TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
a case of gynandromorphism in amblyomma oblongoguttatum (acari: ixodidae).during a survey conducted from august to november 1998 to ticks associated with dogs in the rural area of uruará, in the state of para, eastern amazon region of brazil, we collected one gynandromorph specimen out of 18 amblyomma oblongoguttatum koch specimens collected from dogs. it is a perfect bipartite gynandromorph, reported in this species for the first time.200011004795
diversity of ectoparasites in sheep flocks in são paulo, brazil.the occurrence of ectoparasites in sheep flocks is frequently reported but seldom quantified. sheep production used to be a predominantly family activity in the state of são paulo (brazil), but it began to become a commercial activity in the past decade. thus, information about the ectoparasites existing in sheep flocks has become necessary. the present data were obtained by means of questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to the 'associação paulista de criadores de ovinos' (aspaco; ...200011020945
analysis of the expressed genome of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) using an expressed sequence tag expressed sequence tag (est) approach was used to study the genome of two developmental stages of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. cdna libraries were constructed from the larval and adult stages of a. americanum. in total, 1942 ests were sequenced (1462 adult ests and 480 larval ests) and analyzed using bioinformatic programs. contig assembly using the capii program revealed 11% and 15% redundancy of sequences in the larval and adult ests, respectively. of the 1942 ests, 1738 sequen ...200011087176
detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis dna in amblyomma americanum ticks in connecticut and rhode island.ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, is transmitted by amblyomma americanum ticks, which are most abundant in the southern united states. because serologic evidence suggests that residents of connecticut are exposed to e. chaffeensis, a. americanum ticks were collected in connecticut and rhode island for pcr analysis to detect e. chaffeensis dna. eight of 106 (7.6%) a. americanum ticks from connecticut and 6 of 52 (11.5%) from rhode island contained e. chaf ...200011101616
chemical composition of lipophylic compounds from the body surface of unfed adult ixodes persulcatus ticks (acari: ixodidae).chemical compositions of ethereal extracts of the body surface of unfed male and female ixodes persulcatus ticks (acari: ixodidae) were studied by gas chromatography using mass-spectrometric detection. more than 100 different organic compounds were detected. the predominant components were saturated fatty hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, aldehydes, squalene, cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives. a number of compounds found in i. persulcatus are known as components of phero ...200011108395
what's eating you? amblyomma ticks (amblyomma americanum). 200011109142
does geographic range affect the attractant-aggregation-attachment pheromone of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum?the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum, transmits heartwater in sub-saharan africa and in the caribbean. this species has a broad geographic distribution, ranging from madagascar and other islands in the indian ocean through most of sub-saharan africa, to several islands in the eastern caribbean sea. blood fed male a. variegatum secrete an attraction-aggregation-attachment (aaa) pheromone which, combined with co2, excites host finding and formation of feeding clusters of these ticks. howev ...200011110239
detection of the agent of heartwater, cowdria ruminantium, in amblyomma ticks by pcr: validation and application of the assay to field ticks.we have previously reported that the pcs20 pcr detection assay for cowdria ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater disease of ruminants, is more sensitive than xenodiagnosis and the pcs20 dna probe for the detection of infection in the vector amblyomma ticks. here, we further assessed the reliability of the pcr assay and applied it to field ticks. the assay detected dna of 37 isolates of c. ruminantium originating from sites throughout the distribution of heartwater and had a specificity ...200010747140
tick infestations of birds in coastal georgia and alabama.mist-netted birds were examined for ticks on jekyll island, glynn co., georgia (32 bird species) in 1996-1998, and at fort morgan, baldwin co., alabama (36 species) in 1998 during fall migration. sixty-two (14.7%) of 423 birds from jekyll island and 22 (13.3%) of 165 birds from fort morgan were infested with ticks. the mean number of ticks per infested bird was 2.0 on jekyll island and 6.3 at fort morgan. ten species of birds were infested with ticks on jekyl1 island where 87% of all ticks were ...200010780541
short report: study on the efficacy of a new long-acting formulation of n, n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) for the prevention of tick attachment.the beneficial effects of n, n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) against biting insects of human and animals appear to last <6 hr after a single application to the skin. to prolong the repellent effects of deet, recently we developed a new long-acting formulation of deet called lipodeet. this preparation was retained in the skin for a longer duration of time with minimal systemic absorption. in this study, we have evaluated the protective effect of three compounds (deet, lipodeet, and morpel 220) again ...200010813468
competence of the african tortoise tick, amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae), as a vector of the agent of heartwater (cowdria ruminantium).the ability of the african tortoise tick, amblyomma marmoreum, to acquire and transmit cowdria ruminantium infection was investigated experimentally with transmission trials and with a c. ruminantium-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection assay. laboratory-reared a. marmoreum larvae and nymphs were fed on small ruminants with clinical heartwater. after molting, the resultant nymphs were fed on cowdria ruminantium-naive sheep (n = 3), and the adults were ground and inoculated intraven ...200010864237
isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from dermacentor andersoni salivary gland.a 36-kda immunosuppressant protein (da-p36) was isolated from salivary glands of feeding female ixodid ticks dermacentor andersoni, using its affinity for ultralink biosupport medium (pierce, rockford, illinois)/protein complexes. using a nested set of forward degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to da-p36 n-terminal amino acids, a cdna encoding the immunosuppressant protein was isolated by 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends. the resulting 772-base pair cdna encodes a novel protein ...200010864249
identification of ehrlichia chaffeensis by nested pcr in ticks from southern china.a total of 717 ticks collected from southern china were examined by nested pcr for the presence of ehrlichia chaffeensis. sixteen (55. 2%) of 29 adult amblyomma testudinarium ticks and 28 (11.7%) of 240 adult and at least 4.2% of 215 nymphal (pooled specimens) haemaphysalis yeni ticks tested positive. four other species of ticks were negative. selected positive amplicons were confirmed by dna sequencing.200010878087
