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protein analysis of earthworm coelomic fluid: 1) polymorphic system of the natural hemolysin of eisenia fetida andrei. 197943268
antibacterial activity of eisenia fetida andrei coelomic fluid: iii--relationship within the polymorphic hemolysins.the antibacterial activity exhibited by 10 different hemolytic, genetic families was established by measuring the inhibition of spontaneous in vitro growth by cell-free coelomic fluid toward 2 bacteria which are pathogenic for the earthworm: bacillus megaterium (gram +) and aeromonas hydrophila (gram -). only two families (b and k) displayed potent inhibitory activities. this finding is consistent with the fact that the b family occurs most frequently in both natural as well as in industrial bre ...19912050244
antibacterial activity of eisenia fetida andrei coelomic fluid: transcription and translation regulation of lysozyme and proteins evidenced after bacterial infestation.1. after bacterial infestation lysozyme and antibacterial activities are enhanced, peaking at 4 hr and 3 days, respectively. 2. both humoral defenses require rna and protein de novo synthesis in response to pathogenic bacteria injection (actinomycin d and cycloheximide experiments). 3. antibacterial activity exists naturally at some basic level, involving regular translation of stable rnas. 4. when antibacterial activity reaches its maximum after bacterial injection, proteins responsible for it ...19902331874
interactions between earthworm hemolysins and sheep red blood cell membranes.the hemolytic activity exhibited by the coelomic fluid of the annelid eisenia fetida andrei is mediated by two lipoproteins of mass 40 and 45 kda, each of them capable of hemolysis. such an activity is not inhibited by zymosan, inulin or lipopolysaccharide (lps), nor by hydrazine or methylamine, suggesting that earthworm hemolysins are not related to c3 or c3b complement components. among the membrane lipids tested (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingomyel ...19892758056
protein analysis of earthworm coelomic fluid. iii. isolation and characterization of several bacteriostatic molecules from eisenia fetida andrei.a bacteriostatic activity in eisenia fetida andrei cell free coelomic fluid is described. this activity is detected by growth inhibition of a bacteria bacillus megaterium. gel filtration analysis revealed eleven coelomic fluid protein fractions designated a, b,..j. antibacterial activity was mainly found within fractions b and c. chromatofocusing resolved fractions b-c into five different peaks named alpha bc, beta bc,... epsilon bc. antibacterial activity appeared mediated by three different pr ...19853922817
pcbs increase molecular-related activities (lysozyme, antibacterial, hemolysis, proteases) but inhibit macrophage-related functions (phagocytosis, wound healing) in earthworms.both humoral and cellular immunodefense responses of the earthworms, eisenia fetida andrei, eisenia hortensis, and lumbricus terrestris, have been compared after exposure to the pcb aroclor 1254. responses mediated by free factors, detected by in vitro assays for lysozyme, hemolysis, and proteases, were increased in both eisenia. antibacterial activity directed against pathogenic bacteria was increased in e.f. andrei. the resistance of l. terrestris against non-pathogenic bacteria was decreased, ...19957745278
crossreactivity of hemolytic and hemagglutinating proteins in the coelomic fluid of lumbricidae (annelida).oligospecific antisera against the hemolytic and hemagglutinating compounds of the coelomic fluid (cf) of the earthworm species eisenia fetida, lumbricus terrestris and aporrectodea caliginosa were prepared. the proteins were bound to the membranes of erythrocytes and injected into rabbits. by the use of these antisera the following results were obtained: 1) the antisera ral t and raac reached a titer of 1:64,000, the detection limit of raef was 1:512,000. raef was demonstrated to be oligospecif ...19968858836
sequence and expression of an eisenia-fetida-derived cdna clone that encodes the 40-kda fetidin antibacterial protein.fetidins are 40-kda and 45-kda hemolytic and antibacterial glycoproteins present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei. by screening a cdna library with a polyclonal antifetidin serum, we have cloned a cdna that encoded the 40-kda fetidin. the clone contains an insert of 1.44 kb encoding a protein of 34 kda, which corresponds to the size of deglycosylated fetidins. the recombinant protein inhibits bacillus megaterium growth. restriction fragment polymorphisms were observed ...19979219536
earthworm egg capsules as vectors for the environmental introduction of biodegradative bacteria.earthworm egg capsules (cocoons) may acquire bacteria from the environment in which they are produced. we found that ralstonia eutropha (pjp4) can be recovered from eisenia fetida cocoons formed in soil inoculated with this bacterium. plasmid pjp4 contains the genes necessary for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) and 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2,4-dcp) degradation. in this study we determined that the presence of r. eutropha (pjp4) within the developing earthworm cocoon can influence the degradat ...199910347016
ecotoxicological evaluation of three deicers (nacl, nafo, cma)-effect on terrestrial organisms.the use of chemical deicers such as sodium chloride (nacl) has increased significantly during the past three decades. deicers induce metal corrosion and alter the physicochemical properties of soils and water. environmental damage caused by the use of nacl has prompted government agencies to find alternative deicers. this article presents a comparative ecotoxicological study of three deicers on soil organisms. sodium formiate (nafo) and calcium-magnesium acetate (cma) are the most interesting co ...200111161687
the use of acute and chronic bioassays to determine the ecological risk and bioremediation efficiency of oil-polluted soils.to compare the effectiveness of acute and chronic bioassays for the ecological risk assessment of polluted soils, soil samples from a site with an historical mineral oil contamination (< 50-3,300 mg oil/kg dry soil) at the petroleum harbour in amsterdam, the netherlands, were screened for ecological effects using acute and chronic bioassays. a two-step 0.001 m ca(no3)2 extraction at a final solution-to-soil ratio of 1:1 was used to prepare extracts for the acute bioassays. acute bioassays (< or ...200111434283
assessment of metal availability in smelter soil using earthworms and chemical extractions.chemical immobilization is a relatively inexpensive in situ remediation method that reduces soil contaminant solubility, but the ability of this remediation treatment to reduce heavy metal bioavailability and ecotoxicity to soil invertebrates has not been evaluated. our objectives were to (i) assess the ability of chemical immobilization amendments (municipal sewage sludge biosolids and rock phosphate) to reduce metal bioavailability and toxicity in a toxic metal-contaminated smelter soil and (i ...200111476500
influence of animal manures on the biology of temperate earthworm, eisenia fetida in tropical semiarid climate.for understanding the potential utility in field scale production of vermicompost and vermiprotein economically, eisenia fetida was cultured to establish the influence of (i) prevailing tropical semiarid (north-east region of karnataka, india) environmental factors and (ii) different animal manures (cattle, horse and 1:1 mixture of cattle and horse) (on its growth, reproduction and life span. in three forms of diet, growth (mg/d/g live weight of worm) was almost similar, but the biomass in cattl ...200111500015
