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ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs in japan.the species of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) recovered from domestic dogs in japan between september to november 2000 and april to june 2001 were identified. a total of 4122 ticks, including 1624 larvae, 1200 nymphs, 1016 females and 282 males were removed from 1221 dogs during these periods. haemaphysalis longicornis (neumann) was the most frequently found (40.3% of dogs), followed by h. flava (neumann) (16.1% of dogs), rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (4.8% of dogs) and ixodes ovatus (neu ...200312680923
detection of ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the thai-myanmar border and vietnam.a total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the thai-myanmar border and in vietnam. they were tested by pcr to detect dna of bacteria of the order rickettsiales: three anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in thailand, including (i) anaplasma sp. strain anda465, which was considered a genotype of anaplasma platys (formerly ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from dermacentor aur ...200312682151
ecological analysis of acari recovered from coprolites from archaeological site of northeast brazil.coprolite samples of human and animal origin from the excavations performed at the archaeological site of furna do estrago, at brejo da madre de deus in the state of pernambuco, brazil and sent to the paleoparasitology laboratory at escola nacional de saúde pública-fiocruz, rio de janeiro, were analyzed for mites. after rehydratation and sedimentation of the coprolites, the alimentary contents and the sediments were examined and the mites collected and prepared in definitive whole mounts, using ...200312687780
larval behavioral diapause regulates life cycle of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) in southeast brazil.previous studies have determined that amblyomma cajennense (f.) produces one generation per year in southeastern brazil. larvae predominate from april to july, nymphs from july to october, and adults from october to march. in the current study, we observed engorged females, their eggs, and respective larvae in the field. engorged females were released in grass plots under natural conditions, at monthly intervals, from october 2000 to march 2001. preoviposition periods lasted 1-2 wk, and mean egg ...200312693845
molecular evidence for novel tick-associated spotted fever group rickettsiae from thailand.ticks are of considerable medical and veterinary importance because they directly harm the host through their feeding action and indirectly through vectoring many bacterial pathogens. despite many ticks being known from thailand, very little is known about the bacteria they may harbor. we report here the results of a survey of tick-associated bacteria in thailand. a total of 334 individuals representing 14 species of ticks in five genera were collected from 10 locations in thailand and were exam ...200312693853
repellent efficacy of deet and kbr 3023 against amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae).the bont tick, amblyomma hebraeum koch, is the principal vector of rickettsia africae, the agent of african tick bite fever, in southern africa. in contrast to most other hard ticks, members of the genus amblyomma exhibit a characteristic attack host-seeking behavior. the efficacy of topically applied 20% lotions of deet (diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), the currently considered reference repellent substance, and kbr 3023, a recently developed piperidine compound, was evaluated against laboratory-rea ...200312693855
amblyomma aureolatum (pallas, 1772) and amblyomma ovale koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16s rdna sequences.dna sequences of amblyomma aureolatum (pallas, 1772) and amblyomma ovale koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. seven ticks collections (four from brazil, one from argentina, one from uruguay and one from usa) house a total of 1272 a. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 a. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). the l ...200312719142
exotic ticks introduced into the united states on imported reptiles from 1962 to 2001 and their potential roles in international dissemination of diseases.since 1962, a total of 29 species of exotic ticks have been introduced into the united states on imported reptiles, with 17 species from the genus amblyomma, 11 from the genus aponomma and one from the genus hyalomma. in the absence of measures to control introduction of these importations, some exotic tick species will develop breeding colonies and become established as indigenous species and some tickborne diseases may be introduced to wreak havoc among susceptible native populations. however, ...200312719143
effect of fast protein liquid chromatography fractionated salivary gland extracts from different ixodid tick species on interleukin-8 binding to its cell receptors.interleukin-8 plays a critical role in inflammatory processes. hence generation of molecules with anti-il-8 activity is likely to be important for successful feeding and for survival of the ticks. anti-il-8 activity was studied in saliva of three ixodid tick species--dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794), rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann, 1901, and amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794). the greatest activity was shown in saliva prepared from d. reticulatus. the activity was attributed t ...200312735728
rna interference in ticks: a study using histamine binding protein dsrna in the female tick amblyomma americanum.rna interference (rnai), a gene silencing process, has been recently exploited to determine gene function by degrading specific mrnas in several eukaryotic organisms. we constructed a double stranded rna (dsrna) from a previously cloned putative amblyomma americanum histamine binding protein (hbp) to test the significance of using this methodology in the assessment of the function and importance of gene products in ectoparasitic ticks. the female salivary glands incubated in vitro with hbp dsrna ...200312752664
