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igg1 hypergammaglobulinaemia in chronic parasitic infections in mice: evidence that the response reflects chronicity of antigen exposure.the igg1 molecules in the sera of igg1 hypergammaglobulinaemic mice chronically infected with the larval cestode, mesocestoides corti, are a heterogeneous population. although antibodies to m. corti are present, the question of whether a minority or majority of the serum igg1 molecules has anti-parasite reactivity remains open. the splenic pfc response to an intravenous injection of srbc in m. corti-infected mice does not consist of an unusually high proportion of igg1 anti-srbc pfc. moreover, t ...1979317430
nematospiroides dubius: arrested development of larvae in immune mice. 1979421764
chemotherapeutic effects of 4-isothiocyanato-4'-nitrodiphenylamine (c9333-go/cgp 4540) on infections with nematospiroides dubius, hymenolepis diminuta, hymenolepis nana and spirometra mansonoides.4-isothiocyanato-4'-nitrodiphenylamine possessed anthelmintic activity against nippostrongylus dubius and hymenolepis nana in mice and h. diminuta in rats as determined by both egg counts and recovery of parasites at autopsy. no activity was detected against the cestode. spirometra mansonoides, in cats.1979421846
expulsion of nematospiroides dubius from the intestine of mice treated with immune serum.this paper describes experiments which demonstrated that the survival of nematospiroides dubius was severely impaired in mice treated with immune serum. cflp donor mice were given a series of infections ranging from 25 to 200 infective larvae, at weekly intervals for 6 weeks. the mice were treated with anthelmintic on day 21 and/or day 28 to prevent the accumulation of lethal numbers of parasites in the intestine, and were bled between day 42 and day 49. female nih recipient mice were given a to ...1979551374
the development of resistance in different inbred strains of mice to infection with nematospiroides dubius.infection by the intestinal nematode parasite nematospiroides dubius was studied in seven different inbred mouse strains. although there was some minor variation in the susceptibility of the different strains to a primary infection there were marked differences in their ability to develop resistance to infection following repeated exposure to infective larvae. the strains of mice which developed the best resistance also expelled adult worms arising from the previous infections. the adult worms r ...1979551381
induction of immunity in mice to the nematode parasite, nematospiroides dubius.the data presented in this paper show that mice may be immunised against re-infection with nematospiroides dubius by giving live third-stage larvae orally, intravenously, intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. immunity is directed not against the adult worm but against third-stage larvae following their penetration of the wall of the intestine.1977603463
trichinella spiralis: delayed rejection in mice concurrently infected with nematospiroides dubius. 1978743341
effect of host sex on passive immunity in mice infected with nematospiroides dubius. 1978751990
the effects of time and temperature of storage on the infectivity of third-stage larvae of heligmosomoides polygyrus (= nematospiroides dubius). 2. studies on the fecundity of female worms as a function of the infectivity of the third-stage larvae.in this study we examined the effect of infectivity of third-stage larvae on the fecundity of h. polygyrus female worms. groups of 10 mice were infected with third-stage larvae which had been stored for different lengths of time at 22 degrees c. results showed that the number of eggs laid by one female worm increased when the worm burden was smaller and decreased with a greater worm burden. also, the egg-output of female worms growing in a similar population varied according to the level of infe ...1978707961
the effects of time and temperature of storage on the infectivity of third-stage larvae of heligmosomoides polygyrus (= nematospiroides dubius). 1. effects on the development to the adult stage in mice.the relationship between storage time and temperature on the infectivity of the third-stage larvae of heligmosomoides polygyrus (= nematospiroides dubius) was examined. results showed that third-stage larvae lose their infectivity when they aged. this loss was steeper at 22 degrees c than at 4 degrees c. results obtained at 15 degrees c seemed to be intermediate. data also demonstrated that a maturation period was required for maximum infectivity. a longer maturation period was observed at + 4 d ...1978707960
immunity to nematospiroides dubius: cell and immunoglobulin changes associated with the onset of immunity in mice.the effect of one or more immunising infections on the susceptibility of mice to a subsequent challenge dose of nematospiroides dubius larvae has been investigated. following a single infection, animals developed a partial resistance characterized by their capacity to kill no more than half of the challenge dose of larvae. this low degree of immunity prevailed for some weeks after initial infection. a second immunising infection was found to induce a sudden increase in resistance such that at le ...1978678231
separation of nematospiroides dubius infective larvae and eggs from gross fecal contaminants. 1976943497
specific antibody levels in the serum of heligmosomoides polygyrus-infected mice.sera from icr/cd mice were assayed by radial immunodiffusion following oral infection and challenge with heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae. infection of these mice was found to alter the concentrations and classes of immunoglobulins, as well as the levels of antiparasitic antibody. challenge of single- or multiple-infected mice with viable larvae resulted in the appearance of anti-h. polygyrus iga and igg in the serum. the kinetics of the detection for both of these antibody classes were consiste ...1978641664
the effect in vivo of peritoneal exudate cells of immune and normal mice on the infectivity of the third stage larvae of nematospiroides dubius. 1977603469
