TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
field sampling of the tick amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) on pastures in guadeloupe; attraction of co2 and/or tick pheromones and conditions of use.field experiments were conducted in guadeloupe to evaluate the attraction of different chemicals on a guadeloupean strain of amblyomma variegatum. such tick sampling techniques may help to assess the size of the tick population on pastures before, during and after an attempted tick eradication campaign. co2 was absolutely necessary to activate ticks, including the larvae. in addition to activation, our data suggested that co2 itself is attractive for ticks. the reactivity of the ticks varied gre ...19979080680
the impact of ixodiphagus hookeri, a tick parasitoid, on amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae) in a field trial in an experiment to investigate the effect of the tick parasitoid, ixodiphagus hookeri, on tick numbers on cattle, 150000 parasitoids were released over a period of 1 year in a field where ten cattle infested with multiple tick species were kept. amblyomma variegatum was reduced from 44 to two ticks per animal while rhipicephalus appendiculatus increased over the time of parasitoid release. during the time of release 51% of the nymphs of a. variegatum collected from the animals were parasitized. ...19979080682
prostaglandin biosynthesis by salivary glands isolated from the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.salivary glands separated from internal tissues of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, are competent to synthesize prostaglandins (pgs). using an in vitro pg biosynthesis assay four major pgs, namely, pga2/pgb2, pgd2, pge2, and pgf2 alpha were synthesized. under standard assay conditions pga2/pgb2 was the predominant product. salivary tissues as well as non-salivary internal tissues were capable of pg biosynthesis. we observed that storing ticks at -80 degrees c for 3 months resulted in re ...19979090120
identification of hemolytic activity in saliva of the lone star tick (acari:ixodidae).hemolytic activity was identified in the saliva of amblyomma americanum (l.) when red blood cells from sheep were incubated with tick saliva in the presence of phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate. the hemolytic activity was destroyed by boiling or treating with trypsin. the hemolytic activity in tick saliva was calcium-dependent, and inhibited by a phospholipase a2 inhibitor oleyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. phosphatidylserine could replace phosphatidylcholine in the hemolytic assays but ...19979103758
pyriproxyfen effects on newly engorged larvae and nymphs of the lone star tick (acari:ixodidae).newly engorged larvae and nymphs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), were exposed to 9 treatments of pyriproxyfen in glass vials consisting of dosages of 4, 8, and 16 micrograms/cm2 for 7 d, 14 d, and continuous exposure periods at each concentration. treatment of newly engorged larvae resulted in decreased molting, altered postmolt defecation, and nymphal survival with results being dose and exposure dependent. molting inhibition ranged from 35.9 to 68.4%. successfully molted nymp ...19979103764
evidence for attachment pheromones in the cayenne tick (acari:ixodidae).evidence is presented for the existence of male-produced attachment pheromones in the tick amblyomma cajennense (f). unfed males and females attached significantly faster to shaved sides on bovine hosts where preattached males were present than did adult ticks released in control areas. attached ticks did not form clusters around the preattached males as described for other species of amblyomma. they attached in areas under bags where they had been released, but were not necessarily close to the ...19979103768
the possible role of two common three-host ticks, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma hebraeum, in the transmission of bovine leukosis virus.the possible role of rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma hebraeum in the mechanical and transstadial transmission of bovine leukosis virus (blv) was investigated. blv-free laboratory strains of r. appendiculatus and a. hebraeum nymphal ticks (n = 400) were fed on a blv-infected and a negative control bovine. at various intervals after engorgement the ticks were homogenised and injected subcutaneously into blv-negative sheep. adult r. appendiculatus and a. hebraeum, which had fed as nymphs ...19969120860
the efficacy of amitraz against cattle ticks in tanzania.the efficacy of amitraz on cattle ticks was assessed by susceptibility tests, spraying and dipping trials. tests on the susceptibility of three tick species, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma variegatum and boophilus decoloratus to amitraz (technical grade-purity 98.6% w/w) showed all 15 tick strains tested to be highly susceptible, with lc50 ranging between 0.001% and 0.03%, and lc99, between 0.01% and 0.07%. spraying trials were carried out on calves infested with r. appendiculatus, a. v ...19968856759
survival and water-balance characteristics of unfed adult amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).off-host survival, water balance, and cold tolerance of unfed adult, cayenne ticks, amblyomma cajennense (f.), were examined to evaluate species characteristics important to zoogeography and off-host ecology. survivorship decreased when males and females were subjected to progressively drier constant environmental conditions. average maximum survival was 641.2 and 682.5 d at 85% rh and 23 degrees c (2.98 mm hg) for males and females, respectively. mean survival in both sexes was progressively le ...19968906907
ectoparasites (acari, mallophaga, anoplura, diptera) of white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus, from southern florida.during a 7-yr period (1984-1990), 300 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann), from 7 localities in collier, dade, and monroe counties in southern florida were examined for ectoparasites. eight species were identified: 4 ticks [ixodes scapularis say, i. affinis neumann, amblyomma maculatum (koch), and dermacentor variabilis (say)], 1 chigger mite [eutrombicula splendens (ewing)], 1 ked (lipoptena mazamae rondani), 1 chewing louse [tricholipeurus lipeuroides (megnin)], and 1 suckin ...19968906911
seasonal activity and relative abundance of amblyomma americanum in mississippi.ecological investigations of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), were conducted in 3 adjacent 60-m2 plots, located in noxubee national wildlife refuge, noxubee county, mississippi. ticks were collected weekly from july 1992 to july 1993 by flagging randomly selected lanes. during the year, larval ticks were collected first in early july, with peak numbers in september, and they were collected no later than late october. nymphal ticks were collected from mid-march to late october, with ...19968906916
site-specific geographic association between amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) infestations and ehrlichia chaffeensis-reactive (rickettsiales: ehrlichieae) antibodies in white-tailed deer.serum samples from white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmermann, collected from 1982 through 1992 from the southeastern united states were tested for antibodies reactive to ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson, jones, & wilson, the causative agent of human ehrlichiosis. results were compared between areas based on known infestations of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum l., a suspected vector of e. chaffeensis. one hundred and twenty-five of 300 (41.7%) deer tested positive (> or ...19968906920