efficacy of two 65% permethrin spot-on formulations against induced infestations of ctenocephalides felis (insecta: siphonaptera) and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) on beagles.the efficacy of two formulations of a topically applied 65% permethrin spot-on (defend exspot treatment for dogs, schering-plough animal health) was evaluated against experimental infestations of the cat flea ctenocephalides felis and the lone star tick amblyomma americanum in dogs. eighteen dogs were randomly assigned to treatment with 65% permethrin in either diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (dgme; original formulation) or propylene glycol monomethyl ether (pgme) or to be untreated as a cont ...200312756635
quantification of vitellogenesis and its control by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.ovaries of the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum koch, grew rapidly after engorgment as a result of yolk uptake. at 26 degrees c, oviposition began by day 10 post-engorgement, plateaued on days 16-18, and ended by day 38. vitellin (vt) was partially purified from ovaries of day 10 engorged ticks by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. this vt comprises seven major and several minor polypeptides. two polypeptides (211 and 148 kd) from haemolymph of engorged female ticks corresponded to m ...200212770055
the relationship between 'critical weight' and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the female ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.the feeding cycle of adult female ticks (acari: ixodidae) is divided into preparatory, slow and rapid feeding phases. at the transition from slow to rapid feeding, amblyomma hebraeum (koch) females reach a 'critical weight' (cw; approx. 10x the unfed weight) that is characterized by several behavioural and physiological changes. five of these changes were used as criteria to establish a more precise estimate of cw than we have to date. the cw as defined by re-attachment to the host was 9x the un ...200112770177
impact of feeding, molting and relative humidity on cuticular wax deposition and water loss in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.to determine whether there is a correlation between the amount of lipids on the surface of ticks and their permeability to water, we quantified cuticular surface wax and measured water-loss rates in the ixodid tick amblyomma americanum from nonfed nymph to egg-laying female. ticks deposited no extra cuticular lipids during feeding, permitting maximum transpiratory water loss that presumably helps to concentrate the bloodmeal; and ticks deposited additional cuticular wax after apolysis that reduc ...199712770417
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from the masai mara region of kenya.we have identified for the first time rickettsia africae, and the ticks that harbored them, in kenya. a total of 5,325 ticks were collected from vegetation, livestock, and wild animals during two field trips to southwestern kenya. most were immature forms (85.2%) belonging to the genera amblyomma or rhipicephalus. the adults also included representatives from the genus boophilus. ticks were assessed for rickettsial dna by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers for the spotted fever grou ...200312812343
a method for extraction and analysis of high quality genomic dna from ixodid ticks.currently, no published methods describe the extraction of high molecular weight genomic dna from ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) and commonly used methods of extraction are not well adapted for use with members of this family. a method for extraction of minimally degraded genomic dna from ixodid ticks that can be completed in one or two days is described. the method produces dna which is of sufficient size (>24 kb) for use in southern analysis and which is readily digestible by restriction endon ...200312823841
seasonal fluctuation of parasitic infestation in donkeys (equus asinus) in oodi village, kgatleng district, botswana.during the period march to september 2000, a study was conducted in oodi village, kgatleng district, botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. the only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. the most prevalent tick was rhipiceph ...200312836744
endocannabinoids and related fatty acid amides, and their regulation, in the salivary glands of the lone star tick.the salivary glands and saliva from the lone star tick amblyomma americanum (l.) were analyzed for the presence of the two endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, n-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-ag), as well as of the anandamide congener, n-palmitoylethanolamine (pea), an anti-inflammatory and analgesic mediator that is inactive at cannabinoid receptors. two very sensitive mass-spectrometric techniques were used for this purpose. both 2-ag and pea, as ...200312842196
a ten-year study of tick biting in mississippi: implications for human disease transmission.to determine exactly which tick species bit people in mississippi, information was gathered on ticks involved in human biting cases for the ten-year period, january 1, 1990-december 31, 1999. specimens were identified by the author and, in most cases, confirmed by personnel at the institute of arthropodology and parasitology, georgia southern university. a total of 119 ticks were recovered from 73 humans during the study period. seven tick species were represented; most common included the lone ...200212853269