crystal structure of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component a: revealing the structural determinants of its dual fibrinolytic activity.earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme component a (efea) from eisenia fetida is a strong fibrinolytic enzyme that not only directly degrades fibrin, but also activates plasminogen. proteolytic assays further revealed that it cleaved behind various p1 residue types. the crystal structure of efea was determined using the mir method and refined to 2.3a resolution. the enzyme, showing the overall polypeptide fold of chymotrypsin-like serine proteases, possesses essential s1 specificity determinants characte ...200212139933
reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei by colorimetric assay.a novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2h-tetrazolium (mts) was used in the assessment of antimicrobial activity in earthworm in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (pms) as an electron coupling reagent. this activity was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ecf), eisenia fetida andrei (oligochaeta, lumbricidae, annelids) using a series of column chromatography techniques and was tested against three gram-negative st ...200314660872
genotoxicity of two novel pesticides for the earthworm, eisenia fetida.in this paper, several studies were conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of two pesticides, imidacloprid and rh-5849, for earthworm (eisenia fetida). earthworms were exposed in different exposure systems to evaluate their acute toxicity and the genotoxicity of the two pesticides was evaluated by using the method of sperm deformity assessment, micronucleus test of root tip cells in vicia faba, a mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test, and comet assay. lc(50) (interpolated concentration at which 50 ...200015092957
early-phase immunodetection of metallothionein and heat shock proteins in extruded earthworm coelomocytes after dermal exposure to metal ions.this paper provides direct evidence that earthworm immune cells, coelomocytes, are exposed to bio-reactive quantities of metals within 3 days after dermal exposure, and that they respond by upregulating metallothionein (mt) and heat shock protein (hsp70, hsp72) expression. indirect support for the hypothesis that coelomocytes are capable of trafficking metals was also obtained. coelomocytes were expelled from adult individuals of eisenia fetida after 3-day exposure either to metal ions (zn, cu, ...200515734587
monitoring of the process of composting of kitchen waste in an institutional scale worm farm.vermicomposting provides an alternative method of managing waste that is ecofriendly and cost-effective. the environmental technology centre (etc) at murdoch university and st. john of god hospital (sjog) signed a memorandum of understanding (mou) to install a vermiculture system in sjog to treat some of the organic waste generated by the on site kitchen facility. this is an effort made by sjog to reduce the amount of organic waste sent to landfill each year and to treat the waste on site as par ...200516104419
ecotoxicity of sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) to soil organisms.sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080) is applied as a vertebrate pesticide in new zealand for control of introduced mammalian pests. despite its widespread use, little is known about the soil ecotoxicity of 1080. therefore, the hazard of 1080 to soil invertebrates, plants, and soil microorganisms was evaluated in a series of controlled laboratory tests. no earthworm (eisenia fetida) mortality was reported with 1080 exposures up to 865 mg/kg soil. the lowest-observable-effect concentration and the ...200516111002
monoclonal antibodies identify four distinct annelid leukocyte markers.this paper describes for the first time the production and characterization of a library of monoclonal antibodies (anti-efcc clones) raised against coelomocyte (leukocyte) markers of eisenia fetida earthworm. leukocyte subgroups are components of earthworm innate immunity that require a more precise characterization using immunological markers. flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoprecipitation analyzed and confirmed the specificity of anti-efcc clones. anti-efcc mabs revealed differen ...200415784291
bioaccumulation of metals in eisenia fetida after exposure to a metal-loaded bauxsol reagent.the present study investigated the acute toxic effects of a metal-loaded bauxsol reagent (mlbr), containing more than 6,450 mg kg(-1) of bound metal, on the earthworm eisenia fetida. bauxsol is manufactured by virotec global solutions of gold coast, queensland, australia. the e. fetida were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80% treatments of mlbr plus cow manure for 28 d. good motility and no mortality of e. fetida were found in all treatments after 28 d of exposure. the greatest bioaccumulation ...200515779754
presence of culturable bacteria in cocoons of the earthworm eisenia fetida.viable bacteria were found to coexist with developing embryos in egg capsules (cocoons) of the earthworm eisenia fetida. earthworms were reared under standardized conditions, and bacterial densities were measured in distinct batches of cocoons collected weekly for 10 weeks. cocoons weighing 12 mg contained a mean viable bacterial population of approximately 10 cfu/g of cocoons. no difference was found in viable counts obtained from cocoons incubated at 15 degrees c and cocoons incubated at 24 de ...199316348968
transformation of nitrogen during vermicomposting of fly ash.in view of environmental problems generated by large-scale production of fly ash, increasing attention is now being paid to the recycling fly ash as a source of plant nutrients in agriculture. however, the low amount of nitrogen in such materials forms a major constraint for such application. in the present study, the possibility of improving the n status in mixtures of fly ash and organic matter was investigated by adopting vermicomposting technology. different combinations of fly ash and cow ( ...200415666451
comparative study of the ccf-like pattern recognition protein in different lumbricid species.coelomic fluid of the lumbricid eisenia fetida contains a 42-kda pattern recognition protein named coelomic cytolytic factor (ccf) that binds microbial cell wall components and triggers the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade, an important invertebrate defense pathway. here we report on the sequence characterization of ccf-like molecules of other lumbricids: aporrectodea caliginosa, aporrectodea icterica, aporrectodea longa, aporrectodea rosea, dendrobaena veneta, lumbricus rubellus and l ...200616386303
transmission of nephridial bacteria of the earthworm eisenia fetida.the lumbricid earthworms (annelid family lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common bact ...200616391117
selecting a battery of bioassays for ecotoxicological characterization of wastes.this study was conducted in france within the context of waste classification (hazardous waste council directive 91/689/eec), and focused on "ecotoxic" property (h14). in 1998, an experimental test strategy was developed to assess ecotoxicological properties of wastes using a battery of six standardized bioassays. this combined direct and indirect approaches integrating two solid-phase tests: emergence and growth inhibition of lactuca sativa (14 days), mortality of eisenia fetida (14 days) and f ...200616545863
