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how specific are host-produced kairomones to host-seeking ixodid ticks?ixodid ticks respond to host-produced substances (kairomones) that influence the ticks' host-finding behavior. in the laboratory adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum l., and american dog ticks, dermacentor variabilis (say) became akinetic on residues rubbed from their principal hosts (deer for the former two species and dogs for the latter). however, arrestment also occurred when adults of these species were tested using the same method bioassay, ...200214570126
immunogenicity of ehrlichia ruminantium grown in tick cell lines.ehrlichia (previously cowdria) ruminantium, the pathogen which causes heart-water in domestic and wild ruminants, can now be propagated in cell lines from one vector (amblyomma variegatum) and five non-vector (ixodes scapularis, i. ricinus, boophilus decoloratus, b. microplus and rhipicephalus appendiculatus) tick species. e. ruminantium isolates from west and south africa and the caribbean vary in their cell line preference, growth patterns and immunogenic capability. in laboratory trials, cert ...200214570129
progress towards the eradication of amblyomma variegatum from the caribbean.progress in the caribbean amblyomma program (cap) is reviewed since its inception in 1995 when regional eradication activities for amblyomma variegatum ticks were initiated using bayticol pour-on. technical achievements in the various islands were slow initially, and showed a wide diversity in attaining eradication targets. st. kitts, considered as a model program. eliminated the tropical bont tick (tbt) from most of the island in less than 3 years. however, the elimination of very low numbers o ...200214570141
control of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum through use of the '4-poster' treatment device on deer in maryland.deer self-treatment devices ('4-posters') were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing populations of blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, and lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum. at each of three locations in maryland, 25 '4-posters' were operated in study areas of approximately 5.18 km2. populations of host-seeking ticks were monitored by flagging of treated areas and similar untreated control areas without '4-posters.' from 1998 to 2002 the percent mortalities achieved were 69, 75.8 and 8 ...200214570143
acaricide resistance profiles of single- and multi-host ticks from communal and commercial farming areas in the eastern cape and north-west provinces of south africa.a field study (february 2000 to august 2001) was conducted on communal and commercial farms in the eastern cape and north-west provinces of south africa to detect the levels of tick resistance to commonly used acaricides. the larvae obtained from engorged females of the one-host tick boophilus decoloratus, the two-host tick rhipicepalus evertsi evertsi and the three-host ticks amblyomma hebraeum and rhipicephalus appendiculatus were tested against various concentrations of amitraz, chlorfenvinph ...200212234005
studies on seasonal dynamics of ticks of ogaden cattle and individual variation in resistance to ticks in eastern ethiopia.in this study the dominant tick species identified were amblyomma cohaerens 52.2%, rhipicephaluspravus 19.3% and a. variegatum 14.6%. a. cohaerens occurred throughout the sampling period and showed a peak during march. their number declined significantly (p < 0.01) from august to december. r. pravus occurred from july to december only and peaking in september (p < 0.01). a. variegatum occurred in low numbers throughout the study period with a marked seasonal variation (p < 0.01) and abundant num ...200212241029
simultaneous detection of anaplasma and ehrlichia species in ruminants and detection of ehrlichia ruminantium in amblyomma variegatum ticks by reverse line blot hybridization.the detection of anaplasma and ehrlichia species is usually based on species-specific pcr assays, since no assay is yet available which can detect and identify these species simultaneously. to this end, we developed a reverse line blot (rlb) assay for simultaneous detection and identification of anaplasma and ehrlichia species in domestic ruminants and ticks. in a pcr the hypervariable v1 region of the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was amplified with a set of primers unique for members of the ge ...200212243899
development of resistance to nymphs of amblyomma cajennense ticks (acari:ixodidae) in dogs.ticks have long been regarded as constraints to humans and domestic animals, but hosts often develop resistance to ticks after repeated infestations. the purpose of this investigation was to study the possible acquisition of immunity in domestic dogs to nymphs of a. cajennense by determining the tick alimentary performance after successive controlled infestations. mean engorged weight of nymphs was not significantly different among the three infestations; molting rate from nymph to adult ticks, ...200212381587
hypersensitivity induced in dogs by nymphal extract of amblyomma cajennense ticks (acari:ixodidae).in general, hosts develop resistance to ticks after repeated infestations; nevertheless, several studies on naturally occurring host-tick interactions were unable to detect resistance of hosts to ticks even after repeated infestations. the purpose of this investigation was to study the type of cutaneous hypersensitivity to unfed nymphal extract of a. cajennense in dogs, which, unlike guinea pigs, do not develop resistance. a first, but no second, peak in skin reaction was observed, suggesting th ...200212381588
increasing risks of introduction of heartwater onto the american mainland associated with animal movements.opportunities to introduce heartwater onto the american mainland through animal movements include importation from africa of tick-infested reptiles and of subclinically infected wild ungulates and importation of livestock from islands in the caribbean infested with amblyomma variegatum ticks. measures to control importation of heartwater vectors on reptiles include importation bans of infested species, treatment of imported reptiles, and eradication of established infestations on the american ma ...200212381604
ticks associated with armadillo (euphractus sexcinctus) and anteater (myrmecophaga tridactyla) of emas national park, state of goias, brazil.this study was conducted in october 1998 and november 1999 in the emas national park (131,868 ha), a savanna-type cerrado region situated in the far south of goias state, brazil, near the geographic center of south america (15 degrees -23 degrees s; 45 degrees -55 degrees w). animals were captured with the aid of nets and anesthetized (15 mg/kg ketamine + 1 mg/kg xylasine) in order to collect ticks for identification and to establish laboratory colonies. they included giant anteaters (myrmecopha ...200212381607
control and eradication of chelonian tick infestations, with particular reference to vectors of heartwater.studies using the african tortoise tick (amblyomma marmoreum) and leopard tortoises (geochelone pardalis) demonstrated that cyfluthrin and permethrin were safe and efficacious acaricides for control of amblyomma ticks on tortoises. a protocol was developed that successfully eradicated an a. sparsum infestation from a tortoise breeding facility in florida. it involved treatment of all tortoises with a permethrin formulation, followed by treatment of the premises with a cyfluthrin formulation. sen ...200212381608
