TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
ecology of rickettsia in south america.until the year 2000, only three rickettsia species were known in south america: (i) rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by the ticks amblyomma cajennense, and amblyomma aureolatum, reported in colombia, argentina, and brazil, where it is the etiological agent of rocky mountain spotted fever; (ii) rickettsia prowazekii, transmitted by body lice and causing epidemic typhus in highland areas, mainly in peru; (iii) rickettsia typhi, transmitted by fleas and causing endemic typhus in many countries. d ...200919538276
distribution of antibodies reactive to borrelia lonestari and borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) populations in the eastern united states.southern tick-associated rash illness is a lyme-like syndrome that occurs in the southern states. borrelia lonestari, which has been suggested as a possible causative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness, naturally infects white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) and is transmitted by the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum). to better understand the prevalence and distribution of borrelia exposure among wtd, we tested wtd from 21 eastern states for antibodies reactive to b. lo ...200919874183
[transfer of exotic ticks (acari: ixodida) on reptiles (reptilia) imported to poland].in the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: testudo, iguana, varanus, gongylophis, python, spalerosophis, psammophis. the material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "animals" ltd from swietochłowice (upper silesia, poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. the reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected wit ...200920066784
gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of bradypus variegatus and choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from costa rica.sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. however, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect costa rica's sloth population. during a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of costa rican sloth species (choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, sheather's flotation and sedimentation. concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. ...200919368244
[ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis].ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are zoonoses caused by bacteria from the family anaplasmataceae, including human and animal pathogens. the human pathogens are ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme), anaplasma phagocytophilum, the pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), e. ewingii and neorickettsia sennetsu, granulocytotropic and monocytotropic ehrlichia species, respectively. ehrlichia spp. are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular b ...200920077398
transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of the female tick amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).ticks infest a wide range of hosts while bypassing their immune, inflammatory and haemostatic responses during their extended feeding, which may last for more than two weeks. here, we present a transcriptome analysis of 3868 expressed sequence tags (ests) from three cdna libraries generated from the salivary glands of adult female ambyomma americanum ticks at different stages of feeding. we applied a normalization step for one library, significantly decreasing the abundance of mitochondrial sequ ...200919320755
innovative approach for transcriptomic analysis of obligate intracellular pathogen: selective capture of transcribed sequences of ehrlichia ruminantium.whole genome transcriptomic analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the pathogenesis of obligate intracellular bacteria. however, the major hurdle resides in the low quantity of prokaryotic mrnas extracted from host cells. our model ehrlichia ruminantium (er), the causative agent of heartwater, is transmitted by tick amblyomma variegatum. this bacterium affects wild and domestic ruminants and is present in sub-saharan africa and the caribbean islands. be ...200920034374
possible acquired resistance of dogs successively infested by amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.the present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of immune resistance in dogs successively infested with amblyomma cajennense nymphs. five animals were submitted to four consecutive infestations with a. cajennense nymphs, at fourteen-day intervals. for each infestation, 50 nymphs were used per animal and data on the parasitic and non-parasitic periods were recorded. the average recovering rate of engorged nymphs in the successive infestations were 52.0, 29.2, 9.6 and 12.8%, respectively, with ...200920040189
a borreliacidal factor in amblyomma americanum saliva is associated with phospholipase a2 activity.previous work in our laboratory described the in vitro killing of borrelia burgdorferi when co-cultured with saliva from adult amblyomma americanum. borreliacidal activity was not evident using ixodes scapularis saliva. mixing trypsin with saliva eliminated the borreliacidal activity of a. americanum saliva, while incorporating a trypsin inhibitor restored all borreliacidal activity, indicating this factor was of protein or peptide origin. one-dimensional page indicated at least 7 major protein ...200919271281
amblyomma americanum (l): tick macrophage migration inhibitory factor peptide immunization lengthens lone star tick feeding intervals in vivo.immunizations of new zealand white rabbits with specific macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) tick peptide (pep) produced circulating anti-tick pep antibodies in the hosts. antibody titers of greater than 1:5000 to tick mif peptide were observed for crude sera from pep-immunized rabbits. pep- and bsa-vaccinated rabbits were infested with amblyomma americanum adults. feeding intervals, female weights, egg masses and percent egg hatch were measured for ticks feeding on control and immunize ...200919111543
histopathology and ultrastructure features of the midgut of adult females of the tick amblyomma cajennense fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae) in various feeding stages and submitted to three infestations.the digestive tube of the tick amblyomma cajennense is responsible for the digestion during feeding on the host. this study analyzed the midgut of unfed, partially engorged, and fully engorged fed females as well as three infestations in rabbits. in a. cajennense, the digestive tube is long and from the midgut, two pairs of diverticula ramify and lead to a blind end. in some midgut regions were observed for the first time in ticks, structures termed here "nodules." the midgut of unfed females po ...200919929171
whartonacarus floridensis sp. nov. (acari: trombiculidae), with a taxonomic review and the first record of whartonacarus chiggers in the continental united states.among several unusual species collected during surveillance of ectoparasites on wildlife hosts in the southeastern united states and caribbean region, the larvae of a new species of whartonacarus were encountered in 2003 on a cattle egret, bubulcus ibis (l.), in the florida keys. this is the first record for a member of whartonacarus in the continental united states. the mite is described and named as whartonacarus floridensis mertins, and the possible significance of this discovery with respect ...200919960669