profiles of enzymatic activity in earthworms from zinc, lead and cadmium polluted areas near olkusz (poland).the aim of the study was to determine whether there are signs of adaptation of soil fauna to a gradient of heavy metal contamination. earthworms aporrectodea caliginosa, lumbricus terrestris and eisenia fetida were collected during the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001 from meadow sites situated between 2 and 32 km from the bukowno-olkusz complex of zinc-lead ore mines and smelters. the heavy metal content in the soil near smelters reaches 10,500 mg/kg (d.w.) for zn, 2600 mg/kg for pb and 81.9 ...200415196838
the comet assay as biomarker of heavy metal genotoxicity in earthworms.the ubiquitous occurring earthworm species, eisenia fetida, were exposed to nickel chloride to determine whether the heavy metal ni caused dna damage, as measured by the comet (single cell gel electrophoresis) assay. primary cell cultures of earthworm coelomocytes were exposed in vitro and whole animals either in spiked artificial soil water or in spiked cattle manure substrates. comets formed were scored using mean tail lengths as well as comparing percentages of damage in five different damage ...200415106672
comparative studies on biomass production, life cycles and composting efficiency of eisenia fetida (savigny) and lampito mauritii (kinberg).comparative studies were performed to evaluate composting potential, biomass growth and biology of a non-native (eisenia fetida) and an endemic (lampito mauritii) species of earthworm in the semiarid environment of jodhpur district of rajasthan in india. earthworms were reared in a mixed bedding material comprised of biogas slurry, cowdung, wheat straw, leaflitter, sawdust and kitchen waste. the percentage of organic carbon of the culture bedding material declined upto 105 days with e. fetida an ...200414766161
decomposition of kitchen waste amended with cow manure using an epigeic species (eisenia fetida) and an anecic species (lampito mauritii).an epigeic (surface dweller) earthworm species eisenia fetida and an anecic (deep burrower) earthworm species lampito mauritii have been tested for decomposition of kitchen waste plus cow dung. chemical analyses of worm-worked substrates by both species showed g/kg increases in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and decreases in c/n and c/p ratios after 150 days of vermicomposting. however, organic carbon matter showed reduction in their amounts for 3-4 months and afterwards slightly increased u ...200414693456
toxic effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on earthworm eisenia fetida in phaiozem, northeast china.acetochlor and methamidophos are two important agrochemicals which are widely applied to agricultural production in northeast china. the investigation on the earthworm eisenia fetida as an important type of soil animals exposed to single and binary-combined contamination of acetochlor and methamidophos was thus carried out. the single toxic effect test showed that the two agrochemicals had their toxicity to the earthworms living in phaiozem. acetochlor had a stronger acute toxic effect on the ea ...200617078554
ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study.the ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. the initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (tphs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. an amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 l of the bacterial preparation gem-100 containing pseudomonas sp. and acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) cfu.ml(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. the concentration of tphs in the soil decreased by 65.5 ...200717106791
evaluation of chemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of biodegradable organic residues for application to agricultural land.the use of organic waste and compost as a source of organic matter and nutrients is a common practice to improve soil physico-chemical properties, meanwhile reducing the need for inorganic fertilisers. official guidelines to assess sewage sludge and compost quality are mostly based on total metal content of these residues. measurement of the total concentration of metals may be useful as a general index of contamination, but provides inadequate or little information about their bioavailability, ...200717188749
[a component of earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme having higher thrombolytic activity than total components in vivo].to select higher thrombolytic and lower toxic single component of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes (efe).200617262949
effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils.two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with eisenia fetida (savigny, 1826). three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. seventeen metals were analysed in e. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. soil organic carbon content, texture, ph and cation exchange capacity were also measured. cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions ...200717316938
effect of nonaqueous-phase liquids on the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil for worm uptake and bacterial genotoxicity.a study was conducted to determine the effect of nonaqueous-phase liquids (napls) on the bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene (bap) in soil. sentry 19 oil and pristane reduced the availability of bap for assimilation by the earthworm eisenia fetida and for mutagenicity in a rifampicin-sensitive strain of pseudomonas putida. as much as 80% of the compound could be rendered unavailable to the worms or for genotoxicity. tests with five alkanes and an oil showed that the extent of reduction in genotoxi ...200314587898
ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-contaminated soil.soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. the total concentration of the 16 pahs listed as priority pollutants by the us environmental protection agency (us-epa) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. the toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (vibrio fischeri; microtox test, daphnia ma ...200717382389
the effect of lead-contaminated soil from canadian prairie skeet ranges on the neutral red retention assay and fecundity in the earthworm eisenia fetida.the sublethal effects of lead (pb) on the earthworm eisenia fetida were evaluated in the laboratory using freshly spiked soil and soil collected from canadian prairie skeet ranges. after a four-week exposure to soil spiked with lead acetate, earthworm neutral red retention time (nrrt). soil pb concentrations, and earthworm pb body burdens were measured. lysosomal nrrt was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.0001), and nrrt was negatively correlated with earthworm pb body burdens ( ...200314552010
diversity of microflora in the gut and casts of tropical composting earthworms reared on different substrates.the diversity of fungi, bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes and protozoa were analysed in the gut and casts of eudrilus eugeniae, lampito mauritii, eisenia fetida and perionyx excavatus, both qualitatively and quantitatively as influenced by different feed substrates like clay loam soil, cowdung and pressmud. while actinomycetes (streptomyces albus, s. somaliensis, nocardia asteroides, n. caviae and saccharomonosporia) were not digested by any of these species of worms, protozoa (amoeba proteus, a. t ...200717717992