tick avoidance behaviors associated with a decreased risk of anti-tick salivary gland protein antibody seropositivity in military personnel exposed to amblyomma americanum in arkansas.during april through september 1990, 399 military personnel who originated from either fort chaffee, arkansas (n = 236) or fort wainwright, alaska (n = 163) were studied during maneuvers in tick-infested areas at fort chaffee. study subjects completed a questionnaire and had pre- and post-maneuvers serum specimens analyzed for antibodies to several rickettsial and ehrlichial agents and to amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) salivary gland proteins (anti-tick saliva antibodies [atsa], a biologi ...19968916798
human ehrlichiosis--maryland, 1994.ehrlichiosis is an emerging tickborne infectious disease caused by obligate intracellular, gram-negative rickettsia that infect leukocytes. human monocytic ehrlichiosis (hme) is caused by ehrlichia chaffeensis and is believed to be transmitted by amblyomma americanum (the lone star tick). most hme cases have been reported in southeastern and south-central states. during may-july 1994, five cases of serologically confirmed hme were identified among residents of maryland. all five persons lived ne ...19968926996
infestations of the bont tick amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in zimbabwe.infestations of adults and nymphs of amblyomma hebraeum were counted on brahman (br), brahman x simmental (bs), sanga (sa) and hereford (he) steers exposed to infested pastures at mbizi in southern zimbabwe in 1986-1987. herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the brahman and brahman x simmental groups being in between. the ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for he:br:bs:sa. the ratios of the stand ...19968952073
proceedings of a workshop on the control of amblyomma variegatum and associated diseases. accra, ghana, 4 november 1994. 19968966770
impact on salivary gland degeneration by putative ecdysteroid antagonists and agonists in the ixodid tick amblyomma hebraeumecdysteroids cause salivary gland degeneration in female ixodid ticks. we tested the effects of the following compounds on salivary gland degeneration in the ixodid tick amblyomma hebraeum koch: hhcs (22s,23s-homocastasterone), ssbr (22s,23s-homobrassinolide), stgm (2alpha,3alpha(oh)2-delta22-stigmasten-6-one), rh 5849, and rh 5992. the first three are brassinosteroids (putative ecdysone antagonists) and the last two are nonsteroidal mimics of ecdysone in a variety of insects. in vitro, hhcs (up ...19968980038
amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae): mechanism and control of arbovirus secretion in tick saliva.saliva is considered to be the conduit by which pathogens are transmitted from blood-sucking arthropod vectors to their vertebrate hosts, but supporting evidence for this is fragmentary. to determine if thogoto (tho) virus, a tick-borne member of the influenza virus family, is transmitted via tick saliva, and whether virus replication is a prerequisite for such transmission, two experimental conditions were compared: (1) "biological transmission" and (2) "mechanical transmission." in (1), tho vi ...19968631383
ticks parasitizing humans in georgia and south carolina.from 1990 through 1995, 913 ticks removed from 460 human patients in georgia or south carolina were identified and recorded. the majority of these specimens (758, 83.0%) were lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum. one hundred and four (11.4%) american dog ticks dermacentor variabilis, 36 (3.9%) blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis, 9 (1.0%) gulf coast ticks amblyomma maculatum, and 6 (0.7%) brown dog ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus were also recovered. all active stages (larvae, nymphs, and adults ...19968636862
comparison of resistance in three breeds of cattle against african ixodid ticks.tick resistance in three breeds of cattle, two indigenous breeds (arssi and boran) and one boran x friesian cross-bread, were compared following natural tick infestations at abernossa ranch in ethiopia. the local arssi breed was found to have the highest tick resistance, followed by the boran breed, whereas the boran x friesian was the least resistant. over a period of 12 months, from october 1991 to september 1992, a total of 32,897 ticks composed of four genera were collected from the animals. ...19968665816
investigation of tick-borne viruses as pathogens of humans in south africa and evidence of dugbe virus infection in a patient with prolonged the course of investigating suspected cases of viral haemorrhagic fever in south africa patients were encountered who had been bitten by ticks, but who lacked evidence of infection with crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus or non-viral tick-borne agents. cattle sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay to determine whether tick-borne viruses other than cchf occur in the country. the prevalence of antibody in cattle sera was 905/2116 (42.8%) for cchf virus, 70/1358 (5.2%) for dugb ...19968666081
systemic treatment of white-tailed deer with ivermectin-medicated bait to control free-living populations of lone star ticks (acari:ixodidae).whole-kernel corn was treated with 10 mg ivermectin per 0.45 kg corn and fed at rate of approximately .45 kg/deer per day to white-tailed deer confined in the treatment pasture, whereas deer in an adjacent control pasture received a similar ration of untreated corn. treatments were dispensed from february through september of 1992 and 1993, and free-living populations of lone star ticks. amblyomma americanum (l.), were monitored in both pastures using dry-ice traps to quantify nymphs and adults ...19968667385
catabolism of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine by monoamine oxidase in the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.the purpose of this study was to assess biogenic amine catabolism in amblyomma hebraeum koch (an african cattle tick). we assayed haemolymph and saliva for a variety of biogenic amines (usually following injection of substrate into the haemolymph) in partially fed females using hplc coupled to electrochemical detection. dopamine (da) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht) were rapidly converted to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (dopac) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-hiaa) respectively, indicating that mo ...19968673075
acquisition of resistance to the tick amblyomma variegatum in boran cattle, bos indicus and the effects of trypanosoma congolense and babesia bigemina on host resistance.resistance was induced in cattle to the tick amblyomma variegatum by five consecutive infestations with nymphs and adults. using the principal component analysis (pca), it was found that percentage of adults engorged, percentage of adults which died, percentage of nymphs which engorged, percentage of nymphs which moulted and percentage of nymphs which died, were the main indicators of resistance against a. variegatum. the percentages of nymphs which engorged or moulted after the third infestatio ...19968686177
molecular cloning of delta 9 fatty acid desaturase from the protozoan tetrahymena thermophila and its mrna expression during thermal membrane response to a decrease in its growth temperature, the protozoan tetrahymena is known to increase the level of unsaturated fatty acids in its membrane phospholipids so as to maintain the correct physical state (fluidity) of the membranes. in this organism, synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids is initiated by delta 9 acyl-coa desaturase. our previous studies have shown that, during cold adaptation, the activity of microsomal palmitoyl- and stearoyl-coa desaturase increases, reaching a maximal l ...19968694777