effects of photoperiod on reproduction, nymphal developmental timing, and diapause in amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae).female engorgement weight, oviposition, and molting times of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma maculatum koch (acari: ixodidae) were studied at various photoperiods under constant humidity and temperature in the laboratory. ticks were held at photoperiods of 0:24, 10:14, 12:12, or 14:10 (l:d) h from egg through unfed nymphal stage and then at either the same or a different regime from fed nymphs to adults. no significant effects were observed on oviposition, female engorgement weights, survival, or ...200919960673
influence of photoperiod and temperature on the larval behavioral diapause of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).larval behavioral diapause was shown to be the major factor controlling the 1-yr generation pattern of amblyomma cajennense (f.) (acari: ixodidae) in brazil. during fieldwork, this behavior was shown to coincide with long daylength (>12 h) and high mean ground temperature (approximately =25 degrees c), which prevail during spring-summer in brazil. the current study evaluated biological parameters of engorged females, their eggs, and the resultant larvae inside plastic pots planted with the grass ...200919960674
fat body cells of amblyomma cajennense partially engorged females (acari: ixodidae) and their role on vitellogenesis process.during the process of arthropoda reproduction, the synthesis and uptake of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids by oocytes is termed vitellogenesis. these compounds that will make up the yolk may be in ticks endogenously synthesized by the oocytes and/or exogenously produced by the fat body and pedicel cells. this study examined the fat body of amblyomma cajennense ticks at the cytochemical ultrastructural level to demonstrate the presence of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in trophocytes. the ...200919041306
surveys for ectoparasites on wildlife associated with amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae)-infested livestock in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands.surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum (f.) (acari: ixodidae), in st. croix, u.s. virgin islands. small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann); and feral cattle, bos taurus l., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western st. croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested prem ...200919960701
seasonal distribution of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma tigrinum koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae).the seasonality of immature stages of amblyomma tigrinum was studied in an area of the chaco phytogeographical province in córdoba, argentina by monthly collection of larvae from ground feeding birds and sigmodontinae rodents, and nymphs from caviidae rodents from may 2005 to april 2007. an apparent peak of abundance was found from december to may but differences with other months of the year were not significant (p>0.05). these and previous results suggest that the parasitic stages of a. trigri ...200919833442
acquisition and transmission of hepatozoon canis (apicomplexa: hepatozoidae) by the tick amblyomma ovale (acari: ixodidae).the present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of hepatozoon canis by amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. two h. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with a. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. after feeding, two a. ovale females presented h. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days af ...200919501969
rickettsia parkeri in amblyomma americanum ticks, tennessee and georgia, determine the geographic distribution of the newly recognized human pathogen rickettsia parkeri, we looked for this organism in ticks from tennessee and georgia, usa. using pcr and sequence analysis, we identified r. parkeri in 2 amblyomma americanum ticks. this rickettsiosis may be underdiagnosed in the eastern united states.200919788817
pathogen prevalence and blood meal identification in amblyomma ticks as a means of reservoir host determination for ehrlichial pathogens. 200919793129
comparative efficacy of bioud to other commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis on cotton cloth.bioud is an arthropod repellent that contains the active ingredient 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato plants. repellency of bioud was compared with five commercially available arthropod repellents against the ticks amblyomma americanum (l.) and dermacentor variabilis say in two-choice bioassays on treated versus untreated cotton cheesecloth. overall mean percentage repellency against both species was greatest for and did not differ significantly between bioud (7.75% 2-undecanone) ...200919815887
immunisation with recombinant proteins subolesin and bm86 for the control of dermanyssus gallinae in poultry.dermanyssus gallinae has a worldwide distribution and is considered to be the most serious and economically significant ectoparasite affecting egg-laying poultry in europe. recombinant bm86 and subolesin proteins derived from boophilus microplus ticks and aedes albopictus mosquitoes were used to immunise poultry in an attempt to control d. gallinaein vitro. immunisation with subolesin and bm86 stimulated different profiles of igy response, whilst bm86 but not subolesin was recognized by igy on w ...200919501789
ticks on domestic animals in pernambuco, northeastern brazil.the objective of this article was to discuss some aspects of ticks associated with domestic animals in the state of pernambuco, northeastern brazil, based on a literature review and present new data obtained from recent tick collections carried out in this northeastern brazilian state. from august 2007 to june 2008, 1,405 ticks were collected and five species were identified: amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787), amblyomma ovale koch, 1844, dermacentor nitens neumann, 1897, rhipicephalus (boop ...200919772771
ectoparasite infestation on rural dogs in the municipality of são vicente férrer, pernambuco, northeastern brazil.this article presents the results of a study on ectoparasites infesting rural dogs in pernambuco, northeastern brazil. forty-one dogs from a rural community of pernambuco were examined and 70.7% were infested by ectoparasites. the prevalence rates of infestation by ticks, fleas, and lice were 58.5, 43.9 and 22%, respectively. of 24 dogs parasitized by ticks, 15 were exclusively infested by rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (32 females, 66 males, 9 nymphs; prevalence, 48.8%; mean intensity, 5. ...200919772781
alternate pathway of infection with hepatozoon americanum and the epidemiologic importance of predation.the range of american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is expanding from the southern usa northward. transmission of hepatozoon americanum occurs by ingestion of infected gulf coast ticks, amblyomma maculatum. the source of the protozoan for the tick remains undetermined; infected dogs are unusual hosts for the tick.200919709355