eradication of the tropical bont tick in the caribbean: is the caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?the progress and problems in the caribbean amblyomma program (cap) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. during 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. usda resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the cap has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the european community. changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of iica from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and fina ...200212381609
prevalence of ectoparasites in a population of feral cats from north central florida during the summer.ectoparasites are a common and important cause of skin disorders in cats. ectoparasites are capable of disease transmission and can cause life-threatening anemia in young or debilitated animals. the objective of this study was to determine the potential feline ectoparasites in domestic cats by using a cohort of feral cats from north central florida that have not received veterinary care and have no known exposure to insecticide application. a total of 200 feral cats were randomly selected for th ...200212383632
a new subfamily, bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus bothriocroton keirans, king & sharrad, 1994 status amend. (ixodida: ixodidae), and the synonymy of aponomma neumann, 1899 with amblyomma koch, 1844.evidence suggesting polyphyly of the traditionally recognised tick genus aponomma neumann, 1899 is summarized. continued recognition of this genus in its current concept leaves a polyphyletic genus aponomma and a paraphyletic genus amblyomma koch, 1844. to improve the correlation between our understanding of phylogenetic relationships in metastriate ticks and their classification, a few changes in classification are proposed. the members of the 'indigenous australian aponomma' group (sensu kaufm ...200212386418
lack of parthenogenesis by amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).some reproductive parameters of adult stages of amblyomma cajennense ticks were studied. the capacity of virgin females to reproduce by parthenogenesis was evaluated, during an experimental infestation, in absence of males, on a horse (equus cabalus). ticks were spread either completely free or in limited sites on the body of the animal. the engorged virgin females showed longer feeding periods and lighter body weights than those that had been fertilized. some of these unmated females produced s ...200212386707
biology of amblyomma aureolatum (pallas, 1772) (acari: ixodidae) on some laboratory hosts in brazil.the ixodid amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in brazil. little is known about its bionomics. the objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of a. aureolatum ticks in brazil. one engorged female, collected from a dog (canis familiaris) in são sebastião das aguas claras, state of minas gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. subseq ...200212386709
avgi, an index of genes transcribed in the salivary glands of the ixodid tick amblyomma variegatum.random clones from a cdna library made from mrna purified from dissected salivary glands of feeding female amblyomma variegatum ticks were subjected to single pass sequence analysis. a total of 3992 sequences with an average read length of 580 nucleotides have been used to construct a gene index called avgi that consists of 2109 non-redundant sequences. a provisional gene identity has been assigned to 39% of the database entries by sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant amino acid ...200212392910
seasonal epidemiology of ticks and aspects of cowdriosis in n'dama village cattle in the central guinea savannah of côte d'ivoire.in the central guinea savannah of côte d'ivoire, cattle breeding started only approximately 30 years ago. the impact of parasitism on the overall health status and productivity of the trypanotolerant n'dama cattle in this area is unknown. in close collaboration with national veterinary institutions and local farmers, we studied spectrum, burden and seasonal dynamics of ticks (including aspects of cowdriosis) on n'dama village cattle. in a longitudinal study, three randomly selected cattle herds ...200211821134
heterogeneity in the effect of different ixodid tick species on human natural killer cell activity.tick saliva plays a vital role in blood-feeding, including manipulation of the host response to tick infestation. furthermore, a diverse number of tick-borne pathogens are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via tick saliva, some of which exploit the immunomodulatory activities of their vector's saliva. we report that salivary gland extracts (sge) derived from dermacentor reticulatus adult ticks induce a decrease in the natural killer (nk) activity of effector cells obtained from healthy human blood ...200211856443
seasonal dynamics of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on horses in the state of são paulo, brazil.natural tick infestations were assessed every 14 days on horses over a 2-year period. amblyomma cajennense adult ticks were counted individually, without detachment from the horses. larvae and nymphs of a. cajennense were collected using a rubber scraper that scratched engorged immature ticks from the host. adult females of anocentor nitens larger than 4mm length were counted on the horses. blood samples were also obtained from the horses every 14 days and macroclimatic data were obtained for th ...200211879967
the sex ratio of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) with notes on the male feeding period in the laboratory.to evaluate the sex ratio of field collected nymphal amblyomma cajennense ticks, we collected 5326 engorged nymphs from naturally infested horses in pirassununga county and allowed them to molt to adults in the laboratory. they yielded a sex ratio of 1:1.83 (m:f). three and two engorged females were collected from horses pastured at pirassununga county and from tapirs pastured in sorocaba county, respectively. these females were allowed to oviposit and their progeny were reared until the adult s ...200211879968
developmental profiles of ecdysteroids, ecdysteroid receptor mrnas and dna binding properties of ecdysteroid receptors in the ixodid tick amblyomma americanum (l.).total body ecdysteroid titers were determined at specific stages during the larval and nymphal life of amblyomma americanum (l.). one ecdysteroid peak was observed following the completion of larval apolysis. however, two distinct ecdysteroid peaks occurred at a comparable stage in the nymphal molting cycle. the first occurred following apolysis and the second peak occurred at about the time of ecdysis. when whole body profiles of ecr and rxr mrnas were examined during the molting cycle using rt ...200211886781
amblyomma geochelone, a new species of tick (acari: ixodidae) from the madagascan ploughshare tortoise.the male and female of amblyomma geochelone n. sp. are described and illustrated by both scanning electron micrographs and line drawings. specimens of this new tick species were recovered from the endangered ploughshare tortoise, geochelone yniphora (vaillant), in northwestern madagascar. this relatively large tick is morphologically most similar to amblyomma nuttalli dönitz, which occurs in mainland sub-saharan africa where it mainly parasitizes other species of tortoises. however, several char ...200211931042
ticks parasitizing dogs in northwestern georgia.from january 1998 through september 1999, 324 dogs in three northwestern georgia counties were examined for ticks. six species of ticks were recovered. the three most commonly collected ticks were the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say) (310 male male, 352 female female; prevalence, 97%; mean intensity 2.1); the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (118 male male, 119 female female, 38 nymphs; prevalence, 22%; mean intensity, 3.8); and the lone star tick, amblyomma am ...200211931241