naturally occurring and experimentally transmitted hepatozoon americanum in coyotes from oklahoma.twenty free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in oklahoma (usa) were examined for the presence of naturally occurring infections with hepatozoon americanum and to determine if bone lesions attributable to h. americanum were present. although eight of the 20 free-ranging coyotes were found to be naturally infected with h. americanum, no bone lesions were detected. in addition, two coyote pups were exposed to h. americanum oocysts collected from experimentally infected ticks and the course of the re ...200010682757
comparison of efficacy of american and african amblyomma ticks as vectors of heartwater (cowdria ruminantium) infection by molecular analyses and transmission trials.the ability of amblyomma americanum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma maculatum, and amblyomma variegatum to acquire and transmit cowdria ruminantium infection was investigated. uninfected nymphs were fed on clinically reacting c. ruminantium-infected sheep and then analyzed for infection by specific dna detection assays and by tick transmission trials. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the mean infection prevalence of a. maculatum ticks (50.7%) was similar to that of a. variegatum, elevage str ...200010701562
prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from the georgia coast and barrier islands.human monocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging zoonosis caused by infection with ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson, jones & wilson, which is transmitted to mammals by ixodid ticks. prevalence of infected ticks and distribution of infection foci indicate relative risk of human exposure to ehrlichiosis and may be influenced by factors such as geographic isolation, human disturbance, and the availability of suitable mammalian reservoir hosts. to test, this, individual and pooled lone star ticks, ...200010730500
new and earlier records of ticks (acari: ixodidae, argasidae) from guinea-bissau.ticks were collected from pastures and domestic and wild vertebrates during the rainy seasons of 1994 and 1996 in guinea-bissau. we collected the following species: from pastures rhipicephalus lunulatus neumann, r. muhsamae morel & vassiliades, r. senegalensis koch, and r. sulcatus neumann; from reptiles amblyomma nuttalli dönitz and aponomma flavomaculatum (lucas); and from mammals amblyomma paulopunctatum neumann, amblyomma splendidum giebel, amblyomma variegatum (f.), hyalomma truncatum koch, ...200011126561
first record of amblyomma auricularium (acari: ixodidae) in the united states.amblyomma auricularium (conil) was collected from an armadillo in glades county, fl. two females and 11 males were collected. this is the first record of this species in the united states.200011126562
ticks (acari: ixodidae) associated with wild animals in the pantanal region of brazil.this paper describes the identification of ticks from wild animals of the pantanal region in brazil as part of a comprehensive study about established and emerging tick-host relationships and related pathological aspects. eighty-one animals were captured (representing 13 species, six orders), and ticks were found on 63 (78%). tick species identified included boophilus microplus (canestrini), amblyomma cajennense (f.), amblyomma parvum aragão, amblyomma pseudoconcolor aragão, amblyomma scalpturat ...200011126563
ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths of southern flying squirrels in southeast georgia.southern flying squirrels (glaucomys volans) from southeastern georgia were examined for ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths. ten species of ectoparasites were recovered, including 3 species of sucking lice (hoplopleura trispinosa, microphthirus uncinatus, and neohaematopinus sciuropteri), 1 species of flea (orchopeas howardi), 2 species of ticks (amblyomma maculatum and ixodes scapularis), 3 species of mesostigmatid mites (androlaelaps casalis, a. fahrenholzi, and haemogamasus ambulans ...200011128479
evidence of cowdria ruminantium infection (heartwater) in amblyomma sparsum ticks found on tortoises imported into florida.amblyomma marmoreum and a. sparsum ticks were collected from tortoises imported into florida from africa and were tested for cowdria ruminantium infection using a c. ruminantium-specific pcs20 polymerase chain reaction assay. in i shipment imported from zambia, 15 of the 38 a. sparsum male ticks collected from the leopard tortoises (geochelone pardalis) were found to be positive for infection with c. ruminantium. in contrast, all 148 a. marmoreum tested were negative for c. ruminantium infection ...200011128494
host association and seasonal activity of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in missouri.from june 1993 through june 1996, 2,260 adult, 4,426 nymphal, and 2,178 larval lone star ticks amblyomma americanum (l.) were collected in missouri from vertebrate hosts and by dragging a cloth over vegetation. prevalence, mean intensity, and relative abundance of each stage varied among hosts. the relative abundance of adult lone star ticks was highest on white-tailed deer, but this stage was also collected from raccoons, opossum, red fox, coyotes, and wild turkey. nymphs were collected from gr ...200011128501
invasion of west african cattle by the tick amblyomma variegatum.studies in cameroon and burkina faso examined the invasion process of cattle by adult amblyomma variegatum fabricius (acari: ixodidae) ticks. nearly all the ticks picked up in the pasture during grazing were found on the limb ends, near the hooves, where they temporarily attached. then when the cattle lay down, the ticks moved from the feet towards the predilection sites, where they attached definitively. many ticks disappeared during this displacement. all the female ticks and approximately 70% ...200011129703
parasitism by ixodes didelphidis and i. loricatus (acari: ixodidae) on small wild mammals from an atlatic forest in the state of sao paulo, brazil.from january 1995 to june 1996, ticks were studied in a fragment of atlantic forest in a residential area in the city of itapevi, state of sao paulo, brazil. cases of human lyme disease-like illness were registered in this area during the spring of 1992. the monthly relative density of ticks was determined and the influence of seasonal climatic conditions was evaluated as well as the relationship between ticks and hosts. ticks (n = 88) were collected from small mammals captured (n = 134) in mont ...200011185614
eradication and surveillance of the tropical bont tick in the caribbean. an international approach.the caribbean amblyomma program (cap) is a multidonor funded effort involving several technical organizations and national governments in the eradication of the tropical bont tick. the food and agriculture organization (fao) is the lead technical agency, providing both technical and administrative support to the cap regional coordination unit (rcu) based in barbados. all collaborating agencies, donors, and national representatives are members of the amblyomma program council (apc), the overall g ...200011193618