development of the immature stages of amblyomma lepidum (acari: ixodidae) under field conditions.according to this study, the effect of seasonality on the development of larvae and nymphs of amblyomma lepidum was highly significant (p< or =0.001). the moulting of larvae was only possible in the rainy season, where means of 76.8 and 73.1% were recorded in the first and the second year, respectively. nymphs, in the same period, achieved 68.8 and 71.8% moult. in winter, only 11.8 and 12.2% of nymphs succeeded to moult in the first and the second year, respectively. males outnumbered females, b ...200919709816
detection of theileria parva antibodies in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of zambia.a serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of theileria parva antibodies in 176 african buffaloes (syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of zambia. rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus species, and amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. t. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at mlanga and nanzhila bordering the kafue national parks and in the ...200919733007
demonstration of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in ticks from the northeast of mexico.borrelia burgdorferisensu lato infection has been confirmed in clinical cases in the northeast of mexico; however, the bacterium has not been identified as infecting the tick vector ixodes, amblyomma and dermacentor ticks were collected from mammals and plants in northeastern mexico and examined for borrelia. eighteen of 214 ticks were pcr-positive for the fla and 16s rrna genes and 15 for the ospa gene. southern blotting with a fla probe and sequencing of ospa genes confirmed infection with b. ...200919489926
influence of prescribed burns on the abundance of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in the missouri ozarks.the increasingly widespread use of prescribed burns to manage oak (quercus spp.)-hickory (carya spp.) forests in the missouri ozarks, usa, has considerable potential to alter the abundance of amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae), the lone star tick, an important vector of several emerging pathogens. in particular, responses of important tick hosts, primarily white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), to fire management and the resultant changes in the distribution and abundance of a. ame ...200919769033
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting birds in an atlantic rain forest region of brazil.brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (acari: ixodidae) parazitizing birds. the aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an atlantic rain forest region of brazil. during 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. a total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. in total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of amblyomm ...200919769058
sensitivity of host-seeking nymphal lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae) to immersion in heated nymphal amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) were placed into heated water, and their survival or their torpidity was recorded as a function of exposure time. exposures were determined that either kill the nymphs or affect their mobility. all nymphs died when exposed for a minute or more to a temperature > 51 degrees c. nearly all nymphs remained motionless for a period of time when exposed for 3 min to a temperature > 44 degrees c.200919769061
microarray analysis of gene expression changes in feeding female and male lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l).a collection of est clones from female tick amblyomma americanum salivary glands was hybridized to rna from different feeding stages of female tick salivary glands and from unfed or feeding adult male ticks. in the female ticks, the expression patterns changed dramatically upon starting feeding, then changed again towards the end of feeding. on beginning feeding, genes possibly involved in survival on the host increased in expression as did many housekeeping genes. as feeding progressed, some of ...200919514082
[stari--a new tick borne spirochetosis].southern tick associated rash illness (stari), also known as masters disease is caused by borrelia lonestari spirochetes and it is transmitted by amblyomma americanum tick. early symptoms of stari are similar to early lyme borreliosis (skin rash resembling erythema migrans). in diagnostic of stari traditional methods are not effective. the decision of antibiotic treatment (similar to lyme borreliosis) still remain based on clinical picture.200919522220
closing the gaps between genotype and phenotype in rickettsia rickettsii.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) caused by rickettsia rickettsii is a severe rickettsiosis that occurs in nearly every state of the continental usa. rmsf is endemic in central and southern america, with recent well-documented cases in mexico, costa rica, panama, colombia, brazil, and argentina. rmsf is the most malignant among known rickettsioses causing severe multiorgan dysfunction and high case fatality rates, which can reach 73% in untreated cases. variations in pathogenic biotypes of r. ...200919538260
molecular and morphological description of a hepatozoon species in reptiles and their ticks in the northern territory, australia.ticks, representing 3 species of amblyomma, were collected from the water python (liasis fuscus) and 3 additional reptile species in the northern territory, australia, and tested for the presence of hepatozoon sp., the most common blood parasites of snakes. in addition, blood smears were collected from 5 reptiles, including the water python, and examined for the presence of the parasite. hepatozoon sp. dna was detected in all tick and reptile species, with 57.7% of tick samples (n = 187) and 35. ...200918710299
male engorgement factor: role in stimulating engorgement to repletion in the ixodid tick, dermacentor variabilis.mating in ticks results in profound physiological changes that eventually results in egg production. in the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis, mating causes partially blood-fed female ticks to commence rapid engorgement to repletion and eventual detachment from the host and egg laying. the peptidic male pheromone (engorgement factor alpha/beta) transferred to the female during mating is known only from a single tick species, amblyomma hebraeum, and was shown to consist of two peptides pr ...200919538967
a borreliacidal factor in amblyomma americanum saliva is associated with phospholipase a(2) activity.previous work in our laboratory described the in vitro killing of borrelia burgdorferi when co-cultured with saliva from adult amblyomma americanum. borreliacidal activity was not evident using ixodes scapularis saliva. mixing trypsin with saliva eliminated the borreliacidal activity of a. americanum saliva, while incorporating a trypsin inhibitor restored all borreliacidal activity, indicating this factor was of protein or peptide origin. one dimensional page indicated at least 7 major protein ...200919545533
unique biological rhythm in the reproductive behaviour of female ticks of reptiles.we report the discovery of a biological rhythm in the reproductive behaviour of the tick bothriocroton hydrosauri that was absent in amblyomma limbatum, a species that occurs on the same species of reptile host. female b. hydrosauri mated in autumn or winter delayed oviposition until the following spring, while there was no diapause in conspecific females mated in spring or early summer. initiation of ovipositional diapause in ticks is usually related to photoperiodic stimuli, but this was not t ...200919126271
