TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
detection of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia in amblyomma parvum ticks (acari: ixodidae) from argentina.the present study evaluated the rickettsial infection in amblyomma parvum ticks collected in northwestern córdoba province, argentina. each tick was subjected to dna extraction and tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes glta and ompb. nine (69.2%) out of 13 adult ticks yielded expected pcr products for the two rickettsial genes. products from the ompb pcr were sequenced, generating dna sequences 100% identical for the nine pcr-positive ticks. three ...200717768597
geographical distribution of ticks in turkey.turkey's tick fauna is composed of about 32 species in two families and ten genera in mammals, reptiles, and birds. the ticks of veterinary significance in the family ixodidae comprise seven genera with 28 different species. ixodes spp. are mostly seen in northern turkey. it is likely that the high rainfall and the intensive forest in this area may contribute to this observation. to date, the following species have been found to be sporadically present: amblyomma variegatum in hatay province (bo ...200717823820
vitellogenesis in the tick amblyomma triste (koch, 1844) (acari: ixodidae) role for pedicel cells.this study presents new information on the vitellogenesis of the tick amblyomma triste. in this species, the ovary consists of a layer of epithelial cells, which form the ovarian wall, oogonia and developing oocytes; and the pedicel, a cellular structure that synthesizes and provides yolk precursors for developing oocytes. the pedicel also attaches oocytes to the external surface of the epithelial wall. in this study, evidence is provided in support of pedicel cells in providing compounds for oo ...200716978785
ecological havoc, the rise of white-tailed deer, and the emergence of amblyomma americanum-associated zoonoses in the united states.two infectious diseases, and one presumably infectious disease, each vectored by or associated with the bite of the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum), were identified and characterized by clinicians and scientists in the united states during the 1980s and 1990s. these three conditions-human monocytic (or monocytotropic) ehrlichiosis (hme), ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis, and southern tick-associated rash illness (stari)-undoubtedly existed in the united states prior to this time. however, th ...200717848069
highly prevalent coxiella sp. bacterium in the tick vector amblyomma americanum.laboratory-reared and field-collected amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a coxiella sp. and a rickettsia sp. while the coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks. the coxiella sp. showed evidence of a reduced genome and may be an obligate endosymbiont.200717085709
infection of ixodes scapularis ticks with rickettsia monacensis expressing green fluorescent protein: a model system.ticks (acari: ixodidae) are ubiquitous hosts of rickettsiae (rickettsiaceae: rickettsia), obligate intracellular bacteria that occur as a continuum from nonpathogenic arthropod endosymbionts to virulent pathogens of both arthropod vectors and vertebrates. visualization of rickettsiae in hosts has traditionally been limited to techniques utilizing fixed tissues. we report epifluorescence microscopy observations of unfixed tick tissues infected with a spotted fever group endosymbiont, rickettsia m ...200717125789
sero-prevalence and risk indicators for canine ehrlichiosis in three rural areas of brazil.ehrlichia canis has a worldwide geographic distribution, occurring particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. in brazil, the main vector in urban areas is believed to be the brown dog tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, but little is known about the occurrence, transmission and other epidemiological aspects of canine ehrlichiosis in rural areas, where amblyomma ticks are found more frequently than r. sanguineus. a sero-prevalence study of canine ehrlichiosis was carried out in three distinct rur ...200717204439
infection by rickettsia bellii and candidatus "rickettsia amblyommii" in amblyomma neumanni ticks from argentina.the tick species, amblyomma neumanni (acari: ixodidae) is the most frequent tick parasitizing humans in northwestern argentina. the present study evaluated the rickettsial infection among 55 a. neumanni adult free-living ticks collected in dean funes, córdoba province. ticks were individually processed by the hemolymph test with gimenez staining, isolation of rickettsia in vero cell culture by the shell vial technique, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting the citrate synthase rickettsia ...200717264991
tick paralysis of a snake caused by amblyomma rotundatum (acari: ixodidae).a lethargic southern black racer, coluber constrictor priapus dunn and wood, wild-caught in the florida keys, monroe county, fl, was found to be paralyzed by the bite of a female ixodid tick, amblyomma rotundatum koch (acari: ixodidae). removal of the tick restored the snake to normalcy within 18 h. other, earlier reported cases of tick toxicosis in reptiles are reviewed and clarified. evidently, the present incident is the only reported case of tick paralysis in a poikilotherm found in a natura ...200717294934
differential transcription of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of ehrlichia ruminantium in amblyomma variegatum ticks.the rickettsial pathogen ehrlichia ruminantium causes heartwater in ruminants and is transmitted by ticks of the genus amblyomma. the map1 gene, encoding the major surface protein map1, is a member of a multigene family containing 16 paralogs. in order to investigate differential transcription of genes of the map1 multigene family in vivo in unfed and feeding ticks, rna was extracted from midguts and salivary glands of e. ruminantium-infected adult female amblyomma variegatum ticks and analysed ...200717321077
using invaded range data to model the climate suitability for amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) in the new world.climate matching models are in increasing use to predict distributions of living organisms, using records of the known distribution of a species to map its expected range of habitat suitability. here, we modelled the known distribution of the tick amblyomma variegatum in africa as a preliminary step to delineate the most probable range of climatically suitable habitat for the tick in the new world. we used two presence-only methods (one based in the gower distance, the other based on the maximum ...200717347921
the ticks (acari: ixodida: argasidae, ixodidae) of paraguay.the ticks reported in paraguay, which are here reviewed, can be categorized as 'endemic or established' (argas persicus or a sibling species, ornithodoros hasei, o. rostratus, o. rudis, o. talaje/o. puertoricensis, amblyomma aureolatum, am. auricularium, am. brasiliense, am. cajennense, am. calcaratum, am. coelebs, am. dissimile, am. dubitatum, am. incisum, am. longirostre, am. nodosum, am. ovale, am. pacae, am. parvum, am. pseudoconcolor, am. rotundatum, am. scutatum, am. tigrinum, am. triste, ...200717362600
