study describes cloning and biological characterization of three amblyomma americanum (l.) (aam) proteins that show amino-terminal sequence and secondary structure similarity to the igfbp superfamily. the three molecules here provisionally identified as aamigfbp-rp1 and short (s) and long (l) aamigfbp-rp6 ...201020228352
african tick-bite fever: a new entity in the differential diagnosis of multiple eschars in travelers. description of five cases imported from south africa to switzerland.african tick-bite fever (atbf) is a newly described spotted fever rickettsiosis that frequently presents with multiple eschars in travelers returning from sub-saharan africa and, to a lesser extent, from the west indies. it is caused by the bite of an infected amblyomma tick, whose hunting habits explain the typical presence of multiple inoculation skin lesions and the occurrence of clustered cases. the etiological agent of atbf is rickettsia africae, an emerging tick-borne pathogenic bacterium. ...201020233665
ectoparasite fauna of rodents and shrews from four habitats in kuala lumpur and the states of selangor and negeri sembilan, malaysia and its public health significance.a total of 204 rodents comprising 14 host species from four different habitats were examined. nine rodent species were trapped from the forest and another five species were trapped from the coastal, rice field and urban habitats. rattus rattus diardii (67%) was the predominant rodent species examined. fifty six (47.3%) rodents and shrews were found to be infested with at least one of the 20 species of ectoparasite recovered. mites belonging to the family trombiculidae were the predominant ectopa ...200920237444
dipping in benzene hexachloride to control ambylomma americanum. 194720240410
[not available]. 194620249314
insecticides to control the european corn borer in field corn. 194720264508
infestation of a raccoon by amblyomma americanum. 194720264533
rite of amblyomma americanum associated with possible tick paralysis. 194720340890
population genetics of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) collected from arkansas.lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum l. (acari: ixodidae),infest multiple hosts such as birds, and mammals of various sizes (rodents to white-tailed deer) and can harbor human pathogens such as borrelia lonestari and ehrlichiosis chaffeensis. the population structure of 251 a. americanum ticks, collected from canines and two white-tailed deer in six arkansas ecoregions, was examined using dna sequences of a 247-bp region of the mitochondrial dna ribosomal rna 16s gene. of the 247 nucleotide cha ...201020380295
bacterial diversity in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) with a focus on members of the genus rickettsia.the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern u.s. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. to better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16s rrna gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (otus) present within colony-reared and wil ...201020380308
repellent activity of deet against amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) nymphs submitted to different laboratory bioassays.this study was developed to evaluate the repellent activity of n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) against amblyomma cajennense nymphs. two repellent bioassays were compared and the effective concentration and repellent time were calculated. the fingertip test was accomplished to evaluate in vivo four concentrations of the compound (0.200; 0.100; 0.050 and 0.025⁻²) and the filter-paper bioassay to evaluate in vitro the two highest concentrations.the compound provided repellence higher tha ...201020385054
rickettsiae in gulf coast ticks, arkansas, determine the cause of spotted fever cases in the southern united states, we screened gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) collected in arkansas for rickettsiae. of the screened ticks, 30% had pcr amplicons consistent with rickettsia parkeri or candidatus rickettsia amblyommii.201020409375
use of geographic information systems to identify areas at risk of introducing amblyomma variegatum and a. hebraeum to italy.tick-borne diseases are one of the most important obstacles to the development of livestock breeding in africa. among these diseases, heartwater is of significant importance, second in rank to east coast fever. heartwater affects wild and domestic ruminants and is caused by a micro-organism belonging to the order rickettsiales, previously called cowdria ruminantium and recently renamed ehrlichia ruminantium. the disease is transmitted solely by ticks. although the aetiology and the clinical sign ...200720422545
rickettsia infection in dogs and rickettsia parkeri in amblyomma tigrinum ticks, cochabamba department, bolivia.only few published data are available on ticks and tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in bolivia. to evaluate rickettsial seroprevalence and infection in dogs and ticks, during february-april 2007, we collected whole blood, sera, and ticks from dogs living in the rural, peri-urban, and urban areas of cochabamba, bolivia. dog sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect igg antibodies against rickettsia rickettsii and 68.2% of samples were found to be positive (n = 30; 95% c ...201020426684
the influence of temperature and humidity on oviposition and hatchability of amblyomma lepidum (dönitz, 1808) (acarina: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.the effect of temperature and humidity on the oviposition and hatchability of ablyomma lepidum was studied. above 90% of adult ticks applied on calves succeeded to attach and feed through 6-13 days. the development process was studied under three levels of temperature: 27, 35 and 40 degrees c, each level with five sets of humidity. temperature rather than humidity affected all developmental parameters. it was found that high temperature of 40 degrees c, even at high humidity 75.5-97.8% significa ...201020434269