ehrlichiae and ehrlichial diseases in china.the various ticks collected from different areas of china were examined for the existence of ehrlichial agents by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with genus- or species-specific primers designed on the basis of ehrlichial 16s rrna genes and sequence analyses. in southern china, e. chaffeensis was detected in amblyomma testudinarium ticks from infested cattle, haemaphysalis yeni ticks from hare, and ixodes ovatus ticks from muntiacus reevesi. e. canis was identified in rhipicephalus sanguineus ti ...200312860598
rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group rickettsia on three continents.rickettsia honei (also known as strain tt-118) has been detected on three continents. originally isolated in thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on flinders island (australia) in 1993 and in texas (usa) in 1998. on each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. the original isolate (thai tick typhus strain tt-118) was from a pool of larval ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks. later it was detected in i. granulatus from rattus rattus. its pathog ...200312860601
rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia conorii in uruguay.the first three human cases of rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia conorii in montevideo, uruguay were described in 1990. all of them showed an initial papulosquamous lesion on the scalp from a canine tick bite (amblyomma triste). at the same time, fever and regional adenopathies were observed. serological diagnosis was made by the indirect igm immunofluorescent technique on glass smears of r. conorii (biomerieux laboratories, france). all patients had a benign disease course after been treated w ...200312860638
phylogenetic relationships among ehrlichia ruminantium isolates.ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, is a tick-borne pathogen infecting ruminants throughout sub-saharan africa and on some caribbean islands. the most reliable test for e. ruminantium is pcr-based, but this gives positive results in some areas free of clinical heartwater and of the known amblyomma spp. tick vectors. to investigate the molecular basis for this finding we have sequenced and carried out phylogenetic analysis of a range of genes from a number of e. ruminantium ...200312860707
persistence of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa: adeleorina) in a naturally infected dog.to determine the persistence of hepatozoon americanum in a naturally infected dog, skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at approximately 6-mo intervals over a period of 5.5 yr, and the samples were examined for presence of lesions of american canine hepatozoonosis (ach). nymphal amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick) were allowed to feed to repletion on the dog periodically over the 5.5-yr period, and adult ticks were dissected and examined for presence of h. americanum oocysts. with 3 excepti ...200312880267
american canine hepatozoonosis.american canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, hepatozoon americanum. the known definitive host of the protozoan is the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum. presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, canis latrans. laboratory-reared larval or nymphal a. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; spo ...200312885206
american canine hepatozoonosis.hepatozoon americanum infection is an emerging tickborne disease in the southern united states. this organism causes a very different and much more severe disease than does hepatozoon canis, the etiologic agent of canine hepatozoonosis in the rest of the world. h americanum is transmitted through ingestion of the definitive host, amblyomma maculatum (the gulf coast tick). clinical signs of american canine hepatozoonosis tend to wax and wane over time and may include lameness, weakness, pain, mus ...200312910749
selection assisted by a bola-dr/dq haplotype against susceptibility to bovine dermatophilosis.bovine dermatophilosis is a severe skin infection of tropical ruminants inducing a severe loss in productivity and a 15% mortality rate. this disease is caused by the actinomycete bacterium dermatophilus congolensis associated with the tick amblyomma variegatum. currently there are no prospects for a vaccine, and acaricide or antibiotic control is hampered by the development of chemoresistance. animal breeders have observed that dermatophilosis susceptibility seems to be determined genetically, ...200312927091
a survey for spotted fever group rickettsiae and ehrlichiae in amblyomma variegatum from st. kitts and nevis.eighty-nine amblyomma variegatum ticks were collected from the islands of st. kitts and nevis in the caribbean and preserved in 70% ethanol or local rum. after being washed in sterile water, their dna was extracted and analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for dna of spotted fever group rickettsiae and ehrlichiae. none of the tested ticks was positive in a pcr assay using the primers 16s ehrd and 16s ehrr for the 16s rrna gene of ehrlichia spp.. forty-one percent of the a. variegatum (36 ...200312932098
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on wild marsh-deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from southeast brazil: infestations before and after habitat loss.the lake from porto-primavera hydroelectric power station inundated an area of 2,200 km2 at the border of são paulo and mato-grosso do sul states, brazil. infestations by ticks were evaluated on 135 marsh deer, blastocerus dichotomus (illiger), captured before and after inundation. ticks were collected for identification, and infestation level of animals was assessed by scoring. deer were divided into four groups according to capture location and temporal relation to the inundation. groups 1, 2, ...200312943103