the response of nematodes in vivo and in vitro to some anthelmintics.dietary feeding of drugs for 5 days to mice infected with nematospiroides dubius and hymenolepis nana detected all modern anthelmintics examined except stilbazium. a simple test using eggs of nematodirus spathiger and adult nippostrongylus brasillensis to detect anthelmintics in vitro is reported.1977599274
nematospiroides dubius: stimulation of acquired immunity in inbred strains of mice.the development of immunity to nematospiroides dubius was studied in three strains of inbred mice (balb/c, c3h and nih). although a primary infection in nih mice persisted for two months without evidence of a reduction in worm numbers, female mice of this strain readily developed resistance to reinfection. the degree of resistance was enhanced when an immunizing infection of 600 larvae was administered as 6 separate doses of 100 larvae given between days 0 and 11, and the worms removed by anthel ...1977599263
influence of serial passage on the infectivity and immunogenicity of nematospiroides dubius in mice. 1977598964
intestinal absorption of hexoses in rats after reinfection with nematospiroides dubius. 19751117363
differences in immunity to nematospiroides dubius in inbred and outbred mice. 19751167907
impairment of primary expulsion of trichuris muris in mice concurrently infected with nematospiroides dubius.primary immune expulsion of trichuris muris was markedly delayed by concurrent infection with nematospiroides dubius. maximum delay of expulsion was dependent on size and timing of n. dubius infection relative to t. muris infection. in nih mice infection with 400 n. dubius larvae immediately before or after t. muris infection was found to be most effective in suppressing expulsion. infection on day 8 of t. muris infection, when mice are sensitized to t. muris, also impaired expulsion. from this ...1977593729
[the effectiveness of fenbendazole against adults and immature stages of nematospiroides dubius and heterakis spumosa]. 19751199527
nematospiroides dubius: the course of primary and challenge infections in the jird, meriones unguiculatus. 1977557417
alternative pathway activation of complement by a murine parasitic nematode (nematospiroides dubius).the cuticular surface of the infectious third-stage larvae of nematospiroides dubius activates complement via the alternative pathway. sensitisation of larvae with complement or with antibodies from the serum of immune mice (resistant to reinfection) promoted the adherence of mouse peritoneal exudate cells to the larval cuticle during incubation in vitro. the infectivity of larvae sensitized with antibody or complement was significantly reduced after incubation with cells from immune mice.1979548018
igg1 hypergammaglobulinaemia in chronic parasitic infections in mice: magnitude of the response in mice infected with various parasites.mice chronically infected with 3 metazoan and 1 protozoan parasite contain in their circulation levels of igg1 which are increased over the levels in uninfected mice by at least 10x. in the case of infection with the larval cestode, mesocestoides corti, the serum igg1 concentration can reach greater than 50 mg/ml and, with a half-life of less than 2 days, the number of cells engaged in igg1 production is approximately 2 x 10(8). the igg1 hypergammaglobulinaemia is not seen in infected hypothymic ...1979543821
three consequences of infection with nematospiroides dubius in three inbred strains of mice. 1979512777
increased igg catabolism as a possible factor in the immunosuppression produced in mice infected with heligmosomoides polygyrus. 19761255376
avermectins, new family of potent anthelmintic agents: producing organism and fermentation.the avermectins are a complex of chemically related agents which exhibit extraordinarily potent anthelmintic activity. they are produced by a novel species of actinomycete, nrrl 8165, which we have named streptomyces avermitilis. the morphological and cultural characteristics which differentiate the producing organism from other species are described. the avermectins have been identified as a series of macrocyclic lactone derivatives which, in contrast to the macrolide or polyene antibiotics, la ...1979464561
studies in vitro on the reaction of peritoneal exudate cells from mice immune to infection with nematospiroides dubius with the infective third stage larvae of this parasite.the results of the present study show that peritoneal exudate cells from mice immune to infection with nematospiroides dubius are able in vitro to damage the third stage infective larvae as measured by a loss in infectivity. the ability of these cells to function in the absence of specific antibody seems to be related to the presence of trypsin labile factors on their surfaces. lymphocytes from immune mice are also able to damage the larvae. the suggestion is made that 'activated' macrophages ma ...1978352325
nematospiroides dubius as a vector for salmonella typhimurium.salmonella typhimurium within the 3rd stage larvae of nematospiroides dubius was shown to infect mice, evidenced by prolonged shedding of salmonellae in the feces. numbers of s typhimurium needed to infect mice were approximately 1,000- fold less if incorporated within the 3rd-stage larvae of n dubius. results of these experiments demonstrate that nematode parasites may act as a vector for pathogenic species of enteric bacteria.1978343664
the pasteur effect in rat jejunum and the influence of nematode infections.1. the pasteur effect was shown after 15 min but not after 30 min incubation of jejunal rings from normal rats. 2. during 15-30 min incubation, the rate of anaerobic lactate production decreased, while aerobic lactate production remained unchanged. thus oxygen was necessary to maintain the functional integrity of the tissue during this period. 3. after infection with either nematospiroides dubius or nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the pasteur effect could not usually be shown, mainly due to a redu ...1978318282
studies on chronic versus transient intestinal nematode infections in mice. i. a. comparison of responses to excretory/secretory (es) products of nippostrongylus brasiliensis and nematospiroides dubius worms. 1979317840
