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critical tests of suspension, paste, and pellet formulations of cambendazole in the horse.three formulations of cambendazole were evaluated for anthelmintic activity by critical testing method in 21 horses. cambendazole suspension was administered via stomach tube at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg to 3 horses and at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg to 3 horses. cambendazole paste was given intraorally to 8 horses, and the pellet formulation was fed to 7 horses at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg. anthelmintic activity of cambendazole was similar for all dose rates and formulations. gasterophilus intest ...1975123710
toxocara infection in pigs. the use of indirect fluorescent antibody tests and an in vitro larval precipitate test for detecting specific antibodies.an in vitro larval precipitate test using second-stage toxocara canis larvae and an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test employing cuticles of t. canis larvae as antigen were evaluated using antisera produced in pigs experimentally infected with t. canis, t. cati, ascaris suum, toxascaris leonina and parascaris equorum. the former test was both specific and sensitive and is suggested as a reliable and simple method of detecting toxocara antibodies in pigs. the latter test was considered unsu ...1977328560
an evaluation of the efficacy of oxfendazole against the common nematode parasites of the horse.in a controlled trial in naturally-infected young ponies, oxfendazole administered orally at dose-rates of 10 mg per kg and 50 mg per kg resulted in complete elimination of trichostrongylus axei, parascaris equorum, oxyuris equi and adult strongylus vulgaris. also, all migrating strongylus edentatus larvae recovered from the subperitoneal tissues of the flank were found to be dead. minimum efficiencies of 99.8 per cent and 99.1 per cent were obtained against adult small strongyles (trichonema sp ...1978364817
[autoradiographic localization of rna synthesis in vitro during oogenesis in parascaris equorum].technical elaboration of in vitro incubation of parascaris equorum gonads with 3h-uridine has permitted, for the first time, the study of rna synthesis during oogenesis along the whole gonadic tube. in germ cells, oocytes in diakinesis (oviduct) and in division of maturation (uterus) show no label. on the contrary oogonia and growing oocytes in ovary are labelled. rna synthesis is always detected in all parietal cells but is more active in oviduct and uterus where the gonadic wall is particularl ...1977405148
critical test evaluation of butamisole against gastrointestinal parasites of horses and ponies.a critical test was performed to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of an injectable butamisole formulation and to compare the efficiency with that of a commercially available piperazine-thiabendazole anthelmintic. the test was done in 10 horses and 15 ponies with naturally acquired parasitic infections. butamisole was administered at the dose level of 2.5 or 3.75 mg/kg of body weight by either subcutaneous or deep intramuscular injection. given at the dose level of 2.5 mg/kg, butamisole was h ...1979453676
critical tests and clinical trials on oxibendazole in horses with special reference to removal of parascaris equorum.the efficacy of oxibendazole given at dose level of 10 mg/kg of body weight was determined by 10 critical tests in foals and by 2 clinical trials in 20 foals (16 treated, 4 nontreated), with special interest in the drug activity against parascaris equorum. the drug was uniformly efficacious (100%) against p equorum in the 10 critical-test foals, each having between 22 and 236 ascarids. posttreatment reductions of ascarid egg counts in fecal samples were also 100% in suckling foals treated with o ...1979475125
the migration and development of parascaris equorum in the horse. 1979489235
satellite dna properties of the germ line limited dna and the organization of the somatic genomes in the nematodes ascaris suum and parascaris equorum.during the early cleavage divisions in some ascarids, parts of the chromosomes are eliminated from the somatic blastomeres ("chromatin diminution", boveri, 1887) while the chromosomes in the germ line cells maintain their integrity. to characterize the germ line and soma genome, dna was isolated from gametes and embryonic somatic cells of two ascarid species, parascaris equorum var. univalens and ascaris suum. it was shown that the germ line limited dnas of these species have the same density an ...1979510087
anthelmintic efficiency of fenbendazole in equines.a single oral dose of fenbendazole (fbz) at 10 mg/kg body mass was given to 5 donkeys. a further 5 donkeys were dosed with a medicated lick (1 mg fbz/g lick) until the oral consumption was 10 mg/kg body mass. in both trials fbz was highly effective against adults of the following genera: cyathostomum, cylicocyclus, cylicostephanus, cylicodontophorus, poteriostomum, cabellonema, craterostomum and triodontophorus; similarly high efficiency was obtained against the following species: habronema maju ...1979553963