african tick bite fever.african tick bite fever is an acute febrile illness that is frequently accompanied by headache, prominent neck muscle myalgia, inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenitis. the disease is caused by rickettsia africae, a recently identified spotted fever group rickettsia, which is transmitted by ungulate ticks of the amblyomma genus in rural sub-saharan africa and the french west indies. whereas reports on african tick bite fever in indigenous populations are scarce, the number of reported cas ...200312954562
detection by two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibodies to ehrlichia ruminantium in field sera collected from sheep and cattle in ghana.two serological tests for detection of antibodies to ehrlichia (previously cowdria) ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, were compared by using field sera collected from sheep and cattle as part of serosurveys in ghana. sera selected as either negative or positive by a new polyclonal competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pc-elisa) were tested by the indirect map1-b elisa. cutoff values of 14 percent positivity (14 pp) for both ruminant species were obtained for the map1-b eli ...200312965927
climate change decreases habitat suitability for some tick species (acari: ixodidae) in south africa.models predicting current habitat availability for four prominent tick species in africa (boophilus decoloratus, amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and hyalomma truncatum) were constructed using remotely sensed information about abiotic variables and a point-to-point similarity metric. year-to-year variations in the forecasted habitat suitability over the period 1983-2000 show a clear decrease in habitat availability, which is attributed primarily to increasing temperature in the r ...200312967169
ixodid ticks of angora and boer goats, grysbok, common duikers, kudus and scrub hares in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province, south africa.at monthly intervals from february 1983 to january 1984 two angora goats, two boer goats, one grysbok, raphicerus melanotis, one common duiker, sylvicapra grimmia, one greater kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, and four scrub hares, lepus saxatilis, were killed on a farm in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province, south africa and examined for ticks. seven ixodid tick species were collected, of which rhipicephalus glabroscutatum followed by amblyomma hebraeum and rhipicephalus oculatus were th ...200312967172
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xli. arthropod parasites of impalas, aepyceros melampus, in the kruger national park.ectoparasites were collected from impalas, aepyceros melampus, at four localities within the kruger national park, namely skukuza, in the biyamiti region, crocodile bridge and pafuri. animals were also examined at skukuza during a severe drought and at skukuza and pafuri towards the end of a second drought. parasite burdens were analysed in relation to locality, sex, age class, month and drought. the impalas were infested with 13 ixodid ticks species, including two that were identified only to g ...200312967174
[notes on ticks. ii. a new species of the genus amblyomma and a new species of the genus ixodes (acari: ixodidae)]. 195213012856
notes on the ticks of guam with the description of amblyomma squamosum n. sp. (acarina: ixodidae). 195313053309
natural infection of the tick, amblyomma cajennense, with rickettsia rickettsii in panama. 195313065638
[key to african amblyomma]. 195313080826
natural occurrence of tularemia in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanus (linn.), and in dogs in arkansas. 195413138839
a further case of gynandromorphism, observed on an amblyomma variegatum govurensis t. dias, 1950. 195313171567
[various ixodes of the amblyomma marmoreum group in the collection of the museum of hamburg]. 195513314098
[study of amblyomma extraoculatum (neotropical species) based on the examination of the holotype]. 195513327254
[amblyomma, hyalomma, boophilus, rhipicephalus of africa are carriers of rickettsial & neorickettsial elements & occasionally of the two types of agents]. 195713489443
amblyomma imitator, a new species of tick from texas and mexico, and remarks on the synonymy of a. cajennense (fabricius) (acarina-ixodidae). 195813564359
[apropos of amblyomma laticaudae warburton, 1933 (acarien ixodoidea) in new caledonia]. 196013739123
the possible role of ticks as vectors of leptospire. ii. infection of the ixodid ticks, dermacentor andersoni and amblyomma maculatum, with leptospira pomona. 195913806052
[rectification of diagnosis: amblyomma tigrinum koch in place of amblyomma maculatum koch]. 195913836584
[studies on the transmission of toxoplasma gondii. ii. note on the experimental transmission by the tick amblyomma cajennense]. 195813848246
[ixodological notes. ix. the oval complex of the genus amblyomma]. 196113861961
kohls gm: description of the female of dermacentor latus cooley and of amblyomma albopictum neumann (acarina-ixodidae). 196213879941
a fine-structure study on spermiogenesis in the tick amblyomma dissimill, with special reference to the development of motile processes. 196213973642
spermiogenesis in the tick, amblyomma dissimili, as revealed by electron microscopy. 196313973643
[observations on the morphology, biology and development of amblyomma compressum (macalister, 1872), the pangolin tick of west africa]. 196314011156
the laboratory rearing of amblyomma sparsum neumann, 1899. 196414124281
ticks (ixodidae) on migrating birds in egypt, spring and fall 1962.over a number of years studies have been carried out in egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. in continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. the 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the pre ...196414163959
[a new species of amblyomma, parasite of madagascan tortoises: a. chabaudi n. sp. (acariens ixodidae)]. 196414250518
