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alteration of amicrofilaremia in dipetalonema viteae infected hamsters with immunosuppressive drugs.dipetalonema viteae-infected hamsters with amicrofilaremic infections were subjected to immunosuppressive therapy. methyl prednisolone acetate caused the most severe recrudescence of microfilariae while cyclophosphamide caused a low level, transient microfilaremia. saline injected control hamsters remained amicrofilaremic. neither drug influenced the number of adult worms recovered at necropsy in the treated hamsters compared with control hamsters.197824998
comparative evaluation of 7 helminth antigens in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (e.l.i.s.a.).112 sera from europeans with parasitologically proven helminthiasis were tested in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (e.l.i.s.a.) against 6 crude extracts of various helminths (2 of adult worms: dipetalonema viteae, fasciola hepatica; 3 of eggs: ascaris suum, toxocara canis, schistosoma mansoni; and of echinococcus granulosus scolices) and against bovine hydatid fluid. each serum was tested simultaneously at a fixed dilution of 1:160 against all antigens. extensive cross-reactions were obser ...197992420
[microfilarial observation of dipetalonemia viteae using scanning electron microscopy].the integumental surface on the microfilaria of dipetalonema viteae was studied by scanning electron microscopy (sem) at 1,200 to 20,000 magnification. this first study only concerns microfilaria in the circulating blood of the hamster.197896969
glycolytic end products of the adult dog heartworm, dirofilaria immitis.1. adult dog heartworms remained alive and motile for 24 hr without oxygen present and with only glucose available as a substrate. 2. lactate accounted for 55% of the carbon from the 1-14c-glucose utilized in 1 hr and 14co2 for 1.9%. 3. only traces of 14c were found in glycogen and no net accumulation of acetate was demonstrated. 4. dirofilaria immitis resembles litomosoides carinii in the percent of utilized glucose appearing as lactate but is more akin to brugia pahangi and dipetalonema viteae ...1979122581
the carbohydrate metabolism of brugia pahangi microfilariae.evidence is presented that the microfilariae of litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae and brugia pahangi have an aerobic requirement for motility, but possibly not for survival. in addition, the data suggest that in an in vitro anaerobic environment, b. pahangi microfilariae ferment glucose only as far as lactate. in an aerobic environment, however, the data are consistent with a portion of glucose being dissimilated via a one step oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate formed from glycolysis ...1977191584
[immunological diagnosis of filariosis in persons returning from tropical countries and in european and indigenous inhabitants of endemic areas (author's transl)].serum samples from persons who lived in areas where onchocerciasis occurred or who had filariasis were examined with the complement fixation test and the indirect hemagglutination test for the presence of antibodies against crude extracts from dirofilaria immitis, onchocerca volvulus, dipetalonema viteae, and ascaris suum. the results could be interpreted as follows: 1. the indirect hemagglutination test was more sensitive than the complement fixation test for the demonstration of antibodies in ...1977271633
clearance of microfilariae of dipetalonema viteae in cba/n and cba/h mice. 1979317301
indirect immunofluorescence test against dipetalonema viteae in detection of filariasis in dhanbad coalmines area. 1978355136
studies on dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea) 3. antibody-dependent cell-mediated destruction of microfilariae in vivo.antibody-dependent cell-mediated destruction of dipetalonema viteae microfilariae could be demonstrated in the golden hamster using a micropore chamber technique. microfilariae were eliminated within 24 hours in chambers of 3.0 and 5.0 microm pore size when implanted into amicrofilaremic hamsters (week 30 post infection). at peak microfilaremia (week 12 post infection), only some hamsters could efficiently destroy microfilariae. in chambers with 0.3 microm pore size, microfilariae survived for m ...1979375512
evidence for immunodepression of syrian hamsters and mongolian jirds by dipetalonema viteae infections. 1976557249
dipetalonema viteae in hamsters: effect of antiserum or immunization with parasite extracts on production of microfilariae. 1978564017
dipetalonema viteae infection in hamsters: enhancement and suppression of microfilaraemia.mature male dipetalonema viteae released a substance(s) which caused enhanced microfilaraemia in infected hamsters. in hamsters implanted with female d. viteae, the microfilaraemia of a subsequent infection was suppressed. the microfilaraemia of female worms implanted in hamsters was depressed within 5 days when the animals were given a further infection with infective larvae.1978564018
[antigenic activities of eggs, egg membranes, metabolic products and hatched larvae from the uterus of dipetalonema viteae (author's transl)].eggs of different stages of development, egg membranes, and the fluid isolated from uterus and pseudocoelomic cavity show antigenic properties against sera from wuchereriasis- and onchocerciasis-patients in the indirect immunofluorescent test, while hatched larvae did not show any fluorescence. isolation and simple drying of these antigenic materials on microscopic slides when compared with histologically prepared antigenic material (methacrylate or cryostate-sections) proved to have quantitativ ...1978565549
intrauterine development of the microfilariae of dipetalonema viteae.the egg shell of dipetalonema viteae separated from the oolemma and became highly convoluted at an early stage of development. no second oolemma or trilaminate membrane was seen. channels containing electron dense material (thought to be nutrient material from the uterine wall) were formed between adjacent embryos. many developing embryos died. microvilli were formed by the uterine wall and developing embryos were closely apposed to these (again presumably to obtain nutrient). embryos emerged fr ...1978566294
on dipetalonema viteae infection of mastomys natalensis.experimental infections were carried out with the tissue-dwelling filaria dipetalonema viteae using the argasid tick ornithodorus moubata as the intermediate and the multimammate rat mastomys natalensis (strain gra giessen) as the final host. the optimum infective dose was found to be 50 third-stage larvae, which produced patent infections and the recovery rates of adult parasites were 47.6 and 26.4% of the inoculated larvae 140 and 189 days after infection, respectively. after an average prepat ...1979571635