salivary gland changes and host antibody responses associated with feeding of male lone star ticks (acari:ixodidae).the goal of this study was to demonstrate that male lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), actively feed on rabbits during attachment and that the host is capable of mounting an immune response against male salivary gland proteins. during attachment, it was shown that male ticks salivary glands hypertrophy. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect rabbit serum proteins in the midgut of previously attached male ticks. sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the prot ...19968699458
cold-hardiness of a laboratory colony of lone star ticks (acari: ixodidae).the cold-hardiness of a lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), laboratory colony was characterized. fed and unfed larvae, fed and unfed nymphs, and unfed adults did not survive exposure to -17 degrees c for 7 d. after an 8-d exposure to -10 degrees c, adults tolerated cold better than immatures and unfed specimens fared better than fed ticks. exposing unfed 6-wk-old (postmolt) adult males and females to -15 degrees c for increasing intervals up to 2 h suggests that males were more tolerant t ...19968699473
resistance and cross-resistance in rabbits to adults of three species of african ticks (acari: ixodidae).resistance to rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma variegatum and amblyomma hebraeum was investigated in the laboratory by infesting rabbits with adults of each of the three species followed by homospecific or heterospecific secondary infestations. significantly lower female engorged weights and egg mass weights were taken as evidence of protective immunity. following a single infestation with adults, rabbits developed homospecific protective immunity (resistance) to only r. appendiculatus an ...19968706589
a self-medicating applicator for control of ticks on deer.a self-medicating applicator for killing ticks on deer and domestic ungulates by passive transfer of acaricides during feeding is described. the applicator consists of a barrel divided into a food bin (above) and a sealed self-contained acaricide reservoir (below) with a vertical, centrally-located ceramic column that extends from the reservoir into the food bin. acaricide is drawn up the column from the sealed reservoir by absorption. animals attracted to the food in the device acquire the acar ...19968744707
efficacy of pheromone-acaricide-impregnated tail-tag decoys for controlling the bont tick, amblyomma hebraeum (acari: ixodidae), on cattle in zimbabwe.a large-scale field test using pheromone-acaricide-impregnated plastic tail-tag decoys demonstrated excellent efficacy of these devices for control of the bont tick, amblyomma hebraeum, on cattle in zimbabwe. the tail tags were impregnated with a mixture containing o-nitrophenol, methyl salicylate, 2,6-dichlorophenol and phenylacetaldehyde and one of three different acaricides (cyfluthrin, flumethrin or alphacypermethrin). o-nitrophenol and methyl salicylate are components of the a. hebraeum att ...19968746132
the seasonal occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on sheep and in the field in the judean area of israel.a 2 year survey of ixodid ticks in the judean area of israel between 1983 and 1985 showed that sheep were parasitized by the following species: rhipicephalus sanguineus group (30.6%), rhipicephalus bursa (25.3%), haemaphysalis cretica (20.5%), haemaphysalis otophila (20.1%) and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (3.1%). three other species, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, boophilus annulatus and amblyomma lepidum were also present but in very low numbers. a total of 50,816 specimens (78.1% adult ticks) ...19968746133
demonstration of vertical transmission of cowdria ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, from cows to their of the most important questions about the epidemiology of heartwater in the field is how cowdria ruminatium is transmitted within vertebrate host populations. in this study vertical transmission of c. ruminantium from cows to their calves was demonstrated. twelve mixed-breed calves, born to dams living in a heartwater-endemic area of zimbabwe, were tested post-natally for the presence of c. ruminantium. vertical transmission was demonstrated to occur under natural field conditions using test ...19968750689
tropical bont tick eradication campaign in the french antilles. current status.the amblyomma variegatum eradication campaign was officially started in april 1994 in martinique and in guadeloupe, including its dependencies of marie galante, desirade and st martin. a budget of $10.5 and $5.9 million for guadeloupe and martinique, respectively, was initially (1991) calculated and considered necessary to achieve the program. however, eec, the most important donor, estimated that 75% only of this proposal was acceptable, on which it agrees to support a maximum of 50%. the balan ...19968784487
factors of variation of amblyomma variegatum infestation on creole cattle in guadeloupe.the level of infestation of "creole" beef cattle of guadeloupe by the tick amblyomma variegatum was recorded during a long-term survey in an experimental farm: 61 steers and 83 cows were distributed in different lots according to sex and management. they grazed continuously either on irrigated digitaria decumbens pastures or on dry native savannahs. tick numbers as well as animal weights were registered monthly. climatic data were also recorded. different acaricide treatments were tested during ...19968784527
development of a computer model of the population dynamics of amblyomma variegatum and simulations of eradication strategies for use in the caribbean.control or eradication efforts should cover wide areas because of long-range migration potential of immature ticks attached to birds, such as cattle egrets. careful follow-up inspections are also imperative. simulation 1 shows how rapidly the population numbers may expand from small numbers, either introduced or missed. simulation 4 indicates extending the treatment cycle beyond the residual effectiveness of the acaricide to save labor or funds would be false economy. the result could be to main ...19968784528
the association between amblyomma variegatum and dermatophilosis: epidemiology and immunology.a close association was found between infestation with amblyomma variegatum and the occurrence of dermatophilosis on cattle on the coastal plains of ghana. animals belonging to breeds traditionally regarded as more susceptible to the disease also tended to carry higher tick burdens. the basis of the association between infestation with this tick and the occurrence of dermatophilosis would appear to involve tick-induced immunosuppression.19968809987
amblyomma tick feeding in relation to host health.the tick amblyomma variegatum has been shown by field and controlled laboratory experiments to have a direct causal relationship with severe clinical dermatophilosis. the tick does not transmit the pathogen in the usual sense, either biologically or mechanically. the tick suppresses the immune system of the host, for unknown reasons, and this appears to enable the existing dermatophilosis to become a severe disease. there are other factors involved with the progression of dermatophilosis to clin ...19968809988
the pathogenesis of dermatophilosis.pathogen, host and environmental factors must be considered in order to understand the pathogenesis of dermatophilosis. a frequently cited sequence of events involves physical damage to the skin, bacterial multiplication in the epidermis, repeated cycles of invasion by hyphae, infiltration by neutrophils and exudate, regeneration of epidermis and reinvasion. this paper is concerned with pathogen driven mechanisms involved in the origin and development of dermatophilus congolensis infections. pri ...19968809989