ticks associated with wild animals in the nhecolândia pantanal, brazil.a study of ticks associated with wild animals was carried out from september 1996 to april 1998 at the fazenda alegria (21,000 ha), in the nhecolândia pantanal, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, a sunken plain bordering the upper paraguay river, located 19 x 08's; 56 x 46'w. a total of 81 wild animals (13 species, 6 orders) were captured with the aid of nets, and ticks were found on 63 (78%). tick species identified included boophilus microplus (canestrini), amblyomma cajennense (f.), a. parv ...200011193635
laboratory evaluation of pathogenicity of entomogenous nematodes to african tick species.five strains of entomogenous nematodes, steinernema carpocapsae strains dd, mexican, sr, and heterorhabditis bacteriophora strains 1s5 and hp88, were tested for their pathogenicity to various developmental stages of five african tick species namely; rhipicephalus appendiculatus, r. evertsi, amblyomma variegatum, a. gemma, and boophilus decoloratus. in engorged female r. appendiculatus, all nematodes at a concentration of 1,000 infective juveniles (ij)/dish, except s. carpocapsae mexican strain, ...200011193637
tropical bont tick (amblyomma variegatum) eradication in the caribbean. the st. kitts experience.the tropical bont tick (tbt) was first identified in st. kitts in 1978. initially, infestation was observed on cattle that developed a severe dermatitis. over a period of seven years, the tbt spread to most areas of the island, affecting cattle, sheep, and goats. the ruminant livestock population declined from, 6,000, 9,000, and 7,000 cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively, in 1984 to an estimated 400, 800, and 1,000, cattle, sheep, and goats in 1990. a project to control the tropical bont tick ...200011193641
laboratory and field evaluation of entomogenous fungi for tick control.aqueous and oil-based formulations of two entomogenous fungi, beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae were tested for their efficacy against the three major species of african ticks; namely, amblyomma variegatum, rhipicephalus apendiculatus, and boophilus decoloratus. both fungal species and formulations were observed to induce high mortalities, especially in the larvae. the oil-based formulation was found to be more effective than the aqueous formulation. monthly application of aqueous fo ...200011193673
american canine hepatozoonosis. an emerging disease in the new world.hepatozoon canis was first described from dogs in 1905 in india and rhipicephalus sanguineus was identified as the vector. dogs on the texas gulf coast were recognized in 1978 to have hepatozoonosis, and it was thought that h. canis had entered the new world. later, it was realized that american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is more debilitating than its old world counterpart, often resulting in death. when the malady and parasite were characterized, a new species, h. americanum, was described, in ...200011193705
the effect of male ticks on the feeding performance of immature stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).a unique group of immunoglobulin-binding proteins (igbps), produced by ixodid male ticks during the latter half of their prolonged feeding period, improves the feeding performance of co-feeding females. as a follow-up to this observation, we investigated whether male tick feeding also affects the feeding of other developmental stages. immature stages of rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreeille) and amblyomma americanum (l.) were fed on rabbits in the presence or absence of conspecific males. the mea ...200011201360
ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in north west province, south africa.a total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in north west province, south africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. by doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14,724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1,028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14,226 of the ticks. pure infestations of h. leachi w ...200011205167
amblyomma testudinarium tick bite: one case of engorged adult and a case of extraordinary number of larval tick infestation.this paper reports two recent cases of tick bite due to amblyomma testudinarium. the first case was an 86-year-old farmer infested with a fully engorged adult tick attached on his inguinal region. the second case was a 57-year-old male infested with an extraordinarily large number of larval ticks (> 100 larvae). the ticks were identified as a. testudinarium based on morphological characteristics. to our knowledge, the latter case is the eleventh case of larval tick bites among all tick species a ...200011211793
entomogenous fungi as promising biopesticides for tick control.when ticks were sealed in nylon tetrapacks and infected with the entomogenous fungi, beauveria bassiana and metarizium anisopliae and maintained in potted grass in the field, the fungal oil formulations (10(9) conidia per ml) induced 100% mortality in larvae of rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma variegatum, whereas mortalities in nymphs varied between 80-100% and in adults 80-90%. the aqueous formulations (10(9) conidia per ml) induced mortalities of 40-50% and reductions in egg hatchabi ...200011354619
cowdria ruminantium antibodies in acaricide-treated and untreated cattle exposed to amblyomma variegatum ticks in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), based on the major antigenic protein i fragment b (mapi-b) of cowdria ruminantium, was used to assess seroprevalence in cattle in the gambia. two groups of 20 n'dama and 20 gobra zebu cattle were monitored for 12 months with flumethrin treatment and for another 10 months without acaricidal treatment. two groups of 20 n'dama and 20 gobra cattle served as untreated controls. during the period of acaricidal treatment, the cumulative proportions ...200011354623
collection of free-living nymphs and adults of amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae) with pheromone/carbon dioxide traps at 5 different ecological sites in heartwater endemic regions of south africa.the capture of free-living adults and nymphs of amblyomma hebraeum, the main vector of heartwater in domestic and wild ruminants in south africa, by means of attraction-aggregation-attachment-pheromone/carbon dioxide traps at five endemic localities in south africa is described. although the traps were used successfully at each of the localities, no determination of their efficiency in relation to the actual abundance of ticks at a particular site was made. this study confirmed that the traps co ...200011354624
amblyomma tigrinum (acari: ixodidae) in relation to phytogeography of central-northern argentina with notes on hosts and seasonal distribution.the findings of amblyomma tigrinum in continental argentina north of 40 degrees s are presented according to phytogeographic domains (andean-patagonic, amazonian and chaco) and the seasonal distribution is depicted on a monthly basis. a total of 718 adult ticks and four nymphs were found. a. tigrinum ticks were present in all domains. adult ticks were found all year round but they were more abundant during the summer. most ticks were found on domestic dogs but the survey has a bias to domestic h ...200011354625
ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: ehrlichieae) infection in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) at aberdeen proving ground, maryland.human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium ehrlichia chaffeensis. it is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. current evidence indicates that amblyomma americanum (l.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of hme. to determine if e. chaffeensis is present in ticks at aberdeen proving ground, md, questing a. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and ...200015535577
seasonal distribution and abundance of ticks (acari: ixodidae) in northwestern florida.a 2-yr study was conducted in a northwestern florida state park and recreation area to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. risk of tick attachment to park visitors was also assessed relative to tick abundance from several habitats. tick collections consisted of weekly cloth drag samples obtained from ground and emergent vegetation along a deer trail, a walking trail located in a 3-mo-old control burned area of forest, a nonburned walking trail, picni ...200015535590
effects of granular carbaryl application on sympatric populations of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.a single application of granular carbaryl approaching the lowest recommended rate to the shrub layer of a forested area in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of ixodes scapularis say nymphs throughout their peak activity period, but had little effect on amblyomma americanum l. nymphs. factors influencing the efficacy of the application are discussed. the possible explanations for the lack of efficacy of granular carbaryl against a. americanum, including behavior, formulation, and ap ...200015218915
amblyomma americanum: specific uptake of immunoglobulins into tick hemolymph during feeding.the passage of immunoglobulins in the blood meal into hemolymph prompts development of vaccines against internal antigens of ticks, but little is known about kinetics and specificity of the immunoglobulin uptake. we used capillary feeding of adult amblyomma americanum hard ticks to introduce compounds into the midgut and then examined the hemolymph after various times for their presence and concentration. immunoglobulins of different sources, albumin, choramphenicol acetyltransferase, inulin, an ...200011162374
the relationship between 'critical weight' and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the female ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.the feeding cycle of adult female ticks (acari: ixodidae) is divided into preparatory, slow and rapid feeding phases. at the transition from slow to rapid feeding, amblyomma hebraeum (koch) females reach a 'critical weight' (cw; approx. 10x the unfed weight) that is characterized by several behavioural and physiological changes. five of these changes were used as criteria to establish a more precise estimate of cw than we have to date. the cw as defined by re-attachment to the host was 9x the un ...200112770177
ticks (acari: ixodidae) spread by the international trade in reptiles and their potential roles in dissemination of diseases.the international trade in live reptiles has grown dramatically in the last decade. since many of these reptiles are infested with ticks, the number of ticks introduced to new exotic locations has also increased. this is causing concern in importing countries such as the united states because some of the reptilian ticks are known to be vectors of diseases of veterinary and economic importance, such as heartwater. rational measures to control these tick species and to eradicate new introductions ...200111354992
borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an amblyomma americanum tick.erythematous rashes that are suggestive of early lyme disease have been associated with the bite of amblyomma americanum ticks, particularly in the southern united states. however, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, has not been cultured from skin biopsy specimens from these patients, and diagnostic serum antibodies usually have not been found. borrelia lonestari sp nov, an uncultured spirochete, has been detected in a. americanum ticks by dna amplification techniques, bu ...200111372036
[search for the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by polymerase chain reaction in wild chilean ticks].lyme disease is a tick-borne human disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. main vectors of lyme disease are ticks of the ixodes and amblyomma genera. cases with clinical manifestations of lyme disease and favorable responses to antimicrobial agents have been reported in chile, some of them with erythema migrans, the hallmark of b burgdorferi infection.200111372294
borrelia lonestari dna in adult amblyomma americanum ticks, alabama.polymerase chain reaction analysis of 204 amblyomma americanum and 28 a. maculatum ticks collected in august 1999 near the homes of patients with southern tick-associated rash illness and in control areas in choctaw county, alabama, showed borrelia lonestari flagellin gene sequence from two adult a. americanum. the presence of b. lonestari in a. americanum ticks from alabama suggests that this suspected pathogen may be widespread in the southeastern united states.200111384533
reduction in mortality from heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats exposed to field challenge using an inactivated vaccine.inactivated vaccines for heartwater prepared with the commercially acceptable montanide isa 50 (isa 50) adjuvant were field tested in boer goats in botswana, angora goats in south africa, and merino sheep in zambia and zimbabwe. two vaccines, one made using the zimbabwean mbizi isolate and the other using the respective local field isolate (sunnyside in botswana; bathurst in south africa; lutale in zambia), were tested at each site, except in zimbabwe where only the mbizi vaccine was tested. com ...200111390083
tick infestation of borana cattle in the borana province of ethiopia.a study was conducted to identify and determine burdens of ticks infesting borana cattle in the borana province of ethiopia. rhipicephalus pulchellus, rhipicephalus pravus, rhipicephalus muhsamae, rhipicephalus praetextatus, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, amblyomma gemma, amblyomma variegatum, amblyomma cohaerens, amblyomma lepidum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes and boophilus decoloratus were identified on the cattle. their burdens ranged from 658-1,554 with a mean of 1,205 tic ...200111403429
resistance of leopard tortoises and helmeted guineafowl to cowdria ruminantium infection (heartwater).experimental infection trials were conducted to investigate susceptibility of leopard tortoises (geochelone pardalis) and helmeted guineafowl (numida meleagris) to infection with cowdria ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, a tickborne disease of domestic and wild ruminants. ten guineafowl were inoculated intravenously with a virulent dose of c. ruminantium derived from bovine endothelial cell cultures, and four leopard tortoises were exposed to c. ruminantium infection by the feeding ...200111423187