kinetics of dipetalonema viteae infections established by surgical implantation of adult worms into hamsters.native lvg strain hamsters were infected with dipetalonema viteae by the surgical implantation of adult worms. groups of hamsters received either 50 male, 50 female, 50 male plus 50 female or 25 male plus 25 female worms per hamster. approximately 50% of the transferred worms became established in the recipient hosts regardless of the number or sex of the worms implanted. microfilaremia occurred in recipient hamsters within 1 week after the transfer of female or male plus female worms. this micr ...1979572146
serum ige levels in rats infected with dipetalonema viteae l3 larvae.serum ige levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in rats infected with various doses of l3 infective stage larvae of dipetalonema viteae. a high stimulation in total serum ige levels was found with minute doses as well as with large doses of parasite, and ige levels remained elevated for several months. no further increase in ige levels was induced by a secondary infection.1979575082
[influence of the sex of the final host on experimental dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters cricetus auratus (author's transl)].the authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters cricetus auratus. the parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. the average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. the same applies to the extent of parasitism: the ...1979575275
[dipetalonema viteae larva studied by scanning electron microscopy].if the description in the literature is based on a study with the light microscope, in this work, with electron microscope scanning, the integumental surface on the larva of dipetalonema viteae is studied at 1,500 to 50,000 magnifications.1979575317
studies on dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea). 4. passive transfer of immunity to circulating microfilariae by spleen cells.passive transfer experiments provided clear evidence for a role of spleen cells in the immunity of hamsters against dipetalonema viteae microfilariae. 106 or more spleen cells from postpatent (amicrofilaraemic) hamsters suppressed incipient microfilaraemia in syngeneic recipients when transferred at either week 2 or week 6 of a primary infection. spleen cells from microfilaraemic donors (week 15-16 post infection) were also capable of transferring immunity against microfilariae. the spleen cell ...1979575583
development of dipetalonema viteae third-stage larvae (nematoda: filarioidea) in micropore chambers implanted into jirds, hamsters, normal and immunized mice.development of third-stage larvae of dipetalonema viteae within subcutaneously implanted micropore chambers proceeded in all hosts tested up to the fourth-stage larvae and occasionally to adolescent worms. in the jird the timing of development was comparable to a natural infection. although the mouse is an insusceptible host, larval development could take place, but was very slow. two intraperitoneal inoculations of living third-stage larvae into mice induced the production of antibodies against ...1979575592
fractionation of a soluble somatic extract and solubilized cuticular extracts of dipetalonema viteae adult worms.a soluble somatic preparation (ssp) of adult dipetalonema viteae was prepared. aliquots of the aqueous insoluble debris (cuticles and membranes) left after the extraction of ssp were solubilized separately with triton x-100 and lithium diiodosalicylate to yield a triton solubilized preparation (tsp) and lithium diiodosalicylate solubilized preparation (lsp), respectively. ssp was sequentially chromatographed on a series of sephadex columns, g50; then fraction 1 from g50 on g100 and finally fract ...1975810559
dipetalonema viteae: effects of hypo- and hyperthermic stress on microfilaremia in the mongolian jird, meriones unguiculatus. 1976985754
the pathology associated with single and quadruple infections of hamsters with dipetalonema viteae.two groups of five hamsters were each infected subcutaneously with infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae; one group received single infections, and the second group received quadruple infections. a third group of five hamsters served as controls. hamsters with primary and quadruple infections had cellular infiltrates in the liver and glomerular basement membrane thickening; these lesions were more extensive in the multiple than single infections. hyperinfected hamsters also developed subcutane ...1976988655
cryopreservation of infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae.infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae produced infections in mongolian jirds (meriones unguiculatus) after storage of infected ticks (ornithodoros tartakovskyi) in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso, 5%) for 7 or 595 days in liquid nitrogen (-196 c). infectivity of these larvae was only partially impaired. microfilaremias of test jirds were generally lower than those of control jirds given nonfrozen larvae; however, the majority of test jirds developed microfilarial counts suitable for u ...19751168704
amyloidosis induced in hamsters by a filarid parasite (dipetalonema viteae).amyloidosis was induced in hmasters infected with the filarial nematode parasite, dipetalonema viteae. the incidence of amyloidosis was 64% in a group inoculated with 150 larvae and 54% in the group receiving 150 larvae in each of two inoculations. amyloidosis was not seen in control animals. microfilariae probably served as the antigenic stimulus in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis, since those animals in which amyloidosis was formed had microfilaremias that were significantly greater (p less th ...19751239111
brugia pahangi: production of a monoclonal antibody reactive with the surface of infective larvae.monoclonal antibodies against infective third-stage larvae (l3) of brugia pahangi were generated from mice immunized with l3 antigens. the monoclonal antibodies were l3 stage-specific or stage-nonspecific. a bpg1 monoclonal antibody (igg1 subclass) showing l3 stage-specificity was examined in detail. bpg1 recognized the surface of b. pahangi l3 and also reacted with the surface of brugia malayi l3 but not with the surface of filarial worms of other genera, such as acanthocheilonema viteae and li ...19921639160
impact of surface modifications of acanthocheilonema viteae microfilariae on cell adhesion.exposure of a. viteae microfilariae to various lectins reduced their capacity to react with the peritoneal exudate cells of the host, mastomys natalensis. sugars corresponding to these lectins with the exception of n-acetyl glucosamine, did not affect the adhesion per se. they however, protected the parasite against the adverse effect of lectins. neuraminidase and chitinase also suppressed adhesion capacity of the microfilariae. except sodium dodecylsulphate which enhanced cell attachment, other ...19911814837