a survey for nymphs of host-seeking ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) on tree trunks in deciduous forests.trunks of 83 trees in a mixed deciduous forests in maryland were sampled for the presence of nymphs of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, and the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.). although one or more nymphs of either i. scapularis or a. americanum was found in leaf litter and substrate < or = 1 m from the bases of 47% of the trees sampled, a total of 6 i. scapularis nymphs was found on the trunks of only five trees. no nymphs were found on the trunks of 12 dead trees. no a. a ...200211931264
parasitism of domestic swine (sus scrofa) by amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) on a farm at monte negro, western amazon, brazil.abstract in january 2001, while conducting a survey of the tick fauna of the state of rond─Ánia, brazil, a rural area within monte negro county was visited. on one farm within the county the producer maintained a herd of crossbred swine, sus scrofa l., that was reared under unconfined conditions, with unrestrained access to the pasture and adjacent native amazon equatorial forest. inspection of the swine herd produced a total of 77 ticks collected from eight adult pigs (mean, 9.6 ticks per pig) t ...200211931265
identity and synthesis of prostaglandins in the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), as assessed by radio-immunoassay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.high concentrations of pge(2) and pgf(2alpha) were identified by radio-immunoassay (ria) and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) in the hemolymph, salivary glands and saliva of the lone star tick amblyomma americanum (l.). binding studies indicated that pge(2) was free and not bound to any proteins in the hemolymph. a small amount of 6-keto-pgf(1alpha) (breakdown product of pgi(2); prostacyclin) was also found in the salivary glands but not in the hemolymph or saliva. neither pgd(2) ...200211804805
horse resistance to natural infestations of anocentor nitens and amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae).the objective of this study was to investigate some aspects of horse resistance to natural infestations of anocentor nitens and amblyomma cajennense over a 2-year period. free-living stages of a. nitens were used to evaluate the influence of season of the year on horse resistance. every 2 weeks, 10 selected engorged females, weighing 150-329 mg, were removed from naturally infested horses and were individually placed into glass tubes closed with a cotton stopper, and maintained in an incubator. ...200211812624
comparison of differentially expressed genes in the salivary glands of male ticks, amblyomma americanum and dermacentor andersoni.genes expressed differentially in the salivary glands of unfed and fed male ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), were identified, cloned and sequenced, and some were compared with those expressed in the salivary glands of dermacentor andersoni. total protein and rna increased sixfold in the salivary glands of fed male a. americanum, while in fed male d. andersoni salivary glands, rna increased approximately 3.5 times. feeding d. andersoni in the presence of females increased total rna by 25% over t ...200212020839
identification of snare and cell trafficking regulatory proteins in the salivary glands of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.).prostaglandin e(2) (pge(2)) stimulates secretion of tick salivary gland proteins via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway and mobilization of intracellular ca(2+) (). highly conserved intracellular snare (soluble nsf attachment protein receptors) complex proteins are associated with the mechanism of protein secretion in vertebrate and invertebrate neuronal and non-neuronal cells. proteins in the salivary glands of partially fed female lone star ticks cross-react individually with antibodies to s ...200212429123
introduced ticks and tick-borne diseases: the threat and approaches to eradication.exotic tick species and tick-borne diseases are serious threats to live-stock, companion animals, and wildlife in the united states. recurring introductions of exotic tick species into the united states are a significant indicator of the degree of risk. successful tick-eradication campaigns, such as the national program that eradicated boophilus annulatus and b. microplus from the united states, the cattle fever tick eradication program of the us department of agriculture's veterinary services t ...200212442574
babesiosis and heartwater: threats without boundaries.suppose one of your clients from southern florida starts talking about cattle egrets while you are vaccinating her cat. it seems she found a nearly dead egret near the cattle pen a few days ago, picked it up, and noticed a number of what looked like small ticks on the legs. or, suppose you are called out to a small dairy in central texas to look at some cows that are feverish and anemic. the first animal you examine has a few brown ticks attached just under the tail. finally, perhaps you are loo ...200212442575
genetic identification of rickettsiae isolated from ticks in japan.following the description in japan of japanese spotted fever, caused by rickettsia japonica, a search for the vector of this disease led to the isolation of several rickettsiae from various tick species. sixty-three rickettsial isolates were obtained from six different tick species, and six type strains were described by pcr and monoclonal antibody testing. we identified these six strains by amplification and sequencing of the genes encoding 16s rrna and citrate synthase. we confirmed that the i ...200212037083
analysis of serum and whole blood values in relation to helminth and ectoparasite infections of feral pigs in texas.in the summers of 1996 and 1997, 60 wild pigs (sus scrofa) were necropsied from three sites in south texas (usa) to test the hypothesis that serum and whole blood parameters vary significantly (p < or = 0.05) with the prevalence and intensity of parasites infecting wild pigs. we found ten parasite species: five nematodes (metastrongylus salmi, metastrongylus pudentotectus, stephanurus dentatus, oesophagostomum dentatum, and physocephalus sexalatus); four ixodid ticks (amblyomma cajennense, ambly ...200212038138
transcriptional analysis of the major antigenic protein 1 multigene family of cowdria ruminantium.the major antigenic protein 1 (map1) of the tick-borne rickettsial pathogen cowdria ruminantium is encoded by a multigene family containing conserved and variable genes. the part of a locus containing the map1 multigene family that was characterized contained three homologous, but non-identical map1 genes, designated map1-2, map1-1, and map1. reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to study the transcriptional activity of these genes in isolates of c. ruminantium grown in bovine ...200212039046
identification and characterization of genes differentially expressed in the testis/vas deferens of the fed male tick, amblyomma hebraeum.most ixodid ticks must feed for at least a few days to complete gonad maturation. substances produced by the mature male gonad, and carried in the spermatophore, induce physiological changes in the female that lead to engorgement and oviposition. to begin defining the molecular phenotype at this stage of male development, we differentially cross-screened a cdna library made from the testis and vas deferens of fed ticks (amblyomma hebraeum koch) and isolated 35 genes that were putatively up-regul ...200212044495
phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from ticks in japan.eight spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae isolated from ticks in japan were classified by phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of both the citrate synthase-encoding gene (glta) and 190-kda antigen-encoding gene (rompa). in the phylogenetic tree of glta, strains dt-1 and fla-1 isolated from the dermacentor taiwanensis and haemaphysalis frava ticks, respectively, were placed as rickettsia japonica, and strains io-1, io-2, io-25, im-1 and ip-2 from genus ixodes ticks were place ...200212061626
ixodid ticks on indigenous goats owned by small-scale farmers in four communal grazing areas in south africa.indigenous goats belonging to small-scale farmers in 4 communal grazing areas in south africa were sampled for ixodid ticks during the period september 1991 to may 1993. three of these areas were in the north west province (rietgat, madinyane and bethany), and one in mpumalanga province (geluk). no tick control was practised unless requested by the owners. seven ixodid tick species, of which the majority were immature ticks, were collected from the goats in north west province. amblyomma hebraeu ...200212088070
ehrlichia ewingii infection in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis and e. ewingii, are transmitted by amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. because white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of a. americanum and are important vertebrate reservoirs of e. chaffeensis, we investigated whether deer may be infected with e. ewingii, a cause of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in humans and dogs. to test for e. ewingii infection, we used polymerase chain reaction ...200212095432
the omp-1 major outer membrane multigene family of ehrlichia chaffeensis is differentially expressed in canine and tick hosts.sixteen of 22 omp-1 paralogs encoding 28-kda-range immunodominant outer membrane proteins of ehrlichia chaffeensis were transcribed in blood monocytes of dogs throughout a 56-day infection period. only one paralog was transcribed by e. chaffeensis in three developmental stages of amblyomma americanum ticks before or after e. chaffeensis transmission to naïve dogs.200212117987
transmission of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa: adeleorina) by ixodids (acari: ixodidae).american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) caused by hepatozoon americanum vincent-johnson, macintire, lindsay, lenz, baneth, and shkap is an emerging, often fatal, tick-borne protozoal disease of dogs in the united states of america. dogs acquire infection by ingesting ticks that contain oocysts. to understand the invertebrate (definitive) host range of h. americanum, experiments were carried out using four ixodids, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille), dermacentor variabilis say, amblyomma americanu ...200212144294
dermacentor variabilis and boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae): experimental vectors of babesia equi to equids.the experimental vector competence of five laboratory-reared ixodid tick species representing three genera [amblyomma americanum (l.), boophilus microplus (canestrini), d. andersoni stiles, d. occidentalis marx, and d. variabilis (say)] for babesia equi (laveran 1901) was evaluated by delayed transfer of male ticks from infected to susceptible equids or by infesting the latter animals with adult ticks previously fed as nymphs on infected equids. after feeding for 5, 6, or 13 d on acquisition hos ...200212144301
evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of rio de janeiro, brazil.ticks were obtained from dogs from february to september of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the county of piraí, state of rio de janeiro. four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 amblyomma cajennense, seven amblyomma ovale, 209 rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 amblyomma sp. an hemolymph test associated with giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (r. sanguineus and amblyomma sp), containing rickettsia-like organisms. direct immunofluorescence verified ...200212163909
tick infestation of sika deer (cervus nippon) in the western part of yamaguchi prefecture, japan.ticks were collected from 94 sika deer (cervus nippon) hunted in the western part of yamaguchi prefecture, japan from august to november 1999, and march to july 2000. haemaphysalis longicornis and h. yeni were the dominant species from april to august, while h. flava and h. megaspinosa were dominant in october, november and march. this is the first report of h. yeni in the mainland of japan. small numbers of h. kitaokai, amblyomma testudinarium and ixodes ovatus were also recorded.200212185317
introduction of the exotic tick amblyomma hebraeum into florida on a human host.a resident of florida returned from a short visit to southern africa to find a male amblyomma hebraeum tick attached to the skin behind her knee. amblyomma hebraeum is a major vector of 2 pathogens that cause important diseases in southern africa, heartwater of ruminants and african tick-bite fever of humans. the tick was tested by polymerase chain reaction assay for evidence of infection with cowdria ruminantium and rickettsia africae (the causative agents of heart-water and african tick-bite f ...200212197136
gynandromorphism in amblyomma cajennense and rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae).during a survey of ticks on horses in november 2000, at the university of são paulo farm in pirassununga county, são paulo, brazil, 1 gynandromorph of amblyomma cajennense was collected from a naturally infested horse. in another survey on dogs in march 2001, in the urban area of monte negro, rondônia, brazil, a gynandromorph of rhipicephalus sanguineus was collected from a naturally infested dog. both specimens are described and classified as perfect bipartite protogynanders.200212197141
evaluation of safety and efficacy of acaricides for control of the african tortoise tick (amblyomma marmoreum) on leopard tortoises (geochelone pardalis).nine acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, fipronil, lindane, permethrin, phenothrin, and pyrethrins) were studied for their efficacy in killing the african tortoise tick (amblyomma marmoreum). only four of the acaricides (chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, lindane, and permethrin) produced 100% mortality within 24 hr of application, and only two (cyfluthrin and permethrin) continued to cause 100% mortality when diluted to as low as 1:10,000. five of the acaricides (amitraz, carbaryl, ...200212216793
attraction of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum, to human breath and to the breath components acetone, no and co2.ticks are of medical and veterinary importance and employ several cues in search of a host. olfaction is one modality by which ticks locate a blood-meal and breath is the major vent of gaseous and volatile metabolites from the host that could contribute to this search. we studied the responses of a hunter tick, amblyomma variegatum, to diluted human breath and five of its components (acetone, co2, no, isoprene and nh3) while walking in an air stream on a locomotion compensator. diluted breath el ...200212216862
search for borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil: a short report.a total of 128 ticks of the genus amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 bolomys lasiurus and 1 rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil. of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as a. cajennense. viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepare ...200212219124