1-octen-3-ol isolated from bont ticks attracts amblyomma variegatum.volatiles from various life-stages of the bont ticks amblyomma variegatum and a. hebraeum were collected by using solid-phase microfibers and charcoal traps. an octenol isomer was found to be a major constituent of most of the tick material sampled and was identified as 1-octen-3-ol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by using antenna of the tsetse fly glossina brevipalpis in gas chromatography-linked antennogram detection. release of this compound increased during molt to adulthood and ...200111441439
ixodid ticks on white-tailed deer and feral swine in florida.a state-wide survey was conducted in florida during the 1997-99 hunting seasons to examine white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and feral swine (sus scrofa) for potential indigenous vectors of the rickettsial agent of heartwater, cowdria ruminantium. a total of 504 white-tailed deer and 166 feral swine was examined from 30 wildlife management areas across the state. amblyomma maculatum, an experimental vector of c. ruminantium, was common on both deer and feral swine throughout the state. ...200111469190
birds disperse ixodid (acari: ixodidae) and borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks in canada.a total of 152 ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) consisting of nine species was collected from 82 passerine birds (33 species) in 14 locations in canada from 1996 to 2000. the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwaldt & brenner was cultured from the nymph of a blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, that had been removed from a common yellowthroat, geothlypis trichas l., from bon portage island, nova scotia. as a result of bird movement, a nymphal i. scapula ...200111476328
different activities and footwear influence exposure to host-seeking nymphs of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).the relative potential for a person accidentally acquiring host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, and lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), while wearing either of two types of footwear, walking, crawling on hands and knees, and sitting on large fallen logs in deciduous woods, was evaluated. although flag samples indicated substantial populations of i. scapularis nymphs and low to moderate numbers of a. americanum at the study sites, relatively few i. scapularis ...200111476342
effects of habitat structure on the retention of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) adults during drag sampling surveys.the ability of ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) to remain on drags, once acquired, was tested in sparse and dense shrub layer vegetation. when placed on bottoms of drags, adults of both species remained attached for distances three to four times greater in sparse vegetation compared with dense vegetation. when attached to the tops of drags, the differences in retention of ticks on drags between vegetation densities were significant only for a. americanum. in dense vegetation, ...200111476345
investigation of blood parasites in livestock infested with argasid and ixodid ticks in egypt.nineteen species and subspecies of ixodid and argasid ticks, hyalomma dromedarii, h. impeltatum, h. anatolicum excavatum, h. a. anatolicum, h. truncatum, h. m. marginatum, h. m. rufipes, h. m. turanicum, boophilus annulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. turanicus, r. guilhoni, r. camicasi, amblyomma lipidum, a. marmoreum, a. vareigatum, argas persicus, a. hermanii and a. arboreus were collected from different localities in five governorates, giza, sharkia, ismailia, el beheira and sinai. hyalomm ...200111478436
ultrastructure of developmental stages of hemolivia stellata (apicomplexa: haemogregarinidae) in the cane toad bufo marinus and in its vector tick amblyomma rotondatum.the fine structure of the hemogregarine hemolivia stellata petit, landau, baccam and lainson, 1990 developmental stages in the cane toad bufo marinus l. and the vector tick amblyomma rotondatum koch, 1844 are described. in the liver of the toad, merozoites bound by a pellicle were located free and in the cytoplasm, and young and encased mature polynucleated meronts were located in a parasitophorous vacuole (pv). premature gametocytes in the erythrocytes were bound by a bilayered membranous wall ...200111510993
identification and characterization of a homologue of the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the tick, amblyomma americanum.studying tick feeding and digestion, we discovered in a cdna library from partially fed amblyomma americanum ticks the first known arthropod homologue of a human cytokine, the pro-inflammatory macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif). the tick origin of the mif cdna clone was confirmed by sequencing a genomic fragment that contained the full-length tick mif gene with two introns. antiserum to a tick mif-specific peptide as well as antiserum to complete tick mif revealed the expression of tic ...200111520355
evidence for the utility of the bm86 antigen from boophilus microplus in vaccination against other tick species.the bm86 antigen, as originally identified in boophilus microplus, is the basis of commercial tick vaccines against this tick species. the potential for using this antigen or homologues of the antigen in vaccination against other tick species has been assessed. we have conducted vaccine trials in cattle using the b. microplus-derived recombinant bm86 vaccine (tickgard) using pairs of vaccinated calves and control calves. these were infested with b. microplus and boophilus decoloratus larvae simu ...200111523920
dermatophilus congolensis infection in goats in tanzania.when goats in eastern tanzania were screened for skin diseases, dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from the skin lesions in 8 of 484 animals examined. in one severely affected case, the disease was also characterized by histological studies (gram stain, giemsa stain and routine he studies) and electron microscopy. the histological picture was characterized by hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, folliculitis and an inflammatory cellular reaction involving the epidermis. gram stain and ...200111556616
transmission of cowdria ruminantium by amblyomma gemma from infected african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and eland (taurotragus oryx) to sheep.two african buffalo (syncerus caffer), an eland (taurotragus oryx) and a waterbuck (kobus defassa) were intravenously inoculated with cowdria ruminantium (kiswani). amblyomma gemma nymphs were fed on the animals at 3 weekly intervals. jugular blood was also collected at 3 weekly intervals and inoculated into sheep. nymphal ticks that fed on one buffalo on days 16 and 37 and on the other buffalo on day 58 after infection transmitted the disease as adults to sheep. nymphs that were applied to the ...200111556617
new distribution records of amblyomma hebraeum in the sandveld region of botswana. 200111563715
ixodes rubicundus nymphs are short-day diapause-induced ticks with thermolabile sensitivity and desiccation resistance.the karoo paralysis tick, ixodes rubicundus neumann (acari: ixodidae), is a semi-voltine ixodid that survives stressful environmental conditions using morphogenetic diapause (eggs and engorged nymphs) and desiccation resistance. both photoperiod and temperature influence diapause induction in the engorged nymph. ixodes rubicundus nymphs are typical long-day photoperiodic organisms. the critical photoperiod is approximately 13.5 h light, 10.5 h dark, and they display a thermolabile response. the ...200111583453