amblyomma triste (koch, 1844) (acari: ixodidae) ovaries: an ultrastructural analysis.this study presents an ultrastructural analysis of the ovary of the tick, amblyomma triste. the ovary of this species is of the panoistic type that is, without nursing and follicular cells. it is composed of a layer of epithelial cells forming a wall and of germinative cells that generate the oocytes which remain attached to the external margin of this wall by a multicellular pedicel. the different developmental stages in the oocytes had been described by oliveira et al. [oliveira, p.r., bechara ...200717433302
species diversity and seasonality of free-living ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the natural habitat of wild marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in southeastern brazil.this study evaluated the presence and seasonal activity of free-living ticks in remaining marsh areas by the paraná river, in brazil. eight field trips (once per season) for collection of ticks were performed during 2 years. using co2 traps, dragging, and visual inspection of vegetation, five free-living tick species were collected, in the following order of abundance: amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, amblyomma triste, amblyomma coelebs, and amblyomma nodosum. the seasonal pattern of a ...200716962241
antibiotic treatment of the tick vector amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness.the lone star tick amblyomma americanum is a common pest and vector of infectious diseases for humans and other mammals in the southern and eastern united states. a coxiella sp. bacterial endosymbiont was highly prevalent in both laboratory-reared and field-collected a. americanum. the coxiella sp. was demonstrated in all stages of tick and in greatest densities in nymphs and adult females, while a rickettsia sp. was less prevalent and in lower densities when present.200717476327
molecular detection of ehrlichia ruminantium infection in amblyomma variegatum ticks in the west africa, losses due to heartwater disease are not known because the incidence/prevalence has not been well studied or documented. to develop a diagnostic tool for molecular epidemiology, three pcr-based diagnostic assays, a nested pcs20 pcr, a nested map1 pcr and a nested reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization assay, were evaluated to determine their ability to detect infection in vector ticks, by applying them simultaneously to a. variegatum field ticks to detect ehrlichia ruminantium, th ...200717476576
ultrastructural detection of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in oocytes of amblyomma triste (koch, 1844) (acari; ixodidae) during the vitellogenesis process.the ovary of the tick amblyomma triste is classified as panoistic, which is characterized by the presence of oogonia without nurse and follicular cells. the present study has demonstrated that the oocytes in all developmental stages (i-iv) are attached to the ovary through a pedicel, a cellular structure that synthesizes and provides carbohydrate, lipids and proteins supplies for the oocytes during the vitellogenesis process. the lipids are deposited during all oocyte stages; they are freely dis ...200717544471
a call for renewed research on tick-borne francisella tularensis in the arkansas-missouri primary national focus of tularemia in humans.arkansas-missouri has emerged as the primary u.s. focus of tularemia, which is caused by the national institute of allergy and infectious diseases category a priority pathogen francisella tularensis, over the past 30 yr. there are several pieces of indirect evidence suggesting that a key role of ticks in the transmission of f. tularensis to humans in arkansas-missouri is the primary reason why tularemia has remained a prominent disease of humans in this two-state area while fading away from othe ...200717547223
transmission of bacterial agents from lone star ticks to white-tailed deer.amblyomma americanum (l.), the lone star tick, is an aggressive ixodid tick that has been implicated as a vector for several bacteria. among these bacteria are the disease agents ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, and the putative disease agent "borrelia lonestari." the hypothesis in this study was that wild lone star ticks from northeastern georgia are capable of transmitting all three agents to white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus, a known reservoir host for e. chaffeensis. in t ...200717547234
tissue and life-stage distribution of a defensin gene in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.the transcript sequence of the amblyomma americanum linnaeus (acari: ixodidae) defensin, termed amercin (amn), was ascertained and a 219-bp amn coding region identified. the gene encodes a 72-amino acid prepropeptide with a putative 37-amino acid mature peptide. this gene shows little similarity to either of the defensins from amblyomma hebraeum koch, the only other amblyomma species for which a defensin has been described. sequence comparisons with other tick defensins reveal amn to be shorter ...200717550433
gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) and rickettsia parkeri, united states.geographic distribution of rickettsia parkeri in its us tick vector, amblyomma maculatum, was evaluated by pcr. r. parkeri was detected in ticks from florida, georgia, kentucky, mississippi, oklahoma, and south carolina, which suggests that a. maculatum may be responsible for additional cases of r. parkeri rickettsiosis throughout much of its us range.200717553257
seasonal density fluctuations of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum koch, and its distribution on yorke peninsula, south australia.the ornate kangaroo tick, amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum, was recently recorded on southern yorke peninsula, south australia. we examined seasonal fluctuations in a. triguttatum triguttatum life stages (adult, larva, and nymph) and its distribution on the peninsula. we used in situ co2 traps and dragging cloths to determine monthly fluctuations in free-living ticks at four sites at innes national park from january to december 2006, and to determine the tick's distribution on wider yorke penin ...200717587053
[efficiency of beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae formulations on amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) nymphae].amblyomma cajennense is a vector of several infectious diseases on mammals and became a serious problem in some localities in brazil. entomopathogenic fungi are very important biocontrol agents and could be a viable alternative for the control of this tick in permanent preserved areas. the aim of this study was to evaluated the mortality of tick nymphae treated with beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae formulations in laboratory conditions. non fed nymphae were inoculated with 2x10(7) a ...200717588319
hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum koch, on southern yorke peninsula, south australia.amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western western australia (including barrow island), queensland (excluding cape york peninsula), and new south wales, south to dubbo and barham. the species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. in queensland, a. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of q fever. in 2000, the species was detected on southern yorke peninsula in south australia. we aimed to ide ...200717611781