salivary gland degeneration and vitellogenesis in the ixodid tick amblyomma hebraeum: surpassing a critical weight is the prerequisite and detachment from the host is the trigger.the normal engorged body weight of female ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) is about 100x the unfed weight. virgin female amblyomma hebraeum normally do not feed beyond 10x the unfed weight. however, about 10-20% of a population of virgins will feed to perhaps 20x the unfed weight, but not much beyond that. in a. hebraeum, when females surpass about 10x the unfed weight, the following changes in physiology occur if they are removed from the host: (a) they will not reattach if given the opportunity, ...200919555693
rickettsial infection in amblyomma nodosum ticks (acari: ixodidae) from brazil.the rickettsial infections in 174 amblyomma nodosum found on passeriform birds in the atlantic forest, eastern brazil, have recently been evaluated. rickettsiae were successfully isolated from two ticks, using cultures of vero cells. both isolates were molecularly characterised, using the rickettsial genes glta and htra and, when possible, also ompa and ompb. portions of the glta and htra genes from one of the rickettsial isolates were found be closely match the corresponding genbank sequences f ...200919583912
babesia spp. infection in dogs from rural areas of são paulo state, brazil.the status of babesia spp. infection in dogs from rural areas of são paulo state, brazil was studied. for this, 150 animals were examined by blood smears and by pcr; the presence of tick infestation was also investigated. by the blood smear examination, 3 animals (2%) were detected positive and by pcr for babesia spp. 12 (8%) were positive, with bands visualized in 450 bp. rhipicephalus sanguineus or amblyomma spp. were found on 36 (24%) of the 150 dogs. amblyomma species found were a. cajennens ...200919602312
[occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the municipality of goiatins, tocantins].due to a suspected human case of brazilian lyme-like disease in the city of goiatins, tocantins state, an epidemiological survey was carried out in eight counties in this region during september 2007 and february 2008, where 1,890 ticks were collected from domestic animals and from the environment. a total of eight tick species were identified: rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, dermacentor nitens, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma oblongoguttatum, amblyomma ovale, ambl ...200919602318
noncompetitive inhibitor of thrombin. 200919644995
detection and identification of rickettsial agents in ticks from domestic mammals in eastern panama.several outbreaks of rocky mountain spotted fever have occurred in recent years in colombian communities close to the border with panama. however, little is known about rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases in eastern panamanian provinces, the darien province and the kuna yala, located north of the endemic area in colombia. in 2007, 289 ticks were collected in several towns from dogs, horses, mules, cows, and pigs. dna was extracted from 124 dermacentor nitens, 64 rhipicephalus sanguineus, 43 amb ...200919645289
evidence for the presence of francisella and spotted fever group rickettsia dna in the tick amblyomma fimbriatum (acari: ixodidae), northern territory, australia.ticks (n = 252) were collected from five wild-caught reptile species during routine trapping in the djukbinj national park and fogg dam reserve, northern territory, australia. pooling of ticks (one to four ticks per pool), according to sex or host animal, resulted in 187 samples used for screening for the presence of rickettsia species via molecular methods. rickettsia dna was detected via the amplification of the glta, ompa, and ompb genes in 57 (34%) of the 187 tick samples, all of which conta ...200919645299
new approaches to detection and identification of rickettsia africae and ehrlichia ruminantium in amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) ticks from the caribbean.imported from africa in the 1700s and despite frequent modern eradication efforts, amblyomma variegatum (f.) spread through the caribbean by cattle transport, small ruminants, and migrating birds. a. variegatum is a vector for rickettsia africae, the causative agent of african tick bite fever, and ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater. we examined 95 a. variegatum and six rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini) collected from cattle at an abattoir in antigua. engorged ...200919645301
community-based prevention of lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: background and rationale.this series of articles describes the first large-scale experiment designed to explore the efficacy of reducing the risk of tick-borne disease in highly endemic communities of the northeastern and mid-atlantic united states through deployment of a self-application device that treats white-tailed deer with acaricide to prevent feeding by adult ixodes scapularis ticks and all stages of amblyomma americanum ticks where both species occur. the results of the multicenter study are reported in the acc ...200919650729
effectiveness of the 4-poster passive topical treatment device in the control of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in new jersey.twenty-five "4-poster" feeders were placed throughout a 5.2 km(2) study area within a secured military facility situated in a hyperendemic area for lyme disease in central monmouth county, new jersey. calculated levels of control, relative to untreated areas, peaked at 82.7%, 77.3%, and 94.2% for of host-seeking ixodes scapularis say larvae, nymphs, and adults, respectively, within 5 years of deployment. control of host-seeking amblyomma americanum (l.) peaked at 99.2%, 89.5%, and 96.9% for larv ...200919650733
biology and life cycle of amblyomma incisum (acari: ixodidae).amblyomma incisum neumann is a major tick species in the atlantic forest of brazil. tapir is the main host for adult ticks and a high aggressiveness of nymphs to humans has been reported. in this work data on the biology and life cycle of this tick species is presented for the first time. it was shown that horse is a suitable host for a. incisum adults and rabbit for larvae and nymphs. it was also shown that a. incisum is a big tick species (mean engorged female weight of 1.96 g) with a long lif ...200919130270
experimental infection of capybaras hydrochoerus hydrochaeris by rickettsia rickettsii and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks amblyomma cajennense.the present study evaluated the infection of capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) by rickettsia rickettsii and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission of r. rickettsii to amblyomma cajennense ticks. two groups of two capybaras each were evaluated: on day 0, group 1 (g1) was infested by r. rickettsii-infected ticks, and group 2 (g2) was inoculated intraperitoneally with r. rickettsii. two additional groups were control groups, not exposed to r. rickettsii, being cg1 group the c ...200919147293