larval gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) [acari: ixodidae] as host for hepatozoon americanum [apicomplexa: adeleorina].laboratory-reared larval gulf coast ticks (gcts) (amblyomma maculatum) were exposed experimentally and found to acquire hepatozoon americanum infection while feeding on parasitemic dogs. these ticks supported gamogonic and sporogonic development of the apicomplexan, and oocysts from newly molted nymphs were infectious for a dog. other nymphs from this cohort that were allowed to feed on a blood-parasite naive sheep molted normally; the resulting adult ticks contained oocysts that were infectious ...200211750999
quantification of vitellogenesis and its control by 20-hydroxyecdysone in the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum.ovaries of the ixodid tick, amblyomma hebraeum koch, grew rapidly after engorgment as a result of yolk uptake. at 26 degrees c, oviposition began by day 10 post-engorgement, plateaued on days 16-18, and ended by day 38. vitellin (vt) was partially purified from ovaries of day 10 engorged ticks by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. this vt comprises seven major and several minor polypeptides. two polypeptides (211 and 148 kd) from haemolymph of engorged female ticks corresponded to m ...200212770055
american canine hepatozoonosis.american canine hepatozoonosis (ach) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central united states. characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ach is very debilitating and often fatal. dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ach is caused by the apicomplexan hepatozoon a ...200314557294
survey of ticks collected in mississippi for rickettsia, ehrlichia, and borrelia species.from november 1999 through october 2000, we tested ticks collected from vegetation as well as from deer, dogs, and humans for spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and borrelia spp. spirochetes. a total of 149 adult ticks representing four species was collected from 11 collection sites from southwestern to northern mississippi. amblyomma americanum was most commonly collected (n=68), followed by ixodes scapularis (n=53). the bird tick, ixodes brunneus (usually rare), was ...200314714667
modulation of human lymphocyte proliferation by salivary gland extracts of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae): effect of feeding stage and sex.ixodid ticks remain attached to their hosts for several days to weeks. during this extended feeding process new proteins involved in the modulation of host immune responses are expressed in tick salivary glands. in our study a stimulatory or inhibitory effect of salivary gland extracts (sge) of unfed and partially fed female ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758), female and male amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794) and rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann, 1901 ticks on human lymphocyte proliferatio ...200314971600
amblyomma aureolatum and ixodes auritulus (acari: ixodidae) on birds in southern brazil, with notes on their ecology.between january 1999 and december 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the reinhard maack park, curitiba, state of paraná, southern brazil. a total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with amblyomma aureolatum (pallas 1772) (n=699) and/or ixodes auritulus neumann, 1904 (n=18) ticks. questing a. aureolatum nymphs (n=2) and adults (n=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. none of the i. auritulus were collected off-host. we collect ...200314974693
[relative abundance of amblyomma spp. (acari: ixodidae) in bovines (bos taurus and b. indicus) from costa rica].the research describe the big amount of ticks of the amblyomma genus, found on bovines through monthly samplings carried out in ten farms in eight ecological zones (ez) of costa rica. ticks larger than 4 mm were picked up from the right side of the animals during the visit. the study compiled meteorological information for some farms located in the experiment, showing that the most fluctuant variable is rainfall. the most important amblyomma species found was a. cajennense. amblyomma nymphs were ...200315162737
evaluation of a prototype ehrlichia chaffeensis surveillance system using white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) as natural sentinels.the natural history of ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, includes the lone star tick (lst, amblyomma americanum) as a vector and white-tailed deer (wtd; odocoileus virginianus) as both a natural reservoir of e. chaffeensis and a major host of lst. the goal of the current study was to implement and evaluate a prototype surveillance system to delineate the geographic distribution of e. chaffeensis using wtd as natural sentinels. to accomplish this goa ...200314733672
life cycle and host specificity of amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.we report biological data of two generations of amblyomma triste in laboratory and compared the suitability of different host species. infestations by larval and nymphal stages were performed on guinea pigs (cavia porcellus), chickens (gallus gallus), rats (rattus norvegicus), rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus), wild mice (calomys callosus), dogs (canis familiaris) and capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). infestations by adult ticks were performed on dogs, capybaras and rabbits. tick developmenta ...200314756395
evaluation of transovarial transmission and transmissibility of ehrlichia chaffeensis (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).it has long been assumed that ehrlichia chaffeensis (anderson, dawson & wilson), is not transmitted transovarially in the lone star tick vector amblyomma americanum (l.). to test this hypothesis, three beagle dogs, canis familiaris (l.) (carnivora: canidae), were subcutaneously infected with e. chaffeensis (arkansas strain). uninfected nymphal lone star ticks were placed on the infected dogs and allowed to feed to repletion. these nymphal ticks were allowed to molt, and five of five adult female ...200314765684
the ascendancy of amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the united states.until the 1990s, amblyomma americanum was regarded primarily as a nuisance species, but a tick of minor importance as a vector of zoonotic pathogens affecting humans. with the recent discoveries of ehrlichia chaffeensis, ehrlichia ewingii, and "borrelia lonestari," the public health relevance of lone star ticks is no longer in question. during the next 25 years, the number of cases of human disease caused by a. americanum-associated pathogens will probably increase. based on current trajectories ...200312414740
attraction of amblyomma variegatum (ticks) to the attraction-aggregation-attachment-pheromone with or without carbon dioxide.the responses of adult amblyomma variegatum ticks released from various distances to different doses of the synthetic attraction-aggregation-attachment pheromone (aaap) (made up of orthonitrophenol, methyl salicylate and nonanoic acid in paraffin oil), dispensed from the center of circular field plots, were studied in the presence or absence of elevated levels of co2. up to 90% of the ticks released were attracted to the pheromone source in the presence of co2 within 3h. co2 alone was unattracti ...200314580064