homocytotropic response of guinea-pigs to antigen extracts from formalized and unformalized parascaris equorum.a homocytotropic anaphylactic response is described in guinea-pigs sensitized with antigen from parascaris equorum. this antigen was not sensitive to prolonged storage in formalin. some adult ascarid extracts prepared from worms that had been stored for 14 years in 10 per cent formalin before use, retained their ability to produce an allergenic response. the antisera withstood heat inactivation at 56 degrees for up to 7 h or treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol and were still capable of eliciting a ...1977564869
[studying the faeces for the presence of parasites in horses and ponies (author's transl)].in 3,791 horses and ponies submitted to the department of internal disease of farm animals of the faculty of veterinary medicine, utrecht, the faeces were studied for the presence of parasites. the results were classified by age groups and months of arrival. eggs of the strongylus type were found to be present in 57.3 per cent of the faecal samples, eggs of parascaris equorum were present in 6.1 per cent, eggs of oxyuris equi in 1.2 per cent, eggs or larvae of dictyocaulus arnfieldi in 0.2 per c ...1978567859
hepatic pathology of experimental parascaris equorum infection in worm-free foals. 1979570571
the development of immunity to parascaris equorum infection in the foal.following infection with 8000 parascaris equorum eggs in two- to four-week-old foals reared under worm-free conditions a high percentage of the infective dose completed its tissue migration and returned to the small intestine. patent infections were establisehd between 81 and 104 days after infection and high faecal egg counts were recorded. a group of six- to 12-month-old foals, which had been either reared under worm-free conditions or exposed to natural ascarid and strongyle infections on pas ...1979574660
homocytotropic response to guinea-pigs to antigen extracts from formalized and unformalized parascaris equorum.a homocytotropic anaphylactic response is described in guinea-pigs sensitized with antigen from parascaris equorum. this antigen was not sensitive to prolonged storage in formalin. some adult ascarid extracts prepared from worms that had been stored for 14 days in 10 per cent formalin before use, retained their ability to produce an allergenic response. the antisera withstood heat inactivation at 56 degrees for up to 7 h or treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol and were still capable of eliciting a s ...1978631874
a pathological study of the lungs of foals infected experimentally with parascaris equorum. 1978659680
pathologic changes and pathogenesis of parascaris equorum infection in parasite-free pony foals.parasite-free pony foals (n = 10) were infected orally with 1000,000 parascaris equorum embryonated eggs. one pony foal each was euthanatized on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 16, 23, 27, 42, or 80 after infection. foals infected for more than 7 days showed signs of coughing, anorexia, rough coat, and weight loss. cellular changes in the blood were mild anemia, marked eosinophilia, and leukopenia. gross postmortem lesions included hemorrhage, edema, and white-to-yellow necrotic foci (0.5 to 1.00 mm) in lu ...1978677534
critical tests of the anthelmintic febantel in the horse: activity of a paste formulation alone or with a trichlorfon paste.critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. in 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, s edentatus from 5 infected horses, and matu ...1978697152
the distribution of concanavalin a binding sites on the intestinal epithelium of the nematodes ascaris suum and parascaris equorum.receptors for concanavalin a (con a), were localized on the intestinal epithelium of the nematodes ascaris suum and parascaris equorum. fixed tissue incubated in 3h-con a showed labeling of the microvilli surface and basal membrane. using con a coupled with peroxidase, the tips of the microvilli of ascaris suum and the tips and lateral surfaces of parascaris equorum were stained. the basal membrane of both species was also labeld. no labeling was observed on control tissue incubated without con ...1976791496
[control of the equine ascarid, parascaris equorum (goeze, 1782), with panacur]. 1977843335
an evaluation of ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (sch 18099) for anthelmintic activity in domestic animals.ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (sch 18099) was evaluated for efficacy against natural helminth infections in ponies, pigs, lambs and chickens. sixteen critical trials were conducted in ponies at dosages of 15 to 150 mg/kg. at 15 mg/kg, efficacy against adult and larval oxyuris equi was 100% and 91% and against small strongyles it was 98%. efficacy levels were 95% against strongylus vulgaris and s. edentatus at the 20 mg/kg dosage. in two trials at 100 mg/kg efficacy against parascaris e ...1977864223
critical tests of the antiparasitic activity of thiabendazole and trichlorfon sequentially administered to horses via stomach tube.thirteen critical tests were conducted in horses naturally infected with helminths and bots. single doses of thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight) and trichlorfon (40 mg/kg of body weight) powder formulations were administered as suspensions sequentially given via stomach tube to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against the large parasites of horses. parasite removal efficacies were 100% against 2nd instar gasterophilus intestinalis and 2nd and 3rd instar gasterophilus nasalis and 82 t ...1977879569
critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with four benzimidazoles: mebendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole.the comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (strongylus vulgaris, s. endentatus, s. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: cylicostephanus, cylicocyclus, cyathostomum, triodontoph ...1977886410
experimental parascaris equorum infection of foals.six worm-free pony foals, two to four months old, were infected with parascaris equorum eggs using three different dosage regimes and killed at either 40 or 95-100 days after infection. coughing and a circulating eosinophilia were features of large infections from which only a small number of worms developed to maturity. in small infections a high percentage of the parasites matured in the small intestine and this was associated with unthriftiness. pre-patent periods of 80 and 83 days were recor ...1977905641
critical tests of anthelmintic activity of a paste formulation of thiabendazole in horses.critical tests of the activity on large strongyles, ascarids, mature pinworms, and bots were carried out in 11 horses intraorally treated with a paste formulation of thiabendazole. the dose level of 44 mg/kg was administered to 3 horses, and the dose level of 88 mg/kg to 8 horses. removals of strongylus vulgaris and mature oxyuris equi were 100% at the 2 dose levels, and efficacy against strongylus edentatus varied from 95 to 99% and 89 to 100% for the 44- and the 88-mg/kg dose levels, respectiv ...1976937790
studies on the development and chemotherapy of larvae of parascaris equorum (nematoda: ascaridoidea) in experimentally and naturally infected foals.experimentally induced infections of parascaris equorum in worm-free pony foals required 14 to 17 days for migration of the larvae through the liver and lungs, and 79 to 110 days to become gametogenically functional. treatment of experimentally infected or naturally exposed foals during the parenteral phase of development, using levamisole at 8 mg/kg, a mixture of levamisole at 8 mg/kg plus piperazine at 88 mg base equivalent/kg, or dl-tetramisole at 10 mg/kg, was quite efficacious in (1) reduci ...1976945338
efficacy studies with three formulations of cambendazole in horses.treatment with 3 formulations of cambendazole (paste, pellets, and suspension) was compared with thiabendazole treatment in 181 quarter horses (females and intact and altered males) of different ages in 2 experiments. the mean output of strongyle eggs, as measured by eggs per gram of feces (epg), was reduced by at least 95% by the 3 formulations of cambendazole compared with pretreatment epg and epg in simultaneously nonmedicated horses. eggs of parascaris equorum were seen in 19 of the younger ...19751190601
critical tests and safety studies on trichlorfon as an antiparasitic agent in the horse.three series of critical tests were completed on a combined total of 46 horses to determine the efficacy of single doses of trichlorfon against bots, ascarids, pinworms, and large strongyles. different formulations of trichlorfon were administered by tubing intragastrically, mixing with the daily grain ration, injecting intramuscularly, or pouring on the back at dose rates between 20 and 100 mg/kg. administration by feeding tended to be more efficacious for removal of bots and less toxic to the ...19761259212
critical tests with oxibendazole against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies.twenty ponies were allotted to 4 groups of 5 ponies each, and oxibendazole was orally administered at dose levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg. in the 3 groups of ponies given the largest doses, efficacy against 3 species of strongylus was between 92 and 100% and that against small strongylids of the genera cyathostomum, cylicocyclus, cylicodontophorus, and cylicostephanus was more than 99%. all adults and 95 to 100% of larvae of the pinworm oxyuris equi were removed. in the group of ponies given ...19761267243
[parasitic helminths of the cecum and colon of equidae in italy].intestinal helminths from coecum and colon were studied in 93 equidae including 40 horses, 36 donkeys and 17 mules. a total of 38 species, 36 nematodes and 2 cestodes, were identified as follows: 1) triodontophorus serratus, 2) triodontophorus brevicauda, 3) strongylus equinus, 4) strongylus edentatus, 5) strongylus vulgaris, 6) cyathostomum tetracanthum, 7) cyathostomum coronatum, 8) cyathostomum labiatum, 9) cyathostomum labratum, 10) cyathostomum alveatum, 11) cyathostomum pateratum, 12) cyat ...19921339978
critical and controlled tests of activity of moxidectin (cl 301,423) against natural infections of internal parasites of equids.the activity of moxidectin was evaluated in 1988 and 1989 against natural infections of internal parasites in 20 critical tests (n = 20 equids) and three controlled tests (n = 20 equids). two formulations, injectable administered intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraorally (i.o.) and gel i.o., were given at dose rates of 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 mg kg-1 body weight. for the critical tests (all three dose rates evaluated), removals of second instar gasterophilus intestinalis were 93-100%, except (89%) for the i ...19921502789