the united states department of agriculture's northeast area-wide tick control project: summary and conclusions.from 1997 to 2002, the u.s. department of agriculture's northeast area-wide tick control project used acaricide-treated 4-poster deer treatment bait stations in five eastern states to control ticks feeding on white-tailed deer. the objectives of this host-targeted technology were to reduce free-living blacklegged (ixodes scapularis say) and lone star (amblyomma americanum [l.]) tick populations and thereby to reduce the risk of tick-borne disease. during 2002 to 2004, treatments were suspended, ...200919650739
cloning and characterization of rhipicephalus appendiculatus voraxinalpha and its effect as anti-tick vaccine.male tick-derived voraxinalpha and voraxinbeta, a pair of testicular proteins, are transferred to female via copulation to stimulate female blood feeding in the tick amblyomma hebraeum (a. hebraeum). immunized animals with recombinant (r-)voraxinalpha and voraxinbeta have been shown as highly resistant to the tick infestation. in this study, we describe the cloning and characterization of voraxinalpha homologue from the tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus (r. appendiculatus), the major vector for ...200919665610
current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis.anaplasma phagocytophilum, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii are emerging tick-borne pathogens and are the causative agents of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and e. ewingii ehrlichiosis, respectively. collectively, these are referred to as human ehrlichioses. these obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the family anaplasmataceae are transmitted by ixodes spp. or amblyomma americanum ticks and infect peripherally circulating leukocytes to cause inf ...200919681699
[survey of rickettsia spp in the ticks amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum in the state of são paulo].the presence of rickettsial infection was surveyed in 3,545 amblyomma cajennense ticks and 2,666 amblyomma dubitatum ticks. using the hemolymph test, polymerase chain reaction and isolation of rickettsia in cell cultures, all of the amblyomma cajennense were negative, whereas 634 (23.8%) of the amblyomma dubitatum ticks were shown to be infected with rickettsia bellii.200919684990
isolongifolenone: a novel sesquiterpene repellent of ticks and mosquitoes.a naturally occurring sesquiterpene, isolongifolenone, derivatives of which have been used extensively as ingredients in the cosmetics industry, was discovered to effectively repel blood-feeding arthropods that are important disease vectors. we show that (-)-isolongifolenone deters the biting of the mosquitoes, aedes aegypti (l.) and anopheles stephensi liston, more effectively than the widely used synthetic chemical repellent, n,n-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (deet), in laboratory bioassays. the ...200919198523
ehrlichia chaffeensis infections in drosophila melanogaster.ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate, intracellular bacterium, transmitted by the tick amblyomma americanum, and is the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis infections. we previously demonstrated that e. chaffeensis is capable of growing in drosophila s2 cells. therefore, we tested the hypothesis that e. chaffeensis can infect adult drosophila melanogaster. adult drosophila organisms were experimentally challenged with intra-abdominal injections of bacteria. ehrlichia-infected flies s ...200919687202
ectoparasite fauna of rodents and shrews from four habitats in kuala lumpur and the states of selangor and negeri sembilan, malaysia and its public health significance.a total of 204 rodents comprising 14 host species from four different habitats were examined. nine rodent species were trapped from the forest and another five species were trapped from the coastal, rice field and urban habitats. rattus rattus diardii (67%) was the predominant rodent species examined. fifty six (47.3%) rodents and shrews were found to be infested with at least one of the 20 species of ectoparasite recovered. mites belonging to the family trombiculidae were the predominant ectopa ...200920237444
efficacy of a topical ectoparasiticide containing dinotefuran, pyriproxyfen, and permethrin against amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick) on dogs.amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick) are important disease vectors for both dogs and humans. this article describes two studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new topical spot-on ectoparasiticide containing dinotefuran, permethrin, and pyriproxyfen (vectra 3d, summit vetpharm) against a. maculatum and a. americanum in dogs. dogs were treated on day 0 and infested on days -1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 with approximately 40 ticks each day. live tick coun ...200919742444
notes on population dynamics of amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) in brazil.previous population dynamics data, generated for amblyomma parvum aragão and amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) in argentina and southeastern brazil, have indicated that these ticks complete 1 generation per year, with larvae predominating in autumn, nymphs in winter, and mostly adults during spring and summer. the present study reports population dynamics data for free-living amblyomma spp. ticks in northern brazil (amazon forest, latitude 10 degrees s, 63 degrees w), and for amblyomma spp. ticks ...200920050009
prevalence of equine piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the state of são paulo, brazil.serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the state of são paulo and tick (acari: ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (cft) and a competitive inhibition elisa (celisa) for babesia caballi and theileria equi. logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for b. caballi or t. equi) as a function of the independent ...200920040201
morphological description of amblyomma brasiliense aragão, 1908 (acari: ixodidae) larvae and nymphs.the immature stages of neotropical ticks are poorly known and in many cases have not been described. tis work presents a morphological description of amblyomma brasiliense larvae (f1) and a redescription of nymphs (f1). a. brasiliense is reported as one of the most aggressive ticks to humans in brazil. immature ticks obtained from a laboratory colony initiated from adult specimens collected in the parque estadual intervales (24 degrees 18 degrees s and 48 degrees 24' w), são paulo, brazil, were ...200919772770
a redescription of haemogregarina fitzsimonsi dias, 1953 and some comments on haemogregarina parvula dias, 1953 (adeleorina: haemogregarinidae) from southern african tortoises (cryptodira: testudinidae), with new host data and distribution records.blood films were examined from 154 wild and captive tortoises from four provinces of south africa, including gauteng, kwazulu-natal, north west and western cape. the five species ofchelonians studied were chersina angulata (schweigger), kinixys belliana belliana (gray), k. lobatsiana power, k. natalensis hewitt, and stigmochelys pardalis (bell). two species of haemogregarines, previously reported from mozambique, were identified in blood films, namely haemogregarina fitzsimonsi dias, 1953 and ha ...200919827360