control of amblyomma variegatum and dermatophilosis on local and exotic breeds of cattle in ghana.the occurrence of dermatophilosis on cattle in the tropics is closely associated with infestation by amblyomma variegatum ticks. animals that are more susceptible to the disease also tend to carry higher tick burdens. longitudinal studies carried out on the accra plains suggest that n'dama cattle acquire an enhanced degree of resistance to these ticks following initial exposure. lesions on zebu-type ghana sanga cattle tend to be confined to the predilection feeding sites of adult a. variegatum e ...19968809991
heartwater in ghana: implications for control of ticks.heartwater, an often fatal rickettsial disease of domestic ruminants transmitted by amblyomma variegatum ticks, ranks with the a. variegatum-associated skin disease dermatophilosis as a major constraint to the upgrading of livestock productivity in ghana. an epidemiological survey, using new diagnostic tests, is being carried out to determine the incidence and distribution of heartwater and other tickborne diseases in ghanaian cattle, sheep and goats. preliminary results from a longitudinal surv ...19968809994
prospects for biological control of livestock ticks, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and amblyomma variegatum, using the entomogenous fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae.both beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae induced approximately 30% mortalities in adult rhipicephalus appendiculatus feeding on rabbits while m. anisopliae induced a mortality of 37% in adult amblyomma variegatum. both fungal species induced reductions in engorgement weights, fecundity, and egg hatchability in adult a. variegatum. m. anisopliae reduced fecundity by 94% in a. variegatum. furthermore, b. bassiana reduced egg hatchability to 0%, while 11% of the infected females failed to ...19968812559
phylogeny of ticks (ixodida) inferred from nuclear ribosomal dna.phylogenetic relationships of 9 species of ticks were inferred from nucleotide sequences of the d1 domain of large subunit ribosomal dna (rdna), the v4 region of small subunit rdna and sequences immediately adjacent to these regions. six of the 7 subfamilies in the argasidae and ixodidae were represented: ornithodorinae and argasinae from the argasidae (soft ticks); and ixodinae, amblyomminae, haemaphysalinae and rhipicephalinae from the ixodidae (hard ticks). a mite, phytoseiulus persimilis, fr ...19968818731
an assessment of host resistance to ticks on cross-bred cattle in burundi.groups of cattle of four different cross-breeds (ankole x friesian, ankole x brown-swiss, ankole x guernsey, ankole x sahiwal) plus a group of pure ankole cattle were immunized against tick-borne diseases: east coast fever, using a theileria parva trivalent vaccine, and anaplasmosis, babesiosis and, subsequently, heartwater. with the exception of two small subgroups of ankole and ankole x sahiwal which were treated by weekly spraying using delnav, all the groups were exposed to natural field cha ...19968834737
a case of tick bite from amblyomma testudinarium on the glans penis.a tick which bit the glans penis of a 40-year-old japanese man was surgically excised together with the skin where the bite occurred. it was identified as amblyomma testudinarium through the taxonomical investigation of its morphological characteristics. to our best knowledge, our patient is the sixth tick bite from this species of tick recorded in the chugoku district of japan.19968839244
effects of pyriproxyfen on engorged females and newly oviposited eggs of the lone star tick (acari:ixodidae).engorged females and 1- to 3-d-old eggs of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l), were exposed to 9 treatments of pyriproxyfen (4, 8, and 16 micrograms/cm2) in glass vials at exposure periods of 7 d, 14 d, and continuous at each dosage level. treatment of newly engorged females did not affect the number of females ovipositing, but the number of eggs oviposited decreased as dosage and exposure time increased. complete inhibition of egg hatch occurred at all treatment levels except that of ...19968840677
identification of an uncultivable borrelia species in the hard tick amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a lyme disease-like illness.bites from the hard tick amblyomma americanum are associated with a lyme disease-like illness in the southern united states. to identify possible etiologic agents for this disorder, a. americanum ticks were collected in missouri, texas, new jersey, and new york and examined microscopically. uncultivable spirochetes were present in approximately 2% of the ticks. borrelia genus-specific oligonucleotides for the flagellin and 16s rrna genes were used for amplification of dna. products were obtained ...19968568302
dietary modification of host blood lipids affect reproduction in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum(l.).the feeding and reproductive performance of female lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum (l.)) infesting guinea pigs on diets containing 15% fish oil (fo) or safflower oil (so) were investigated. replete ticks fed on fo-fed guinea pigs weighed approximately 30% less than those on the so-fed guinea pigs. the lower engorged weight resulted in a similar decrease in the mass and number of eggs laid and number of larvae hatching. no effect of host dietary treatment was observed upon the reproductive ...19968604084
ehrlichia-like 16s rdna sequence from wild white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).the reservoir hosts of ehrlichia chaffeensis, etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis are unknown. initially, white-tailed deer (wtd) were serologically implicated as possible reservoirs of e. chaffeensis. subsequent studies showed that wtd were susceptible to infection with e. chaffeensis and that deer-to-deer transmission by a tick vector, amblyomma americanum, is possible under experimental conditions. to determine if wild wtd were infected with e. chaffeensis, whole blood was collected from 10 ...19968627501
feeding of hard ticks in vitro: new perspectives for rearing and for the identification of systemic acaricides.experiments on in vitro feeding of the hard ticks ixodes ricinus, boophilus microplus, amblyomma variegatum and amblyomma hebraeum are described. an in vitro test for systemic acaricides is presented. work started with a feeding chamber continuously supplied with new blood. it proved too susceptible to fungal contamination and not efficient enough. simple feeding units made of honey jars with an inner glass tube were far more practical. reinforced silicone membrances or baudruche membrances impr ...199611178446
contribution to the knowledge of ixodidae ticks of wild mammals of somalia.this study was based on material collected in 1983-1984 from wild mammals of the middle scebeli. low scebeli and bay regions of somalia. a total of 292 specimens (156 males, 65 females, 70 nymphase, 1 larva) from 13 host species were examined. the following species of ixodidae were identified. amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794); haemaphysalis calcarata neumann, 1902; haemaphysalis spinulosa neumann, 1906; rhipicephalus armatus pocock, 1900; rhipicephalus pravus donitz, 1910; rhipicephalus pu ...19969257347