acanthocheilonema viteae: vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens.jirds (meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (l3) of acanthocheilonema viteae. the induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated l3 induced approximately 90% resistance. immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated l3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 l3 induced 94.1% protection. the protectio ...19911889473
transplantation into jirds as a method of assessing the viability and reproductive integrity of adult acanthocheilonema viteae from culture.the reproductive integrity and viability of adult female acanthocheilonema viteae (syn. dipetalonema viteae) maintained in culture for relatively long periods were assessed by transplantation into jirds. worms cultured in chemically defined ni medium for approximately 3-4 wk remained active, but microfilarial release declined to barely detectable levels. microfilarial production, however, was restored when the worms were transplanted subcutaneously into jirds. when cultured in ni medium beyond 4 ...19911919923
in vitro effects of 2-tert-butyl-benzothiazole derivatives on microfilariae of litomosoides carinii, brugia malayi and acanthocheilonema viteae.six 2-tert-butyl-benzothiazole derivatives (2-tert-butyl-6-iso-thiocyanato-5-methyl-benzothiazole cgp 21306); 3-[(2-tert-butyl-5-methyl-benzothiazole-6-yl) aminothiocarbonylthiol] propionic acid (cgp 21835); 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl-6-(n-methyl-piperazinyl-thiocarbonylamino)-b enzothiazole (cgp 21833); 2-tert-butyl-5-methyl-6-(4-dimethylamino-piperid-1-yl-thiocarbo nylamino)- benzothiazole (cgp 26702); cgp 20376, the 5-methoxy analogue to cgp 21835 and cgp 20309, the 5-methoxy analogue to cgp 21833 ...19911772466
synthesis and biological activity of certain alkyl 5-(alkoxycarbonyl)-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamates and related derivatives: a new class of potential antineoplastic and antifilarial agents.a series of methyl and ethyl 5-(alkoxycarbonyl)-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamates (7-19) and methyl 5-carbamoyl-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamates (24-34) have been synthesized via the reaction of an appropriate alcohol or amine with the acid chloride derivatives 6a or 6b at room temperature. reaction of an alcohol with acid chloride 6a at reflux temperature afforded transesterified products 20-23 in good yield. treatment of methyl 5-amino-1h-benzimidazole-2-carbamate with substituted benzoyl chlorides f ...19921738146
brugia malayi and acanthocheilonema viteae: antifilarial activity of transglutaminase inhibitors in vitro.the possible involvement of transglutaminase-catalyzed reactions in survival of adult worms, microfilariae (mf), and infective larvae of the filarial parasite brugia malayi was studied in vitro by using the specific pseudosubstrate monodansylcadaverine (mdc) and the active-site inhibitors cystamine or iodoacetamide. these inhibitors significantly inhibited parasite mobility in a dose-dependent manner. this inhibition was associated with irreversible biochemical lesions followed by filarial death ...19911687106
changes in the surface composition after transmission of acanthocheilonema viteae third stage larvae into the jird.this study describes the dynamics and the biochemical nature of changes in the surface of the filarial nematode acanthocheilonema viteae after its transmission into the vertebrate host. vector-derived third-stage larvae (ml3) were inoculated into naive meriones unguiculatus and recovered from the tissues at different times post-infection until their moult to fourth-stage larvae (l4). surface-specific labelling with fluoresceinated lectins revealed that the larvae are covered by a carbohydrate en ...19921625708
difference spectroscopic characterisation of the cytochrome complement in acanthocheilonema viteae.(dithionite-reduced) minus (ferricyanide-oxidised) difference spectra of 600 x g and 12,000 x g subcellular pellet fractions of adult male acanthocheilonema viteae exhibited alpha-absorption maxima (296 k) attributable to cyt c555, cyt b562 and aa3 (600-605 nm). the gamma(soret) maximum of both fractions was evident at 427 nm, with a shoulder at 432-434 nm. 600 x g and 12,000 x g pellet fractions of adult female and mixed-sex adult a. viteae exhibited similar absorption maxima. (succinate-reduce ...19921620156
polyamine metabolism in some helminth parasites.polyamine levels of some helminth parasites were analyzed by reverse phase hplc of benzoyl derivatives. setaria cervi, acanthocheilonema viteae, hymenolepis nana, h. diminuta, and ascaridia galli contained higher levels of spermine than spermidine while in ancylostoma ceylanicum and nippostrongylus brasiliensis the spermidine levels were higher than spermine; putrescine was either absent or present in minor quantities. the enzymes of polyamine biosynthesis viz., ornithine decarboxylase, s-adenos ...19911993461
dose-dependent recovery of adult acanthocheilonema viteae (nematoda: filarioidea) after single and trickle inoculations in jirds.increasing single doses of 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 third-stage acanthocheilonema viteae larvae per animal were inoculated into jirds. the adult worm load increased steadily, whereas the recovery rate decreased significantly, i.e. the correlation between dose and recovery was negative (rs, -0.90; n = 5; alpha, 0.05). the same inoculation doses were given as trickle inoculations of 5 l3 each (3 x 5, 6 x 5, 12 x 5, 18 x 5) at intervals of 2-6 days throughout the prepatency period. irrespective of the ...19921589431
millardia meltada, a new host for acanthocheilonema viteae and a simple technique for separation of microfilariae from peripheral blood.millardia meltada were infected with acanthocheilonema viteae and examined for their susceptibility. the morbidity of infected m. meltada was low compared with that of jirds. on day 47 post-infection (p.i.), 13 of 14 m. meltada developed microfilaremia. male m. meltada then showed gradually increasing microfilaremia with a peak level of 7000 per 30 microliters blood at week 20 p.i., which was much higher than that (3000) of male jirds. in contrast, microfilarial densities of female m. meltada we ...19921487376
a direct fluorescence technique for the rapid detection of sheathed microfilariae in blood smears.thick and thin blood smears containing microfilariae of wuchereria bancrofti, loa loa, brugia malayi, brugia pahangi, brugia patei or acanthocheilonema viteae were prepared from either cryopreserved blood samples or from freshly collected blood, fixed in methanol and treated with a fluoresceinated lectin wheat germ agglutinin. sheathed microfilariae of w. bancrofti, l. loa, b. malayi, b. pahangi and b. patei in the blood smears could be easily detected and counted using a fluorescence assay. the ...19902074139