ticks collected from birds in the northern provinces of south africa, 2004-2006.approximately 3000 birds, mainly passerines, caught in mist nets in the northern provinces of south africa, were examined for ticks. a total of 178 ticks, belonging to 14 species, were recovered from 83 birds of 43 different species. hyalomma rufipes was the most numerous tick, with 26 larvae and 109 nymphs collected, followed by amblyomma marmoreum, with 13 larvae and two nymphs. despite the study being conducted within the distribution range of amblyomma hebraeum, it was not seen on any passer ...200920698437
the comparative prevalence of five ixodid tick species infesting cattle and goats in maputo province, mozambique.this study compares the prevalence of ixodid tick species on cattle and goats in maputo province. adult ticks as well as the nymphs of three species, and only the adults of two species were collected from sets of five cattle at 21 localities throughout the province and compared with those collected from similar sets of goats at the same places. amblyomma hebraeum adults and/or nymphs were present on cattle and on goats at all 21 localities, and 90 cattle and 22 goats were infested with adult tic ...200920698440
tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of matabeleland south, zimbabwe.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in gwanda district of matabeleland south province, zimbabwe. eight tick species were identified: amblyomma hebraeum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus zambeziensis and rhipicephalus ...200920698443
strains of ehrlichia chaffeensis in southern indiana, kentucky, mississippi, and north carolina.rates of infection of amblyomma americanum (l.) by ehrlichia chaffeensis were compared in 100 ticks collected from sites in each of four states: indiana, north carolina, kentucky, and mississippi. the overall infection rates were similar among sites, ranging from 1 to 4%. because pathogenic differences may exist between e. chaffeensis strains, nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of the variable-length pcr target (vlpt), and sequencing of the amplicons were performed to different ...200919960699
canine babesiosis caused by babesia canis vogeli in rural areas of the state of minas gerais, brazil and factors associated with its seroprevalence.this epidemiological survey on canine babesiosis was carried out in three distinct rural regions (lavras, belo horizonte and nanuque) of the state of minas gerais, brazil. ticks and blood samples were collected during a dry season (lavras, n=92; belo horizonte, n=50; nanuque, n=102) and the subsequent rainy season (lavras, n=71; belo horizonte, n=28; nanuque, n=66) from dogs living on farms. plasma samples were analyzed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of anti-babesia cani ...200918723199
the impact of rna interference of the subolesin and voraxin genes in male amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae) on female engorgement and oviposition.reducing or replacing the use of chemical pesticides for tick control is a desirable goal. the most promising approach would be to develop vaccines that protect hosts against tick infestation. antigens suitable for the development of anti-tick vaccines will likely be those essential for vital physiological processes, and in particular those directly involved in feeding and reproduction. in this study genes from amblyomma hebraeum koch that encode for subolesin and voraxin were studied in male ti ...200918830675
survey of tick infestation in small ruminants of miesso district, west harergie, oromia region, ethiopia.a survey was conducted to identify tick species and determine the prevalence of tick infestation in small ruminants of miesso district, west harergie zone. collection and identification of the ticks were undertaken from november 2007 to april 2008. all visible individual adult ticks were collected from the body of 328 goats and 40 sheep. the prevalence of tick infestation in goats and sheep was found to be 89.9% and 87.5%, respectively. in this study, ten species of ticks which grouped under fou ...200919082757
the use of a semiochemical bait to enhance exposure of amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) to metarhizium anisopliae (ascomycota: hypocreales).experiments were conducted to explore the use of a semiochemical bait to enhance exposure of amblyomma variegatum fabricius (acari: ixodidae) to different formulations of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae (metsch.) sorok. (ascomycota: hypocreales). initially, the relative efficacies of attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone (aaap), made up of o-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate and nonanoic acid in the ratio 2:1:8, 1-octen-3-ol and butyric acid, were evaluated in an olfactomet ...200919091474
role of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), in human and animal diseases.we reviewed scientific literature pertaining to known and putative disease agents associated with the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. reports in the literature concerning the role of the lone star tick in the transmission of pathogens of human and animal diseases have sometimes been unclear and even contradictory. this overview has indicated that a. americanum is involved in the ecology of several disease agents of humans and other animals, and the role of this tick as a vector of these di ...200919054615
efficacy of the new repellent bioud against three species of ixodid ticks.bioud with the active ingredient 2-undecanone originally derived from wild tomato plants is a new repellent recently registered by the us epa. repellent efficacy of bioud (7.75% 2-undecanone) and deet (98.11%) was examined in the laboratory using a choice test between repellent-treated and control filter paper surfaces for amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis. bioud provided greater repellency against a. americanum and i. scapularis than deet. no difference was fou ...200919140016
detection of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia lonestari in birds in tennessee.lyme disease in the united states is caused by the bacterial spirochete borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner), which is transmitted by tick vectors ixodes scapularis (say) and i. pacificus (cooley and kohls). borrelia lonestari, transmitted by the tick amblyomma americanum l., may be associated with a related syndrome, southern tick-associated rash illness (stari). borrelia lonestari sequences, reported primarily in the southeastern states, have also been de ...200919198527
prevalence of anaplasma marginale in different tick species from ngorongoro crater, 2001, ngorongoro crater was infested with high density of ticks on grassland, livestock and wildlife which was also associated with high mortality. adult ticks were collected, identified, processed for nucleic acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring anaplasma marginale. the real-time pcr was used in the amplification of rickettsia dna in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified tick species. six tick species were detected with a. m ...200919201099
bovine dermatophilosis, a re-emerging pandemic disease in determine the current distribution of bovine dermatophilosis in zimbabwe, participatory rural appraisals were held at 36 locations in six districts. results showed that bovine dermatophilosis is no longer confined to hwange-lupane area, but is now endemic in gokwe, sanyati, kwekwe, and kadoma. virgin outbreaks of the disease were preceded by the appearance of amblyomma variegatum ticks within an area. spreading to new geographical areas (cited above) occurred during the liberation struggle (1 ...200919212820