influence of organic wastes and seasonal environmental factors on growth and reproduction of eisenia fetida.epigeic earthworms (e. fetida) were cultured on variety of organic wastes amended with cattle manure to determine the influence of diets and the seasonal environmental factors on growth and reproduction. the results showed that growth and reproductive strategies of e. fetida varied with different diets and seasons. growth and reproduction of worms in all wastes were significantly more in winter and monsoon than in summer season. hence winter and monsoon seasons could be considered congenial for ...200312974416
hydrolysis of fibrinogen and plasminogen by immobilized earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme ii from eisenia fetida.earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme ii (efe-ii) from eisenia fetida has a broad hydrolytic specificity for peptide bonds. our experiments show that efe-ii can hydrolyze the specific chromogenic substrates of thrombin (chromozym th), trypsin (chromozym try) and elastase (chromozym ela). the michaelis-menten constant (k(m)) for chromozym ela (approximately 245 microm) is much higher than those for the thrombin (approximately 90 microm) and trypsin (approximately 60 microm) substrates. on the other hand, ...200312957313
increasing bioavailability of phosphorus from fly ash through vermicomposting.due to the environmental problems created by large-scale fly ash generation throughout the world, efforts are being made to recycle these materials. an important component of the recycling effort is using fly ash to improve low-fertility soils. because availability of many nutrients is very low in fly ash, available ranges of such nutrients must be improved to increase the effectiveness of fly ash as a soil amendment. in the present study, we assessed the possibility of increasing p bioavailabil ...200212469864
effects of endophyte status of tall fescue tissues on the earthworm (eisenia fetida).a cryptic fungal endophyte, neotyphodium coenophialum, infects most tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) pastures in the united states. cattle, sheep, and horses that consume the endophyte-infected grass can suffer fescue toxicosis caused by toxic alkaloids in the infected plants. the effects of the endophyte on mammalian herbivores have been well documented, but less is known regarding the quality of the grass (infected vs noninfected) as a food material for soil invertebrates. we conducted 21-d t ...200111392146
evaluation of the fungicide manganese-zinc ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (mancozeb) for sublethal and acute toxicity to eisenia fetida (oligochaeta).this article describes the outcome of laboratory experiments to determine the acute and sublethal effects of the fungicide mancozeb on the earthworm eisenia fetida. apart from a standardized acute test, young worms, 25 days old, were exposed to mancozeb mixed into a urine-free cattle manure substrate. five groups of 10 worms each were used per concentration level (0, 8, 44 mg/kg substrate). the following life-history parameters were measured: growth in consecutive weeks over a 6-week period, sur ...200111161693
effects of the fungicide copper oxychloride on the growth and reproduction of eisenia fetida (oligochaeta).the article describes a laboratory experiment to determine the effect of copper oxychloride on the earthworm eisenia fetida. copper oxychloride was used because it is the most commonly used fungicide in south african vineyards but not much is known about its toxicity to earthworms. in an experiment lasting 8 weeks, newly hatched earthworms of the species e. fetida were exposed to copper oxychloride mixed into a urine-free cattle manure substrate. four groups of 10 worms were used per concentrati ...200010806001
distribution of pacap-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of oligochaeta.the marked similarity between the primary structures of human, other vertebrate, and the invertebrate tunicate pacap suggests that pacap is one of the most highly conserved peptides during the phylogeny of the metazoans. we investigated the distribution of pacap-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of three oligochaete (annelida) worms with immunocytochemistry. the distribution pattern of immunoreactivity was similar in all three species (lumbricus terrestris, eisenia fetida, and lumbricu ...200010764943
environmental risk assessment for the polycyclic musks, ahtn and hhcb. ii. effect assessment and risk characterisation.reports of the polycyclic musks ahtn and hhcb in surface water and fish, primarily in europe, have prompted studies of their environmental effects. these effects then are used, along with the predicted environmental concentrations in a risk assessment according to the approach developed under european union regulation 793/93, in line with the technical guidance document for risk assessment of new and existing chemicals. in 72-h studies with algae (pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), noecs were 0.3 ...199910630704
glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and catalase activities in the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei.the aim of this work was to provide basic data on the antioxidant defences in the annelid eisenia fetida andrei (e. f. a.). methods for measurement of three antioxidant enzymes-catalase (cat), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), and glutathione reductase (gr)-and of glutathione-s-transferase (gst) were optimized. gpx activity differed according to the substrate used: cumene hydroperoxide (cuooh) or hydrogen peroxide (h2o2). the effects on the enzyme activities of storage up to 2 months at -80 degrees ...19989776778
interaction of earthworm hemolysin with lipid membranes requires sphingolipids.lytic activity in the coelomic fluid of earthworm (eisenia fetida fetida) has been ascribed to eiseniapore, a hemolytic protein of 38 kda. since receptors for eiseniapore on target cell membranes are not known, we used lipid vesicles of various composition to determine whether specific lipids may serve as receptors. lytic activity of eiseniapore was probed by the relief of fluorescence dequenching from the fluorophore 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3, 6-trisulfonic acid originally incorporated into the ve ...19979252415
microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm eisenia fetida (savigny, 1826).here we studied how the transit through the gut of the earthworm eisenia fetida affects the microbial and nutrient stabilization of pig and cow manure, by analyzing fresh casts. earthworms reduced the pools of dissolved organic c and n in casts from both types of manure, as wells as mineral n. microbial biomass was enhanced only in casts from pig manure and did not change in casts from cow manure, and fungal populations only raised in casts from cow manure. earthworms reduced microbial activity ...200918511187
acute toxicity evaluation of the plant molluscicide, apodytes dimidiata (icacinaceae), to eisenia fetida (oligochaeta) and oreochromis mossambicus (cichlidae) in south africa.the crude aqueous leaf extract of a south african tree, apodytes dimidiata, has been identified as a potential molluscicide for snail control in anti-schistosomiasis programmes in rural communities. before preliminary field trials could be implemented its acute toxic effects on two non-target organisms were examined in accordance with the oecd guidelines to identify any potential hazards that might arise from the plant's use. laboratory results showed that working molluscicidal concentrations of ...19979083581