ixodes philipi (acari: ixodidae): phylogenetic status inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene sequence comparison.ixodes philipi ticks were collected from the nest burrows of streaked shearwaters, calonectris luecomelas, on 3 different islands of japan (awashima: 38 degrees 45'n, 139 degrees 24'e; mikurajima: 33 degrees 52'n, 139 degrees 36'e; and omorijima: 36 degrees 8'n, 133 degrees 10'e). the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) gene sequence was determined for each tick. the coi sequences of 9 other ixodid tick species also were determined, and they were used for taxonomic positioning of i. ...200717626375
seasonal activity of amblyomma spp. in mississippi. 200717633438
taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships between neotropical species of ticks from genus amblyomma (acari: ixodidae) inferred from second internal transcribed spacer sequences of rdna.the accurate specific identification of ticks is essential for the study, control and prevention of tick-borne diseases. herein, we determined ribosomal nucleotide sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (its2) of 15 neotropical hard tick species of the genus amblyomma koch found in brazil. most of the studied ticks accidentally parasite humans and potentially act as vectors of zoonoses. lengths of the its2 sequences ranged from 956 to 1,207 bp, whereas gc content varied from 62.4 to ...200717427690
topographical and numerical study of the idiosomal integumentary structures of the larva of four neotropical species of amblyomma koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae).integumentary structures of the larvae of amblyomma longirostre (koch, 1844), a. parvum aragão, 1908, a. rotundatum koch, 1844 and from three populations of a. cajennense (fabricius, 1787) were studied using light microscopy. a new nomenclature for the localisation of the integumentary structures is proposed. three types of integumentary structures were identified in the larval idiosoma of the four amblyomma species: lyrifissures, small glands and large wax glands. these structures were observed ...200717417718
the molecular basis of the amblyomma americanum tick attachment phase.towards discovery of molecular signaling cascades that trigger and/or facilitate the tick attachment and formation of its feeding lesion, suppressive subtractive hybridization, high throughput sequencing and validation of differential expression by cdna dot blot hybridization were performed on amblyomma americanum ticks that had attained appetence and were exposed to feeding stimuli. this approach allowed for identification of 40 genes that are up regulated before ticks begin to penetrate the ho ...200717406795
distribution and population dynamics of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting sheep in sennar state, sudan.a cross-sectional survey of ticks infesting sheep was conducted in sennar state, sudan. a total body collection of ticks was carried out at five localities sennar town, singa, dinder, abu naama and um banein on two types of desert sheep (watish and ashgar) on two farms at each locality at two monthly intervals for one year starting july 2002 to may 2003. four tick genera and eight species were identified. they were amblyomma lepidum, hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicepha ...200718453239
repellency of two terpenoid compounds isolated from callicarpa americana (lamiaceae) against ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum ticks.callicarpenal (13, 14, 15, 16-tetranor-3-cleroden-12-al) and intermedeol [(4s,5s,7r,10s)-eudesm-11-en-4-ol], isolated from american beautyberry, callicarpa americana (lamiaceae), were evaluated in laboratory bioassays for repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, and lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. a strip of organdy cloth treated with test solution was doubly wrapped (treatment on outer layer) around the middle phalanx of a forefinger and t ...200717380408
[effect of the strategic control of amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae) on the population of anocentor nitens (neumann, 1897) (acari: ixodidae) in equines].the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the amblyomma cajennense strategic control program on the anocentor nitens population. the acaricide treatments were carried out every seven days and divided in two series, the first one beginning in april 2004 (eight treatments) and the second beginning in july of the same year (five treatments), using pyrethroid chemical base - cypermethrin in the concentration of 0,015%. monthly it was evaluated the infestation of a. nitens in the ear ...200718373898
[strategic control of amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae) on horses, minas gerais, brazil - part i].the aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of a strategic control program of amblyomma cajennense in horses under field conditions. acaricide treatments were applied at seven days intervals and divided in two series, the first one beginning in april 2004 (eight treatments), and the second one beginning in july 2004 (five treatments), aiming to control larvae and nymphs of the tick. a pyrethroid chemical base cypermethrin 0.015% was used for spraying the horses. there was a reduction of 4 ...200718373899
[the first report of amblyomma fuscum neumann, 1907 (acari ixodidae) on the lizard tupinambis teguixin (l.) at the municipality of glorinha, state of rio grande do sul, brazil].amblyomma fuscum known only from brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in south and southeast region. this is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (tupinambis teguixin) at the municipality of glorinha, state of rio grande do sul. the females were deposited in the tick collection of veterinary research institute desiderio finamor (7 specimens), eldorado do sul, rs and in the acari collection from instituto butantan, são paul ...200718373904
hyperparasitism in amblyomma rotundatum (acari: ixodidae).in the present study, we report a case of hyperparasitism in amblyomma rotundatum. during examination of live ticks immediately after collecting them from boa constrictor snakes held in a reptile facility in mossoró, rn, northeastern brazil, 1 unengorged tick female was seen attached to the venter of a partially engorged female. the hypostome and chelicerae of the unengorged female had penetrated the integument of the partially engorged female to the level of the basis capitulli and the palps we ...200718314708
rickettsial infection in capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from são paulo, brazil: serological evidence for infection by rickettsia bellii and rickettsia brazil, capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are important hosts for amblyomma ticks, which in turn can transmit rickettsiae to humans and animals. therefore, capybaras are potential sentinels for rickettsial infection.200718320102
rickettsia parkeri in brazil.we report finding rickettsia parkeri in brazil in 9.7% of amblyomma triste ticks examined. an r. parkeri isolate was successfully established in vero cell culture. molecular characterization of the agent was performed by dna sequencing of portions of the rickettsial genes glta, htra, ompa, and ompb.200718214195