conservation and immunogenicity of the mosquito ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin.the control of arthropod vectors of pathogens that affect human and animal health is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases. the ortholog of the tick-protective antigen, subolesin, was identified in aedes albopictus and found to have conserved epitopes in ticks and mosquitoes. rna interference with the tick and mosquito double-stranded rna in three tick species resulted in significant gene knockdown and decreased tick weight and/or survival. feeding anopheles atroparvus, aedes ca ...200919229557
redescription of the female, description of the male, and several new records of amblyomma parkeri (acari: ixodidae), a south american tick species.the tick amblyomma parkeri fonseca and aragão was described in 1952, based on female and immature ticks collected in the states of são paulo and santa catarina, brazil. thereafter, there has been no further report of a. parkeri, and the male has remained unknown. herein, we examined ticks collected on porcupines from a locality in the state of são paulo. some of the ticks were identified as amblyomma longirostre (koch, 1844), whereas others as a. parkeri, including male specimens, for which we p ...200919241123
infection and replication of bartonella species within a tick cell line.bartonella species are fastidious, gram negative bacteria, some of which are transmitted by arthropod vectors, including fleas, sandflies, and lice. there is very little information regarding the interaction and/or transmission capabilities of bartonella species by ticks. in the present study, we demonstrate successful infection of the amblyomma americanum cell line, aae12, by seven bartonella isolates and three candidatus bartonella species by electron or light microscopy. with the exception of ...200919242658
transmission of cytauxzoon felis to a domestic cat by amblyomma americanum.cytauxzoon felis was transmitted to a domestic cat by amblyomma americanum. the infection was produced by the bite of a. americanum adults that were acquisition fed as nymphs on a domestic cat that naturally survived infection of c. felis. fever, inappetence, depression, and lethargy were first noted 11 days post-infestation (dpi). pale mucus membranes, splenomegaly, icterus, and dyspnea were also observed during the course of the disease. the body temperature of the experimentally infected c. f ...200919168288
comments on controversial tick (acari: ixodida) species names and species described or resurrected from 2003 to 2008.there are numerous discrepancies in recent published lists of the ticks of the world. here we review the controversial names, presenting evidence for or against their validity and excluding some altogether. we also address spelling errors and present a list of 17 species described or resurrected during the years 2003-2008. we consider the following 35 tick species names to be invalid: argas fischeri audouin, 1826, ornithodoros boliviensis kohls and clifford, 1964, ornithodoros steini (schulze, 1 ...200919169832
ecological aspects of the free-living ticks (acari: ixodidae) on animal trails within atlantic rainforest in south-eastern a recent ecological study of the ticks on animal trails within an area of atlantic rainforest in south-eastern brazil, amblyomma aureolatum, a. brasiliense, a. incisum, a. ovale and haemaphysalis juxtakochi were found questing on the vegetation. most of the ticks recorded by a small, man-made dam on the forest border were a. dubitatum but a few a. brasiliense and a. cajennense, one a. incisum and one h. juxtakochi were also found. the seasonal activity of the ticks indicated that a. incisum a ...200919173777
kupe virus, a new virus in the family bunyaviridae, genus nairovirus, kenya.we have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to dugbe virus (dugv), family bunyaviridae, genus nairovirus. six isolates of the virus were obtained from pools of amblyomma gemma and rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks collected from hides of cattle in nairobi, kenya, in october 1999. we report results of further characterization of this virus, including growth kinetics in cell culture and full-length genome sequencing and genetic characterization, which show ...200919193256
notes on populational dynamics of amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) in brazil.previous populational dynamics data generated for amblyomma parvum aragão and amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) in argentina and southeastern brazil have indicated that these ticks complete 1 generation per yr, with larvae predominating in autumn, nymphs in winter, and adults mostly during spring and summer. the present study reports populational dynamics data for free-living amblyomma spp. ticks in northern brazil (amazon forest, latitude 10os), and for amblyomma spp. ticks collected on birds in ...200919256723
ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) from georgia and florida.ticks were collected from 38 black bears (ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern georgia (n = 20) in 2006. five species (amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, and i. affinis) were collected from florida bears, and 4 species (a. americanum, a. maculatum, d. variabilis, i. scapularis) were collected from bears in georgia. ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by d. variabil ...200919413369
new developments in canine hepatozoonosis in north america: a review.abstract : canine hepatozoonosis is caused by hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum, apicomplexan parasites transmitted to dogs by ingestion of infectious stages. although the two agents are phylogenetically related, specific aspects, including characteristics of clinical disease and the natural history of the parasites themselves, differ between the two species. until recently, h. canis infections had not been clearly documented in north america, and autochthonous infection with h. america ...200919426444
ecology of amblyomma neumanni (acari: ixodidae).the life cycle of amblyomma neumanni was described studying the seasonal distribution of free-living stages and parasitic phases during two consecutive years. development periods of engorged ticks under different photoperiod conditions were recorded. larvae of a. neumanni have the peak of abundance in autumn. nymphs reach the peak in winter. females were collected on cattle from autumn to late spring. the seasonal distribution pattern of females showed a bimodal curve, with a peak in autumn and ...200919427299
a sustained release gel formulation of doramectin for control of lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae) and horn flies (diptera: muscidae) on cattle.a gel formulation formed by incorporating technical doramectin into a 10% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose aqueous solution was used to subcutaneously inject steers at varying dosages. doramectin serum concentration of steers receiving 600 microg (ai)/kg body weight declined from 21.9 ppb at 0.5 wk to below detectable at 8 wk postinjection. the 1,200 microg (ai)/kg injection resulted in serum concentrations of 29.1 ppb at 0.5 wk and declined to 0.5 ppb at 8 wk postinjection. both the 600 and 1,200 ...200919449664