hosts and distribution of amblyomma auricularium (conil 1878) and amblyomma pseudoconcolor aragão, 1908 (acari: ixodidae).collections of amblyomma auricularium (conil 1878) and a. pseudoconcolor aragão, 1908 are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. three tick collections (two from argentina and a third from the usa) house a total of 574 a. auricularium (307 males, 162 females, 73 nymphs and 32 larvae) and 179 a. pseudoconcolor (96 males, 74 females, 4 nymphs and 5 larvae). apart from an adult a. pseudoconcolor found on a bird, nothura maculosa temminck, 1815, all ticks were found on mammals. the great m ...200314580065
experimental infection of lone star ticks, amblyomma americanum (l.), with rickettsia parkeri and exposure of guinea pigs to the agent.the maculatum agent, rickettsia parkeri (a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae), was inoculated into a colony of the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum, and followed for two tick generations. in addition, guinea pigs were exposed to the agent by direct injection and by feeding infected ticks on them. eighty (53%) of 150 nymphal a. americanum that were inoculated with suspensions of r. parkeri were positive by hemolymph test and fluorescent antibody test for rickettsial infection when ...200314596284
a cautionary note: survival of nymphs of two species of ticks (acari: ixodidae) among clothes laundered in an automatic washer.host-seeking ticks often remain on clothing of persons returning home from work or recreation in tick habitats, and can pose at least a temporary risk to people and pets in these homes. laundering clothing has been one of the recommendations to reduce tick exposure. host-seeking lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (l.), and blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, nymphs confined in polyester mesh packets, were included with laundry in cold, warm, and hot wash cycles of an automatic clothes was ...200314596290
ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) parasitising humans in uruguay.during routine collections between november 1999 and november 2002, three species of tick (amblyomma tigrinum, amblyomma triste and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were found on humans in southern uruguay. the finding of r. sanguineus and a. triste on humans is of particular concern because these tick species may be involved in the transmission of the pathogens causing human rickettsioses, a type of disease already known to occur in uruguay.200314613636
comparing the detection of exposure to ehrlichia ruminantium infection on a heartwater-endemic farm by the pcs20 polymerase chain reaction assay and an indirect map1-b enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.detection of heartwater is not always easy especially because all the serological assays so far available either have poor sensitivity or specificity. the indirect map-1b elisa has been reported to be the most specific test for heartwater, although it does also detect antibodies to some closely related ehrlichial agents. this study was undertaken to compare two methods for the detection of heartwater infection caused by the ehrlichial agent ehrlichia (cowdria) ruminantium. fifteen cattle on a he ...200314621319
acquired resistance of horses to amblyomma cajennense (fabricius, 1787) ticks.acquired immunity of horses to larvae, nymphs and adults of the amblyomma cajennense tick was evaluated through three consecutive experimental infestations of tick-bite naïve hosts. data from these infestations were compared to those from field-sensitized horses and donkeys. it was observed that tick-bite naïve horses developed a low level of resistance after two infestations as shown by a significant decrease in larval yield and a tendency for lower engorged weight of nymphs during third infest ...200314637029
in vitro assays for repellents and deterrents for ticks: differing effects of products when tested with attractant or arrestment stimuli.most in vivo and in vitro tests with repellents or deterrents against ticks have not considered which sensory channel is being targeted. we have recorded the responses of two hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) in vitro to determine if such products can disrupt the perception of an attractant in a repellent assay or the perception of an arrestment stimulus in a deterrent assay. ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (ebaap), n,n-diethyl-methyl-benzamide (deet), permethrin and indalone were chosen to t ...200314651650
seasonal dynamics of the cayenne tick, amblyomma cajennense on horses in brazil.the population dynamics of all stages of the cayenne tick, amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) (acari: ixodidae) on horses was evaluated over a period of 2 years in the district of pedro leopoldo, state of minas gerais, brazil. every 14 days, the left side of 20 horses was brushed for collection of immature stages; counts of adults were also undertaken. infestation by larvae was detected from april to august, whereas nymphs were observed from june to october. infestation by adults was detected thro ...200314651655
evidence of borrelia lonestari dna in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) removed from humans.we used a nested pcr with borrelia flagellin gene (flab) primers and dna sequencing to determine if borrelia lonestari was present in amblyomma americanum ticks removed from military personnel and sent to the tick-borne disease laboratory of the u.s. army center for health promotion and preventive medicine. in our preliminary investigation, we detected borrelia sequences in 19 of 510 a. americanum adults and nymphs from ft. a. p. hill, va. during the 2001 tick season, the flab primers were used ...200314662940
meteorologically mediated diurnal questing of ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) nymphs.questing ixodes scapularis say and amblyomma americanum (l.) nymphs were collected in the field by drag sampling to determine whether ticks would be collected in greater numbers during certain times of the day and under certain ambient meteorological conditions. ticks were collected hourly for 16 h on 4 d and counts were contrasted with simultaneous measurements of ambient temperature and relative humidity, and with similar measurements made within the leaf litter. peak numbers of questing i. sc ...200314680102
transstadial transfer of west nile virus by three species of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae).larvae and/or nymphs of four species of ixodid ticks, ixodes scapularis say, amblyomma americanum (l.), dermacentor andersoni stiles, and dermacentor variabilis say, were fed to completion on laboratory hamsters or mice which had been inoculated with a west nile (wn) virus isolate from culex pipiens l. captured in connecticut usa. maximum titers in mice and hamsters were approximately 5 and two logs, respectively, lower than recorded (10 logs) in a naturally infected american crow, corvus brachy ...200314680122
dna evidence of borrelia lonestari in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in southeast missouri.amblyomma americanum collected near lake wappapello, missouri, tested positive for borrelia lonestari using polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses of b. lonestari 16s rrna and flagellin (flab) genes. twelve pools containing a total of 214 nymph or adult ticks contained evidence of infection with b. lonestari (minimum prevalence 5.6%). these data suggest that persons in southeast missouri are at risk for exposure to b. lonestari after a. americanum tick bite, a possible cause of erythema ...200314680133