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xl. ticks on dogs belonging to people in rural communities and carnivore ticks on the vegetation.ixodid ticks were collected at weekly intervals from february 1999 to april 2000 from domestic dogs belonging to people in rural communities in north-eastern kwazulu-natal. seven ticks were identified to species level and adult haemaphysalis leachi followed by immature amblyomma hebraeum and adult rhipicephalus simus were the most prevalent. infestation with adult h. leachi was most intense during february and march 1999 and from january to april 2000, and least intense during october 1999. infe ...200111585091
anti-interleukin-8 activity of tick salivary gland extracts.interleukin-8 (il-8) is one of many mammalian chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) that direct mammalian inflammatory and immune cells to sites of injury and infection. chemokines are produced locally and act on leucocytes through selective receptors. the principal role of il-8 is to control the movement and activity of neutrophils. to date, several tick species have been shown to modulate the production or activity of certain cytokines but none of these are chemokines. using an il-8 specific elis ...200111589777
risk of lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a lone star tick-infested community.lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) have been suggested as a vector of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in the usa, based on associations with an infection manifesting mainly as erythema migrans. in laboratory experiments, however, they failed to transmit b. burgdorferi sensu stricto.200111693973
detection and identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae and ehrlichiae in african ticks.rickettsia africae, a recently identified pathogen, was detected for the first time in amblyomma ticks from niger, mali, burundi, and sudan, and "r. mongolotimonae" was identified for the first time in africa. rickettsiae of unknown pathogenicity and two new ehrlichiae of the ehrlichia canis group were identified in ticks from mali and niger.200111747731
the distribution of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) in central ethiopia.ixodid ticks were collected from domestic animals, mainly cattle, in 11 administrative zones covering 84 districts in central ethiopia over a period of 2 years (july 1996 to june 1998). nineteen tick species were identified. four of these belonged to the genus amblyomma, one to boophilus, two to haemaphysalis, three to hyalomma and nine to rhipicephalus. amblyomma variegatum and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were present in all 11 administrative zones and, with the exception of afar, boophilus d ...200112026058
ticks from a morelet's crocodile in belize.parasitism of crocodilians by ticks has rarely been reported, and to our knowledge only seven published accounts exist. on 3 july 1999, we collected four ticks from a subadult morelet's crocodile (crocodylus moreletii) captured in northern belize. these were identified as amblyomma dissimile (one female), and amblyomma sp. (two nymphs, one larva). the crocodile was captured on land approximately 100 m from water, and all four ticks were attached to loose skin on the lateral surface of the tail. ...200111763751
host associations of ticks parasitizing rodents at borrelia burgdorferi enzootic sites in south carolina.a total of 237 rodents was collected in 4 regions of south carolina from july 1994 through december 1995. eight species were collected, including cotton mouse, hispid cotton rat, eastern woodrat, marsh rice rat, white-footed mouse, eastern harvest mouse, golden mouse, and black rat. of the 1,514 ticks recovered from these hosts, ixodes minor neumann, including larvae, nymphs, and adults, was the most abundant species, representing 54% of the total. only immature stages of other tick species were ...200111780825
ultrastructure of developmental stages of hemolivia mariae (apicomplexa: haemogregarinidae), natural parasite of the australian sleepy lizard, in experimentally infected deviant hosts.mabuya vitatta (olivier) (scincidae) and agama stellio (l.) (agamidae) were infected with hemolivia mariae smallridge et paperna, 1997 by ingestion of tick viscera from amblyomma limbatum neumann, fed as nymphs on naturally infected australian sleepy lizards, tiliqua rugosa gray. the unnatural infection apparently interfered with the developmental schedule of the parasites. transmission electron microscopic images of merogonic stages were obtained, as well as images of early developing gametocyt ...200111817448
amblyomma hebraeum is a vector of rickettsia africae and not r. conorii. 200112219911
ticks (acari: ixodidae) associated with domestic dogs in franca region, são paulo, brazil.ticks on 140 domestic dogs from both urban and rural areas of franca region in são paulo state were identified with 102 dogs from urban areas and 38 from rural areas. of urban dogs, 27.5% were infested exclusively by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. of the rural dogs, 36.8% were infested with the following tick species: r. sanguineus, boophilus microplus, amblyomma ovale and a. cajennense. mixed infestations included a dog hosting a. cajennense and a. ovale and another with b. microplus and r. sa ...200112455880
antibody responses to map 1b and other cowdria ruminantium antigens are down regulated in cattle challenged with tick-transmitted heartwater.serological diagnosis of heartwater or cowdria ruminantium infection has been hampered by severe cross-reactions with antibody responses to related ehrlichial agents. a map 1b indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that has an improved specificity and sensitivity for detection of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies has been developed to overcome this constraint (a. h. m. van vliet, b. a. m. van der zeijst, e. camus, s. m. mahan, d. martinez, and f. jongejan, j. clin. microbiol. 33:2405-2410, 1 ...200111238227
interdigital gland substances of white-tailed deer and the response of host-seeking ticks (acari: ixodidae).host-seeking male and female blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, exhibited an arrestant response when contacting substances from front and rear interdigital glands of male and female white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann). female i. scapularis responded positively to substances from interdigital glands on the fore legs and hind legs of female deer, whereas male i. scapularis responded only to samples from the fore legs of does. these results showed that previously reported ...200111268681
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing wild turkeys (aves: phasianidae) in eastern kansas.during the spring and fall turkey hunting seasons of 1999, hunters and kansas department of wildlife and parks field personnel examined wild turkeys, meleagris gallopavo l., for ticks and submitted them to us for identification. from springtime hunting, we received 113 ticks from 12 turkeys killed in nine counties, all in the eastern one-third of kansas. collectors reported examining three additional wild turkeys on which no ticks were found. all ticks were nymphal lone star ticks, amblyomma ame ...200111268682