efficacy of eprinomectin and doramectin against amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) on cattle.steers were treated with doramectin or eprinomectin by daily oral capsule for 28 consecutive days. the level of doramectin in the serum of steers treated at 200 microg/kg/d reached a maximum of 104.0 +/- 22.1 ppb at day 21 and declined from 93.3 +/- 20.5 ppb on the final day of treatment to below detectable by day 56. steers treated at 50 microg/kg/d reached a maximum level of doramectin in the serum of 24.7 +/- 1.2 ppb on day 21 and declined from 24.7 +/- 0.6 ppb on the final day of treatment t ...200919449665
transovarial and trans-stadial transmission of rickettsiae africae in amblyomma variegatum ticks. 200919456811
francisella-like endosymbiont dna and francisella tularensis virulence-related genes in brazilian ticks (acari: ixodidae).ticks are vectors of a variety of pathogens, including francisella tularensis. bacteria in the genus francisella have been identified mostly in the northern hemisphere and include tick endosymbionts. francisella has never been described in brazil, where amblyomma spp. ticks are known as the vector of many bacterial zoonotic pathogens. in the present work, we have identified bacterial dna sequences with identity to francisella genes in amblyomma dubitatum neumann dermacentor nitens (neumann), and ...200919351090
hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil.from may 2007 to march 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil. in addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. a mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) designed to amplify fragments of the 18s rdna gene of babesia spp ...200919482427
prospective health assessment of fort campbell, kentucky patrons bitten by ticks.amblyomma americanum is an aggressive human-biting tick that transmits several known human pathogens and is associated with a lyme disease-like illness of unknown etiology. to determine the frequency, distinguishing clinical characteristics, and etiology ofa. americanum-associated illness and identify associated risk factors, a prospective study of adult tick-bite victims was conducted at fort campbell from 2005-2007. forty-two participants submitted ticks, none of which contained borrelia lones ...200919485114
species composition and geographic distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in a temperate and in a subtropical region of south-east africa.the species and distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa and maputo province, mozambique were determined from collections made from these animals at 72 localities in the former region and 30 in the latter. eleven ixodid and one argasid species were recovered in the eastern cape province and 15 ixodid species in maputo province. the most common ticks infesting cattle and goats in both provinces were amblyomma hebraeum, ...200921105593
ability of two natural products, nootkatone and carvacrol, to suppress ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in a lyme disease endemic area of new jersey.we evaluated the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae). aqueous formulations of 1 and 5% nootkatone applied by backpack sprayer to the forest litter layer completely suppressed i. scapularis nymphs through 2 d. thereafter, the level of reduction gradually declined to < or =50% at 28 d postapplication. against a. americanum nymphs, 1% nootkatone was less effective, but at a 5% con ...200920069863
anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis - maine, 2008.anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are rickettsial tickborne diseases that have had at least a twofold increase in prevalence in the united states since 2000. despite similar clinical presentations, the causative organisms are carried by different ticks with distinct geographic and ecologic associations. surveillance efforts are complicated by ambiguous terminology and serologic testing with antibody cross-reactivity. although anaplasmosis historically has been reported in maine, ehrlichiosis has bee ...200919779398
ectoparasites (sucking lice, fleas and ticks) of small mammals in southeastern kenya.during 1998-2000, at least 14 species (n = 309) of small mammals were live-trapped and examined for ectoparasites in moist forests of the taita and shimba hills and drier savannah habitats of nguruman, southeastern kenya. ectoparasites were recorded from 11 species of mammals. five species of sucking lice [hoplopleura inexpectans johnson, h. intermedia kellogg & ferris, polyplax reclinata (nitzsch), p. waterstoni bedford and schizophthirus graphiuri ferris], six species of fleas (ctenophthalmus ...200919941604
the impact of 4-poster deer self-treatment devices at three locations in maryland.from 1998-2002 twenty-five deer self-treatment devices (4-posters), using 2% amitraz, were operated at three locations in maryland to determine their effectiveness in controlling blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, and lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.). each treatment site was approximately 518 ha and paired with a similar site lacking 4-posters. locations varied in deer density, tick abundance, and land use. flagging for host-seeking ticks showed declines in tick populations at a ...200919650735
sustained control of gibson island, maryland, populations of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) by community-administered 4-poster deer self-treatment bait 1998, twenty-five 4-poster deer treatment bait stations were deployed on gibson island (gi), maryland, as part of the u.s. department of agriculture (usda) northeast area-wide tick control project. treatments concluded in june 2002, having achieved 80% and 99.5% control of blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, and lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum, respectively. no area-wide tick control was attempted again on the island until 2003, when 15 dandux-manufactured 4-posters were purchased by ...200919650736
[seasonal dynamics of amblyomma ticks (acari:ixodidae) in an urban park of londrina city, parana, brazil].ticks are important to public health due to diseases they transmit to animals and humans and, economic losses they cause to livestock production. among other agents, such as babesia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, the rickettsia are the most important pathogens transmitted by ticks in brazil. worldwide there are about 870 tick species described and, of these, 55 species were already reported in brazil, being the genus amblyomma the most numerous with 33 species. the a. cajennense is the principal tick in ...200820059815
[ectoparasites of small wild mammals from the adjacent areas of itapecuru river and environmental preservation area of inhamum, state of maranhão, brazil].during fauna studies, thirty-six wild mammals were collected in adjacent areas of itapecuru river and environmental preservation area of inhamum, state of maranhão, brazil. they were sampled for ectoparasites. the following specimens of the order rodentia and its respective ectoparasites were identified: akodon sp. (androlaelaps sp. and laelaps sp.), oecomys sp. (androlaelaps sp. and amblyomma cajennense), oligoryzomys sp. (androlaelaps sp. laelaps sp. and amblyomma sp.) e oryzomys megacephalus ...200820059819
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