differential anti-chemokine activity of amblyomma variegatum adult ticks during blood-feeding.ticks secrete a cocktail of immunomodulatory molecules in their saliva during blood-feeding, including chemokine-binding factors that help control the activity of host immunocompetent cells. here we demonstrate differential dynamics of anti il-8 (cxcl8), mcp-1 (ccl2), mip-1 (ccl3), rantes (ccl5) and eotaxin (ccl11) activities in salivary gland extracts of adult amblyomma variegatum. unfed male and female ticks showed activity against all the chemokines except ccl5; anti-ccl11 activity was partic ...200717371454
natural and experimental infection of the lizard ameiva ameiva with hemolivia stellata (adeleina: haemogregarinidae) of the toad bufo marinus.developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard ameiva ameiva (teiidae), from pará state, north brazil, were shown to be those of hemolivia by the nature of the parasite's sporogonic cycle in the tick amblyomma rotondatum. the type species, hemolivia stellata petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad bufo marinus and the tick amblyomma rotondatum, also from pará state, and in view of the fact that a. ameiva and bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both comm ...200718225421
[ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected in the natural reserve of the vale do rio doce, linhares, state of espírito santo].we confirm, after decades without new registers, the occurrence of the ticks amblyomma obolongoguttatum koch, 1844, a. brasiliense aragão, 1908, and a. humerale koch, 1844 in the state of espírito santo, brazil, besides the first record of a. naponense (packard, 1869) in this state.200718078608
rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of são paulo, brazil.this study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of são paulo. eight flea species (adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, ctenocephalides felis felis, polygenis atopus, polygenis rimatus, polygenis roberti roberti, polygenis tripus, rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi), and five tick species (amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, ixodes loricatus, and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were ...200718094887
fecal nirs: detection of tick infestations in cattle and horses.anti-tick treatments are often applied concurrent to routine livestock management practices with little regard to actual infestation levels. prescription treatments against ticks on grazing cattle would be facilitated by non-invasive detection methods. one such method is fecal near infrared spectroscopy (nirs). four studies utilizing cattle (bos spp.) and one with horses (equus caballus) fed varying diets and infested with either amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, a. cajennense or dermacentor a ...200717097809
validation and redescription of amblyomma romitii tonelli-rondelli, 1939 (acari: ixodidae).the current synonymy of amblyomma romitii tonelli-rondelli, 1939, a neotropical species, with the oriental species a. extraoculatum neumann, 1899 is discussed. the type-specimens of both species were examined and their morphological differences determined. considering their morphology and their different continental origins, we are reasonably certain that both taxa are valid. the type-specimen of a. extraoculatum is a female labelled as being from singapore. this is the only locality data on thi ...200717464485
tick fauna from two locations in the brazilian savannah.the cerrado is brazil's tropical savannah, which is arguably under greater threat than the amazon rainforest. the cerrado biome of tropical south america covers about 2 million km(2) and is considered a biodiversity hot spot which means that it is especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. the cerrado is increasingly exposed to agricultural activities which enhance the likelihood of mixing parasites from rural, urban and wildlife areas. information about ...200717828441
ticks collected on birds in the state of são paulo, brazil.the present study reports a collection of amblyomma spp. ticks in birds from several areas of the state of são paulo, brazil. a total of 568 tick specimens (404 larvae, 164 nymphs) were collected from 261 bird specimens. from these ticks, 204 (36%) specimens (94 larvae, 110 nymphs) were reared to the adult stage, being identified as amblyomma longirostre (94 larvae, 90 nymphs), amblyomma calcaratum (13 nymphs), amblyomma nodosum (2 nymphs), and amblyomma cajennense (5 nymphs). additionally, 39 l ...200717882514
a preliminary investigation of ehrlichia species in ticks, humans, dogs, and capybaras from brazil.a molecular epidemiologic investigation in two brazilian states (rondônia and são paulo) was undertaken to determine if ehrlichia species responsible for human and animal ehrlichioses in north america could be found in brazilian vectors, potential natural mammalian reservoirs and febrile human patients with a tick bite history. samples, including 376 ticks comprising 9 amblyomma species, 29 capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) spleens, 5 canine blood, and 75 human blood samples from febrile pati ...200716962245
haemaphysalis longicornis: molecular characterization of a homologue of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor from the partially fed ticks.the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) has been identified from some vertebrates and invertebrates. mif is related to inflammation, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in vertebrates. here, we report the molecular characterization of a homologue of mif from partially fed haemaphysalis longicornis. the sequence analysis of the h. longicornis mif (hlmif) indicated that its deduced amino acid sequence has an identity of 77% with the mif of the tick amblyomma americanum. western blot analysis u ...200716987517
the natural hosts for larvae and nymphs of amblyomma neumanni and amblyomma parvum (acari: ixodidae).based on the hypothesis that birds and rodents are important hosts for subadults of the neotropical amblyomma neumanni and amblyomma parvum ticks, a survey of these type of hosts was carried out from july 2004 to march 2006, in quilino (a. parvum) and dean funes (a. neumanni), córdoba province, argentina. additionally, monthly tick counts were performed on cattle and goats with occasional tick search in other domestic hosts. records of questing height of subadult ticks on vegetation were also ca ...200617006739
a spotted fever group rickettsia from an exotic tick species, amblyomma exornatum (acari: ixodidae), in a reptile breeding facility in the united states.adults and nymphs of amblyomma exornatum koch (acari: ixodidae), an exotic african tick of monitor lizards, were collected from a gray's monitor lizard, varanus olivaceus hallowell, that died in a reptile facility in alabama. nine adult ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction for rickettsial agents. dna from a novel spotted fever group rickettsia was amplified and sequenced from one of the nine ticks. the novel rickettsia was most similar to "rickettsia anan," which is associated with amb ...200617017252