a possible explanation of the apparent breed-related resistance in cattle to bont tick (amblyomma hebraeum) male amblyomma hebraeum tick infestations and the weights of 20 brahman steers and 38 mashona heifers were measured at different periods at the veterinary quarantine area at mbizi, zimbabwe. the experiment for the brahmans lasted 108 weeks and that for the mashona for 113 weeks. the brahman steers weighed a maximum average of 478.4 kg (se 7.9 kg), which was significantly different to the mashona heifers maximum average of 391.4 kg (se 5.6 kg) (p < 0.001). the brahmans had a maximum average ...19969017875
survival of six species of african ticks in relation to saturation deficits.the survival of unfed males and females of six species of african ticks was monitored at five different saturation deficits at constant temperature (25 degrees c). the survivorship curves for each species comprised a pre-mortality period, prior to when ticks started to die and a mortality period corresponding to a rapid increase in the mortality rate. longevity was defined as pre-mortality plus mortality. a negative correlation between the longevity of the ticks and the saturation deficits was f ...19969022266
primary isolation of spotted fever group rickettsiae from amblyomma cooperi collected from hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in brazil.this paper reports the first isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from an amblyomma cooperi ixodid collected from a capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in an endemic area of spotted fever in the county of pedreira, state of são paulo, brazil. isolation was performed in vero cell culture and submitted to immunofluorescence, using antibody from rickettsia rickettsii-positive human serum.19969040845
[insects know no border.].one of the major consequences of the joined action of demographic pressure and evolution of human activities lies in enormous increase of transportation, both in frequence and speed; taking advantage of these facilities, some arthropods could increase their geographical distribution and create new health threats. several demonstrative examples are exposed in order to illustrate this anthropic dissemination of the vectors : the introduction of anopheles gambiae s.l. in mauritius island between 18 ...199617292311
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxiv. arthropod parasites of nyalas in north-eastern kwazulu-natal.seventy-three nyalas (tragelaphus angasii) in the umfolozi, mkuzi and ndumu game reserves in northeastern kwazulu-natal were examined for arthropod parasites during 1983 and 1984. in addition, six animals were examined during 1994. ten ixodid tick species, two louse species and a louse fly species were recovered. the nyalas were good hosts of all stages of development of boophilus decoloratus, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus muehlensi and the immature stages of amblyomma hebraeum ...19958628570
clinical disorders observed in anteaters (myrmecophagidae, edentata) in captivity.the major health problems found in 103 captive lesser anteaters (tamandua tetradactyla) and giant anteaters (myrmecophaga tridactyla), family myrmecophagidae, are presented and correlated with management. the most common of 200 recorded clinical disorders involved the digestive system (26%), nutritional deficiency (20%), injury (15.5%), respiratory system (10%), skin (7%) and circulatory system (4.5%), but 13% of the cases were inconclusive. parasites were identified in 48.5% of faecal samples, ...19958560755
hemocytic rickettsia-like organisms in ticks: serologic reactivity with antisera to ehrlichiae and detection of dna of agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by pcr.ixodid ticks were collected from connecticut, massachusetts, missouri, pennsylvania, rhode island, and british columbia (canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (fa) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, or rickettsia rickettsii. of the 693 nymphal and a ...19958567911
temporal association of amblyomma americanum with the presence of ehrlichia chaffeensis reactive antibodies in white-tailed deer.from 1981 through 1993, tick infestations and serum antibodies reactive to ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human ehrlichiosis, were monitored among white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) at whitehall experimental forest, clarke county, georgia (usa). neither ticks nor e. chaffeensis antibodies were detected during the first two years of the study. infestations of the lone star tick (amblyomma americanum), a suspected vector of e. chaffeensis, first were noted on deer in 1983. p ...19958583627
prevalence of antibodies to coxiella burnetti, rickettsia conorii, and rickettsia typhi in seven african countries.the prevalences of antibodies reactive with coxiella burnetti, rickettsia conorii, and rickettsia typhi were determined by indirect fluorescent antibody testing of sera from seven african countries. the seroprevalences of antibodies reactive with c. burnetti and r. conorii in countries from north africa were similar to those reported from southern europe. in countries of sub-saharan africa, the seroprevalence of antibodies reactive with c. burnetti varied greatly; the generally higher figures fo ...19958589132
ixodid ticks from panthers and bobcats in florida.ixodid ticks were present in all 189 samples examined from 53 florida panthers (felis concolor coryi, 104 collections) and 85 bobcats (felis rufus floridana) in florida (usa) between 1974 and 1991. we identified 3,251 ticks from panthers and 918 from bobcats. specimens of dermacentor variabilis, ixodes scapularis, i. affinis, amblyomma maculatum, and a. americanum were present on 49, 39, 17, seven, and two of the 53 florida panthers, respectively, and comprised 36%, 55%, 7%, 1%, and < 1% of the ...19958592378
propagation of the tick amblyomma variegatum in the caribbean.the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum, is an african tick species which infests livestock and wildlife. it was probably introduced in the central eastern islands of the caribbean during the 18th or 19th century, with cattle shipped from senegal. in africa and the caribbean, this tick is a vector of heartwater (a rickettsial disease of ruminants) and is associated with acute dermatophilosis (a bacterial skin disease of animals). until 1948, only guadeloupe and the neighbouring islands of m ...19958593414
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxiii. ixodid ticks on scrub hares in the north-eastern regions of northern and eastern transvaal and of kwazulu-natal.ixodid ticks were collected from scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) at three localities. nine tick species were recovered from 24 hares examined at pafuri, kruger national park, northern transvaal. the most abundant and prevalent species were hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus kochi and a rhipicephalus species (near r. pravus). twelve tick species were collected from 120 scrub hares examined around skukuza, kruger national park, eastern transvaal. the immature stages of hyalomma truncatum were most ab ...19958600436
recent acquisitions on tick and tick-borne disease resistance in n'dama (bos taurus) and gobra zebu (bos indicus) cattle.the use of disease resistant breeds is recognised as an economically realistic alternative to acaricide application and drug administration in tick and tick-borne disease control schemes. although resistance is mainly associated with zebu (bos indicus) breeds, studies carried out in the gambia show a higher resistance to ticks and tick-borne diseases in n'dama (bos taurus) than in gobra (b. indicus) cattle. tick resistance in n'dama breed appears to be effective against those species with long h ...19958532370