phylogeny of some ascaridoid nematodes, inferred from comparison of 18s and 28s rrna sequences.reverse transcription of cellular rna was used to obtain sequences from regions of 18s and 26/28s ribosomal rna for eight species of ascaridoid nematodes. phylogenetic relationships among these species were inferred from the aligned sequences by maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. seventy-nine of the 168 sites that varied were phylogenetically informative in parsimony analysis. phylogenetic inference based on maximum-likelihood analysis of all sequence sites yielded a tree of topol ...19921528113
helminth eggs in the sludge from three sewage treatment plants in czechoslovakia.developmental stages of 8 species of parasitic helminths were found during examination of sludge from 3 sewage treatment plants in central bohemia, czechoslovakia. the eggs were comprised from ascaris sp., toxocara sp., toxascaris leonina, parascaris equorum, enterobius vermicularis, trichuris sp., capillaria sp. and hymenolepis spp. the quantity of these organisms in 100 g of dried sludge ranged between 24-105 eggs of ascaris sp., 12-47 eggs of toxocara sp., 0-8 eggs of toxascaris leonina, 0-1 ...19921644362
comparison of the efficacy of ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate against 28-day parascaris equorum larvae in the intestine of pony foals.sixteen helminth-free pony foals were inoculated with a mean (+/- sd) 2,000 (+/- 545.5) infective parascaris equorum eggs (day 0). foals were allocated to replicates of 4, and treatments within each replicate were assigned at random. treatment administered on postinoculation day (pid) 28 included no treatment (control), 0.2 mg of ivermectin/kg of body weight, 10 mg of oxibendazole/kg, or 6.6 mg of pyrantel base (pamoate)/kg. paste formulations of the anthelmintics were administered orally. the f ...19911874672
metabolism and fate of ecdysteroids in the nematodes ascaris suum and parascaris equorum.when injected with [3h]ecdysone and maintained in vitro, the parasitic nematodes, ascaris suum and parascaris equorum each produced a series of polar and relatively apolar metabolites. a. suum metabolised the compound into ecdysonoic acid ([3h]eoic), ecdysone 25-glucoside ([3h]e25gluc), putative ecdysone 22-phosphate ([3h]e22p) and a series of at least six relatively apolar metabolites. all of these, except ecdysonoic acid, were hydrolysed by a crude enzyme preparation from helix pomatia, releas ...19911944416
eliminated chromatin of ascaris contains a gene that encodes a putative ribosomal protein.chromatin diminution in the nematodes parascaris equorum and ascaris lumbricoides leads to the formation of somatic cells that contain less dna than the germ-line cells. we present molecular evidence for the coding potential of germ-line-specific dna. we report on a cdna clone that codes for a putative ribosomal protein (alep-1, for a. lumbricoides eliminated protein 1). that the corresponding gene is located in the eliminated portion of the genome indicates a difference in germ-line and somatic ...19912000367
evidence for the release of 20-hydroxyecdysone 25-glucoside by adult female parascaris equorum (nematoda) in vitro. 19912047376
two highly reiterated nucleotide sequences in the low c-value genome of panagrellus redivivus.two families of highly reiterated satellite nucleotide (nt) sequences have been found in the genome of the sexually separated nematode panagrellus redivivus. the repeats are arranged in tandem arrays but the different satellites are not intermingled. monomeric lengths are of 155 bp for one kind and 167 bp for the other; they were named e155 and e167. the a + t content is elevated in both families (i.e., 59.5%, and 65.3%, respectively). no similarity was found between the two satellites nor to ot ...19902227434
characterisation of surface antigens of strongylus vulgaris of potential immunodiagnostic importance.when antigens prepared by detergent washes of strongylus vulgaris and parascaris equorum were probed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test with horse sera from single species infections of s. vulgaris and p. equorum, a high degree of cross-reaction between the species was demonstrated. western blot analysis of four common horse nematode species showed a large number of common antigens when probed with horse infection sera. antisera raised in rabbits against the four species, including s. ...19872444881
critical and controlled tests of activity of a macrocyclic lactone (compound f28249-alpha) against natural infections in internal parasites of equids.thirteen critical tests (n = 11 horses and 2 ponies) and 4 controlled tests (n = 4 donkeys and 6 horses) were performed to evaluate the activity of the experimental macrocyclic lactone compound f28249-alpha against internal parasites of equids. in the critical tests, activity was determined mainly against the large parasites, but 1 critical test also included benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles. in the controlled tests, evaluation of drug activity included large parasites and stomach worms ...19892527481
efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of induced parascaris equorum infection in pony foals.eighteen pony foals inoculated with 1,500 +/- 109 infective parascaris equorum eggs were given 0.02 ml of ivermectin vehicle (liquid)/kg of body weight, po, (control); 0.2 mg of ivermectin paste/kg, po; or 0.2 mg ivermectin liquid/kg, po, on postinoculation day (pid) 28. foals were euthanatized on pid 42, and the small intestinal contents were examined for p equorum larvae. the mean number of fourth-stage p equorum larvae in foals treated with ivermectin paste and liquid were 3.5 and 6, respecti ...19892599956
controlled test and clinical evaluation of dienbendazole against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.a controlled test was performed to titrate the anthelmintic dosage of dienbendazole in 24 mixed-breed ponies naturally infected with strongylus vulgaris, s edentatus, and small strongyle species, as determined by parasitic egg and larval counts in feces. comparison of results of treatment was made among 3 dienbendazole dosages--2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight--and a gum (excipient) mixture given by nasogastric intubation. all ponies were euthanatized and necropsied at 7 or 8 days after treat ...19892619127
unusual kinetochores and chromatin diminution in parascaris.the first description of the cytogenetics of the horse parasitic nematode ascaris megalocephala (parascaris equorum) represented an important step in the history of genetics. the chromosomes of this organism possess a particular centromeric organization and undergo a process known as chromatin diminution in all presomatic cells during early development. both these unusual features make parascaris a good model to study general aspects of chromosome biology.19892686123
efficacy of ivermectin in oral drench and paste formulation against migrating larvae of experimentally inoculated parascaris equorum.twenty-one mixed-breed pony foals, reared and maintained under parasite-free conditions, were used to test the efficacy of ivermectin in oral drench and paste formulations (200 micrograms/kg) against 11-day-old migrating larvae of parascaris equorum. three replicates of 4 foals and 3 replicates of 3 foals were formed on the basis of age. foals in replicates of 4 were randomly allocated to be indicators, or to receive vehicle (control) or ivermectin paste or ivermectin liquid. foals in replicates ...19892774327
prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites of horses in northern queensland.a quantitative post-mortem study of 57 horses from northern queensland was done to determine the prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites. the following species (% prevalence) were found: draschia megastoma (39%); habronema muscae (43%); gasterophilus intestinalis (34%), g. nasalis (30%); parascaris equorum (15%); strongyloides westeri (6%); probstmayria vivipara (2%); oxyuris equi (26%); anoplocephala magna (2%); a. perfoliata (32%). mean parasite numbers of individual spe ...19892930389
prevalence and epidemiology of the major gastrointestinal parasites of horses in perth, western australia.a survey was conducted on the prevalence of the major gastrointestinal parasites in 140 horses necropsied in perth, western australia, during 1979 to 1982. adult strongylus vulgaris were found in 22.5 per cent of horses and verminous arteritis in 62.9 per cent. the peak worm prevalence was in november to january (summer). s edentatus had a similar prevalence and seasonality but s equinus was not found in this survey. draschia megastoma and habronema muscae were found in 66.2 per cent and 35.3 pe ...19852934246
biochemical polymorphism in parascaris equorum, toxocara canis and toxocara cati.vertical starch gel electrophoresis was used to resolve proteins encoded by 18 gene loci in ascaridoid nematodes. estimates of genetic variability were made from population samples of the dog ascarid (toxocara canis), cat ascarid (toxocara cati), and the horse ascarid (parascaris equorum). levels of polymorphism and mean heterozygosity were high, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that the intestinal environment selects for monomorphism among endoparasites. most observed allele frequenc ...19862938002
biochemical and immunological systematics of some ascaridoid nematodes: genetic divergence between congeners.vertical starch gel electrophoresis and trefoil immunodiffusion were used to study the systematics of some ascaridoid nematodes. within the ascarididae, the time scale of divergence was too great for intergeneric electrophoretic comparisons. congeneric electrophoretic comparisons of baylisascaris procyonis (host--raccoon) versus baylisascaris transfuga (host--black bear), and toxocara canis (host--domestic dog) versus toxocara cati (host--domestic cat) yielded nei genetic distance coefficients o ...19873114467