allergy in a horse due to amblyomma americanum. 196514296518
the bont tick (amblyomma hebraeum), exotic vector of heartwater found in the united states. 196514323370
the fine structure of spermatids from the tick, amblyomma dissimili. 196114491069
american canine hepatozoonosis.american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central united states. characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ach is very debilitating and often fatal. dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ach is caused by the apicomplexan hepatozoon a ...200314557294
the argasidae, ixodidae and nuttalliellidae (acari: ixodida): a world list of valid tick names.the world's argasid tick fauna comprises 183 species in four genera, namely argas, carios, ornithodoros and otobius in the family argasidae. the ixodid tick fauna consists of 241 species in the genus ixodes and 442 species in the genera amblyomma, anomalohimalaya, bothriocroton, cosmiomma, dermacentor, haemaphysalis, hyalomma, margaropus, nosomma, rhipicentor and rhipicephalus in the family ixodidae, with the genus boophilus becoming a subgenus of the genus rhipicephalus. the family nuttallielli ...200214570115
a proteomics approach to characterizing tick salivary secretions.the saliva of ticks contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules including proteins that modulate host responses ensuring successful feeding. the limited amount of saliva that can be obtained from ticks has hampered characterization of salivary proteins using traditional protein chemistry. recent improvements in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics provide new tools to characterize small amounts of protein. these methods were employed to characterize sa ...200214570118
an inhibitor of thrombin-stimulated blood platelet aggregation from the salivary glands of the hard tick amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae).the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum can cause intense skin irritation and inflammation and bites that often develop into septic wounds or abscess in their host. crude salivary gland extract (sge) of partially engorged a. variegatum females as well as sge protein fractions purified by three-step reverse phase hplc procedure were tested for their anti-aggregatory effect on isolated human blood platelets stimulated with thrombin and compared with the effect of recombinant hirudin. at conce ...200214570120
how specific are host-produced kairomones to host-seeking ixodid ticks?ixodid ticks respond to host-produced substances (kairomones) that influence the ticks' host-finding behavior. in the laboratory adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum l., and american dog ticks, dermacentor variabilis (say) became akinetic on residues rubbed from their principal hosts (deer for the former two species and dogs for the latter). however, arrestment also occurred when adults of these species were tested using the same method bioassay, ...200214570126
immunogenicity of ehrlichia ruminantium grown in tick cell lines.ehrlichia (previously cowdria) ruminantium, the pathogen which causes heart-water in domestic and wild ruminants, can now be propagated in cell lines from one vector (amblyomma variegatum) and five non-vector (ixodes scapularis, i. ricinus, boophilus decoloratus, b. microplus and rhipicephalus appendiculatus) tick species. e. ruminantium isolates from west and south africa and the caribbean vary in their cell line preference, growth patterns and immunogenic capability. in laboratory trials, cert ...200214570129
progress towards the eradication of amblyomma variegatum from the caribbean.progress in the caribbean amblyomma program (cap) is reviewed since its inception in 1995 when regional eradication activities for amblyomma variegatum ticks were initiated using bayticol pour-on. technical achievements in the various islands were slow initially, and showed a wide diversity in attaining eradication targets. st. kitts, considered as a model program. eliminated the tropical bont tick (tbt) from most of the island in less than 3 years. however, the elimination of very low numbers o ...200214570141
control of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum through use of the '4-poster' treatment device on deer in maryland.deer self-treatment devices ('4-posters') were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing populations of blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, and lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum. at each of three locations in maryland, 25 '4-posters' were operated in study areas of approximately 5.18 km2. populations of host-seeking ticks were monitored by flagging of treated areas and similar untreated control areas without '4-posters.' from 1998 to 2002 the percent mortalities achieved were 69, 75.8 and 8 ...200214570143
attraction of amblyomma variegatum (ticks) to the attraction-aggregation-attachment-pheromone with or without carbon dioxide.the responses of adult amblyomma variegatum ticks released from various distances to different doses of the synthetic attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone (aaap) (made up of orthonitrophenol, methyl salicylate and nonanoic acid in paraffin oil), dispensed from the center of circular field plots, were studied in the presence or absence of elevated levels of co2. up to 90% of the ticks released were attracted to the pheromone source in the presence of co2 within 3h. co2 alone was unattracti ...200314580064
hosts and distribution of amblyomma auricularium (conil 1878) and amblyomma pseudoconcolor aragão, 1908 (acari: ixodidae).collections of amblyomma auricularium (conil 1878) and a. pseudoconcolor aragão, 1908 are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. three tick collections (two from argentina and a third from the usa) house a total of 574 a. auricularium (307 males, 162 females, 73 nymphs and 32 larvae) and 179 a. pseudoconcolor (96 males, 74 females, 4 nymphs and 5 larvae). apart from an adult a. pseudoconcolor found on a bird, nothura maculosa temminck, 1815, all ticks were found on mammals. the great m ...200314580065