the relationship between tick (amblyomma hebraeum) infestation and immunity to heartwater (cowdria ruminantium infection) in calves in zimbabwe.the occurrence of endemic stability for heartwater (cowdria ruminantium infection) is a controversial issue, because the means by which young cattle and other neonatal ruminants become infected and acquire immunity to the disease have never been adequately explained. we conducted a study in a heartwater-endemic area in southeastern zimbabwe to investigate the relationships between calf immunity to c. ruminatium, infestations of the tick vector amblyomma hebraeum and dam, colostral and calf antib ...19958533273
some properties of the ecdysteroid receptor in the salivary gland of the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.salivary gland degeneration in ixodid ticks is triggered by an ecdysteroid hormone. we used [3h]ponasterone a (poa) as a specific ligand to detect the ecdysteroid receptor in the salivary glands of large, partially fed female ticks (amblyomma hebraeum koch; acari: ixodidae). binding of [3h]poa was thermolabile and sensitive to pronase, but not to dnase or rnase, indicating that the ligand binds to a protein. scatchard analysis of [3h]poa binding strongly suggested the presence of an ecdysteroid ...19958536946
physiological and nutritional responses of steers infested with varying densities of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).the effects of varying densities of lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), on measured physiological parameters of beef cattle in a controlled environment was determined. steers were infested with either 0, 20, 60, or 120 pairs of adult ticks. heart rate, respiration, rectal temperature, fecal and urine excretions, and water and feed consumption were monitored daily. blood samples were taken every 3rd d to measure cortisol, total proteins, urea nitrogen, and glucose levels. hematocrits were ...19958537543
prostaglandin biosynthesis and subcellular localization of prostaglandin h synthase activity in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum.we report on prostaglandin (pg) biosynthesis in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum. in vitro preparations of whole female ticks and internal tissues were competent to biosynthesize four pgs: pga2/pgb2, pgd2, pge2, pgf2 alpha. pga2/pgb2 was the major product under optimal conditions. pg biosynthesis by whole tick and internal tissues were sensitive to incubation conditions including, protein concentration, time, temperature, ph, and presence of a co-factor cocktail composed of reduced gluta ...19958541884
the life-cycle of the bont tick amblyomma hebraeum in vitro.the life-cycle of the hard tick amblyomma hebraeum was completed in vitro by feeding all life-stages of the tick through silicone membranes on bovine blood from an abattoir. ticks were placed in a simple feeder membranes on bovine blood from an abattoir. ticks were placed in a simple feeder consisting of a honey jar containing the blood with a glass tube insert (o.d. 42 mm) across the end of which the membrane was stretched. this feeding unit was held in a water bath (38 degrees c). larvae and n ...19958550288
prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from zimbabwe.the prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms in ticks from zimbabwe was determined using the hemolymph test. amblyomma hebraeum had the highest prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms. other species with rickettsia-like organisms included amblyomma sparsum, amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ripicephalus simus, haemaphysalis leachi, amblyomma rhinocerotis, and hyalomma truncatum. ticks with no demonstrable rickettsia-like organisms infection were boophilus decoloratus, haemaphysal ...19958551500
field evaluation of deet and a piperidine repellent (ai3-37220) against amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).repellent efficacy of deet (n,n-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) and a piperidine, ai3-37220, was evaluated topically on human volunteers against lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), nymphs and adults in the field. ai3-37220, at 0.5 mg/cm2, provided > 90% repellency against adult and nymphal ticks over a 6-h test period and showed significantly better repellent efficacy than deet. deet, at the same concentration, provided 85% repellency at 0 h and deteriorated to 55% repellency at 6 h.19958551512
the life-cycle of amblyomma variegatum (acari: ixodidae): a literature synthesis with a view to modelling.all available information on the life-cycle of amblyomma variegatum is collated. data for each parameter are analysed to derive mathematical descriptions, which may now be used to construct a model of the life-cycle of this tick. areas for future research are identified. these include the collection of data for most parameters around threshold conditions to clarify discrepancies reported in the literature and to better quantify the relationships described, examination of the effects of photoperi ...19958847166
an investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in the kruger national park.many factors have been cited as possible reasons for the decline in the number of wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but few studies have provided supportive data. between 1990 and 1993, the dynamics of 10 wild dog packs in the southern district of the kruger national park in south africa were monitored. casual observations of the causes of disease and mortality in the entire population were also recorded. during the same period, 46 wild dogs were immobilised, weighed, and subjected to physical examinat ...19957629782
host-seeking behaviour by australian ticks (acari: ixodidae) with differing host specificities.ticks generally detach from their hosts into sites where they are later exposed to host species which may or may not be suitable for infestation. the question of how four species of ixodid ticks, with differing specificities, behave towards such potential host species was examined. observations of the generalists, aponomma hydrosauri and amblyomma limbatum and the specialists, aponomma fimbriatum and aponomma concolor, showed that the generalists were attracted to a wider range of potential host ...19957641569
evaluation of ixodes scapularis, amblyomma americanum, and dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) from georgia as vectors of a florida strain of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.the ability of three common tick species from georgia to maintain and transmit the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, was compared under laboratory conditions. a b. burgdorferi cotton rat isolate (mi-6) from florida was selected as a strain from the south, and the sh2-82 isolate from new york was used as a positive control. amblyomma americanum (l.) and dermacentor variabilis (say) did not transmit the mi-6 isolate from inoculated hamsters to naive laboratory mice, and nympha ...19957650697
lower temperature limits for activity of several ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae): effects of body size and rate of temperature change.uncoordinated activity threshold temperature, the temperature below which ticks can no longer seek a host in a coordinated manner, and the activity threshold temperature, when all activity ceases, were examined for three species of ticks found in coastal sections of new york. the mean uncoordinated activity threshold and activity threshold temperatures were determined for nymphal, female and male ixodes scapularis say, nymphal, female, and male amblyomma americanum (l.), and for female and male ...19957650705