effects of calcium channel blockers on the contractility of the filariid acanthocheilonema viteae.the role of calcium in muscle contractility was explored in the filarial nematode acanthocheilonema viteae (dipetalonema viteae). the parasite was slit open longitudinally and mounted in a smooth-muscle chamber that had been filled with aerated (95% n2/5% co2) physiological solution at 37 degrees c. nifedipine (10(-6) m) and cadmium (3 x 10(-5) m) reduced the spontaneous isotonic contractions of a. viteae, whereas verapamil (10(-5) m) and diltiazem (10(-5) m) enhanced them. the effects of nifedi ...19921438134
active release of surface proteins: a mechanism associated with the immune escape of acanthocheilonema viteae microfilariae.living acanthocheilonema viteae microfilariae obtained from peripheral blood of parasitised meriones unguiculatus were surface-labelled with 125i. four major surface exposed proteins of approximately 14.50, 14.55, 17.5, 19 kda and one less abundant protein of 40 kda were identified. under non-reducing conditions the low-molecular-weight (lmw) proteins were isolated as multimers suggesting the presence of intermolecular disulphide linkages. in gels containing triton x-100 the labelled epicuticula ...19902090942
dipetalonema viteae: primary, secondary and tertiary infections in hamsters. 19751168583
behavior of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea) during escape from the vector tick, ornithodoros tartakowskyi (argasidae).to determine the behavior of dipetalonema viteae in its tick vector, ornithodoros tartakowskyi, the ticks were fed on jirds at successive intervals of 30 to 35 days after a single infective blood meal, and the number of larvae passing from the tick during each bite was determined by recovery of: 1) adult worms from the jirds' tissues; 2) larvae from skin snips taken at the feeding site immediately after the bite; and 3) larvae from serum and tissue after artificial feeding through a skin-membran ...1976986435
distribution and movement of infective-stage larvae of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea) in the vector tick, ornithodoros tartakowskyi (argasidae).histological sections and dissection of infected ticks, ornithodoros tartakowskyi, showed that in the resting tick the 3rd-stage larvae of dipetalonema viteae were distributed in clumps throughout the hemocoel. in the biting tick, larvae moved anteriorly and congregated especially in the capitulum; and the forward migration occurred even though no blood was ingested. this suggests that the act of biting and not the ingestion of blood is the critical factor in migration. the larvae may reach the ...1976986434
a comparison of the acquired resistance to dipetalonema viteae stimulated in hamsters by trickle versus tertiary infections.two groups of hamsters were hyperinfected with dipetalonema viteae. each of the 15 hamsters in the first group received a total of 900 larvae given in three equal doses on days 0, 150 and 250 from the start of the experiment (tertiary-infection group). each of the 20 hamsters in the second group received a total of 900 larvae given in 18 equal doses (50 larvae per dose) at 14 day intervals. thus the final dose was given on day 238 from the start of the experiment (trickle-infection group). about ...1976945918
oral transmission of brugia pahangi and dipetalonema viteae to adult and neonatal jirds. 1976943376
comparative utilization of pyruvate by brugia pahangi, dipetalonema viteae, and litomosoides carinii.the metabolism of pyruvate by the adult filarial parasites brugia pahangi, dipetalonema viteae, and litomosoides carinii has been compared. istopic carbon-balance studies indicate the presence of significant pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in l. carinii but little or no activity in either b. pahangi or d. viteae. in all 3 helminths, the quantities of pyruvate that were completely oxidized to co2 and water were very small. the activities of some of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes of b. pahan ...1979571909
dipetalonema viteae: in vitro blastogenesis of hamster spleen and lymph node cells to phytohemagglutinin and filarial antigens. 1978569595
primary infections of dipetalonema viteae in an outbred and five inbred strains of golden hamsters. 1978565398
antigenic activity in adult dipetalonema viteae in the indirect immunofluorescent test against sera from filariasis patients--the immunofluorescent histological search for "pure" antigen.using ifat, it has been shown that isolated egg-shells and uterine fluid of dipetalonema viteae are the most potent antigens in heterologous systems using human sera from patients infected with wuchereria bancrofti, onchocerca volvulus and loa loa, as well as in homologous systems using sera from animals infected with d. viteae. it is suggested that these antigens are unlikely to be highly species-specific, and that anatomical isolation of antigens is a necessary prerequisite to immunochemical a ...1979394410
dipetalonema viteae: isoelectric focusing and immunochemical studies on somatic extracts of adult worms and microfilariae. 197895963
studies on dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea) i. microfilaraemia in hamsters in relation to worm burden and humoral immune response.the course of a primary infection with dipetalonema viteae was studied in one randomly bred and in one inbred strain of hamster. worm recovery and the duration and intensity of the microfilaraemia were analyzed and related to the humoral immune response of the host by using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test on frozen sections of female worms, on eggs and on intact microfilariae. the inbred strain showed a greater susceptibility to the parasite. this was evidenced by high worm recovery ...197828654
immunoprophylaxis against filarial parasite, dipetalonema viteae in multimammate rat mastomys natalensis: immunisation with adult worm antigens. 19902401531
acanthocheilonema viteae (dipetalonema viteae) in mice: differences in the relative binding of microfilarial surface-specific antibody may explain the contrasting response phenotypes of balb/c and c57bl/10.experiments were carried out to obtain additional data concerning the role of igm antibodies, specific for the cuticular surface of the microfilariae (mf) of a. viteae, in clearing microfilaraemia from high- and low-responder mice infected by transplanted adult worms. although balb/c mice, which sustain a chronic microfilaraemia, produced igm mf surface-specific antibodies, the binding to target mf was weak when compared to that of antibodies from the serum of the resistant c57bl/10 mice. furthe ...19911940252