detection of borrelia lonestari in amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) from tennessee.genetic sequences characteristic of borrelia lonestari (barbour et al. 1996) were detected in two pools of adult amblyomma americanum (l.) from tennessee, corresponding to an estimated minimum field infection rate of 8.4 infected ticks/1000 adults. dna amplification was conducted using primers derived from the b. lonestari flagellin gene that would also amplify borrelia burgdorferi (johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner). species-specific, internal probes were then used to differentiat ...200312597661
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on wild animals from the porto-primavera hydroelectric power station area, brazil.from june 2000 to june 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the porto-primavera hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the paran river, between the states of s o paulo and mato grosso do sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: ambly-omma (7 species), boophilus (1) and anocentor (1). a total of 421 immature amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the ...200312563479
brazilian distribution of amblyomma varium koch, 1844 (acari: ixodidae), a common parasite of sloths (mammalia: xenarthra).amblyomma varium, commonly known in brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern central america to argentina. the present study adds information on the geographical distribution of a. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main brazilian collections and on the available literature. eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. these vials incl ...200312563481
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from the masai mara region of kenya.we have identified for the first time rickettsia africae, and the ticks that harbored them, in kenya. a total of 5,325 ticks were collected from vegetation, livestock, and wild animals during two field trips to southwestern kenya. most were immature forms (85.2%) belonging to the genera amblyomma or rhipicephalus. the adults also included representatives from the genus boophilus. ticks were assessed for rickettsial dna by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers for the spotted fever grou ...200312812343
a method for extraction and analysis of high quality genomic dna from ixodid ticks.currently, no published methods describe the extraction of high molecular weight genomic dna from ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) and commonly used methods of extraction are not well adapted for use with members of this family. a method for extraction of minimally degraded genomic dna from ixodid ticks that can be completed in one or two days is described. the method produces dna which is of sufficient size (>24 kb) for use in southern analysis and which is readily digestible by restriction endon ...200312823841
seasonal fluctuation of parasitic infestation in donkeys (equus asinus) in oodi village, kgatleng district, botswana.during the period march to september 2000, a study was conducted in oodi village, kgatleng district, botswana, to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of internal, external and blood parasites of donkeys. twelve adult donkeys were randomly selected from a farmer with a herd of 15 donkeys. monthly visits were made to the farmer when the donkeys were examined for parasites. the only ectoparasites recovered from the donkeys were instars of various tick species. the most prevalent tick was rhipiceph ...200312836744
endocannabinoids and related fatty acid amides, and their regulation, in the salivary glands of the lone star tick.the salivary glands and saliva from the lone star tick amblyomma americanum (l.) were analyzed for the presence of the two endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, n-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-ag), as well as of the anandamide congener, n-palmitoylethanolamine (pea), an anti-inflammatory and analgesic mediator that is inactive at cannabinoid receptors. two very sensitive mass-spectrometric techniques were used for this purpose. both 2-ag and pea, as ...200312842196
ehrlichiae and ehrlichial diseases in china.the various ticks collected from different areas of china were examined for the existence of ehrlichial agents by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with genus- or species-specific primers designed on the basis of ehrlichial 16s rrna genes and sequence analyses. in southern china, e. chaffeensis was detected in amblyomma testudinarium ticks from infested cattle, haemaphysalis yeni ticks from hare, and ixodes ovatus ticks from muntiacus reevesi. e. canis was identified in rhipicephalus sanguineus ti ...200312860598
rickettsia honei: a spotted fever group rickettsia on three continents.rickettsia honei (also known as strain tt-118) has been detected on three continents. originally isolated in thailand in 1962 (and confirmed in 2001), it has also been detected on flinders island (australia) in 1993 and in texas (usa) in 1998. on each continent it has been associated with a different species of tick. the original isolate (thai tick typhus strain tt-118) was from a pool of larval ixodes and rhipicephalus ticks. later it was detected in i. granulatus from rattus rattus. its pathog ...200312860601
rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia conorii in uruguay.the first three human cases of rickettsiosis caused by rickettsia conorii in montevideo, uruguay were described in 1990. all of them showed an initial papulosquamous lesion on the scalp from a canine tick bite (amblyomma triste). at the same time, fever and regional adenopathies were observed. serological diagnosis was made by the indirect igm immunofluorescent technique on glass smears of r. conorii (biomerieux laboratories, france). all patients had a benign disease course after been treated w ...200312860638
phylogenetic relationships among ehrlichia ruminantium isolates.ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, is a tick-borne pathogen infecting ruminants throughout sub-saharan africa and on some caribbean islands. the most reliable test for e. ruminantium is pcr-based, but this gives positive results in some areas free of clinical heartwater and of the known amblyomma spp. tick vectors. to investigate the molecular basis for this finding we have sequenced and carried out phylogenetic analysis of a range of genes from a number of e. ruminantium ...200312860707
persistence of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa: adeleorina) in a naturally infected dog.to determine the persistence of hepatozoon americanum in a naturally infected dog, skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at approximately 6-mo intervals over a period of 5.5 yr, and the samples were examined for presence of lesions of american canine hepatozoonosis (ach). nymphal amblyomma maculatum (gulf coast tick) were allowed to feed to repletion on the dog periodically over the 5.5-yr period, and adult ticks were dissected and examined for presence of h. americanum oocysts. with 3 excepti ...200312880267
american canine hepatozoonosis.american canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, hepatozoon americanum. the known definitive host of the protozoan is the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum. presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, canis latrans. laboratory-reared larval or nymphal a. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; spo ...200312885206
american canine hepatozoonosis.hepatozoon americanum infection is an emerging tickborne disease in the southern united states. this organism causes a very different and much more severe disease than does hepatozoon canis, the etiologic agent of canine hepatozoonosis in the rest of the world. h americanum is transmitted through ingestion of the definitive host, amblyomma maculatum (the gulf coast tick). clinical signs of american canine hepatozoonosis tend to wax and wane over time and may include lameness, weakness, pain, mus ...200312910749