experimental infection of lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), with rickettsia parkeri and exposure of guinea pigs to the agent.the maculatum agent, rickettsia parkeri (a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae), was inoculated into a colony of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, and followed for two tick generations. in addition, guinea pigs were exposed to the agent by direct injection and by feeding infected ticks on them. eighty (53%) of 150 nymphal a. americanum that were inoculated with suspensions of r. parkeri were positive by hemolymph test and fluorescent antibody test for rickettsial infection when ...200314596284
a cautionary note: survival of nymphs of two species of ticks (acari: ixodidae) among clothes laundered in an automatic washer.host-seeking ticks often remain on clothing of persons returning home from work or recreation in tick habitats, and can pose at least a temporary risk to people and pets in these homes. laundering clothing has been one of the recommendations to reduce tick exposure. host-seeking lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), and blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, nymphs confined in polyester mesh packets, were included with laundry in cold, warm, and hot wash cycles of an automatic clothes was ...200314596290
ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) parasitising humans in uruguay.during routine collections between november 1999 and november 2002, three species of tick (amblyomma tigrinum, amblyomma triste and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were found on humans in southern uruguay. the finding of r. sanguineus and a. triste on humans is of particular concern because these tick species may be involved in the transmission of the pathogens causing human rickettsioses, a type of disease already known to occur in uruguay.200314613636
comparing the detection of exposure to ehrlichia ruminantium infection on a heartwater-endemic farm by the pcs20 polymerase chain reaction assay and an indirect map1-b enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.detection of heartwater is not always easy especially because all the serological assays so far available either have poor sensitivity or specificity. the indirect map-1b elisa has been reported to be the most specific test for heartwater, although it does also detect antibodies to some closely related ehrlichial agents. this study was undertaken to compare two methods for the detection of heartwater infection caused by the ehrlichial agent ehrlichia (cowdria) ruminantium. fifteen cattle on a he ...200314621319
acquired resistance of horses to amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) ticks.acquired immunity of horses to larvae, nymphs and adults of the amblyomma cajennense tick was evaluated through three consecutive experimental infestations of tick-bite naïve hosts. data from these infestations were compared to those from field-sensitized horses and donkeys. it was observed that tick-bite naïve horses developed a low level of resistance after two infestations as shown by a significant decrease in larval yield and a tendency for lower engorged weight of nymphs during third infest ...200314637029
in vitro assays for repellents and deterrents for ticks: differing effects of products when tested with attractant or arrestment stimuli.most in vivo and in vitro tests with repellents or deterrents against ticks have not considered which sensory channel is being targeted. we have recorded the responses of two hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) in vitro to determine if such products can disrupt the perception of an attractant in a repellent assay or the perception of an arrestment stimulus in a deterrent assay. ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (ebaap), n,n-diethyl-methyl-benzamide (deet), permethrin and indalone were chosen to t ...200314651650
seasonal dynamics of the cayenne tick, amblyomma cajennense on horses in brazil.the population dynamics of all stages of the cayenne tick, amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) (acari: ixodidae) on horses was evaluated over a period of 2 years in the district of pedro leopoldo, state of minas gerais, brazil. every 14 days, the left side of 20 horses was brushed for collection of immature stages; counts of adults were also undertaken. infestation by larvae was detected from april to august, whereas nymphs were observed from june to october. infestation by adults was detected thro ...200314651655
evidence of borrelia lonestari dna in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) removed from humans.we used a nested pcr with borrelia flagellin gene (flab) primers and dna sequencing to determine if borrelia lonestari was present in amblyomma americanum ticks removed from military personnel and sent to the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine. in our preliminary investigation, we detected borrelia sequences in 19 of 510 a. americanum adults and nymphs from ft. a. p. hill, va. during the 2001 tick season, the flab primers were used ...200314662940
meteorologically mediated diurnal questing of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.questing ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) nymphs were collected in the field by drag sampling to determine whether ticks would be collected in greater numbers during certain times of the day and under certain ambient meteorological conditions. ticks were collected hourly for 16 h on 4 d and counts were contrasted with simultaneous measurements of ambient temperature and relative humidity, and with similar measurements made within the leaf litter. peak numbers of questing i. sc ...200314680102