onchocerca volvulus: characterization of monoclonal antibodies reactive with surface components of third-stage larvae.five murine monoclonal antibodies (mab's) have been produced which are reactive with the surface of the third-stage larvae (l3) of onchocerca volvulus. these were produced from a fusion performed after intrasplenic injection of 10 live o. volvulus l3. hybridomas were first screened by elisa using a pbs extract of o. volvulus female adult worms. elisa negative wells were screened by ifa on whole formalin-fixed l3. five mab's were isolated which were reactive with the surface of l3, all were found ...19911896779
recovery, distribution, and development of acanthocheilonema viteae third- and early fourth-stage larvae in adult jirds.living third- and fourth-stage larvae (l3 and l4) of acanthocheilonema viteae were recovered quantitatively from adult meriones unguiculatus within the first 10 days after subcutaneous inoculation of 60 arthropod-derived larvae (ml3). the average recovery of the inoculated larvae was about one third (28.5%), and the majority (87.7%) were found in muscular tissues. seventy-two hours after inoculation, larvae could be isolated from all body locations, although the majority still was found near the ...19911865266
actions of acetylcholine and gaba on spontaneous contractions of the filariid, dipetalonema viteae.1. isotonic contractions were recorded from the filarial nematode, dipetalonema viteae (acanthocheilonema viteae), in an isolated tissue chamber. 2. nicotine (10(-6) m) and pilocarpine (10(-5) m) increased the spontaneous contractions in the intact filariid, but acetylcholine (ach, 10(-4) m) and muscarine (10(-5) m) were inactive. 3. when ach was applied to an opened d. viteae, it was 10,000 times more potent. this indicates that the cuticle is an effective barrier to the penetration of ach to t ...19901964825
gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase in lymphatic tissues of mastomys natalensis during an infection with acanthocheilonema viteae.during acanthocheilonema viteae infection, the specific activity of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-gt) increased in peritoneal exudate cells and bone marrow and decreased in lymph nodes of mastomys natalensis throughout the course of infection. however, though there was an increase in specific activity of gamma-gt in thymus and spleen during the prepatent phase of a. viteae infection, the level either returned to normal or decreased during the latent phase of infection. a close correlation ...19901973658
the surface lipid of parasitic nematodes: organization, and modifications during transition to the mammalian host environment.the biophysical properties of the surface lipid of a range of nematode species and their developmental stages were examined, using fluorescent lipid probes and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (frap). these methods can be applied to living, intact parasites, and the analysis confined to lipid on the outermost surface. in all cases, surface lipid was unusual in its selectivity for the insertion of the lipid probes. in addition, a polar lipid probe was generally not free to diffuse in th ...19901978532
antibodies against the cuticlin of ascaris suum cross-react with epicuticular structures of filarial parasites.the insoluble cuticlin from the cortical zone of the cuticle of adult ascaris suum was purified and used to raise antibodies in c57/bl mice. the specificity of the antibodies for the external cortical layer was shown in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and by immunoelectronmicroscopy. a very high specificity for the external cortical layer was found. some cross-reactions with cuticular collagens occurred, and increased after booster immunizations. the anti-cuticlin antibody cross-re ...19901978533
2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazones. 13. derivatives with antifilarial activity.several members of a series of 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazones possess in vivo and in vitro macrofilaricidal properties. the most promising of the group tested is n4-(2-aminophenyl)-2-[1-(2-pyridinyl)ethylidene]-hydrazinecarbothioam ide (4), which suppressed 100% of the macrofilariae of brugia pahangi and 94% of those of acanthocheilonema viteae in the jird at a dose of 25 mg/kg per day x 5. compounds 4 and 14 were also shown to inactivate or kill onchocerca gutturosa and onchocerca volvulus ...19912016717
apodemus sylvaticus, a new host for acanthocheilonema viteae (nematoda: filarioidea).susceptibility of apodemus sylvaticus and a. agrarius to infection with acanthocheilonema viteae was compared with that of hamsters and jirds. microfilaremia in a. sylvaticus was first noted on day 52 post-infection (p.i.) and lasted during the course of the study (up to day 150 p.i.). maximum microfilaremic levels (female worm basis) of a. sylvaticus [mean +/- s.d. (n) = 690 +/- 1288(6)] were considerably higher than those of hamsters [16 +/- 18(6)] and jirds [51 +/- 25(5)]. adult worm recovery ...19912040555
dipetalonema vitae: survival of adult females and microfilarial release in both a chemically defined and serum-supplemented medium.studies were conducted on survival and microfilarial release of afult dipetalonema viteae in culture, using worms of various ages derived from jirds. in chemically defined ni medium (a 1:1 mixture of nctc 135 and iscove's modified dulbecco's medium) under a gas phase of 5% co2 in nitrogen (po2 of medium approximately 40 mm hg), the peak of microfilarial release of several thougsand microfilariae per female per 24 hr occurred at approximately day 10. thereafter, microfilarial release declined and ...19892614606
antifilarial activities of benzazole derivatives. 3. effects of benzothiazoles on third stage larvae and preadult worms of acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi and b. pahangi in mastomys natalensis.ten structurally defined benzothiazoles (5-methyl and the analogous 5-methoxy derivatives) with known macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal activities were tested for efficacy against third stage larvae and preadult worms in acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, and b. pahangi infected mastomys natalensis. drugs were administered in single oral doses of maximally 100 mg/kg. the benzothiazoles were active against the two stages of the three species. generally the 5-methoxy derivatives displaye ...19902075385
association between circulating antigen and parasite load in a model filarial system, acanthocheilonema viteae in jirds.jirds (meriones libycus) were infected with various numbers of acanthocheilonema viteae l3 stage parasites. during the course of the ensuing 16 weeks, blood samples were collected at 2 weekly intervals and the amount of the major parasite excretory-secretory product (e-s 62) and antibodies directed against it measured. after 16 weeks, animals were sacrificed and the size of the mature worm burden established. in spite of interaction between e-s 62 and host antibody, a statistically significant r ...19902092299