african tick bite fever: a not-so-uncommon illness in international travelers.african tick bite fever is a rickettsial illness that has recently emerged as a significant disease among international travelers. the vector is the amblyomma tick, which is endemic to sub-saharan africa and parts of the eastern caribbean.200617043186
efficacy of imidacloprid (8.8% w/w) plus permethrin (44% w/w) spot-on topical solution against amblyomma americanum infesting dogs using a natural tick exposure model.this study evaluated the efficacy of an imidacloprid 8.8% w/w + permethrin 44% w/w spot-on topical solution (k9 advantix, bayer animal health) against amblyomma americanum using a natural field exposure model. sixteen beagles were divided into two groups of eight dogs each. one group of dogs was treated with k9 advantix and the other group served as untreated controls. on day -1 and at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment, the dogs were walked for 80 minutes in an a. americanum-infested habi ...200616871491
antimicrobial activity in the egg wax of the african cattle tick amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae).eggs of the tick amblyomma hebraeum koch (acari: ixodidae) inhibited the growth of escherichia coli and serratia marcescens (gram-negative bacteria) in solid culture, but not the growth of staphylococcus epidermidis, and only marginally the growth of bacillus subtilis (gram-positive bacteria). when egg wax was extracted with chloroform/methanol (2:1), the extract contained antibacterial activity, but the denuded eggs did not. when assayed against bacteria in liquid culture, the aqueous phase inh ...200616874555
ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing humans in an atlantic rainforest reserve of southeastern brazil with notes on host suitability.while conducting projects on ticks from deer and on tick ecology in animal trails in an atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern brazil, researchers of our group were bitten by ticks several times. some of these episodes were recorded. three species of adult ticks attached to humans: amblyomma brasiliense aragão, amblyomma incisum neumann, and amblyomma ovale koch. eight nymphal attachments with engorgement on humans were recorded. from these, six molted to adults of a. incisum, one to an adu ...200616900313
unique macrophage and tick cell-specific protein expression from the p28/p30-outer membrane protein multigene locus in ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia canis.ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia canis are tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogens that cause human and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis respectively. we tested the hypothesis that these pathogens express unique proteins in response to their growth in vertebrate and tick host cells and that this differential expression is similar in closely related ehrlichia species. evaluation of nine e. chaffeensis isolates and one e. canis isolate demonstrated that protein expression was host cell-dependent. t ...200616922866
birds as hosts of immature ixodid ticks in free state province, south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks infesting birds in free state province, south africa. to this end a large number of birds belonging to several species were examined for ticks and a total of 180 birds belonging to 39 species at 17 localities were infested, and ticks belonging to eight species were recovered. the immature stages of only two, namely amblyomma marmoreum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes, were sufficiently prevalent and numerous to safe ...200616958263
[characterization of rickettsia spp. circulating in a silent peri-urban focus for brazilian spotted fever in caratinga, minas gerais, brazil].the present study was intended to characterize rickettsia spp. circulating in arthropod vectors in caratinga, minas gerais, brazil, by pcr and to investigate the presence of antibodies against the spotted fever rickettsiae group (sfrg) in dogs and horses. 2,610 arthropods were collected and taxonomically identified. dna samples obtained from these vectors were submitted to pcr and cycle-sequenced. ctenocephalides and amblyomma cajennense showed sequences presenting 100.0% homology with r. felis. ...200616583093
performance of a prototype baited-trap in attracting and infecting the tick amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) in field experiments.investigations were commenced to study the potential use of the fungi, beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, and the attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone (aaap) for the control of ambloyomma variegatum as an environmentally friendly technology. the objective of the study was to develop and test a device, which could be used for pheromone and carbon dioxide delivery and infection of ticks with the fungi in an attempt to control the tick populations in the vegetation. using a pheromon ...200616596354
[the effect of immersion in distilled water on the engorged larvae and nymphs of amblyomma dubitatum neumann, 1899 (acari: ixodidae)].to evaluate the effect of the immersion of engorged larvae and nymphs of amblyomma dubitatum experimentally fed on rabbits, the ticks were collected and formed control groups, without immersion, and groups witch were immersed by 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and, for engorged larvaes, by eight weeks, in test tubes containing distilled water. during all experiment ticks were kept at 27 +/- 1 degrees c, 80 +/- 10% ru and scotophase the parameters evaluated were: pre-ecdysis, ecdysis and moulting periods; a ...200616646997
the natural hosts of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma tigrinum koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae).the hosts of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma tigrinum, a tick whose adults feed on wild and domestic canidae in south america, are uncertain. a 17 months survey was carried out trapping wild vertebrates in north-western córdoba, argentina, to evaluate their parasitism with a. tigrinum subadults. larvae and nymphs of this tick species were identified conventionally and by comparison of 16s rdna sequences with genbank deposited sequences. a total of 207 small and medium-sized rodents and 182 birds ...200616682121
successful and currently ongoing parasite eradication programs.the eradication of parasitic diseases is not a new concept. the most successful programs of parasite eradication have occurred with species of veterinary importance. the first such program, the eradication of texas cattle fever from the united states, is one of the great success stories of disease eradication. the american screwworm eradication program is ongoing and is serving as a guiding impetus for many of the ongoing or proposed vector eradication schemes around the world. the success of th ...200616730411
pharmacological characterization of the ergot alkaloid receptor in the salivary gland of the ixodid tick amblyomma hebraeum.female ticks of the family ixodidae osmoregulate by secreting the excess fluid of the blood meal back into the host's circulation via the salivary glands. at least three receptors control salivary fluid secretion in the tick amblyomma hebraeum: (1) dopamine (da) stimulates fluid secretion via a da receptor, (2) ergot alkaloids (eras) stimulate fluid secretion via an era-sensitive receptor (the natural ligand of which has not been identified), and (3) a gaba receptor potentiates the action of da ...200616788036