effects of metal-contaminated soils on the growth, sexual development, and early cocoon production of the earthworm eisenia fetida, with particular reference to zinc.juvenile eisenia fetida (savigny) were exposed for 20 weeks to an uncontaminated soil and to soils contaminated with cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc collected from seven sites at different distances from a smelting works at avonmouth, southwest england. the survival, growth (= weight after 5 weeks exposure), time to sexual maturation (= percentages of adults present after 8 weeks), and reproduction (= number of cocoons produced by the worms) were compared with soil metal concentrations. of the p ...19968930509
serological evidence and amino acid sequence of ubiquitin-like protein isolated from coelomic fluid and cells of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei.1. a small protein of m(r) 10 kda has been isolated by reverse-phase chromatography of the basic proteins contained in the coelomic fluid and cell lysate of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei. 2. the protein crossreacted in dot-blot with an anti-bovine ubiquitin antiserum. 3. its n-terminal primary structure was determined by automatic edman degradation on 26 consecutive amino acids and showed 69% (based on the 26 amino acids) or 82% (based on the first 19 consecutive amino acids) identity with ...19938386996
cellular but not humoral antibacterial activity of earthworms is inhibited by aroclor 1254.earthworms, eisenia fetida andrei and lumbricus terrestris, exposed to aroclor 1254, followed by infestation with aeromonas hydrophila, elicited two types of responses. first, in e. fetida, there was no change in the ld50 nor in the in vitro antibacterial growth capacity of cell-free coelomic fluid. thus, aroclor exerts no influence on antibacterial proteins nor on the chloragogue cells responsible for their release. second, in l. terrestris, both a high ld50 value and no antibacterial activity ...19911723380
formation of brown bodies in the coelomic cavity of the earthworm eisenia fetida andrei and attendant changes in shape and adhesive capacity of constitutive cells.the formation of brown bodies in the coelomic cavity may result from an aggregation of coelomocytes around offending foreign cells such as bacteria, gregarines, incompatible graft fragments, and altered self structures such as setae or necrotic muscle cells. the initial nodule rapidly increases in volume by aggregation of new coelomocytes and various waste particles. when a brown body has reached a diameter of 1-2 mm, its external cells flatten and lose their adhesiveness toward free coelomocyte ...19921499843
[effects of bt toxin cry1ac on biochemical responses of eisenia fetida in an artificial soil].bt toxin cry1ac could be introduced into soil by pollen, root exudates, and plant residues. to investigate its toxic effects, the bt toxin was added into an earthworm-cultured artificial soil, and the survival, growth rate, sperm count, protein content, and activities of acetylcholinesterase (ache), catalase (cat), glutathione s-transferase (gst) and cellulase in eisenia fetida were determined. the results suggested that bt toxin cry1ac had little effects on the biomass and physiological charact ...200516262071
effect of earthworms (eisenia fetida) on the fractionation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in nine chinese soils.the effect of earthworm (eisenia fetida) activity on soil ph, dissolved organic carbon (doc), fraction distribution pattern and bioavailability of rare earth elements (rees) y, la, ce, pr and nd in nine chinese soils were investigated using pot experiments. a three-step extraction procedure recommended by the european community (standards, measurements and testing programme) was used to fractionate rees in soils into water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound (b1), fe- and mn-oxides bound ( ...200616289225
growth and stress responses of the earthworm eisenia fetida to escherichia coli o157:h7 in an artificial soil.escherichia coli o157:h7 is an intestine-inhabiting bacterium associated with many severe disease outbreaks worldwide. it may enter the soil environment with the excreta of infected animals (including horses, cattle and chickens) and human. earthworms are able to protect themselves against invading pathogens due to their efficient innate defense system. to better understand the mechanisms earthworms (eisenia fetida) utilize to defend and eliminate escherichia coli o157:h7, we examined the change ...200919232388
evidence for perforin-like activity associated with earthworm leukocytes.earthworm (eisenia fetida) coelomic fluid contains several leukocytes (coelomocytes): basophils, acidophils and neutrophils as well as chloragocytes. small coelomocytes and coelomocyte lysate are cytotoxic for the tumor cell target k562. the expression of a lytic factor was investigated by immunocytochemistry using light and transmission electron microscopy. a rat-anti-mouse-perforin-mab labeled mainly small coelomocytes (nearly 20%) as visualized by light microscopy. tem analysis using immunogo ...200116351814
sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms.application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is a current practice in eu. european legislation permits its use when concentrations of metals in soil do not increase above the maximum permissible limits. in order to assess the fate and the effects on representative soil organisms of sewage sludge amendments on agricultural lands, a soil microcosm (multi-species soil system-ms3) experiment was performed. the ms3 columns were filled with spiked soil at three different doses: 30, 60 and 120tha ...200919261330
[cloning and expression of lumbrokinase gene in pichia pastoris].lumbrokinase gene f238 was amplified by rt-pcr from the total rna of earthworm (eisenia fetida). the gene including signal peptide sequence was inserted into pucm-t vector to construct pucm-t-f238. the product was sequenced. the genbank accession number was dq202401. lumbrokinase f238 comprised 738bp and included an open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 245 amino acid residues, containing a signal peptide of 7 amino acid residues and a mature peptide of 238 amino acid residues. both n ...200617037059
reduction of total coliform numbers during vermicomposting is caused by short-term direct effects of earthworms on microorganisms and depends on the dose of application of pig slurry.during vermicomposting of organic waste, the interactions between epigeic earthworms and the detrital microbial community lead to decreases in the abundance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms. despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms involved and the factors that affect the intensity of this effect. in the present study, we carried out three experiments to test the effect of the earthworm eisenia fetida on total coliform numbers in pig slurry. we firstly applied lo ...200919640567
genotoxic risk identification of soil contamination at a major industrialized city in northeast china by a combination of in vitro and in vivo bioassays.the present study evaluated the genotoxicity of field soils in the tianjin area, one of the most industrialized contaminated areas in northeast china. the genotoxicity of organic extracts of 41 soils was assayed by an in vitro sos/ umu bioassay with salmonella typhimurium ta 1535/psk 1002. from the 41 soil samples, 11 samples were selected to confirm the genotoxic effect by in vivo single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) using earthworms (eisenia fetida). the results obtained demonstrated ...200617051817