evaluation of ivermectin for larvicidal effect in experimentally induced parascaris equorum infections in pony foals.a controlled test was carried out on 15 pony foals inoculated with 1,500 +/- 108.8 infective parascaris equorum eggs. the foals were assigned to 3 treatment groups. treatments given on postinoculation day 11 included 0.2 mg of ivermectin/kg of body weight, formulated as paste (n = 5), or liquid (n = 5), or no treatment (controls; n = 5). the foals were euthanatized on postinoculation day 25, and examined for larvae in the small intestine, lungs, and liver. larvae were not found in foals treated ...19883247923
efficacy of ivermectin in the oral paste formulation against naturally acquired adult and larval stages of parascaris equorum in pony foals.the efficacy of ivermectin in oral paste formulation at a dosage of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight was tested against naturally acquired larval and adult stages of parascaris equorum, in a controlled study. twenty infected pony foals 18 to 27 weeks of age were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 10 each and were placed in dry lots. foals in 1 group were given ivermectin on day 0. necropsies and parasite recoveries from small intestines and lung tissues were performed on 5 foals in each group at ...19883421521
identification of ecdysone 25-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside as a new metabolite of ecdysone in the nematode parascaris equorum.a major metabolite of [3h]ecdysone injected into adults of the nematode parascaris equorum maintained in vitro for 48 h was secreted into the culture medium. the compound could be hydrolysed with a crude hydrolase preparation from helix pomatia, yielding ecdysone. sufficient quantity of this material for identification was produced by administration of ecdysone to the parasites. the resulting compound was purified by h.p.l.c. and identified as ecdysone 25-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside by n.m.r. spect ...19873435447
critical test and safety evaluations of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon in horses.critical tests were done on 24 naturally parasitized horses to compare the antiparasitic activity of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon with that of the marketed powder formulation. each formulation was administered at the recommended dosages of 8.8 mg of mebendazole and 40 mg of trichlorfon/kg of body weight. efficacy of the paste formulation ranged from 97.7% to 100% against 2nd- and 3rd-stage gasterophilus spp, adult strongylus vulgaris, s edentatus, parascaris equorum, ...19863524328
prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in kentucky.the prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); g. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); ...19873564356
evaluation of ivermectin paste in the treatment of ponies for parascaris equorum infections.twenty ponies less than 18 months of age and infected with parascaris equorum were treated with either 0.2 mg of ivermectin/kg of body weight (n = 10) or a placebo (n = 10; controls). five control and 5 ivermectin-treated ponies were euthanatized 14 and 35 days after treatment, respectively. at necropsy, the small intestinal contents, lungs, and liver were examined for larvae and/or adult p equorum. significantly (p less than 0.02) higher mean total numbers of p equorum were found in the small i ...19873583895
evaluation of fenbendazole for larvacidal effect in experimentally induced parascaris equorum infections in pony foals.fifteen pony foals were inoculated with 1,500 +/- 298.7 infective parascaris equorum eggs. the foals were assigned to 3 treatment groups. treatments included 10 mg of fenbendazole/kg given once on postinoculation day (pid) 11, 10 mg of fenbendazole/kg given daily on pid 11 to 15, and no treatment (controls). the foals were euthanatized on pid 25 and examined for p equorum larvae in the small intestine, lungs, and liver. significantly (p less than 0.05) lower mean numbers of p equorum larvae were ...19873610763
efficacy of ivermectin against parascaris equorum. 19873654287
a survey in louisiana of intestinal helminths of ponies with little exposure to anthelmintics.ponies reared with minimal or no exposure to anthelmintics were surveyed for intestinal helminths in order to estimate prevalence and intensity of parasite populations unaltered by frequent exposure to anthelmintics. thirty-seven mixed breed ponies of varying ages were examined. thirty-four species of nematodes and 2 species of cestodes were found. twenty-four of the nematode species (including 1 new species) were in the subfamily cyathostominae (small strongyles). eighty-seven percent of the to ...19863819969
increased multiplication of dengue virus in mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures by treatment with extracts of ascaris-parascaris parasites.methylcellulose-elicited peritoneal macrophages from balb/c mice were cultivated in vitro and inoculated with dengue virus (dv). at intervals thereafter portions of the culture fluids were taken and titrated for viral infectivity. extracts from ascaris suum and parascaris equorum, either crude or sephadex g-100 fractionated, were examined for effects on the multiplication of dv. the macrophage cultures treated with the above substances produced larger amounts of dv compared with untreated contro ...19853894890