a novel real-time pcr assay for the speciation of medically important ticks.the identification of ticks using morphological characters is a well-established practice, however specimens that are small or damaged are often difficult to speciate. a novel, rapid real-time pcr assay, which targets the second internal transcribed spacer (its2) region in the nuclear ribosomal dna gene, was developed for identification of four tick species of utmost medical importance in the united states: ixodes scapularis, i. pacificus, dermacentor variabilis, and amblyomma americanum. comput ...200616796512
relative abundance and survival of the tick amblyomma americanum collected from sunlit and shaded habitats.the population density of host-searching nymphal and adult lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae), was determined at the robinson tract of the kansas ecological reserves and a private farm 5 km north-west of the robinson tract using standard drag cloth methods. nymphs, males and females were counted and collected weekly from shaded habitats and adjacent sunlit habitats from mid-may through late july, 2003. of the 1598 nymphs and 549 males collected by drag sampling, 74.0% a ...200616796613
rickettsia tamurae sp. nov., isolated from amblyomma testudinarium ticks.rickettsia sp. strain at-1(t) was isolated from amblyomma testudinarium ticks in japan in 1993. comparative analysis of sequences obtained from 16s rrna, glta, ompa, ompb and sca4 gene fragments demonstrated those from at-1(t) to be markedly different from those of other members of the spotted fever group. using mouse serotyping, it was also observed that rickettsia sp. strain at-1(t) was different from other rickettsia species with validly published names. such genotypic and phenotypic characte ...200616825648
tickborne arbovirus surveillance in market livestock, nairobi, identify tickborne viruses circulating in kenya and the surrounding region, we conducted surveillance at abattoirs in nairobi, kenya. species of ticks collected included rhipicephalus pulchellus (56%), amblyomma gemma (14%), r. appendiculatus (8%), a. variegatum (6%), and others. a total of 56 virus isolates were obtained, 26 from a. gemma, 17 from r. pulchellus, 6 from a. variegatum, and 7 from other species. virus isolates included dugbe virus (dugv), an unknown virus related to dugv, thogo ...200616836823
orally active acaricidal peptide toxins from spider venom.numerous species of ticks and mites (collectively known as acarines) are serious pests of animals, humans, and crops. there are few commercially available acaricides and major classes of these chemicals continue to be lost from the marketplace due to resistance development or deregistration by regulatory agencies. there is consequently a pressing need to isolate new and safe acaricidal compounds. in this study, we show that two families of peptide neurotoxins isolated from the venom of the austr ...200616330063
detection of rickettsia rickettsii in the tick amblyomma cajennense in a new brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of minas gerais.the present study evaluated rickettsial infection in amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in coronel pacheco, a brazilian spotted fever (bsf) endemic area. a total of 78 a. cajennense and 78 a. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene glta. only one pool of three a. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by pcr. this pool was further tested by pcr using sets of primers targeting the ricke ...200616444414
white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) develop spirochetemia following experimental infection with borrelia lonestari.borrelia lonestari is considered a putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness (stari) and is known to occur naturally only in lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). we used a low passage isolate of b. lonestari (ls-1) to inoculate white-tailed deer, c3h mice, holstein cattle, and beagles. animals were monitored via examination of giemsa and acridine orange stained blood smears, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), indirect fluorescent anti ...200616459029
ectoparasites of free-ranging pumas and jaguars in the paraguayan chaco.ectoparasites were collected from seven puma (puma concolor) and seven jaguar (panthera onca) live-captures (each representing six different animals) in the paraguayan chaco from 2002 to 2004. the same five species of ectoparasites were recovered from both host species: the flea, pulex simulans (total on both hosts combined=30 male, 49 female), and the ticks, amblyomma cajennense (1 male, 4 female, 46 nymphs, 241 larvae), amblyomma parvum (42 male, 25 female), amblyomma tigrinum (1 male, 7 femal ...200616464533
rickettsia africae in the west indies.rickettsia africae is the agent of african tick-bite fever, a mild but common disease of local persons and tourists in africa. the major vector of this spotted fever group rickettsia is most likely amblyomma variegatum, the tropical bont tick, which has become widely distributed through the west indies in the last 30 years. this report reviews all available information on r. africae in the west indies.200616494746
amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae): salivary gland cells of partially engorged females ticks and the production of lipid by their mitochondria.morphologically, the salivary glands of ticks are paired structures consisting of a secretory and an excretory portion, lacking a reservoir for the storage of the secretion. the secretory portion is composed in females by cells that form acini classified into the types i, ii, and iii. the excretory possess a major duct, from which arise several intermediate ducts that then subdivide to form the canaliculi or acinal tubules, which end at the acini from where they collect the secretion. the presen ...200616500644
[rickettsiae detection in amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected in the urban area of campinas city, sp].the city of campinas is located in an endemic area for brazilian spotted fever in são paulo state, where several cases have recently occurred. capybaras have been associated with the cycle of this disease, for they present positive serology and serve as host for ticks of the genus amblyomma, the main vectors of brazilian spotted fever. ticks were collected both from capybaras and from the vegetation in the city park lago do café, located in the urban area of campinas city, sp, a site associated ...200616501770
kinetics of borrelia burgdorferi infection in larvae of refractory and competent tick vectors.the acquisition of borrelia burgdorferi by the larvae of competent and refractory ixodid ticks was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (pcr). larvae were fed on infected mice, and the spirochete loads were determined during feeding and up to 93 d postfeeding. amblyomma americanum (l.) was refractory to b. burgdorferi infection, with almost no detection of spirochete dna during or postfeeding. in contrast, ixodes scapularis say supported high loads of spirochetes (10(3)-10(4) per l ...200616506448