exploiting the heterogeneous drop-off rhythm of amblyomma variegatum nymphs to reduce pasture infestation by adult ticks.tick distribution depends on the drop-off rhythm of the previous stage and on the suitability for tick survival of the environment where they are disseminated. studies were implemented in burkina faso to assess detachment pattern of engorged amblyomma variegatum nymphs. experiments were carried out with naturally infested cattle kept in a paddock or monitored when grazing community pasture. in the pasture, 80% of the nymphs detached between 14.00 h and 17.00 h while less than 25% did so in the p ...201020441678
[the characteristics of tick species (acari: ixodida) transferred on exotic reptiles to poland].some natural and unusual transfers of exotic ticks on hosts have been noticed in poland. reptiles together with migratory birds and migrating mammals, are the groups of vertebrates that transfer unknown tick species to the territory of poland. the majority of exotic reptiles brought to poland for breading and commercial purpose are infested by ticks. therefore the systematic list of ticks as well as their geographical distribution in the world, tick-host specificity, characteristic and morpholog ...201020450006
developmental stages and molecular phylogeny of hepatozoon tuatarae, a parasite infecting the new zealand tuatara, sphenodon punctatus and the tick, amblyomma sphenodonti.the developmental stages of hepatozoon tuatarae were elucidated in both the tuatara host, sphenodon punctatus and the tick, amblyomma sphenodonti. pcr amplicons from a. sphenodonti samples identified dna matching h. tuatarae. dissection of tick samples showed oogenesis and sporogony occurring in the haemocoel of a. sphenodonti with the average mature oocyst size being 236 x 228 microm. partial sequence data of the parasite's small subunit ribosomal gene, obtained by pcr, was used for phylogeneti ...201020451526
disrupting the amblyomma americanum (l.) cd147 receptor homolog prevents ticks from feeding to repletion and blocks spontaneous detachment of ticks from their host.the cd147 receptor is a cell-surface glycoprotein in the igg family that plays pivotal roles in intercellular interactions involved with numerous physiological and pathological processes such as extracellular matrix remodeling. we previously found an amblyomma americanum (aam) tick cd147 receptor homolog among genes that were up regulated in response to tick feeding stimuli. this study characterizes an aamcd147 receptor protein that is 72-83% conserved in other tick species and possess character ...201020451606
bacterial pathogens in ixodid ticks from a piedmont county in north carolina: prevalence of rickettsial north carolina, reported human cases of tick-borne illness, specifically rocky mountain spotted fever, have escalated over the past decade. to determine the relative abundance of vectors and to estimate the risk of acquiring a tick-borne illness in peri-residential landscapes, ticks were collected in chatham county, a typical piedmont county and, samples of the ticks were tested for infection with selected bacterial pathogens using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. tick ...201020455778
experimental infection of the opossum didelphis aurita by rickettsia felis, rickettsia bellii, and rickettsia parkeri and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum.this work evaluated the infection of opossums (didelphis aurita) by rickettsia felis, rickettsia bellii, and rickettsia parkeri and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission to amblyomma cajennense and/or amblyomma dubitatum ticks. infection in d. aurita was induced by intraperitoneal inoculation with r. felis (n = 4 opossums), r. bellii (n = 4), and r. parkeri (n = 2). another group of six opossums were inoculated intraperitoneally with leibovitz-15 sterile culture medium, repre ...201020455783
high prevalence of rickettsia gravesii sp. nov. in amblyomma triguttatum collected from feral pigs.a survey of ectoparasites on feral pigs identified two commonly occurring ixodid tick species; amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum and ixodes australiensis. molecular screening of a. t. triguttatum and i. australiensis for the presence of rickettsia species detected the presence of rickettsiae belonging to the spotted fever group (sfg) in 78.4% of screened a. t. triguttatum. none of the screened i. australiensis were positive for rickettsiae. sequence analysis of the glta and ompa loci of positive ...201020488632
host associations of dermacentor, amblyomma, and ixodes (acari: ixodidae) ticks in tennessee.from april 2007 to september 2008, 1,793 adult and nymphal ixodid ticks were collected from 49 counties in tennessee. six species were identified, including dermacentor variabilis (say), amblyomma americanum (l.), ixodes texanus (banks), ixodes cookei packard, ixodes scapularis (say), and amblyomma maculatum koch, from 13 medium- to large-sized mammalian hosts and dragging through vegetation. raccoons were the most common vertebrate source (198 captures), accounting for 60% of ticks collected. d ...201020496589
sdetection of vector-borne agents in lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae), from this study, we evaluated amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) in mississippi for the presence of ehrlichia chaffeensis, causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis; ehrlichia ewingii, causative agent of human and canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis; borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness; francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia; and rickettsia spp., particularly r. amblyommii, a suspected pathogen. we collected adult a. americanum from four region ...201020496596
evasin-3-like anti-chemokine activity in salivary gland extracts of ixodid ticks during blood-feeding: a new target for tick control.ticks exploit many evasion mechanisms to circumvent the immune control of their hosts including subversion of the communication language between cells of the immune system provided by chemokines and other cytokines. one subversive molecule secreted in the saliva of rhipicephalus sanguineus is evasin-3, a structurally unique 7 kda protein that selectively binds the neutrophil chemoattractants, cxcl8 and (with lower affinity) cxcl1. we compared anti-human cxcl8 and anti-mouse cxcl1/kc activities i ...201020500677