transstadial transfer of west nile virus by three species of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae).larvae and/or nymphs of four species of ixodid ticks, ixodes scapularis say, amblyomma americanum (l.), dermacentor andersoni stiles, and dermacentor variabilis say, were fed to completion on laboratory hamsters or mice which had been inoculated with a west nile (wn) virus isolate from culex pipiens l. captured in connecticut usa. maximum titers in mice and hamsters were approximately 5 and two logs, respectively, lower than recorded (10 logs) in a naturally infected american crow, corvus brachy ...200314680122
dna evidence of borrelia lonestari in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in southeast missouri.amblyomma americanum collected near lake wappapello, missouri, tested positive for borrelia lonestari using polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses of b. lonestari 16s rrna and flagellin (flab) genes. twelve pools containing a total of 214 nymph or adult ticks contained evidence of infection with b. lonestari (minimum prevalence 5.6%). these data suggest that persons in southeast missouri are at risk for exposure to b. lonestari after a. americanum tick bite, a possible cause of erythema ...200314680133
two novel non-cationic defensin-like antimicrobial peptides from haemolymph of the female tick, amblyomma hebraeum.two non-cationic defensin-like antimicrobial peptides, named amblyomma defensin peptide 1 and amblyomma defensin peptide 2, were identified from the hard tick, amblyomma hebraeum, by a combination of suppression subtractive hybridization for differentially expressed genes and proteomics. cdna clones encoding each of these two defensin-like antimicrobial peptides were isolated from the differentially expressed cdna library of the tick synganglia (central nervous system). the preproproteins deduce ...200414705963
survey of ticks collected in mississippi for rickettsia, ehrlichia, and borrelia species.from november 1999 through october 2000, we tested ticks collected from vegetation as well as from deer, dogs, and humans for spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and borrelia spp. spirochetes. a total of 149 adult ticks representing four species was collected from 11 collection sites from southwestern to northern mississippi. amblyomma americanum was most commonly collected (n=68), followed by ixodes scapularis (n=53). the bird tick, ixodes brunneus (usually rare), was ...200314714667
rickettsia species infecting amblyomma cooperi ticks from an area in the state of são paulo, brazil, where brazilian spotted fever is endemic.owing to the potential role of the tick amblyomma cooperi in the enzootic cycle of rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of brazilian spotted fever (bsf), this study evaluated infection by rickettsia species in a. cooperi ticks collected from an area in brazil where bsf is endemic. among a total of 40 a. cooperi adult ticks collected in an area of bsf endemicity in the state of são paulo, pcr analysis detected dna of rickettsia bellii in 16 ticks (40%), and 3 other ticks (7.5%) were positiv ...200414715737
evaluation of a prototype ehrlichia chaffeensis surveillance system using white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) as natural sentinels.the natural history of ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, includes the lone star tick (lst, amblyomma americanum) as a vector and white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) as both a natural reservoir of e. chaffeensis and a major host of lst. the goal of the current study was to implement and evaluate a prototype surveillance system to delineate the geographic distribution of e. chaffeensis using wtd as natural sentinels. to accomplish this goa ...200314733672
life cycle and host specificity of amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.we report biological data of two generations of amblyomma triste in laboratory and compared the suitability of different host species. infestations by larval and nymphal stages were performed on guinea pigs (cavia porcellus), chickens (gallus gallus), rats (rattus norvegicus), rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus), wild mice (calomys callosus), dogs (canis familiaris) and capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). infestations by adult ticks were performed on dogs, capybaras and rabbits. tick developmenta ...200314756395
evaluation of transovarial transmission and transmissibility of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).it has long been assumed that ehrlichia chaffeensis (anderson, dawson & wilson), is not transmitted transovarially in the lone star tick vector amblyomma americanum (l.). to test this hypothesis, three beagle dogs, canis familiaris (l.) (carnivora: canidae), were subcutaneously infected with e. chaffeensis (arkansas strain). uninfected nymphal lone star ticks were placed on the infected dogs and allowed to feed to repletion. these nymphal ticks were allowed to molt, and five of five adult female ...200314765684
[contribution to the study of the teratology of ixodids; 2 monsters obtained spontaneously in a strain of amblyomma nuttalli dönitz 1909]. 194914771470
tick paralysis; implicating amblyomma maculatum. 195114806800
[a note on the amblyomma astrion dönitz 1909]. 195114894811
[mexican amblyomma castanedai n. sp. (ixodidae)]. 195214957782
modulation of human lymphocyte proliferation by salivary gland extracts of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae): effect of feeding stage and sex.ixodid ticks remain attached to their hosts for several days to weeks. during this extended feeding process new proteins involved in the modulation of host immune responses are expressed in tick salivary glands. in our study a stimulatory or inhibitory effect of salivary gland extracts (sge) of unfed and partially fed female ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758), female and male amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794) and rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann, 1901 ticks on human lymphocyte proliferatio ...200314971600