susceptibility to different tick genera in gambian n'dama and gobra zebu cattle exposed to naturally occurring tick infestations.tick collection on one side of the body and whole tail was performed weekly over one year on 11 gambian n'dama (bos taurus) and 11 gobra zebu (bos indicus) cattle to assess breed susceptibility to naturally occurring ticks. enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay was also performed to assess the serological prevalence of anaplasma marginale antigen and babesia bigemina antibody. packed red cell volume was measured and liveweight gain was recorded. significantly higher numbers of amblyomma variegatum ( ...19957652946
regulation of free arachidonic acid levels in isolated salivary glands from the lone star tick: a role for important regulatory step for prostaglandin synthesis is the availability of the precursor, free arachidonic acid (aa). in isolated salivary glands of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), the level of free aa appears to depend on higher phospholipase a2 (pla2) activity rather than decreased rates of re-esterification by lysophosphatide acyl transferase (lat). this conclusion is supported by experiments where inhibition of lat with merthiolate was without effect, while the calcium io ...19957655056
immunoglobulin-g binding proteins in the ixodid ticks, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma variegatum and ixodes hexagonus.a guinea-pig immunoglobulin-g linked agarose column was used to detect the immunoglobulin-g binding proteins (igbp) in the ixodid ticks, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma variegatum and ixodes hexagonus. igbps were found in salivary gland extract (sge) of the unfed ticks of all 3 species. the sizes of the igbps, as determined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differed between species. in r. appendiculatus 2 igbp bands were detected in haemolymph collected from unfed females and ma ...19957675530
epidemiological aspects of equine babesioses in a herd of horses in brazil.epidemiological studies of babesia equi and b. caballi were undertaken in a herd of 120 pastured horses in rio de janeiro, brazil. the area where the horses were held was shown to be highly endemic for both babesia spp., i.e. the prevalence of b. equi antibodies in horses aged 6 months or older ranged from 90.6% to 100% as determined by the immunofluorescence antibody (ifa) test, and the prevalence of b. caballi antibodies as determined by western blot ranged from 59.4% to 65.5%. from the herd, ...19957676590
borrelia burgdorferi in eastern virginia: comparison between a coastal and inland virginia, borrelia burgdorferi was more prevalent in a site along the atlantic ocean, near maryland, than in an inland site near williamsburg and yorktown. at the coastal site on assateague island, b. burgdorferi was isolated from 4.2% of 475 animals sampled, including four species of small mammals. serologic tests indicated that 25-37% of the small rodents assayed had been exposed to b. burgdorferi. immunofluorescence antibody assays specific for b. burgdorferi showed spirochete infection in ...19957677212
development and evaluation of pcr assay for detection of low levels of cowdria ruminantium infection in amblyomma ticks not detected by dna probe.the sensitivities of a pcr assay and a dna probe assay were compared for the detection of cowdria ruminantium in amblyomma ticks that were fed on c. ruminantium-infected, clinically reacting, and recovered carrier animals. the pcr assay and dna probe detected infection in 86.0 and 37.0%, respectively, of 100 ticks fed on a febrile animal. in 75 ticks fed on carrier animals, pcr and the dna probe detected infection in 28.0 and 1.33% of ticks, respectively. this demonstrates that the dna probe has ...19957699036
physiological responses of beef cattle to gulf coast tick (acari: ixodidae) infestations.nine yearling crossbred beef steers, bos taurus l., were used to examine physiological responses to gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch, infestation. steers were stanchioned indoors in individual environmentally controlled rooms. on day 0, each animal received 0, 25, or 75 pairs of ticks. physiological variables measured daily were feed intake, heart rates, rectal temperatures, and respiration rates. blood samples were collected from each animal on days 7, 21, and 42 for serum constituent ...19957722083
uptake, incorporation and redistribution of arachidonic acid in isolated salivary glands of the lone star tick.the ability of isolated salivary glands from the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, to take up, incorporate and redistribute [3h]arachidonic acid was examined. uptake of arachidonic acid was concentration dependent--a single salivary gland incorporated up to approximately 2.8 micrograms arachidonic acid in 60 min. over 90% of the [3h]arachidonate entering the glands was esterified and found only in the phospholipid (approximately 80%) and triglyceride (approximately 10%). essentially no radio ...19957742831
detection of rickettsia japonica in haemaphysalis longicornis ticks by restriction fragment length polymorphism of pcr product.pcr was applied to the detection of rickettsia japonica, the causative agent of oriental spotted fever (osf), in ticks collected at two sites of the muroto area on shikoku island, a major area in japan where osf is endemic. primer pair rr190.70p and rr190.602n of the r. rickettsii 190-kda antigen gene sequence of regnery and others (r.l. regnery, c.l. spruill, and b.d. plikaytis, j. bacteriol. 173:1576-1589, 1991) primed the dna extracted from haemaphysalis longicornis ticks but not those extrac ...19957790445
origin of arachidonic acid in the salivary glands of the lone star tick, amblyomma, americanum.the contribution of synthesis and dietary sequestration to the high arachidonate content of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, salivary glands was investigated by assessing the salivary metabolites of various radiolabeled fatty acid substrates administered to partially fed females. a portion of each of the fatty acids studied was incorporated into the fatty acid moiety of the phospholipid fraction. [14c]acetate was metabolized only into myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, steric, and oleic a ...19957711753
ecdysteroid titre and metabolism and cuticle deposition during embryogenesis of the ixodid tick amblyomma hebraeum (koch).three embryonic cuticles are formed before larval cuticle deposition during embryonic development of amblyomma hebraeum. the quantity of radioimmunoassay-positive material varied between 50 and 200 pg ecdysone equivalents per mg, but no significant peaks were detected. maternally incorporated [3h]-20-hydroxyecdysone and [3h]-ecdysone contained in freshly laid eggs appear to be conjugated to c-22 fatty acid esters and 3 alpha epimers of those esters, and, thus, appear doubly inactivated. in addit ...19957858939
cytosystematics of five north american amblyomma (acarina: ixodidae) species.the karyotypes of 5 species of amblyomma ticks found in north america were examined for the presence and location of constitutive heterochromatin (c-bands). all specimens examined had 20 autosomes and an xx:xo sex-determining system, with the x being the largest element in the karyotype. except as noted in text, the autosomes of all species were acrocentric and heterochromatin was restricted to the centromeric region. the third largest autosome in 4 of the 5 species displayed a consistent band o ...19957876973
bacteriocidal qualities of ixodid tick (acarina: ixodidae) salivary cement plugs and their changes under the influence of a viral tick-borne pathogen.the abundance of bacteriocidal compounds contained in the salivary cement plug of ixodid ticks was changed because of the reproduction of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) in their bodies. the size of tbev-infected ixodes persulcatus shulze lytic zone surrounding the cement plug enlarged to that of naive ticks, whereas micrococcus lysodeikticus (cohn) lytic zones induced by the cement plugs of tbev-infected amblyomma hebraeum koch nymphs or rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann females were re ...19957473610