amblyomma triste (koch, 1844) (acari: ixodidae): morphological description of the ovary and of vitellogenesis.the present study presents the morphology, histology, and the dynamics of vitellogenesis in females of the tick amblyomma triste. the ovary in this species is of the panoistic type, therefore it lacks nurse cells. it is composed of a layer of epithelial cells that outwardly form the wall of the ovary, but also originate the pedicel, the structure that attaches the oocytes to its external margin, as well the oocytes themselves. in amblyomma triste, the oocytes develop in four synchronic stages, w ...200616540108
interactions between climate, host refuge use, and tick population dynamics.the relationship between australian sleepy lizard (tiliqua rugosa) microhabitat use and tick (amblyomma limbatum) population dynamics was investigated. over 3 years (2002-2004) between 23 and 50 lizards were radio-tracked up to four times a week to record microhabitat use and each fortnight to determine tick loads. daily maximum temperature was highly predictive of lizard microhabitat use. in hotter fortnights lizards used larger bushes and burrows for refuge. peak background tick infestation le ...200616541265
importation of exotic ticks into the united kingdom via the international trade in reptiles.due to the increased trade in exotic reptiles, many of which are infested with ticks of various genera, there is an increased risk of exotic ticks and pathogens being introduced and potentially becoming established in new geographical areas. despite the number and variety of tick species collected from reptiles, their role in the maintenance of pathogens and transmission to humans has not been fully investigated for all species. the potential public health risks to the united kingdom have been e ...200616550335
cross-sectional survey of ixodid tick species on grazing cattle in japan.ixodid tick species were collected from cattle in 60 grazing fields throughout japan. haemaphysalis longicornis was mainly recovered in the western and southern regions, while ixodes species were collected mainly in the central to northern regions. other tick species such as amblyomma testudinarium, boophilus microplus, h. flava and h. kitaokai were identified from a few fields in the central and southern regions. haemaphysalis longicornis were recovered in the fields with higher temperatures an ...200616550336
footbath acaricide treatment to control cattle infestation by the tick amblyomma variegatum.previous studies have shown that about 90% of adult amblyomma variegatum fabricius (acari: ixodidae) picked up daily by grazing cattle are still attached to the interdigital areas in the evening, when the animals return from pasture. it was therefore postulated that a targeted treatment, designed to kill the ticks attached to the feet, would limit infestation of the predilection sites. footbaths filled with various pyrethroid formulations were used over 3 years, at the beginning of the rainy sea ...200617199752
an in vivo rodent model for identifying and characterizing acaricides.evaluation of candidate acaricides in livestock or companion animals is expensive, time-consuming, and usually requires large quantities of test material. to identify promising substances at the earliest possible stage of the development process, robust and predictive surrogate animal models, capable of rapidly characterizing potency with minimal compound requirements, are necessary. the objective of this study was to generate an in vivo surrogate animal bioassay capable of rapidly and accuratel ...200616739411
emerging tick-borne disease in african vipers caused by a cowdria-like organism.heartwater is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the rickettsial organism cowdria ruminantium, currently ehrlichia ruminantium. it poses an imminent threat to the western hemisphere, where it could cause mortality in cattle and other ruminant livestock in excess of 70%. it has been reported in the caribbean; and its vector, amblyomma sparsum, has been found on imported african spurred tortoises (geochelone sulcata) and leopard tortoises (geochelone pardalis) in southern florida in the uni ...200617135546
molecular characterisation of camp-dependent protein kinase (pk-a) catalytic subunit isoforms in the male tick, amblyomma hebraeum.the camp-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase a, pk-a) plays a central role in the regulation of diverse aspects of cellular activity. specifically, pk-a appears to play a key controlling role in the maturation of spermatids. using a pcr-based approach, with degenerate primers from the highly conserved regions of the pk-a catalytic (c) subunit in combination with 5' and 3' race, we have cloned three cdnas for the pk-a c-subunit of the male tick, amblyomma hebraeum. the three cdnas have open ...200617049629
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlvii. ticks of tortoises and other reptiles.a total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus amblyomma, and one argasid tick, ornithodoros compactus were recovered. seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. amongst these seven species amblyo ...200617058444
attachment kinetics of the adult tick amblyomma variegatum to the beginning of the 1999 rainy season, three traditional cattle herds were monitored for 48 days while grazing in the bushy savannah of southwestern burkina faso. cattle in each herd were caught on several occasions each day and the attached ticks were counted. this confirmed that amblyomma variegatum fabricius (acari: ixodidae) adults picked up in the pastures mainly attach to the interdigital areas (87% of the 791 ticks captured), and reach the predilection sites later (chest and udder/ing ...200617044883
ixodid ticks on dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the species composition and geographic distribution of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province. seventy-two communal cattle dip-tanks within this region were randomly selected as survey localities and their geographic coordinates recorded. in addition to ticks that were collected from five cattle and five goats at each of the dip-tanks, ticks were also collected from five dogs whenever possible. no dogs ...200617283731
evaluation of an imidacloprid (8.8% w/w)--permethrin (44.0% w/w) topical spot-on and a fipronil (9.8% w/w)--(s)-methoprene (8.8% w/w) topical spot-on to repel, prevent attachment, and kill adult ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum ticks on dogs.this study evaluated the effectiveness of two topical spot-on formulations -- imidacloprid(8.8% w/w)-permethrin (44.0% w/w) and fipronil (9.8% w/w)-(s)-methoprene (8.8% w/w)--to repel, prevent the attachment of, and kill adult ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum on dogs. twelve purpose-bred beagles were distributed into three groups of four dogs each; one group served as untreated controls, and each of the other two groups received one of the test products. dogs were exposed to 25 adult t ...200617039440
parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the bolivian chaco.parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. between march 2001 and march 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), eight geoffroy's cats (oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the bolivian chaco. the objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence ...200617312790