prevalence of some internal parasites recovered at necropsy of thoroughbreds born in 1982 in kentucky.a total of 89 thoroughbreds, 14 to 333 days old (born in 1982), were examined at necropsy for certain internal parasites during a 1-year-period, mar 1, 1982, to feb 28, 1983. the eyes of 73 of the horses and the cranial mesenteric arteries of 71 were examined. specific interest was on prevalence of parasites according to month of the year and age of the horses at necropsy. parasites recovered (first month-last month infected horse found) were as follows: thelazia lacrymalis (eyes) immature and m ...19853994134
centromere ultrastructure in germ-line chromosomes of parascaris.ultrastructural analysis of the centromere in germ-line mitotic chromosomes of parascaris univalens and parascaris equorum revealed that these chromosomes are holocentric. in thin longitudinal sections of both species the kinetochore appeared as a continuous plate (up to 3.8 micron long) and displayed a layered structure. this structure consisted of electron-dense inner and outer layers (average width 10 nm) separated by a less dense middle layer (25 nm wide), which had transverse electron-dense ...19854039246
parasites in lungs of dead equids in kentucky: emphasis on dictyocaulus arnfieldi.prevalence of natural infections of parasites from the lungs of 488 dead thoroughbreds in kentucky was investigated. the horses varied from 1 to 32 years of age; 419 horses were from 215 farms and 69 horses were from 68 individual sources for which a specific farm was not identified. examinations of the lungs were made from mar 1, 1983 through feb 29, 1984. dictyocaulus arnfieldi was recovered from 56 (11%) of the horses. other parasites found were larvae of parascaris equorum in 37 (8%) and of ...19854040343
isolation of mast cell degranulators from the celomatic fluid of parascaris equorum. 19744137736
researches on quantitative cytology. xxiv. nuclear sizes in adult tissues of parascaris equorum goetze. 19734806467
scanning electron microscopy on parascaris equorum (goeze, 1782), yorke and maplestone, 1926. 19744813200
activity of pyrantel against parascaris equorum. 19694897394
[development of the chondriome in so-called "phagocytic" cells of parascaris equorum]. 19654954794
[polarization factors in the early development of parascaris equorum]. 19676069145
protease inhibitors from the parasitic worm parascaris equorum.two proteic inhibitors (i and ii) of serine proteases have been purified from the parasitic worm parascaris equorum by affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin followed by preparative electrophoresis. they have an apparent relative molecular mass of 9000 and 7000 as determined by gel filtration, a slightly acid isoelectric point (5.5 and 6.1) and a similar amino acid composition. both inhibitors lack serine, methionine and tyrosine. they bind bovine trypsin extremely strongly with an assoc ...19846389135
critical tests of morantel-trichlorfon paste formulation against internal parasites of the horse.critical tests were completed on six horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of a paste formulation mixture of morantel citrate and trichlorfon, administered intraorally at the dose rate of 6 mg morantel base kg-1 and trichlorfon at 30 mg kg-1. aggregate average removals were: 78% for two horses infected with 2nd instar gasterophilus intestinalis; 100% for one infected with 2nd instar g. nasalis; 96% for six infected with 3rd instar g. intestinalis; 100% for four infected with 3rd instar g ...19846538366
abdominal abscess associated with parascaris equorum infection in a foal. 19836682846
critical test evaluations of oxfendazole and trichlorfon: effectiveness of a paste formulation in the horse.critical tests were performed on 6 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic effectiveness of oxfendazole given in combination with trichlorfon in a paste formulation. treatments were given orally as a single dose. the rates of active ingredient administration were 2.5 and 40 mg/kg of body weight for oxfendazole and trichlorfon, respectively. the combined activities of the 2 antiparasitic compounds proved 100% efficacious in the removal of adult strongylus vulgaris, s edentatus, oxyuris equi, and par ...19846742583
ivermectin as an antiparasitic agent in horses.ivermectin, described as 22,23-dihydroavermectin b1, was the compound chosen from the avermectin group of compounds for development as an antiparasitic agent in horses. a review of the literature indicates that parenteral administration in horses at 200 microgram/kg body mass is highly effective against the strongyles strongylus vulgaris, strongylus edentatus and triodontophorus spp., and adult and immature cyathostomes, including strains resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. other nematodes ...19826750120
determination of the specific gravity of certain helminth eggs using sucrose density gradient centrifugation.the specific gravities of ten species of helminth eggs were determined using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. fecal or egg concentrate was layered over a 3 to 54% sucrose density gradient. the gradient was then centrifuged at 800 g for 20 min, allowing 5 min for acceleration and 5 for deceleration. bands formed were identified and measured. refractive index was measured at the middle of narrow bands, or at the level at which the concentration of eggs was highest, in the case of wide band ...19826890102