detection of cowdria ruminantium in blood and bone marrow samples from clinically normal, free-ranging zimbabwean wild ungulates.cowdria ruminantium causes severe, often fatal disease in domestic ruminants, whereas wildlife species usually are not affected. blood and bone marrow samples from healthy, free-ranging zimbabwean ungulates were taken during translocation from areas harboring amblyomma ticks and tested for the presence of c. ruminantium, using a pcr assay based on the c. ruminantium map1 gene. positive reactions were obtained in tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus), and impala (aepycer ...19957494060
effects of tick infestation and tick-borne disease infections (heartwater, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) on the lactation and weight gain of mashona cattle in south-eastern zimbabwe.the effects of ticks and tick-borne disease infections on the lactation and weight gain of mashona cattle were studied at mbizi quarantine station in the south-eastern lowveld of zimbabwe. twenty-nine mashona cows were allocated to 2 balanced groups and kept in separate paddocks at a stocking rate of one animal per 8 ha. one group received regular acaricide treatment to control bont (amblyomma hebraeum) and other ticks. the other group was left untreated. the cows were artificially inseminated. ...19957502343
comparison of characteristics of life cycle in female ticks collected on n'dama and zebu cattle.characteristics of the life cycle of female ticks (amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma truncatum and boophilus geigyi) fed on n'dama and zebu cattle were studied in the laboratory from pre-oviposition period to larval development. percentage of a. variegatum eggs hatched and engorgement weight of h. truncatum were lower in ticks collected on n'dama than on zebu cattle. laboratory results confirmed field observations of species specific tick resistance in the n'dama breed.19957502345
evidence of common and genus-specific epitopes on ornithodoros spp. tick (acari: argasidae) salivary zealand white rabbits were repeatedly infested with ornithodoros turicata (duges), ornithodoros talaje (guérin-méneville), and ornithodoros coriaceus (koch) at 2-wk intervals. blood samples were taken from each animal 10 d after each infestation and the titer of anti-tick antibody was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. subsequent cross-reactivity studies demonstrated that the antitick antisera nonspecifically bound to salivary gland extract proteins prepared from several other ...19957544412
salivary glands and saliva of amblyomma variegatum ticks: comparison of immatures and adults in relation to the pathogenesis of dermatophilosis.salivary glands from immature and adult amblyomma variegatum were compared for differences in potential components responsible for the systemic aggravation by adult ticks of the skin disease dermatophilosis. whole salivary glands from adult, nymphal and larval a. variegatum ticks were compared for structural differences by light microscopy and for protein content by gel electrophoresis. type-2 salivary gland acini from adult ticks at the second stage of feeding contained significantly greater (p ...19957571338
laboratory reared amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma variegatum ticks differ in their susceptibility to infection with cowdria ruminantium.the susceptibility of laboratory reared zimbabwean amblyomma hebraeum and a. variegatum ticks to infection with geographically distinct cowdria ruminantium strains was investigated by feeding both species simultaneously on individual sheep infected with one of the four strains (crystal springs [zimbabwe], ball 3 [south africa], gardel [guadeloupe] and nigeria [nigeria]). a. hebraeum ticks demonstrated a high susceptibility to infection with all four c. ruminantium strains. in comparison, a. vari ...19957589273
vector situation of tick-borne diseases in the caribbean islands.the most important ticks transmitting diseases to ruminants in the caribbean islands are: amblyomma variegatum, vector of cowdriosis and associated with acute dermatophilosis; amblyomma cajennense, potential vector of cowdriosis; boophilus microplus, vector of babesiosis and anaplasmosis. at the present time, amblyomma variegatum is widespread in the lesser antilles from barbados to puerto rico. the intensity of the tick control program varies in the different islands and the tick infestation in ...19957597781
review of the molecular biology of cowdria ruminantium.cowdria ruminantium is a rickettsial agent which causes heartwater, an economically important disease of livestock in the tropics and the caribbean. significant advances have been made in the molecular biology of c. ruminantium since its reproducible propagation in vitro in bovine endothelial cells. these advances have been targeted towards the development of improved vaccines and diagnostic tests. several immunogenic proteins of c. ruminantium have been identified and monoclonal antibodies have ...19957597792
seasonal abundance of the tortoise tick amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae) on the leopard tortoise, geochelone paradalis.a survey of amblyomma marmoreum koch ticks recorded from the leopard tortoise, geochelone paradalis bell, in the national zoological gardens, pretoria, south africa, was carried out over a 19-mo period. no significant differences were found between the tick burdens on male and female tortoises. a. marmoreum showed a clear seasonal pattern of abundance. larvae were present on the tortoise host during late summer, with a peak in february and march; nymphs were abundant during winter, with a peak i ...19957608922
activity of repellents applied to skin for protection against amblyomma americanum and ixodes scapularis ticks (acari: ixodidae).twenty-nine repellents were tested on human skin for duration of activity as protectants against nymphal lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) and against black-legged or deer ticks (ixodes scapularis say). eleven of these repellents, including deet, provided > 2 h of protection against the lone star tick. one repellent, 1-(3-cyclohexenyl-ylcarbonyl) piperidine, was effective > or = 4 h. four repellents (2 pyridines and 2 piperidines with protection lasting 2.3-3 h) showed acaricidal activity t ...19957616181
review of the ixodid tick fauna (acari: ixodidae) of vietnam.forty-eight species making up the tick fauna of vietnam (genera ixodes, ixodes, amblyomma, aponomma, haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, nosomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus) are reviewed, including one genus and nine species that are new records for vietnam, as well as four species described by the author.19957616517
experimental transmission of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: ehrlichieae) among white-tailed deer by amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).ehrlichia chaffeensis anderson, dawson & wilson, causative agent of human (predominantly monocytic) ehrlichiosis, was successfully transmitted experimentally by amblyomma americanum (l.) to white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman). deer were needle-exposed intravenously to e. chaffeensis in tissue-culture canine macrophage (dh82) cells, and 11 d later were exposed to laboratory-reared a. americanum larvae, nymphs, and adults for acquisition feeding. three months after this feeding, ...19957616529
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