potential of medicinal plants in mosquito control.medicinal plants have long history as important components in traditional medicine, and food of humans since ancient egyptians and chinese. naturally occurring botanical compounds contain a broad range of chemical active ingredients can intervene in all biological processes of the mosquito, thus interrupt its life cycle and dispersal and reduce harms to humans and animals. many medicinal plants were tested for their pesticide and repellent potential, as crude material, essential oils or individu ...201020503582
the expression of genes coding for distinct types of glycine-rich proteins varies according to the biology of three metastriate ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, rhipicephalus sanguineus and amblyomma cajennense.ticks secrete a cement cone composed of many salivary proteins, some of which are rich in the amino acid glycine in order to attach to their hosts' skin. glycine-rich proteins (grps) are a large family of heterogeneous proteins that have different functions and features; noteworthy are their adhesive and tensile characteristics. these properties may be essential for successful attachment of the metastriate ticks to the host and the prolonged feeding necessary for engorgement. in this work, we an ...201020529354
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on dogs from uberlândia, minas gerais, brazil.uberlândia in minas gerais state, southeastern brazil, has 622 000 inhabitants and is located in the cerrado biome, the south american savannah. the city dog population is estimated at 82 000 and identification of tick species and infestation prevalence on this host has not been determined. a major infectious disease of dogs in the city, canine ehrlichiosis, is transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. at the same time, autochthonous leishmaniosis has been recently described in the city and ...201020537111
innate immunity in wooless lamb to larvae of amblyomma cajennense tick (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae).the cayenne tick amblyomma cajennense infests preferably horses in its adult form but other mammal species in its immature stages and is the main vector of rickettsia rickettsii, the brazilian spotted fever pathogen. as wooless lambs are often raised on pasture together with horses, an experiment was performed to investigate their possible acquisition of resistance to a. cajennense after experimental infestations. seven naïve wooless lambs were infested thrice at 60 days interval with immature a ...201020537112
localization of antigenic sites in unfed nymphs of amblyomma triste koch 1844 (acari: ixodidae) ticks by immunohistochemistry.the reactivity of sera collected from guinea pigs after three infestations with amblyomma triste nymphs on histological sections of the same tick species was investigated through immunohistochemistry to identify potential target cells and tissues. six guinea pigs were infested thrice, at 30 day intervals, with 30 nymphs of a. triste per animal per infestation. blood samples were collected from the guinea pigs 15 days after each infestation for serum separation; normal serum was obtained before t ...201020537113
ehrlichia ewingii infection and exposure rates in dogs from the southcentral united states.we used pcr and a novel serologic assay to determine infection and exposure rates to ehrlichia ewingii in dogs from an area of northeast oklahoma and northwest arkansas where amblyomma americanum ticks are abundant. of 143 dogs assayed, 13 (9.1%) harbored e. ewingii by pcr and 64 (44.8%) had antibodies to e. ewingii detected using a peptide-based microtiter plate elisa. dogs were more likely (p=0.001) to be positive by pcr if sampled in august (30.8%) but no association was found between seropos ...201020541322
survey of ixodid ticks in domestic ruminants in bedelle district, southwestern ethiopia.a survey aimed at determining the status of ticks in cattle, sheep and goats in bedelle district (southwestern ethiopia) was carried out from november 2007 to april 2008. out of the total 330 animals examined, 314 (95.2%) were found to be infested (harbouring of at least a single tick). high rates of infestations were recorded across all three host species. factors like month of collection, age and sex of host species did not show significant association with infestation rates. a total of 5,507 ...201020563884
a new tick kunitz type inhibitor, amblyomin-x, induces tumor cell death by modulating genes related to the cell cycle and targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system.the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of amblyomin-x, a serine protease kunitz-type inhibitor. amblyomin-x induced tumor mass regression and decreased number of metastatic events in a b16f10 murine melanoma model. alterations on expression of several genes related to cell cycle were observed when two tumor cell lines were treated with amblyomin-x. psmb2, which encodes a proteasome subunit, was differentially expressed, in agreement to inhibition of proteasomal activity in ...201020570593
ultrastructure features of the midgut of the female adult amblyomma cajennense ticks fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae) in several feeding stages and subjected to three infestations.the digestive tract of amblyomma cajennense, as well as other species of ticks, is divided into the anterior, medium and posterior intestines and is the organ responsible for digestion of blood ingested during the meal on the host. the anterior and posterior regions are derived from the ectoderm and the medium one from the endoderm. in the present ultrastructural study, we analyzed the midgut of females in a semi- and fully engorged stages, on the rabbit host, which was subjected to three infest ...201020580564
ticks species (ixodida) in the summit municipal park and adjacent areas, panama city, panama.from september 2007 to september 2009, we studied the species of ticks present in the summit municipal park. ticks were extracted from zoo animals, free-living wild mammals and reptiles trapped, dead mammals on the roads and environment (ground and zoo burrows). a total of 2,649 ticks were collected: 2,167 immature stages (1,345 larvae and 822 nymphs) and 482 adults. seventeen species were identified: ornithodoros puertorricensis (argasidae), amblyomma auricularium, a. cajennense, a. calcaratum, ...201020585838
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