susceptibility of adult heligmosomoides polygyrus to intestinal inflammatory responses induced by heterologous infection.adult h. polygyrus are capable of surviving for many months after primary exposure of mice to infective larvae, raising the possibility that worms of this species have inherent resistance to intestinal immune responses. accordingly experiments were carried out to determine whether h. polygyrus are resistant to the inflammatory changes elicited during the acute phase of the intestinal response to trichinella spiralis. adult worms were expelled from mice when their presence coincided with the most ...19921563923
rapid expulsion of trichinella spiralis in adult rats mediated by monoclonal antibodies of distinct igg isotypes.the role of igg in rapid expulsion of trichinella spiralis in adult rats was analysed. in this experimental model, rats were first infected with an unrelated nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus, then 5-14 days later, immune serum, its fractions, or igg monoclonal antibody (mab) was transferred. rats were challenged with t. spiralis muscle larvae 24 hr after antibody transfer and intestinal worms counted at various times, up to 24 hr, after challenge. provided rats were exposed to h. polygyrus fir ...19921572697
nematospiroides dubius: susceptibility to infection and the development of resistance in hypothymic (nude) balb/c mice.balb/c-nu/nu mice and their intact nu/+ littermates are equally susceptible to infection with third-stage larvae of nematospiroides dubius. unlike their heterozygous littermates, however, the nu/nu mice are unable to form ganulomata in the intestinal wall and become only partially resistant to rechallenge. following two or more infections, nu/nu mice maintain a high burden of adult intestinal worms, whereas worms are lost from immune nu/+ mice. studies in t cell-injected nu/nu mice suggest that ...1978312642
heligmosomoides polygyrus (=nematospiroides dubius): the development of self-cure and/or protection in several strains of mice.strains of outbred (icr/cd1 and s--w) and inbred (balb/c and c57bl/6) mice vaccinated subcutaneously (sq) with 500, 1,000, or 2,000 exsheathed heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae developed varying levels of protection upon subsequent oral challenge with larvae. in contrast, the inbred c3h/hej strain failed to develop protection at any dosage level tested. icr/cd1 mice vaccinated intraperitoneally with exsheathed larvae developed a high level of resistance but exhibited extensive adhesions of the vi ...1975171365
[modifications by nematoda of the sensitivity of mice to salmonella abortus ovis administered orally or subcutaneously].mice inoculated 6 to 9 days previously with heligmosomoides polygyrus (=nematospiroides dubius) become more frequently infected than controls after an oral challenge with a constant dose of salmonella abortus ovis. but parasitism increases the ld 50 when the subcutaneous route of infection is used, probably by stimulating the immune system of the host.1979118826
insect morphogenetic hormones and developmental mechanisms in the nematode, nematospiroides dubius. 1976184
[helminths of birds and mammals from israel. vi. the taxonomy and ecology of trichostrongylid nematodes (author's transl)].thirteen species of trichostronglyloid nematodes have so far been recorded from wild birds and mammals in israel and surrounding territories. three species were found in birds: amidostomum fulicae (rudolphi, 1819) in fulica atra l., 1758, a. acutum (lundahl, 1848) in anas crecca l., 1758 and amidostomum sp. in ceryle rudis l., 1758. ten species, 3 of which are new, were found in small mammals: trichostrongylus colubriformis (giles, 1892) in hystrix indica kerr, 1792; tenorastrongylus josephi n. ...1975776059
heligmosomoides polygyrus: temporal, spatial, and morphological population characteristics in laf1/j mice. 1977862709
observations on the movements and structure of the bursa of nippostrongylus brasiliensis and nematospiroides dubius. 1976987842
host specificity of and cross-immunity between two strains of heligmosomoides polygyrus.the infectivity of wild and laboratory strains of heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius) in laboratory mice and in three species of wild british rodent was compared. wild strains, of the subspecies h. p. polygyrus, were isolated from wild caught apodemus sylvaticus. only very low-level infections of the wild strains became established in laboratory mice. similar worm burdens of the laboratory strain became established in laboratory mice and a. sylvaticus, although infections in a. sy ...19911866189
the distribution of nematospiroides dubius within the small intestine of laboratory mice.analyses of primary infections of nematospiroides dubius in male and female laboratory mice show that on days 4--6 post-infection worms occupy up to 50% of the small intestine but as the age of the infection increases worm populations are highly aggregated in relation to the anterior sections of the small intestine. individual worms are also shown to be aggregated with respect to each other. between days 42 and 60 post-infection, although the pattern of distribution of n. dubius along the small ...1976993574
passive transfer of immunity to infection with nematospiroides dubius from immunised mice to their offspring.the results given below show that, whilst it is not possible to transfer immunity to infections with nematospiroides dubius passively with serum from immune mice to normal adult mice, young born to immune females are resistant to this infection. the immunity is dependent on an intake of immunoglobulin via the milk for a period longer than 24 h. the passive transfer of immunity from immune mothers to neonatal mice does not appear to be dependent on a specific class of immunoglobulins.19761016124
comparative study on methods of culturing and isolating larvae of nematospiroides dubius. 19751173800
heligmosomoides polygyrus (=nematospiroides dubius): suppression of antibody response to orally administered sheep erythrocytes in infected mice. 19751236806