amblyomma aureolatum and ixodes auritulus (acari: ixodidae) on birds in southern brazil, with notes on their ecology.between january 1999 and december 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the reinhard maack park, curitiba, state of paraná, southern brazil. a total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with amblyomma aureolatum (pallas 1772) (n=699) and/or ixodes auritulus neumann, 1904 (n=18) ticks. questing a. aureolatum nymphs (n=2) and adults (n=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. none of the i. auritulus were collected off-host. we collect ...200314974693
rickettsia parkeri: a newly recognized cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the united states.ticks, including many that bite humans, are hosts to several obligate intracellular bacteria in the spotted fever group (sfg) of the genus rickettsia. only rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of rocky mountain spotted fever, has been definitively associated with disease in humans in the united states. herein we describe disease in a human caused by rickettsia parkeri, an sfg rickettsia first identified >60 years ago in gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) collected from the southern united states ...200414999622
first culture isolation of borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness.southern tick-associated rash illness (stari) is a lyme disease-like infection described in patients in the southeastern and south-central united states, where classic lyme disease is relatively rare. stari develops following the bite of a lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) and is thought to be caused by infection with an "uncultivable" spirochete tentatively named borrelia lonestari. in this study, wild lone star ticks collected from an area where b. lonestari is endemic were cocultured in a ...200415004069
how much pilocarpine contaminates pilocarpine-induced tick saliva?pilocarpine is often applied or injected into ticks to induce salivation, and the resulting saliva used to test for various pharmacological, biochemical and immunological activities. to measure the amount of pilocarpine in pilocarpine-induced tick saliva, an hplc-ms/ms method, based on capillary strong cation exchange chromatography online with an ion trap mass spectrometer, was used to measure pilocarpine in the pg to ng range. results indicate large concentrations of pilocarpine in ixodes scap ...200415009442
amblyomma americanum salivary glands: double-stranded rna-mediated gene silencing of synaptobrevin homologue and inhibition of pge2 stimulated protein secretion.protein secretion into the saliva from the tick salivary glands is due to exocytosis of vesicular membrane bound granular material regulated by snare complex proteins after salivary gland stimulation by pge2 [insect biochem. mol. biol. 32 (2002) 1711]. proteins associated with vesicles (v-snares) are essential components of the exocytotic process. synaptobrevin is a key v-snare in all secreting cells studied to date. a vesicle-associated synaptobrevin cdna fragment homologue from the salivary gl ...200415041024
ehrlichia ruminantium grows in cell lines from four ixodid tick genera.continuous cell lines from the ticks amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, boophilus microplus, hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, ixodes scapularis, ixodes ricinus and rhipicephalus appendiculatus were tested for ability to support growth of the rickettsial pathogen ehrlichia (previously cowdria) ruminantium. five e.ruminantium isolates, from west africa, south africa and the french west indies, were used. twelve tick cell lines were inoculated with e.ruminantium derived either from culture ...200415053931
occurrence of the gulf coast tick (acari: ixodidae) on wild and domestic mammals in north-central oklahoma.parasitic life stages of amblyomma maculatum koch were collected from domestic cattle and several species of wild mammals during a 3.5-yr study (may 1998-october 2001) in north-central oklahoma. adult ticks were the predominant life stage collected from cattle, white-tailed deer, coyotes, and raccoons, whereas only immature ticks were collected from cotton rats and white-footed mice. the prevalence of adult a. maculatum on white-tailed deer (n = 15) examined in june, july, and august 1998 was 80 ...200415061275
comparative activity of deet and ai3-37220 repellents against the ticks ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in laboratory bioassays.the repellents n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and racemic 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (ai3-37220) were evaluated using two different laboratory bioassays to determine their relative effectiveness against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, and the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.). in a petri dish bioassay, ticks were released within a ring of repellent on a horizontal filter paper disk. in the second bioassay, ticks were allowed ...200415061285
two feeding-induced proteins from the male gonad trigger engorgement of the female tick amblyomma hebraeum.most female ixodid ticks, once mated, feed to repletion within 6-10 days. previous studies indicate that an engorgement factor (ef), passed to the female during copulation, may be the stimulus for engorgement. here, we show that extracts of the testis/vas deferens of fed (but not unfed) male amblyomma hebraeum contain ef bioactivity when injected into the hemocoel of feeding virgins. we have produced recombinant proteins (recproteins) from 28 feeding-induced genes in the male gonad and have iden ...200415069191
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