an investigation into the distribution, host-preference and population density of ixodid ticks affecting domestic animals in study the distribution, host-preference and population density of ixodid ticks in bangladesh, an attempt was made to collect adult ticks from various host animals in three distinct topographic zones, viz. flood plains, hills and steppe 'barind'. five species of ixodid ticks were recorded, namely, boophilus microplus (56.3%), haemaphysalis bispinosa (11.3%), rhipicephalus sanguineus (14.7%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (15.0%) and amblyomma testudinarium (2.8%). the data showed that b. micr ...200617243476
infection of a goat with a tick-transmitted ehrlichia from georgia, u.s.a., that is closely related to ehrlichia ruminantium.we detected a novel tick-transmitted ehrlichia in a goat following exposure to lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) from a park in the metropolitan area of atlanta, ga, u.s.a. nineteen days after infestation with field-collected adult ticks, the goat developed a fever of two days duration, which coincided with mild clinical pathologic changes and the presence of dna from a novel ehrlichia in peripheral blood. the goat transmitted ehrlichiae to uninfected nymphal a. americanum that fed upon the ...200617249337
a survey of free-living ixodid ticks on a commercial game farm in the thabazimbi district, limpopo province, south stages of ticks on a commercial game farm in the thabazimbi district, limpopo province, south africa, were collected by drag-sampling with flannel strips during the period september 2003 to august 2004. a total of 5 tick species was collected from 4 sites. boophilus decoloratus was the most abundant species, followed by amblyomma hebraeum. seasonal abundance of the ticks was quantified and an optimum time to implement control measures against the ticks is proposed.200617137055
prevalence of ehrlichia, borrelia, and rickettsial agents in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) collected from nine states.ambyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. in many regions of the united states, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by a. americanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. a. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii cause mod ...200617162962
relative abundance and prevalence of selected borrelia infections in ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from publicly owned lands in monmouth county, new evaluate their potential importance in the transmission of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses in monmouth county, nj, we collected host-seeking ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) adults and nymphs to determine relative encounter frequencies and the infection prevalence of selected borrelia spp. in their respective tick vectors. we also reviewed records of all ticks submitted for identification by the public in monmouth county during 2001-2005. relative abundance ...200617162963
first record of amblyomma aureolatum (pallas, 1772) (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing alouatta guariba (humboldt) (primata: atelidae) in southern brazil.a female of amblyomma aureolatum was found on the howler monkey alouatta guariba, in cachoeira do sul, rio grande do sul, southern brazil. this is the first record of this tick species parasitizing this primate species in brazil.200617196126
new member of the protein disulfide isomerase (pdi) family identified in amblyomma variegatum tick.ticks belonging to arthropoda are blood feeding, geographically widespread ectoparasites of mammals, reptiles and birds. their saliva contains active substances that protect them from host immune attack and allow for transmission of various pathogens during the feeding process. characterization of tick saliva components can therefore contribute to the development of effective methods for the control of tick-borne diseases. here we describe the identification and basic characterization of a gene ...200617098169
ticks (ixodidae) on humans in south america.twenty eight species of ixodidae have been found on man in south america (21 amblyomma, 1 boophilus, 2 dermacentor, 2 haemaphysalis, 1 ixodes and 1 rhipicephalus species). most of them are rarely found on man. however, three species frequently parasitize humans in restricted areas of argentina (a. neumanni reported from 46 localities), uruguay (a. triste from 21 sites) and argentina-brazil (a. parvum from 27 localities). the most widespread ticks are a. cajennense (134 localities in argentina, b ...200617103085
brazilian spotted fever: a case series from an endemic area in southeastern brazil: epidemiological aspects.brazilian spotted fever (bsf) is the most important tick-borne disease in brazil and is caused by rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by the ixodid tick amblyomma cajennense, its main vector. we present epidemiologic aspects of a case series of patients admitted to the hospital das clínicas da unicamp from 1985 to 2003 with a confirmed diagnosis of bsf either by a fourfold rise in indirect immunofluorescence (ifa) titers of igg antibodies reactive with r. rickettsii or isolation of r. ricketts ...200617114702
isolation of rickettsia rickettsii and rickettsia bellii in cell culture from the tick amblyomma aureolatum in brazil.brazilian spotted fever (bsf) is a highly lethal disease caused by rickettsia rickettsii. in the present study, rickettsial infection was evaluated in 669 amblyomma aureolatum adult ticks collected from naturally infested dogs in taiaçupeba, a bsf-endemic area in the state of são paulo. ten (1.49%) ticks were infected with rickettsia bellii, and 6 (0.89%) ticks were infected with r. rickettsii. both rickettsia species were isolated and established in vero cell cultures. the rickettsia isolates w ...200617114770
the use of a pour-on and spray dip containing amitraz to control ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle.knockdown and persistence efficacies of a pour-on containing amitraz 1% and cypermethrin 1% and a spray dip containing 12.5% amitraz were compared. knock-down and persistence efficacies of the amitraz spray dip against rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus and amblyomma hebraeum were significantly higher for the duration of the trial than those of the pour-on. in the case of rhipicephalus appediculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, efficacy was significantly higher on days 2 and 5. resistan ...200617120621
ticks (acari: ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of haller park along the kenyan coastline.this artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in haller park along the kenyan coastline. the survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. a considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, s ...200617017210
human infestation by larval amblyomma ticks. 200616618871
[human ehrlichiosis].human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. it is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus erlichia. these are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. tick ixodes is the principle vector in europe, and amblyomma amenicanum in the united states. bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of ...200616683411
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