the influence of nematospiroides dubius on subsequent nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections in mice.the fecundity and longevity of nippostrongylus brasiliensis was prolonged in mice previously infected with nematospiroides dubius only when the former developed from the larval stage in those mice. such worms appeared to be less immunogenic than worms which developed in mice never exposed to n. dubius. it is proposed that prolonged fecundity and longevity resulted from an adaptation undertaken by the worms in the face of host antibodies which had been developed against the pre-existing n. dubius ...19751237857
effects of temperature on hatching and development of nematospiroides dubius in aerated water.fresh eggs obtained from female nematospiroides dubius were cultured at temperatures ranging from 5 degrees c to 33 degrees c. hatching occurred between 5 degrees c and 30 degrees c; third stage larvae were obtained between five degrees c and 25 degrees c. the minimum time required from hatching to development to the third stage was 3-6 days (at 20 degrees c) and the maximum was seven days (at 5 degrees c). larvae cultured at higher temperatures were smaller than those cultured at lower ones.19751239466
native resistance of peromyscus maniculatus to nematospiroides dubius infection. 19761253923
styryl and azastyryl 1,3-benzazoles with antihelminthic activity.new 2-benzylideneimino- and 2-styryl-1,3-benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been prepared and tested in vitro against caenorhabditis elegans, and heligmosomoides polygyrus, showing some of them, interesting properties as inhibitors, which were not observed in the complementary in vivo tests. in order to rationalize the activity, log p was measured for all compounds, and qsar models were developed, allowing the optimisation of the in vitro activity.19921388595
inhibition of thiabendazole metabolism in the rat.1. a single oral dose of desmethylimipramine (80 mg/kg) administered to rats inhibited the hepatic microsomal hydroxylation of thiabendazole (45%), aniline (30%), biphenyl (30%) and ethylmorphine (15%) in vitro at 5 h after dosage; there was no decrease in cytochrome p-450 or b5. 2. a single oral dose of ethoxyquin (200 mg/kg) to rats inhibited the hepatic microsomal hydroxylation of thiabendazole (65%), aniline (40%) and biphenyl (40%) in vitro at 1 h after dosage; inhibition was less at 5 h. t ...1979494664
stimuli for acquired resistance to heligmosomoides polygyrus from intestinal tissue resident l3 and l4 larvae.l3 and l4 stages of h.polygyrus were prevented from developing further and were probably killed within 24 h of treatment with ivermectin although total parasite burdens, particularly when treatment was given 4-6 days after infection, declined over a longer period lasting several days. strong resistance to challenge infection was expressed by infected mice dosed with ivermectin during the tissue phase of larval development. even immunizing infections as brief as 12-36 h (when only l3 larvae would ...19921428503
metabolism of lipid peroxidation products by the gastro-intestinal nematodes necator americanus, ancylostoma ceylanicum and heligmosomoides polygyrus.somatic extracts of the three parasitic nematodes necator americanus, ancylostoma ceylanicum and heligmosomoides polygyrus were able to detoxify a model hydroperoxide and a putative natural peroxide by glutathione-dependent peroxidase activity while cytotoxic carbonyls could be metabolized by nadph-linked reduction activities. unlike cestodes and digeneans, the nematodes in this study could not enzymatically conjugate carbonyls with glutathione. the results indicate that the three nematodes can ...19921459777
presence of non-fab ige binding molecules in the intestinal nematode parasite of mice heligmosomoides polygyrus.unsuccessful attempts to identify serum parasite-specific immunoglobulin e (ige) responses in mice following infections with the intestinal nematode parasite heligmosomoides polygyrus prompted us to explore the possibility that ige bound within the parasite antigen could account for the false-positive results observed. a live-worm elisa was developed. following incubation, irrelevant ige monoclonal antibody to dnp, ige present in normal mouse serum, as well as ige in immune serum were independen ...19921483059
the dynamics of trickle infections with heligmosomoides polygyrus in syngeneic strains of mice.nih, cba, swr and c57b1/10 mice were repeatedly infected with heligmosomoides polygyrus, using doses of 10-50 larvae at frequencies of 2-16 days. nih and swr mice regulated the worm burdens at a stable dose-dependent level for a period of several weeks, following which expulsion occurred and immunity to subsequent re-infection was established. this regulation did not occur in cba or c57b1/10 mice, and was inhibited by cortisone treatment. evidence was found to suggest that regulation is the resu ...19921639571
factors generating aggregation of heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda) in laboratory mice.the importance of host heterogeneity in generating aggregation was investigated using heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda) in laboratory mice. parameters of infection were compared between inbred and outbred mice, between primary and challenge infection protocols, and between gavage and natural exposure protocols, to investigate the relative effects of innate resistance, acquired resistance and behaviour, respectively. heterogeneity in acquired resistance was identified as the most consistent fa ...19921641250
il-4 requirements for the generation of secondary in vivo ige responses.il-4 has been shown to induce b lymphocytes to switch from the expression of membrane igm to the expression of membrane ige and to be required for the generation of primary polyclonal and secondary ag-specific ige responses in mice. to further define the role of il-4 in the generation of memory ige responses, we investigated the ability of a combination of anti-il-4 and anti-il-4r mab to block the generation of secondary ige responses induced by: 1) a second infection with the nematode parasites ...19911674956
heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda): susceptible and resistant strains of mice are indistinguishable following natural infection.balb/c mice were characterized as more resistant to infection with heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda) than c57bl/6 mice based on lower establishment and survival during a primary infection and stronger protection induced by an immunizing regime. it was hypothesized, therefore, that c57bl/6 mice would be more heavily infected than balb/c mice when they lived together as a single population in a large indoor arena where transmission occurred through contact between the mice and damp peat trays w ...19911780180
lack of fc epsilon rii expression by murine b cells after in vivo immunization is directly associated with ig secretion and not ig isotype switching.the "low affinity" fc receptor for ige (fc epsilon rii) has been reported to be absent from normal murine and human b cells that express a membrane (m)ig isotype other than migm or migd in vivo. this would suggest that fc epsilon rii expression is specifically lost after in vivo ig isotype switching. we demonstrate that during a murine immune response to the bacterium brucella abortus, to goat anti-mouse igd (g alpha m delta) antibody, or to infection with the nematode parasites nippostrongylus ...19911826019
nippostrongylus brasiliensis in mice: reduction of worm burden and prolonged infection induced by presence of nematospiroides dubius. 1976945339
the efficacy of oral immunization with nematospiroides dubius/mouse model. 1976945340
regulation of murine in vivo igg and ige responses by a monoclonal anti-il-4 receptor antibody.although the cytokine interleukin 4 (il-4) stimulates lps-activated mouse b lymphocytes to secrete both igg1 and ige, an anti-il-4 antibody completely inhibits ige responses but has little or no effect on several in vivo igg responses. il-4 might, therefore, have a restricted role in the generation of in vivo humoral immune responses. alternatively, igg1 responses might be stimulated by il-4 secreted by t cells that are interacting directly with b cells, so that anti-il-4 antibody cannot neutral ...19911888709
immunity to heligmosomoides polygyrus induced by subcutaneous vaccination with post-infection larvae.the objective of this study was to investigate, using the heligmosomoides polygyrus (= nematospiroides dubius)-mouse model, whether live post-infection trichostrongylid larvae recovered from the intestinal wall of donor animals and placed subcutaneously would serve as vaccine protecting against oral challenge by third-stage (infective) larvae (l3). experiments were conducted to determine the effect of number and age of post-infective larvae as well as age and sex of host on vaccination. vaccinat ...19911894430
induction of ly-6a/e expression by murine lymphocytes after in vivo immunization is strictly dependent upon the action of ifn-alpha/beta and/or ifn-gamma.ly-6a/e is a phosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein which mediates murine t and b cell signalling. ifn-gamma, ifb-alpha/beta, lps, and il-4 have all been reported to induce or upregulate ly-6a/e by normal lymphocytes. since no systematic study has addressed the stimulant selectivity of ly-6a/e expression by murine lymphocytes nor investigated its induction and regulation during primary in vivo immune responses we analyzed in vitro ly-6a/e expression after murine stimuli and during a number ...19911931812
the population dynamics of acquired immunity to heligmosomoides polygyrus in the laboratory mouse: strain, diet and exposure.an experiment was designed to investigate aspects of the population dynamics of acquired immunity to heligmosomoides polygyrus in laboratory mice. the influence of host strain (cba or nih), rate of exposure (5 or 40 l3/mouse/2 weeks) and diet (3 or 16% protein w/w) on the population dynamics of repeated infection and the response to a standard challenge infection were investigated. the time delay between the end of the period of repeated infection and the subsequent challenge (between 1 and 24 w ...19911945519
immunological relationships during primary infection with heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius): h-2 linked genes determine worm survival.the course of primary infection was studied in balb and b10 h-2 congenic mouse strains. the duration of infection, as assessed with regular faecal egg counts and worm burdens, was shorter in mice carrying the h-2s, h-2d or h-2q haplotypes when compared to mice with h-2b. strains with h-2k were intermediate. an experiment was carried out to test the hypothesis proposed by wassom, krco & david (1987) predicting that the progeny of i-e+ve mouse strains crossed with i-e-ve strains, would show suscep ...19911945521
immunological relationships during primary infection with heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius): dose-dependent expulsion of adult worms.the survival of heligmosomoides polygyrus was monitored during primary infections in female c57bl10, nih and balb/c mice at low and high intensities of infection. survivorship curves were fitted for each data set and analysed. c57bl10 mice, given either low or high intensities of infection, harboured parasites for 28-37 weeks, heavier infections surviving marginally but significantly longer. essentially the survivorship curves of h. polygyrus in c57bl10 mice could be accounted for by senility, t ...19892717211
immunodiagnosis of taeniasis by coproantigen detection.immunodiagnostic tests for taenia-specific faecal antigen based on polyclonal rabbit antisera against taenia saginata or taenia solium proglottid extracts in capture-type elisa assays have been developed. taenia-specific antigen was detected in detergent-solubilized faecal extracts from t. solium- and t. saginata-infected hosts. coproantigen from t. solium-infected hamsters did not cross-react with faeces from rodents infected with hymenolepis diminuta, h. citelli, h. microstoma, necator america ...19902092303
possible lymphocyte effects on lactase expression by mouse jejunal enterocytes.jejunal intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers fall and lactase activity increases during early infection with the intestinal parasite nematospiroides dubius. both these variables later return to values found in control mice. these results support the view that local immune reactions, suppressed by the presence of n. dubius, normally inhibit lactase expression by mouse enterocytes.19902106904