selection assisted by a bola-dr/dq haplotype against susceptibility to bovine dermatophilosis.bovine dermatophilosis is a severe skin infection of tropical ruminants inducing a severe loss in productivity and a 15% mortality rate. this disease is caused by the actinomycete bacterium dermatophilus congolensis associated with the tick amblyomma variegatum. currently there are no prospects for a vaccine, and acaricide or antibiotic control is hampered by the development of chemoresistance. animal breeders have observed that dermatophilosis susceptibility seems to be determined genetically, ...200312927091
a survey for spotted fever group rickettsiae and ehrlichiae in amblyomma variegatum from st. kitts and nevis.eighty-nine amblyomma variegatum ticks were collected from the islands of st. kitts and nevis in the caribbean and preserved in 70% ethanol or local rum. after being washed in sterile water, their dna was extracted and analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for dna of spotted fever group rickettsiae and ehrlichiae. none of the tested ticks was positive in a pcr assay using the primers 16s ehrd and 16s ehrr for the 16s rrna gene of ehrlichia spp.. forty-one percent of the a. variegatum (36 ...200312932098
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on wild marsh-deer (blastocerus dichotomus) from southeast brazil: infestations before and after habitat loss.the lake from porto-primavera hydroelectric power station inundated an area of 2,200 km2 at the border of são paulo and mato-grosso do sul states, brazil. infestations by ticks were evaluated on 135 marsh deer, blastocerus dichotomus (illiger), captured before and after inundation. ticks were collected for identification, and infestation level of animals was assessed by scoring. deer were divided into four groups according to capture location and temporal relation to the inundation. groups 1, 2, ...200312943103
african tick bite fever.african tick bite fever is an acute febrile illness that is frequently accompanied by headache, prominent neck muscle myalgia, inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenitis. the disease is caused by rickettsia africae, a recently identified spotted fever group rickettsia, which is transmitted by ungulate ticks of the amblyomma genus in rural sub-saharan africa and the french west indies. whereas reports on african tick bite fever in indigenous populations are scarce, the number of reported cas ...200312954562
detection by two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibodies to ehrlichia ruminantium in field sera collected from sheep and cattle in ghana.two serological tests for detection of antibodies to ehrlichia (previously cowdria) ruminantium, the causative agent of heartwater, were compared by using field sera collected from sheep and cattle as part of serosurveys in ghana. sera selected as either negative or positive by a new polyclonal competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pc-elisa) were tested by the indirect map1-b elisa. cutoff values of 14 percent positivity (14 pp) for both ruminant species were obtained for the map1-b eli ...200312965927
climate change decreases habitat suitability for some tick species (acari: ixodidae) in south africa.models predicting current habitat availability for four prominent tick species in africa (boophilus decoloratus, amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and hyalomma truncatum) were constructed using remotely sensed information about abiotic variables and a point-to-point similarity metric. year-to-year variations in the forecasted habitat suitability over the period 1983-2000 show a clear decrease in habitat availability, which is attributed primarily to increasing temperature in the r ...200312967169
ixodid ticks of angora and boer goats, grysbok, common duikers, kudus and scrub hares in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province, south africa.at monthly intervals from february 1983 to january 1984 two angora goats, two boer goats, one grysbok, raphicerus melanotis, one common duiker, sylvicapra grimmia, one greater kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, and four scrub hares, lepus saxatilis, were killed on a farm in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province, south africa and examined for ticks. seven ixodid tick species were collected, of which rhipicephalus glabroscutatum followed by amblyomma hebraeum and rhipicephalus oculatus were th ...200312967172
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xli. arthropod parasites of impalas, aepyceros melampus, in the kruger national park.ectoparasites were collected from impalas, aepyceros melampus, at four localities within the kruger national park, namely skukuza, in the biyamiti region, crocodile bridge and pafuri. animals were also examined at skukuza during a severe drought and at skukuza and pafuri towards the end of a second drought. parasite burdens were analysed in relation to locality, sex, age class, month and drought. the impalas were infested with 13 ixodid ticks species, including two that were identified only to g ...200312967174
ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs in japan.the species of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) recovered from domestic dogs in japan between september to november 2000 and april to june 2001 were identified. a total of 4122 ticks, including 1624 larvae, 1200 nymphs, 1016 females and 282 males were removed from 1221 dogs during these periods. haemaphysalis longicornis (neumann) was the most frequently found (40.3% of dogs), followed by h. flava (neumann) (16.1% of dogs), rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (4.8% of dogs) and ixodes ovatus (neu ...200312680923
detection of ehrlichia spp., anaplasma spp., rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the thai-myanmar border and vietnam.a total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the thai-myanmar border and in vietnam. they were tested by pcr to detect dna of bacteria of the order rickettsiales: three anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in thailand, including (i) anaplasma sp. strain anda465, which was considered a genotype of anaplasma platys (formerly ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from dermacentor aur ...200312682151
ecological analysis of acari recovered from coprolites from archaeological site of northeast brazil.coprolite samples of human and animal origin from the excavations performed at the archaeological site of furna do estrago, at brejo da madre de deus in the state of pernambuco, brazil and sent to the paleoparasitology laboratory at escola nacional de saúde pública-fiocruz, rio de janeiro, were analyzed for mites. after rehydratation and sedimentation of the coprolites, the alimentary contents and the sediments were examined and the mites collected and prepared in definitive whole mounts, using ...200312687780
larval behavioral diapause regulates life cycle of amblyomma cajennense (acari: ixodidae) in southeast brazil.previous studies have determined that amblyomma cajennense (f.) produces one generation per year in southeastern brazil. larvae predominate from april to july, nymphs from july to october, and adults from october to march. in the current study, we observed engorged females, their eggs, and respective larvae in the field. engorged females were released in grass plots under natural conditions, at monthly intervals, from october 2000 to march 2001. preoviposition periods lasted 1-2 wk, and mean egg ...200312693845
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