eisenia fetida (oligochaeta: lumbricidae) modifies the structure and physiological capabilities of microbial communities improving carbon mineralization during vermicomposting of pig manure.although microorganisms are largely responsible for organic matter decomposition, earthworms may also affect the rates of decomposition directly by feeding on and digesting organic matter and microorganisms, or indirectly affect them through their interactions with the microorganisms, basically involving stimulation or depression of the microbial populations. we tested the general hypothesis that microbial populations, and especially fungi, are enhanced by earthworm activity, and also whether ea ...200717323146
novel gh10 xylanase, with a fibronectin type 3 domain, from cellulosimicrobium sp. strain hy-13, a bacterium in the gut of eisenia fetida.the gene encoding a novel modular xylanase from cellulosimicrobium sp. strain hy-13 was identified and expressed in escherichia coli, and its truncated gene product was characterized. the enzyme consisted of three distinct functional domains, an n-terminal catalytic gh10 domain, a fibronectin type 3 domain, and c-terminal carbohydrate-binding module 2.200919767466
[cloning, expression of fibrinolytic enzyme gene efp-i from eisenia fetida in escherichia coli and activity analysis].earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme (efe) is a group of protease having fibrinolytic and plasminogen-activator activities isolated from earthworm. molecular biology research showed that there were 21 efe coding sequences, in which only one sequence, ay438624, whose translated protein had similar n-terminal amino-acid sequence to efp-i purified from eisenia fetida. to obtain coding sequence of efp-i , we designed specific primers according to 5' and 3' sequences of ay438624. a new dna sequence was obta ...200717577992
vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces for nutrient recycling.the present study examined the suitability of vermicomposting technology for processing source-separated human faeces. since the earthworm species eisenia fetida could not survive in fresh faeces, modification in the physical characteristics of faeces was necessary before earthworms could be introduced to faeces. a preliminary study with six different combinations of faeces, soil and bulking material (vermicompost) in different layers was conducted to find out the best condition for biomass grow ...201019850460
microbiomic comparison of the intestine of the earthworm eisenia fetida fed ergovaline.tall fescue toxicosis and ergot alkaloids cost u.s. livestock producers approximately one billion dollars in annual livestock production loss annually. ergovaline (ev) is the tall fescue alkaloid primarily responsible for clinical disease in livestock. since native ruminal microorganisms have not been attributed to the detoxification of ev, finding detoxifying microbes from other environments is desirable. one possible source for potential microorganisms that can degrade ev is the anaerobic gut ...201019924482
evaluation of post-katrina flooded soils for contaminants and toxicity to the soil invertebrates eisenia fetida and caenorhabditis elegans.this research evaluated soil samples from a new orleans neighborhood in the chalmette, saint bernard parish, that had been inundated by flooding associated with hurricane katrina. the goal was to determine if ecological risks persisted from flood waters that had come in contact with hazardous surface chemicals before inundating this low-lying neighborhood for a prolonged period. research objectives were to establish the presence or absence of volatile organic and heavy metal contaminants, and th ...200817881035
effects of three pesticides on the avoidance behavior of earthworms in laboratory tests performed under temperate and tropical conditions.little research has been performed on the impact of pesticides on earthworms under tropical conditions. taking into consideration the often-limited resources in tropical countries, simple screening tests are needed. therefore, it was investigated whether three pesticides relevant for the brazilian amazon (benomyl, carbendazim, lambda-cyhalothrin) affect the avoidance behavior of the earthworm eisenia fetida. the tests were performed for two days according to iso guideline 17512 but were adapted ...200817889975
pathogen reduction in septic tank sludge through vermicomposting using eisenia fetida.this study evaluated the potential of earthworms (eisenia fetida) to remove pathogens from the sludge from septic tanks. three earthworm population densities, equivalent to 1, 2, and 2.5kgm(-2), were tested for pathogen removal from sludge. the experimental phase lasted 60days, starting from the initial earthworm inoculation. after 60days, it was found that earthworms reduced concentrations of fecal coliforms, salmonella spp., and helminth ova to permissible levels (<1000mpn/g, <3mpn/g, and <1vi ...201020093021
effects of tobacco genetically modified to express protease inhibitor bovine spleen trypsin inhibitor on non-target soil organisms.effects of tobacco genetically modified to express the protease inhibitor bovine spleen trypsin inhibitor (bsti) were examined in laboratory assays against three earthworm and one collembolan species. bsti is a serine protease inhibitor that can bind to the digestive trypsins of insects feeding on modified plants, resulting in reduced growth and survival. protease inhibitors are active against a broad range of insects, so may have a large impact on non-target organisms. survival and fecundity of ...200718001685
[effects of low dosage pyrene pollution on biochemical characters of earthworm (eisenia fetida) in soil].by the method of artificial soil pollution, an exposure experiment with different concentrations of pyrene (0, 60, 120, 240, 480, 960 microg x kg(-1)) was conducted to determine the cytochrome p450 and mda contents and the glutathione-s-transferase (gst), superoxide dismutase (sod), peroxidase (pod) and catalase (cat) activities in earthworm gut after exposure for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. the results indicated that within the range of test pyrene concentrations, all the biochemical indices tested di ...200718062320
cdna cloning and expression analysis of eisenia fetida (annelida: oligochaeta) phytochelatin synthase under cadmium exposure.metallothioneins (mts) are central to trace metal homeostasis and detoxification throughout biological systems. prokaryotes, plants, and fungi utilize both gene encoded cysteine-rich polypeptides (classically designated class i and ii mts) and enzymatically synthesized cysteine-rich peptides (classically designated class iii mts or phytochelatins). in contrast, although gene encoded mts are ubiquitous in animal species the identification of a functional phytochelatin synthase in the nematode cae ...200818083232
evaluation of tests to assess the quality of mine-contaminated soils.an acid metal-contaminated soil from the aljustrel mining area (a pyrite mine located in sw portugal in the iberian pyrite belt) was subjected to chemical characterisation and total metal quantification (cd, cr, cu, ni, pb and zn). water-soluble metals were determined and a sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate metal speciation. two bioavailable metal fractions were determined: a mobile fraction and a mobilisable fraction. soil ecotoxicity was studied using a battery of bioassa ...200818246433