heligmosomoides polygyrus: influence of infection on lymphocyte subpopulations in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes.the immune response to a primary infection of heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius) was studied by flow cytometry in three strains of mice, balb/c, cba, and nih. the chief feature of the response was a pronounced increase, during the first week, in the proportion of b lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. all three strains also showed an increase in lymph node cellularity, although this was delayed in nih and cba mice. total b cell numbers thus also increased, particularly in t ...19902145181
factors affecting the efficacy of ivermectin against heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius) in mice.the efficacy of ivermectin against heligmosomoides polygyrus was investigated in 5 mouse strains (cflp, nih, c57bl10, balb/c and cba) using a variety of dose levels, and subcutaneous and oral administration. heligmosomoides polygyrus were not completely eliminated when 5 mg kg-1 of ivermectin was given 6 days after infection, but 10 mg kg-1 was totally effective. significant mouse-strain variation in drug efficacy was detected, nih mice requiring treatment with higher doses than cflp mice in ord ...19892781718
developmental and age-related changes in proteins in the female reproductive tract of heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda).proteins in the female reproductive tract of heligmosomoides polygyrus at days 8, 16, 35, 90, and 140 postinfection (pi) were examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. sixteen-day-old and 140-day-old worms also were examined histochemically. egg production of these worms was assessed for each age group. in analyzing proteins using electrophoresis, the reproductive tracts were separated into 3 sections: the tip, or anteriormost part of tract, containing oogonia; the middle region, contai ...19902213409
immunogenetic correlates of susceptibility to infection with heligmosomoides polygyrus in outbred mice.outbred mf1 mice were characterized with respect to their susceptibility to infection with heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda) on the basis of faecal egg counts after 8 weeks of repeated infection (50 larvae/week). selective breeding for resistance and susceptibility was carried out over 3 generations. the h-2 type of a sample of the mice was determined, and antigen recognition assessed on the basis of western blots against adult and larval h. polygyrus homogenate. the selective breeding progra ...19902235077
an experimental and theoretical study of the dynamics of a mouse-nematode (heligmosomoides polygyrus) interaction.the population dynamics of outbred laboratory mice in indoor enclosures in the absence and presence of a naturally transmitted direct life-cycle nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus dujardin 1845 were reported previously. this manuscript presents further information on the age and sex structure of the populations, results of experiments designed to estimate the density-dependent effect of the parasite on host survival and reproduction, and a mathematical model of both uninfected and infected mouse ...19902235079
marginal zinc deficiency has no effect on primary or challenge infections in mice with heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda).the effect of low dietary zinc on the survival of an intestinal nematode (heligmosomoides polygyrus) was investigated in two experiments. in experiment 1 (primary infection), outbred cd1 mice were infected once only with 100 h. polygyrus larvae. in experiment 2 (challenge infection), mice were given a primary infection that was terminated after 9 d using an anthelmintic drug; the mice were reinfected 5 d later. this protocol stimulates host immunity to the second parasitic infection. three dieta ...19921542014
early lymphocytic responses to heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice.responses to parasite antigens were studied in three strains of mice, balb/c, cba and nih, during the initial phases of a primary infection with the intestinal nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus. changes in the rate of in vivo cell division were analysed in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens during the phases of larval maturation and adult establishment, and related to changes in organ size and cellularity. the nature of the proliferating cell populations was also investigated by flow cytometry, ...19902338482
nematospiroides dubius: influence of adjuvants on immunity in mice vaccinated with antigens isolated by affinity chromatography from adult worms.five adjuvants were examined for their ability to potentiate the immune response of mice to soluble antigens from adult nematospiroides dubius prepared by affinity chromatography against antibodies from repeatedly infected mice as ligands (imigag). immunized mice were better protected against n. dubius by imigag injected intraperitoneally with either pertussigen (75%) or aluminium hydroxide (alum) (67%) as adjuvants than with freud's complete (54%) or incomplete adjuvants (31%). protection was c ...19892917630
in vitro acetylcholinesterase secretion by male or female heligmosomoides polygyrus.acetylcholinesterase (ache) secreted in vitro by adult male and female heligmosomoides polygyrus were assayed over a 4-day period using a micro-method. the rate of ache secretion by 1, 2 or 4 worms was approximately linear, and three times higher for male worms than for female worms.19892930133
heligmosomoides polygyrus: cd4+ but not cd8+ t cells regulate the ige response and protective immunity in mice.oral inoculation of balb/c mice with infective larvae of heligmosomoides polygyrus resulted in chronic infection characterized by the release of parasite eggs in the feces for several months. the actual number of eggs per gram of feces was dependent on the dose of the inoculum. serum ige in infected mice peaked at a level of greater than 70 micrograms/ml during weeks 3 through 6 following inoculation, and high levels of ige (greater than 40 micrograms/ml) persisted for over 14 weeks. protective ...19911683629