an investigation of fructose utilization in acanthocheilonema viteae.the capacity of acanthocheilonema viteae to metabolize fructose was investigated in vitro. in common with other filarial species a. viteae oxidized fructose to lactate but its rate of consumption was only 40% of the glucose-containing control value. fructose was not incorporated into glycogen. release of 14co2 from [u-14c]fructose was not detected in the presence of glucose and was about 40% of the glucose-containing value under conditions where fructose was the sole hexose substrate. fructose c ...19902092300
survival of microfilariae released in vitro by the filarial worm, dipetalonema viteae. 19892640260
clinical and biological study of loa loa filariasis in congolese.clinical and biological evaluations were carried out on 84 congolese patients with parasitologically confirmed loa loa filariasis (without concurrent infection with other filariae) and on 98 controls without filariasis. on the patients, 72 presented with microfilaremia; another 12 with negative blood tests were seen towards the end of an episode of subconjunctival migration of the adult worm. the incidence and severity of the clinical signs depended upon the method of recruitment. the 3 most com ...19892679158
[deviation of the life cycle of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea)].dipetalonema viteae is a filarial that can evoluate among hosts zoologically broadly apart (ixodides and argasides), but always gathered from meriones burrows. its evolution is, on the contrary, blocked among most of the other ticks, particularly among ornithodoros erraticus morphologically very similar to the normal vector. our work concerns the experimental deviation of the cycle of dipetalonema viteae, with its possible adaptability in the bosom of an intermediate of fowl tropism and a perman ...19761037623
anti-filarial effects of nine quinoline-containing drugs on adult filariae in vitro.the potencies and efficacies of 9 quinoline-containing anti-malarials including chloroquine, (bis)desethylchloroquine, sn6911, sn12108, amodiaquine, cn-2999-2k, primaquine, quinacrine, and quinine were examined in vitro against adult female brugia pahangi. parasite motility and lactate excretion were measured as indicators of drug effects. all of the agents tested showed time-dependent increases in potency over a 24-72-hr incubation period. sn12108 was the most potent at 72 hr, reducing motility ...19892723923
a new technique of in vitro assay of antifilarials using different life-forms of acanthocheilonema viteae.an approach has been made to develop an in vitro screening system to evaluate antifilarial efficacy of compounds and an effort has been made to establish correlation between in vivo and in vitro screening technique. the in vitro experiments were conducted simultaneously using three life-forms (adult, microfilaria and infective larva) of acanthocheilonema viteae using five antifilarial agents representing four chemical groups. all the selected antifilarials were known to be active against one or ...19902096223
19s and 7s antibody response of mastomys natalensis in experimental filarial (litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, b. pahangi) infections.specific total antibody (ab), 19s and 7s ab levels in the serum of m. natalensis were investigated after infection with l. carinii, a. viteae, b. malayi and b. pahangi for period of about 500 days p.i., using elisa (homologous adult antigen) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (iift: homologous adult and microfilariae antigen). total ab levels in l. carinii infected animals rose moderately during prepatency maximum levels occurred during patency. the response during prepatency was stronger in ...19892781895
use of monoclonal antibodies for the characterization of onchocerca volvulus antigens.in order to identify onchocerca volvulus antigens that could be considered as either diagnostic and/or immunoprophylactic, mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against o. volvulus soluble antigens. three were selected on the basis of their staining patterns in an indirect fluorescent antibody assay carried out on cryosections of adult o. volvulus. the first monoclonal antibody (k1-159) recognized a cuticular antigen which appeared in ifa to be restricted to the genus onchocerca. however, ne ...19902187226
[indirect immunofluorescence in filariasis. i. standardization of the technique. cuba, 1983].indirect immunofluorescence was standardized for the diagnosis of human filiariae, using antigens of dipetalonema viteae. due to the determined sensibility and specificity, the tier of 1:512 was recommended for aiding clinicians in the individual diagnosis of suspicious patients and that of 1:256 for epidemiologic studies. the titers of cross reactions were less than 1:128.19902259774
glucose transport in acanthocheilonema viteae.the uptake of glucose by acanthocheilonema viteae was studied in vitro. the process was selective for the d-isomer and saturatable with a km of 2 mm. the rate of glucose transport/utilization was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, mannose, 5-thioglucose and dipyridamole but, unlike mammalian systems, was not impaired by cytochalasin b, phloretin, phloridzin, 3-o-methylglucose and 4,6-ethylideneglucose. a potential chemotherapeutic advantage of selectively inhibiting filarial glucose transport exists f ...19902263420
potential of a soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for the evaluation of filarial viability.using female acanthocheilonema viteae we have investigated the bioreduction of the tetrazolium reagent xtt (2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-sulphonyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2h-tetrazolium hydroxide). unlike the formazan formed by other tetrazolium salts, that derived from xtt readily diffuses out of a. viteae in vitro. formazan formation can therefore be quantified by direct absorbance reading of the incubation medium, eliminating the need for a dmso solubilization step. optimum assay conditions ...19902332282
biochemical analyses of secretory and excretory products of adult dipetalonema viteae in culture.radioisotopically labeled glucose and pyruvate were employed to elucidate biochemical mechanisms utilized by the filariid dipetalonema viteae during cultivation. adults isolated from amicrofilaremic hamsters were incubated at 37 c in a mixture of nctc135:imdm (ni), with either d-[14c-(u)]glucose or [1-14c]pyruvate, under a gas phase of 5% co2/n2 for 3 days. labeled organic acids were separated and quantified by ion exchange chromatography. high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) was used f ...19902352059