neutron activation of engineered nanoparticles as a tool for tracing their environmental fate and uptake in organisms.studies regarding the environmental impact of engineered nanoparticles (enps) are hampered by the lack of tools to localize and quantify enps in water, sediments, soils, and organisms. neutron activation of mineral enps offers the possibility of labeling enps in a way that avoids surface modification and permits both localization and quantification within a matrix or an organism. time-course experiments in vivo also may be conducted with small organisms to study metabolism and exposure, two aspe ...200819086315
characterization of genes expressed in response to cadmium exposure in the earthworm eisenia fetida using ddrt-pcr.the transition metal cadmium is a pervasive and persistent environmental contaminant that is both a human toxicant and a carcinogen. to inhibit cadmium-induced damage, cells increase the expression of genes encoding stress-response proteins. the transcription of many stress-responsive genes, including those that encode metallothioneins, glutathione-s-transferases (gsts) and heat shock proteins have been reported. the aim of this work was to investigate in eisenia fetida the genes whose expressio ...201020674023
eisenia fetida (oligochaeta, lumbricidae) activates fungal growth, triggering cellulose decomposition during vermicomposting.cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature and constitutes a large pool of carbon for microorganisms, the main agents responsible for soil organic matter decomposition. cellulolysis occurs as the result of the combined action of fungi and bacteria with different requirements. earthworms influence decomposition indirectly by affecting microbial population structure and dynamics and also directly because the guts of some species possess cellulolytic activity. here we assess whether the earth ...200616944346
response of eisenia fetida to the application of different organic wastes in an aluminium-contaminated soil.the effects of amending al-contaminated soils with municipal solid waste compost (msw), poultry manure (pm) and cow manure (cm) on al toxicity and morphological alterations and biochemical enzymes of the earthworm eisenia fetida were investigated in an incubation spiking experiment. al(no(3))(3) was added to a soil at rates equivalent to 0, 50 and 100 mg al kg(-1). in order to apply the same amount of organic matter (om), soil samples were mixed with msw, pm and cm at a rate of 10%, 7.6% and 5.8 ...201020832115
seasonal population dynamics of eisenia fetida (savigny, 1826) (oligochaeta, lumbricidae) in the field.in order to assess the response of epigeic earthworms to seasonal changes we monitored the population dynamics of eisenia fetida (oligochaeta, lumbricidae) in a manure heap in the field during a year. earthworms were hand-sorted from five 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.20 m blocks around the heap in november (autumn) 1999 and in january (winter), april (spring) and august (summer) 2000 to determine earthworm population dynamics. earthworms of each block were classified into different age classes: mature, precl ...200617067935
optimizing vermicomposting of animal wastes: effects of rate of manure application on carbon loss and microbial stabilization.vermicomposting is the process whereby organic residues are broken down by earthworms and microorganisms. addition of manure has been shown to be of critical importance and determines most of the changes that take place during vermicomposting. here, we study how the rate of manure applied affects microbial biomass and activity and carbon losses. for this, we designed continuous feeding reactors in which new layers of manure were added sequentially to form an age gradient inside the reactors. we ...200817889424
cloning, analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the earthworm eisenia fetida.eisenia fetida, commonly known as red wiggler or compost worm, belongs to the lumbricidae family of the annelida phylum. little is known about its genome sequence although it has been extensively used as a test organism in terrestrial ecotoxicology. in order to understand its gene expression response to environmental contaminants, we cloned 4032 cdnas or expressed sequence tags (ests) from two e. fetida libraries enriched with genes responsive to ten ordnance related compounds using suppressive ...200718047730
bioconcentrations of metals (fe, cu, zn, pb) in earthworms (eisenia fetida), inoculated in municipal sewage sludge: do earthworms pose a possible risk of terrestrial food chain contamination?efforts have been made to evaluate the possible risks of metal bioaccumulation in composting earthworms during vermicomposting of hazardous wastes, e.g., sewage sludge. the sewage sludge was diluted by mixing cow dung in different proportions, and vermicomposted sludge as well as inoculated earthworms were analyzed for metal (fe, cu, zn, pb) contents. the sludge processed by worms showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, cu (29.4-51.6%), fe (13.1-19.9%), zn (15.2-25.8%), and pb ...200918461553
vermiconversion of industrial sludge for recycling the nutrients.the aim of the present study was to investigate the transformation of sugar mill sludge (pm) amended with biogas plant slurry (bps) into vermicompost employing an epigeic earthworm eisenia fetida. to achieve the objectives experiments were conducted for 13 weeks under controlled environmental conditions. in all the waste mixtures, a decrease in ph, toc, tk and c:n ratio, but increase in tkn and tp was recorded. maximum worm biomass and growth rate was attained in 20% pm containing waste mixture. ...200818490154
differential expression of genes in the earthworm eisenia fetida following exposure to escherichia coli o157:h7.in this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to construct forward and reverse cdna libraries to identify genes involved in the response of eisenia fetida after exposure to escherichia coli o157:h7. we cloned 1428 cdnas or expressed sequence tags (ests), of which 738 were confirmed to be differentially expressed on dot blotting analysis. a total of 394 good-quality ests (genbank dbest accession numbers ho001170-ho001563) were obtained from the raw clone sequences after cleaning. ...201021187111
8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine generated in the earthworm eisenia fetida grown in metal-containing soil.heavy metal pollution of soil causes biological problems, such as mutagenicity to living organisms, including human beings. however, few methods have been developed to assess metal mutagenicity in soil. to avoid metal mutagenicity, an adequate bio-monitoring method is required. in the present study, to determine if the analysis of oxidative dna damage generated in the earthworm is a useful bio-monitoring method for soil mutagenicity, the accumulation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-oh-dg), a major ...200818585474
changes in bacterial numbers and microbial activity of pig slurry during gut transit of epigeic and anecic earthworms.in soils, organic matter decomposition and stabilization largely occur as a result of microbial activity, although when present, earthworms are important drivers of the processes through their interactions with microflora which begin during organic matter digestion by earthworms. here, we studied the effects of gut transit on the number of bacteria and the microbial activity in pig slurry, using three epigeic (eisenia fetida, eisenia andrei, eudrilus eugeniae) and one anecic (octodrilus complana ...200918639984