intestinal absorption of amino acids in rats infected with nematospiroides dubius. 19751197
genetic variation and host-parasite relations: nematospiroides dubius in mice.our work deals with aspects of the genetics and immunology of host-parasite relationships as they influence the development of protective immunity and the phenomenon of coevolution. the aim is to understand parasitism through analyses of host specificity. in earlier studies we examined the inheritance of resistances in mice to infections with nematospiroides dubius (=heligmosomoides polygyrus) and established the predominant role played by antibodies in protective immunity. here we report inform ...19911779291
adoptive transfer of resistance to nematospiroides dubius infections of mice and an assay to measure the in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes reactive with n. dubius antigen.spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells from nematospiroides dubius-infected and normal control mice were cultured in vitro with n. dubius antigen. proliferation of these cells in response to antigen was measured by the uptake of [3h]tdr. cells harvested from mice during a primary infection did not proliferate in vitro; however, low levels of specific proliferation could be demonstrated if these mice were treated on day 5 post-infection with 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide i.p. a strong cell prolife ...19872445664
oxygen consumption of the rat small intestine during infection with nematospiroides dubius. 1977844548
intestinal infection with nematospiroides dubius selectively increases lactase expression by mouse jejunal enterocytes.1. intestinal structure, lactase (beta-galactosidase; ec 3.2.1.23) activity and alkaline phosphatase activity have been determined in mouse jejunal and ileal tissues before and during infection with the intestinal parasite nematospiroides dubius. 2. oral infection with small numbers of n. dubius larvae caused villus height, crypt depth and enterocyte migration rate to increase in the mouse jejunum. none of these effects occurred in ileal tissue. 3. lactase activity also increased in jejunal, but ...19892504531
control of in vivo ige production in the mouse by interleukin 4.in vitro studies have demonstrated that the cytokine il-4 can, with the proper co-stimuli, induce ige secretion. we have demonstrated in in vivo studies with a monoclonal anti-il-4 antibody that this cytokine is required for the generation of the polyclonal primary ige responses induced by injecting mice with gam delta antibody or inoculating them with larvae of the nematode parasite nippostrongylus brasiliensis (nb), as well as for the secondary tnp-specific ige response induced by immunizing m ...19892515949
immunity to adult heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius): survival or rejection of adult worms following transplantation to mice refractory to larval challenge.experiments were carried out to explore the survival of 14-day adult h. polygyrus following transplantation to mice of four strains, immunized by various protocols. adult worm establishment and survival was unimpaired in cflp mice which were totally refractory to larval challenge. transplanted adult worms were also successful in nih mice immunized by the 9-day abbreviated infection regime. however, nih mice exposed to irradiated larvae or subjected to the divided primary infection, expelled tran ...19883192914
coproantigens in gut tapeworm infections: hymenolepis diminuta in rats.a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of hymenolepis diminuta coproantigen in detergent-solubilised faecal supernatants was developed. the assay was sensitive to 400 ng h. diminuta protein/ml faecal supernatant and to 30 ng/ml in pbs 0.3% tween. faecal antigen levels started to rise on day 7 post infection and peaked on day 20. following drug treatment of infected rats with 10 mg/kg praziquantel, there was an initial steep rise in faecal antigen levels, followed b ...19892622898
proteolytic enzymes in excretory-secretory products from adult nematospiroides dubius.excretory-secretory products (es), collected from in vitro cultures of adult nematospiroides dubius, were examined for proteolytic enzyme activity. es enzymes had a ph optimum of 8.0 and their activity was sensitive to serine-proteinase inhibitors. three sds-resistant proteases were identified in es at molecular weight (mol. wt) 200,000, 105,000 and 48,000 by incorporating substrates into the matrices of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (sds-page) gels.19892651341
low molecular weight immunosuppressors secreted by adult nematospiroides dubius.adult nematospiroides dubius excretory-secretory products (es) were collected from worms cultured in vitro, separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) into four fractions (fi-iv), electroeluted and assessed for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of mouse lymphocytes stimulated by mitogens in vitro. the proliferation of mitogen- and es-stimulated mouse spleen lymphocytes from normal and infected mice was inhibited by low mol. wt es f-iv (less than ...19892707958
suppression of heterologous immunity by nematospiroides dubius antigens in vitro.the direct effect of the soluble antigens in the homogenate of adult nematospiroides dubius (ah) on spleen cells from uninfected nih mice was investigated using a mishell-dutton culture system. parasite antigens were shown to reduce the plaque-forming cell (pfc) response to sheep red blood cells (srbc) in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. a population of suppressor cells was demonstrated in the spleens of infected mice. furthermore naive spleen cells cultured in the presence of ah gave rise to c ...19892707960
immunity in mice vaccinated with a molecular weight 60,000 glycoprotein secreted by adult nematospiroides dubius.a mol. wt 60,000 glycoprotein was purified from adult nematospiroides dubius excretory-secretory products (es) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroelution and used to vaccinate bcf1 mice. this molecule is also released from the surface of the parasite and can be cleaved by pepsin. mice immunized twice with es 60,000 in alum adjuvant harboured similar numbers of n. dubius as did control mice but voided 40% fewer parasite eggs in their faeces. the mol. wt 60,000 component in es and fr ...19892707964