effect of ivermectin on filariae of mastomys natalensis.the efficacy of ivermectin (iv) was evaluated against four species of filariae, litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia pahangi and brugia malayi in mastomys natalensis. animals with patent infections, induced with l3 larvae, by intravenous (iv) infusion of the respective microfilariae (mf) (5 x 10(4) mf per animal) or by intraperitoneal (ip) route (2 x 10(4) mf per animal) were used in this study. a single dose of iv (100 micrograms.kg-1) given subcutaneously (sc) to mastomys inf ...19902381895
demonstration of anti-cuticular antibodies by immuno-electron microscopy in sera of mice immunized with cuticular extracts and isolated cuticles of adult dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea).the immunogold technique was used for the ultrastructural localization of antibody-binding sites on thin sections of lowicryl k4m embedded adult females, infective larvae and pieces of adult cuticles of dipetalonema viteae insoluble in sds-2-me. the antisera used were either produced against sds-2-me extracts of cuticles or the insoluble pellet after sds-2-me extraction. with both types of antisera a labelling of epitopes on fibers was achieved in intact cuticles. in isolated cuticles the corres ...19862426929
novel retinoid-binding proteins from filarial parasites.the present study deals with the discovery and partial characterization of specific binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid from filarial parasites (worms of the superfamily filarioidea), including those from two species of onchocerca. these binding proteins, which are distinct in their physicochemical properties and in the mode of ligand interactions from the host-tissue retinoid-binding proteins, may be involved in the mediation of the putative biological roles of retinoids in the contr ...19853004410
variation in class-specific humoral immune responses of different mouse strains to microfilariae of dipetalonema viteae.the class-specific antibody responses of 3 strains of mice (c57/bl10, balb/c and cba/n) known to vary in their ability to control the microfilaraemia which follows the subcutaneous transplantation of adult female dipetalonema viteae has been investigated. the 3 mouse strains showed significant variation (a) in total levels of immunoglobulins and (b) in ability to recognize individual radio-isotope-labelled antigens as measured by coprecipitation. within each mouse strain it was noted that antige ...19872447552
radiorespirometric detection of macrofilaricidal activity in vitro.an in vitro method for studying radiorespiration has been adapted to single macrofilariae. using this method viable (but not heat-killed) dipetalonema viteae and onchocera gibsoni macrofilariae evolved measurable amounts of 14co2 from l-[u-14c]glutamine. nonlinear and less uniform rates of 14co2 evolution were demonstrated with d-[u-14c]glucose, [1-14c]acetate and [1-14c]octanoate. these findings led us to develop an in vitro screen in which inhibition of 14co2 evolution from l-[u-14c]glutamine ...19892503805
cytochemical demonstration of lectin binding-sites in the cuticle and tissues of acanthocheilonema viteae (filarioidea).the lectin-gold technique was used for the ultrastructural localization of lectin binding sites on thin sections of lowicryl k4m embedded adult females, infective larvae and sds-2-mercaptoethanol-insoluble cuticle components of acanthocheilonema (dipetalonema) viteae. helix pomatia lectin (hpl) coupled to 14 nm gold particles, was used for the demonstration of n-acetyl-d-galactosamine-containing glycoconjugates. triticum vulgaris (wheat germ) agglutinin (wga) coupled to 10 nm gold particles afte ...19892566259
2,2'-dicarbomethoxyamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone--a new antifilarial agent.the activity of 2,2'-dicarbomethoxyamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone (ii, c.d.r.i. comp. 82/437) has been evaluated for its micro- and macro-filaricidal efficacy against litomosoides carinii in rodents. a dose of 3 mg/kg (i.p.) and 50 mg/kg (oral) x 5 days of comp. 82/437 was found to eliminate almost 100% of adult worms and microfilariae of l. carinii in cotton rat. it also killed 100% and 97% of adult worms and microfilariae of dipetalonema viteae and brugia malayi in mastomys natalensis resp ...19892575867
specific schistosoma mansoni rat t cell clones. i. generation and functional analysis in vitro and in vivo.in an attempt to determine the role of schistosome-specific t cells in the immune mechanisms developed during schistosomiasis, schistosoma mansoni-specific t cells and clones were generated in vitro and some of their functions analyzed in vitro and in vivo in the fischer rat model. the data presented here can be summarized as follows: a) lymph node cells (lnc) from rats primed with the excretory/secretory antigens-incubation products (ipsm) of adult worms proliferate in vitro only in response to ...19852580907
acanthocheilonema viteae (dipetalonema viteae) in mice: attempts to correct the low responder phenotype of the balb/c host.attempts were made to correct the low responder phenotype of microfilaraemic acanthocheilonema viteae (dipetalonema viteae) infected balb/c mice through the transfer of immune spleen cells and immune serum from amicrofilaraemic b10 background mice. the transfer of immune cells and serum prior to infection failed to influence development of microfilaraemia in balb/c recipients. attempts to alter the course of an established microfilaraemia in balb/c mice through the transfer of 3 x 10(7) immune s ...19892592139
origin, kinetics of circulation and fate in vivo of the major excretory-secretory product of acanthocheilonema viteae.the excretions-secretions (e-s) of acanthocheilonema viteae consist mainly of one product, molecular weight 62kda. this molecule is synthesized during the vertebrate phase of the parasite life-cycle and is first detectable in the e-s of l4 parasites. it is cross-reactive with e-s of human filarial parasites as a consequence of possessing a phosphorylcholine (pc) moiety. the 62 kda molecule has been employed as a model for the study of the origin and fate of filarial e-s. immunohistological analy ...19892594414
comparative effects of anthelmintics on motility in vitro of onchocerca gutturosa, brugia pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae.the effects of standard anthelmintics on the motor activity in vitro of adult onchocerca gutturosa, brugia pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae were determined using a micromotility meter. fresh adult males dissected from bovine tissues were the best source for observations on o. gutturosa. parasites liber-ated by collagenase digestion showed poor viability and motility. only segments of o. gutturosa females were obtainable by dissection and these were not able to sustain motility in vitro. adul ...19883227249