an earthworm protease cleaving serum fibronectin and decreasing hbeag in hepg2.2.15 cells.virus-binding activity is one of the important functions of fibronectin (fn). it has been reported that a high concentration of fn in blood improves the transmission frequency of hepatitis viruses. therefore, to investigate a protease that hydrolyzes fn rapidly is useful to decrease the fn concentration in blood and hbv infection. so far, however, no specific protease digesting fn in serum has been reported.200819025649
effects of phenanthrene on the mortality, growth, and anti-oxidant system of earthworms (eisenia fetida) under laboratory conditions.to assess the toxic effects of phenanthrene on earthworms, we exposed eisenia fetida to artificial soils supplemented with different concentrations (0.5, 2.5, 12.5, mgkg(-1) soil) of phenanthrene. the residual phenanthrene in the soil, the bioaccumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms, and the subsequent effects of phenanthrene on growth, anti-oxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation (lpo) were determined. the degradation rate of low concentrations of phenanthrene was faster than it was ...201121296377
comparative effects of cd and pb on biochemical response and dna damage in the earthworm eisenia fetida (annelida, oligochaeta).there are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of cadmium (cd) and lead (pb) on the environment in china. biochemical and comet assays were conducted on the earthworm eisenia fetida, a suitable bio-indicator organism for evaluating soil pollution after exposure to two heavy metals, cd and pb. protein content increased at low cd concentrations (p<0.05) and decreased at the highest concentration of 10 mg kg(-1), compared to control (p<0.05). pb showed an inhibitory effect on protein content ...200919059628
effect of the transit through the gut of earthworm (eisenia fetida) on fractionation of cu and zn in pig manure.to investigate the effect of the transit through the gut of earthworm (eisenia fetida) on the fractionation of cu and zn in pig manure, earthworms were reared with pig manure in the greenhouse. both the pig manure and the earthworm casts were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction of cu and zn. the content of cu bound to organic matter in pig manure increased from 60% to 75% after transit through the gut of earthworm, whereas that of zn decreased from 50% to 25%. it demonstrated that cu ...200919232822
feasibility of nutrient recovery from industrial sludge by vermicomposting technology.transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. this paper reports the feasibility of utilization of vermicomposting technology for nutrient recovery from industrial sludge in laboratory scale experiment employing eisenia fetida earthworm. a total of nine vermireactors, having different percentage of wastew ...200919297091
the secret life of the anthrax agent bacillus anthracis: bacteriophage-mediated ecological adaptations.ecological and genetic factors that govern the occurrence and persistence of anthrax reservoirs in the environment are obscure. a central tenet, based on limited and often conflicting studies, has long held that growing or vegetative forms of bacillus anthracis survive poorly outside the mammalian host and must sporulate to survive in the environment. here, we present evidence of a more dynamic lifecycle, whereby interactions with bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, elicit phenotypic alteratio ...200919672290
effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (eisenia fetida) in vermicompost.we analyzed the bacterial community structure of the intestines of earthworms and determined the effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of earthworms in vermicompost. fifty-seven bacterial 16s rdna clones were identified in the intestines of earthworms by using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) analysis. entomoplasma somnilux and bacillus licheniformis were the dominant microorganisms; other strains included aeromonas, bacillus, clostr ...201121421302
bioavailability of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons following enhanced natural attenuation of creosote-contaminated soil.the impact of residual pahs (2250 +/- 71 microg total pahs g(-1)) following enhanced natural attenuation (ena) of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 +/- 1286 microg total pahs g(-1)) was assessed using a variety of ecological assays. microtox results for aqueous soil extracts indicated that there was no significant difference in ec(50) values for uncontaminated, pre- and post-remediated soil. however, in studies conducted with eisenia fetida, pah bioaccumulation was reduced by up to 6.5-fold as a ...201019775788
protein extraction from the earthworm eisenia fetida for 2-de.we identified an efficient protocol for extracting proteins from whole earthworm, eisenia fetida, for 2-de. sample preparation is a critical step in a 2-de proteome approach and is absolutely essential for obtaining good results. six protein extraction protocols based on different protein precipitation agents were tested and evaluated using 2-de. the methods generated remarkably different 2-de protein spot patterns. we conclude that trichloroacetic acid (tca)-a eliminates interfering compounds, ...201020101612
vermiremediation and nutrient recovery of non-recyclable paper waste employing eisenia fetida.with the industrial growth, changing life style and consumeristic attitude paper consumption has increased significantly in yesteryears. the authors have observed that waste paper obtained from consumable items and used paper products are disposed in open by the consumers as these are not accepted by the salvaging industry. in the present study, an attempt has been made to vermicompost non-recyclable post-consumer paper waste (pw) amended with cow dung (cd) employing eisenia fetida earthworm in ...200918573612
vermicomposting of sugar industry waste (press mud) mixed with cow dung employing an epigeic earthworm eisenia fetida.in india, millions of tons of press mud (pm) are generated by sugar mills every year. this paper reports the potential of vermitechnology to convert sugar industry waste pm mixed with cow dung (cd) into vermicompost, employing an epigeic earthworm eisenia fetida. a total of six different reactors were established having different ratios of pm and cd including one control (cd only). the growth and fecundity of e. fetida was monitored for 13 weeks. maximum growth was recorded in 100% cd, but earth ...201019748951
role of eisenia fetida in rapid recycling of nutrients from bio sludge of beverage industry.beverage industry bio sludge proved to be toxic when given alone to earthworms even after stabilization for 15 days, therefore, it was mixed in various proportions with cattle dung. best suitable mixture for highest survival, maximum growth and highest population buildup of eisenia fetida was determined by observing mortality, growth rate, rate of cocoon production, population buildup and time taken for decomposition of waste. minimum mortality and maximum population buildup were observed in 50: ...201019945748
bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm eisenia fetida in relation to bioavailable metal concentrations in pig manure.the study investigated the bioaccumulation of cu, zn, pb and cd in eisenia fetida fed on pig manure in greenhouse, and its relationship to bioavailability of these elements in pig manure. metals in exchangeable, carbonates-bound and fe-mn oxides-bound fractions obtained by sequential extraction were considered to be bioavailable. the bioaccumulation factors (bafs) of e. fetida to heavy metals were cd (2.749+/-0.441), zn (0.594+/-0.200), pb (0.274+/-0.101) and cu (0.076+/-0.030). variations in th ...201020080399
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