medium conditioned by spleen cells of nematospiroides dubius-infected mice does not support development of cultured mast cells.the ability of different conditioned media to support mast cell development from precursors in normal bone marrow was evaluated. many mast cells developed in bone marrow cultures containing medium conditioned by concanavalin-a-stimulated spleen cells of normal mice, trichinella spiralis-infected mice, or mice infected for 6 days by nematospiroides dubius. by contrast, medium conditioned by concanavalin-a-stimulated spleen cells of mice having 18-day infections of the nematode n. dubius failed to ...19883338850
excretory-secretory antigens from adult nematospiroides dubius.adult nematospiroides dubius excretory-secretory (es) products were collected from worms cultured in vitro, radiolabelled and separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the components were characterized and assessed for molecular weight (mw) after autoradiography and gel staining, for antigenicity in immunoblots, for sensitivity to protease enzymes, and for carbohydrate content. es contained at least 18 denatured components from mw less than 20,000 to greater than ...19892731960
density dependence in establishment, growth and worm fecundity in intestinal helminthiasis: the population biology of trichuris muris (nematoda) infection in cba/ca mice.the results are presented of an experimental study of the population biology of chronic trichuris muris (nematoda) infection in cortisone-treated cba/ca mice. attention is focused upon both the validity of the common use of faecal egg counts to demonstrate density dependence in helminth fecundity, and the identification of other possible density-dependent mechanisms that may regulate worm numbers in chronic trichuriasis. the results show that faecal egg counts, although demonstrating high daily ...19892771451
suppression of mucosal mastocytosis by nematospiroides dubius results from an adult worm-mediated effect upon host lymphocytes.infections with the nematode nematospiroides dubius fail to elicit mucosal mast cell (mmc) responses in the intestines of host mice, and suppress mmc responses generated by heterologous infection. larval n. dubius have the capacity to prime for mastocytosis, and to elicit this response in primed mice during a challenge, but only if adult worms are prevented from developing, either by anthelmintic treatment or by irradiation of the larvae themselves. the suppressive effect of the adult stage was ...19883353130
in vivo and in vitro egg production by nematospiroides dubius during primary and challenge infections in resistant and susceptible strains of mice.experiments were conducted to examine adult worm burdens, fecal egg output, and in vitro fecundity of nematospiroides dubius in resistant laf1 and susceptible cba mice 12, 15, 18, and 21 days following primary and challenge infections. a strong correlation was obtained on the number of eggs produced by worms cultured in vitro and the egg production as assessed by fecal egg count. worm counts, fecal egg counts, and in vitro fecundity were similar on all days studied following a primary infection ...19883357115
immunological relationships during primary infection with heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius): expulsion of adult worms from fast responder syngeneic and hybrid strains of mice.the time-course of low and high intensity primary infections with heligmosomoides polygyrus was monitored in sjl and swr mice, both of which usually expel worms within 7 weeks of larval administration. worm expulsion in these strains was not dependent on the intensity of infection, with low and high intensity worm burdens being lost within the same period of time. the ability to expel worms rapidly was inherited in a dominant manner in f1 offspring of sjl or swr mice mated with c57bl10 mice; the ...19892771452
the possible absence of cytochrome p-450 linked xenobiotic metabolism in helminths.the distribution of cytochrome p-450, b5 and associated oxidations, aniline hydroxylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase and 4-nitroanisole o-demethylase were studied in the parasitic nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus, its mammalian host, mus musculus and the free-living nematode panagrellus redivivus. cytochrome p-450, its associated oxidations and cytochrome b5 could not be detected in whole homogenates or subcellular fractions (mitochondrial, microsomal and soluble fractions) of either nematod ...19892788017
heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda): the dynamics of primary and repeated infection in outbred mice.the population dynamics of heligmosomoides polygyrus were studied in outbred male mf1 mice subject either to primary or repeated experimental infection. little variability in susceptibility was observed between mice, but heterogeneity increased with both duration and intensity of primary infection; this result indicates that there are differences in parasite survival between hosts. the rate of parasite-induced host mortality was 4 x 10(-4) per parasite per host per parasite lifespan. the mortali ...19862878436
heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda): the influence of dietary protein on the dynamics of repeated infection.the influence of the protein component in the diet of the host on the population dynamics of gastrointestinal helminth infection was studied by using a mouse-h. polygyrus experimental model. mice fed a 2% (by mass) protein diet ad libitum maintained body weight during the experiment, but gained weight steadily when fed a diet containing 8% (by mass) protein. when repeatedly infected with 5, 10, 20 or 40 larvae every 2 weeks, the mice fed the 2% (by mass) protein diet accumulated adult worms in d ...19862878437
immunity to babesia microti in male mice selected as resistant or susceptible to nematospiroides dubius. 19883417381
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