the further application of mtt-formazan colorimetry to studies on filarial worm viability.experiments have confirmed that mtt-formazan colorimetry in its simplest form (incubation of intact worms with mtt and direct visualisation of any formazan formed) can be readily applied to several species of filariae including onchocerca volvulus. data is presented which will assist the development of quantitative mtt reduction viability tests for a selection of the smaller filarial species. assays of pieces of onchocerca gutturosa and o. volvulus females have led us to tentatively conclude tha ...19892617039
complement activation by eggs and microfilariae of filarial parasites.the complement of fresh normal rat serum was activated by filarial eggs and microfilariae (mf). c3 was deposited on the surface of litomosoides carinii, brugia pahangi, brugia malayi and dipetalonema viteae as seen by immunofluorescence. intra-uterine and in vitro-derived mf did not bind c3. in contrast, c3 bound to the blood-derived mf of b. pahangi and b. malayi as well as exsheathed mf of l. carinii and b. malayi. significant consumption of complement was observed with eggs of all filarial sp ...19873325408
effect of 2,2'-dicarbomethoxylamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone on antioxidant defenses of acanthocheilonema viteae and its laboratory host mastomys natalensis.the effect of the macrofilaricidal agent of 2,2'-dicarbomethoxylamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone (c.d.r.i. compound 82/437), on the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ros) in acanthocheilonema viteae and mastomys natalensis was measured following intraperitoneal administration at therapeutic doses. the recovered worms possessed substantially reduced levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (gpx), and thus were less able to detoxify h2o2. nonetheless, the subcutaneous and adjoining mus ...19921510719
dipetalonema viteae and brugia pahangi transplant infections in gerbils for use in antifilarial screening.transplanted infections of dipetalonema viteae and brugia pahangi have been evaluated as tools for experimental chemotherapy. attempts were made to establish these filariae in similar pharmacokinetic sites within the same host, so that direct comparisons of in vivo drug susceptibilities could be made. unfortunately, it was not possible to establish b. pahangi in the subcutaneous tissues, the preferred site of d. viteae. therefore, intraperitoneal b. pahangi and subcutaneously implanted d. viteae ...19883372973
antifilarial activities of synthetic and natural retinoids in vitro.fourteen synthetic retinoids with known and different binding affinities to retinol binding proteins of dirofilaria immitis, retinol, and retinoic acid were tested in vitro against female litomosoides carinii (drug levels 20, 10, 1 nm/ml) and against microfilariae of l. carinii, brugia malayi, b. pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae (drug levels 100, 20, 10, 1 nm/ml). all compounds including retinol and retinoic acid had at least some effects on the filarial parasites. except for 3 synthetic ret ...19892617041
xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation in mastomys natalensis: effect of dipetalonema viteae infection.status of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation, the enzymes metabolizing reactive oxygen intermediates in liver, lungs and spleen of m. natalensis during d. viteae infection was investigated. xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation exhibited stimulation, while superoxide dismutase and catalase showed depression in liver and spleen of the infected animals. the filarial infection therefore appears to create o2 toxicity in these tissues. lungs, on the other hand w ...19892633968
altered immune response (humoral and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions) to sheep red blood cells in the course of experimental filarial infections (litomosoides carinii, brugia malayi, acanthocheilonema viteae) of mastomys natalensis.litomosoides carinii-, acanthocheilonema viteae- or brugia malayi-infected mastomys natalensis were sensitised against sheep red blood cells (srbc) on various occasions after infection to determine the effect of filarial infections on the immune response to a non-filarial antigen. the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system (res) was controlled in vivo by the elimination of 51cr-labelled srbc. antibody titres against srbc (agglutinating and lytic antibodies) were similar to those o ...19892726721
transmission of microfilariae and infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea) among vector ticks, ornithodoros tartakowskyi (argasidae), and loss of microfilariae in coxal fluid.during studies on the acquisition and transmission of infection with the filaria dipetalonema viteae by ornithodoros tartakowskyi, it was found that young nymphs and starved medium-sized ticks feed on recently engorged larger ticks. in this manner young ticks acquired the infection with microfilariae, and the microfilariae thus taken developed normally and after 30 days of development were transmitted to a jird. ticks harboring infective larvae were able to transfer them to other engorged ticks ...1976988155
in vitro motility of isolated adults and segments of onchocerca volvulus, brugia pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae.observations were made on the spontaneous motility in vitro of entire adult worms and segments of onchocerca volvulus, brugia pahangi and acanthocheilonema viteae. segment motility was recorded in a mechano-transducer apparatus and responses of worm tissues to anthelmintics and other pharmacological agents were compared. entire adult female o. volvulus showed varied patterns of motor activity, ranging from continuous low level whole body motion to periodic spasmodic contractions interspersed bet ...19882852396
stage-specific homocytotropic antibody response of mastomys natalensis to dipetalonema viteae infection. 19872884834
effect of milbemycin d on dipetalonema viteae in the hamster and in vitro. 19873430801
fecundity and localization of dipetalonema viteae (nematoda, filarioidea) in the jird meriones unguiculatus.in quantitatively infected meriones unguiculatus autopsied during prepatency, the embryonic development of fertilized eggs in the uteri of female dipetalonema viteae commenced 29-32 days p.i., and approximately 20 days later the first microfilariae were released. in host animals examined at the onset of patency 45-59 days p.i. the average adult recovery rate was 31%. the worms were localized in the subcutaneous tissue (65.3%), fasciae of muscles (26.9%) and body cavities (7.8%). female worms fro ...19873438295
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