prevalence of infection in ticks submitted to the human tick test kit program of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive 1997, ticks removed from humans and received alive by the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine (usachppm) were tested for pathogens by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). thirty-three of 222 (15%) amblyomma americanum (l.) dnas produced amplicons of the expected size of ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson & wilson and 26/222 (12%) produced amplicons indicating borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigalt & brenner. five (2% ...200111268694
first records of tick-borne pathogens, borrelia, and spotted fever group rickettsiae in okinawajima island, early april 2000, tick-borne pathogens were surveyed in the northern area of okinawajima island, okinawa prefecture, which is the southernmost area of japan. borrelia valaisiana, a lyme disease spirochete, was isolated from a field mouse mus calori, and unidentified rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were isolated from all stages of amblyomma testudinarium. these are the first reports of these pathogens on okinawajima island.200111293483
ticks (acari: ixodidae) and spirochetes (spirochaetaceae: spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a georgia barrier island.from september 1997 through july 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on st. catherine's island, liberty county, ga. seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature s ...200111296828
effects of selected meterological factors on diurnal questing of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidade).the diurnal questing behavior of adult ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) were monitored in the field to determine whether ticks would be collected with greater frequency during certain times of the day and under certain ambient meteorological conditions. temperature and relative humidity explained a significant amount of the total variation in tick collections. although both species were collected during every period, i. scapularis adults tended to quest earlier and later in th ...200111296842
efficacy of granular deltamethrin against ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidade) nymphs.a single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of ixodes scapularis say nymphs. the application also suppressed the population of amblyomma americanum (l.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. the efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.200111296847
temporal and spatial dynamics of a parapatric boundary between two australian reptile ticks.two tick species aponomma hydrosauri and amblyomma limbatum that infest large reptiles have an abrupt parapatric boundary near mt mary in south australia. a previous model has suggested that the boundary is maintained at population density troughs resulting from habitat heterogeneity along a gradual environmental gradient. this paper describes the dynamics of the boundary on three transects over 17 years, 1982-98. over the last seven years of that period there has been a significant increase in ...200111298975
risk factors to tick infestations and their occurrence on horses in the state of são paulo, brazil.from december 1998 to march 1999, 40 stud farms were studied in the state of são paulo, brazil. during visits to farms, horses reared under grazing conditions were examined for the presence of ticks. on each farm visit, horse pastures were closely inspected and a questionnaire was given to the farm supervisor with the purpose of gaining information about ecological and management variables (independent variables) that could be associated with the presence and infestation levels of ticks on the f ...200111337122
prevalence of infection by the protozoan hemolivia mariae in ticks.this paper considers the prevalence of natural infections of the protozoan hemolivia mariae, in its hosts the australian sleepy lizard, tiliqua rugosa, and the ixodid tick species, amblyomma limbatum. we investigate whether the protozoan may be influencing the tick population in the field, by comparing the observed prevalence of infection in ticks with the prevalence expected from known transmission dynamics. the prevalence of infection in nymphs was similar to the expected prevalence, but the o ...200111206116
sensitive detection of ehrlichia chaffeensis in cell culture, blood, and tick specimens by reverse transcription-pcr.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium of monocytes and macrophages and the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, an emerging zoonosis. the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum) has been implicated as the primary vector of e. chaffeensis. the present study examined the sensitivity of the nested reverse transcription (rt)-pcr based on the 16s rrna gene relative to that of the nested pcr for detection of e. chaffeensis in infected dh82 cells, experimentally infec ...200111158090
lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis.although borrelia theileri, the agent of bovine borreliosis, was described at the turn of the century (in 1903), its relationship with borreliae causing lyme disease or relapsing fever remains undescribed. we tested the previously published hypothesis that spirochetes infecting lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) may comprise b. theileri by analyzing the 16s ribosomal dnas (rdnas) and flagellin genes of these spirochetes. b. theileri, the amblyomma agent, and b. miyamotoi formed a natural gro ...200111158095
mating strategies and spermiogenesis in ixodid ticks.mate-seeking and sperm-transfer in the ixodid hard ticks, which include important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, generally reflect their peculiarly prolonged pattern of feeding. the metastriate ticks, including dermacentor, amblyomma, and rhipicephalus, invariably attain sexual maturity and mate solely on their hosts. the more primitive prostriate ixodes ticks, however, may copulate both in the absence of hosts and while the female engorges. these expanded opportunities for insemination complica ...200111112167
hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of rio de janeiro state, brazil.hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne protozoan that infects dogs and has been reported throughout the world. manifestation of h. canis infection varies from being sub-clinical in apparently healthy dogs to severe illness. the main vector of the infection is the dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus although other species may also transmit this agent. h. canis has been reported previously in brazil, but mostly as an occasional finding during laboratory exams and always associated with other diseases. th ...200111113545
characterization of protective antigens from the midgut of amblyomma variegatum ticks.separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (triton x-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely det (detergent) and aq (aqueous). in immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (m, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the det and aq fractions, respectively. three of the det fraction proteins mr approximately ...200212475080
life-cycle and host specificity of amblyomma tigrinum (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.biological data of three generations of amblyomma tigrinum in the laboratory are reported and the suitability of different host species for immature ticks are compared. grouping the three generations, infestations by both the larval and nymphal stages were performed on chickens (gallus gallus), wistar rats (rattus norvegicus), rabbits (orytolagus cuniculus), wild mice (calomys callosus), dogs (canis familiaris) and opossums (didelphis albiventris). only dogs were used for infestations by adult t ...200212475081
notes on parasitism by amblyomma humerale (acari: ixodidae) in the state of rondônia, western amazon, brazil.the tick amblyomma humerale koch is endemic to south america. all host records refer to the adult stage parasitizing tortoises, mostly yellow-footed tortoise, geochelone denticulata (l.), and red-footed tortoise, geochelone carbonaria (spix). the current study reports the presence of a. humerale in the state of rondônia, brazil. a total of 215 adult ticks (201 males, 14 females) was collected from six g denticulata in an indian reserve and nine geochelone sp. in rural monte negro county, giving ...200212495177
ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in south africa.ixodid ticks were collected during the period september 1991 to august 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. three of these were in north west province and 1 in mpumalanga province, south africa. ten tick species were collected in north west province and 7 in mpumalanga. the adults of amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in north west province, while in mpumalanga boophilus decoloratu ...200212515294
the prevalence of cowdria ruminantium in free-living adult amblyomma hebraeum collected at a communal grazing area and in 2 wildlife reserves in south order to detect the prevalence of cowdria ruminantium in the vector tick, amblyomma hebraeum, free-living, unfed adult ticks were collected with the aid of pheromone/co2 traps. ticks were collected at the rietgat communal grazing area, as well as in the southwestern kruger national park and in the songimvelo game reserve, all located in heartwater-endemic areas of south africa. the presence of c. ruminantium in these ticks was determined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis. ticks from ...200212515301
infection rates of amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis by ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in southwest missouri.both ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii are causative agents of human ehrlichiosis. both pathogens are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick (amblyomma americanum). since missouri has a high incidence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, we investigated the prevalence of e. chaffeensis- and e. ewingii-infected a. americanum and dermacentor variabilis (american dog tick) ticks to help assess the relative risk for humans exposed to these vectors. we used a neste ...200212653298
identification of ctenocephalides felis fleas as a host of rickettsia felis, the agent of a spotted fever rickettsiosis in yucataƄ, search for the vector of the recently recognized spotted fever rickettsiosis of the yucatán, ticks, fleas, and lice were collected from vegetation and dogs in localities where seropositive persons had been found. the arthropods were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers for the genus-specific 17-kda protein gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and dna sequencing. eleven (20%) of 54 pools of ctenocephalides felis fleas contained dna of rickettsia ...200212653300
a ten-year study of tick biting in mississippi: implications for human disease determine exactly which tick species bit people in mississippi, information was gathered on ticks involved in human biting cases for the ten-year period, january 1, 1990-december 31, 1999. specimens were identified by the author and, in most cases, confirmed by personnel at the institute of arthropodology and parasitology, georgia southern university. a total of 119 ticks were recovered from 73 humans during the study period. seven tick species were represented; most common included the lone ...200212853269
effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) on fire island, new york, usa.the effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum, were tested at the lighthouse tract, fire island, ny, usa, where densities of this species have increased recently. game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult a. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the fo ...200212546457
ixodid ticks feeding on humans in south africa: with notes on preferred hosts, geographic distribution, seasonal occurrence and transmission of pathogens.this paper records the identities of 558 ixodid ticks feeding on 194 humans in south africa. these ticks belonged to 20 species in six genera and those most frequently encountered were amblyomma hebraeum, haemaphysalis leachi, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus gertrudae and rhipicephalus simus. with the exception of the larvae of r. appendiculatus, the incidents of these ticks feeding on humans correlated well with their seasonal occurre ...200212593517
the argasidae, ixodidae and nuttalliellidae (acari: ixodida): a world list of valid tick names.the world's argasid tick fauna comprises 183 species in four genera, namely argas, carios, ornithodoros and otobius in the family argasidae. the ixodid tick fauna consists of 241 species in the genus ixodes and 442 species in the genera amblyomma, anomalohimalaya, bothriocroton, cosmiomma, dermacentor, haemaphysalis, hyalomma, margaropus, nosomma, rhipicentor and rhipicephalus in the family ixodidae, with the genus boophilus becoming a subgenus of the genus rhipicephalus. the family nuttallielli ...200214570115
a proteomics approach to characterizing tick salivary secretions.the saliva of ticks contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules including proteins that modulate host responses ensuring successful feeding. the limited amount of saliva that can be obtained from ticks has hampered characterization of salivary proteins using traditional protein chemistry. recent improvements in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics provide new tools to characterize small amounts of protein. these methods were employed to characterize sa ...200214570118
an inhibitor of thrombin-stimulated blood platelet aggregation from the salivary glands of the hard tick amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae).the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum can cause intense skin irritation and inflammation and bites that often develop into septic wounds or abscess in their host. crude salivary gland extract (sge) of partially engorged a. variegatum females as well as sge protein fractions purified by three-step reverse phase hplc procedure were tested for their anti-aggregatory effect on isolated human blood platelets stimulated with thrombin and compared with the effect of recombinant hirudin. at conce ...200214570120
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