antiparasitic activity of parbendazole in critical tests in horses.critical tests were conducted in 11 naturally infected horses to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of parbendazole. single doses at the rates of 30, 20, 10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight were administered by stomach tube to 1, 4, 2, 2, and 2 horses, respectively. parbendazole was active against parascaris equorum, oxyuris equi, strongylus vulgaris, strongylus edentatus, and small strongyles throughout the range of doses. generally, small numbers of p equorum were present, but apparently a dose ...19806892671
efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin b1) against gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.the controlled test method was used to evaluate the antiparasitic efficacy of im inoculated 22,23-dihydroavermectin b1 (ivermectin) against gastrointestinal parasites of horses (ponies). parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern louisiana. dose levels of the drug tested were 0.2 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, and 0.5 mg/kg. ivermectin at all dose levels tested had an efficacy greater than 97% (p less than 0.05) against gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, trichostrongylus axei, oxyuris equi larva ...19806894221
effectiveness of ivermectin in the treatment of equine parascaris equorum and oxyuris equi infections.fifteen horses harboring naturally acquired, patent parascaris equorum and oxyuris equi infections were equally allotted to 3 treatment groups given (1) injectable vehicle; (2) injectable ivermectin at the dose rate of 200 microgram/kg of body weight; and (3) injectable ivermectin at the rate of 300 microgram/kg. all treatments were given im in the neck. all animals were killed 14 days after treatment and examined for the targeted nematodes. regardless of dose rate, ivermectin proved 100% effect ...19826896611
efficacy of injectable and oral paste formulations of ivermectin against gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.a controlled test was used in ponies to compare the antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydro-avermectin b1) in an injectable micelle solution administered im with the efficacy of the same drug in an oral paste formulation. parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern louisiana. the drug was tested in both formulations at a dosage level of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. ivermectin in both formulations tested had an efficacy greater than 98% against gasterophilus intestinalis and ...19826896613
a critical efficacy test of cambendazole in equids: the use of the geometric means to assess efficacy.the anthelmintic efficacy of a 44.5% paste formulation of cambendazole was evaluated in a critical trial performed on 5 horses and a donkey. a dosage of 20 mg/kg showed reduction of mean parasite burdens as follows: strongylinae greater than 99%; cyathostominae 94%; immature and adult oxyuris equi 89 and greater than 99%; probstmayria vivipara greater than 99% and habronema muscae 97%. parascaris equorum and anoplocephala perfoliata were present in small numbers in individual animals only, and w ...19807017145
controlled evaluation of ivermectin in shetland ponies.ivermectin was injected im into 12 yearling shetland ponies. the following reactions in percentages of parasites recovered from ponies given 200 microgram/kg or 300 microgram/kg, as compared with the parasitic population in those given the vehicle at 1 week after injection, were as follows: otobius megnini nymphs--no reduction; gasterophilus intestinalis--100% and 99.9%; g nasalis--100% and 99.9%; parascaris equorum adults--100% and 96%; strongylus vulgaris adults--100% and 100%; s edentatus adu ...19817027848
anthelmintic treatment of equids: capabilities and limitations. critical tests of nine anthelmintic agents on ponies.a number of good anthelmintic drugs are currently available which eliminate gastrointestinal nematodes of equids with over 90% success. this is shown by comparing results of critical tests conducted with 9 anthelmintic agents on ponies using the following dosages: 19 mg/kg for pyrantel embonate, 10 mg/kg for oxfendazole, 10 mg/kg for mebendazole, 5 mg/kg for albendazole, 40 mg/kg for dichlorvos, 44 mg/kg for thiabendazole, 7.5 mg/kg, for fenbendazole, 20 mg/kg for cambendazole and 7 mg/kg for pa ...19817046611
an investigation of variables in a fecal flotation technique.several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. these were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. the number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. eggs from hookworms, trichuris vulpis and toxocara canis in feces from dogs ...19807190861
anthelmintic efficiency of fenbendazole in equines.a single oral dose of fenbendazole (fbz) at 10mg/kg body mass was given to 5 donkeys. a further 5 donkeys were dosed with a medicated lick (1 mg fbz/g lick) until the oral consumption was 10mg/kg body mass. in both trials fbz was highly effective against adults of the following genera: cyathostomum, cylicocyelus, cylicostephanus, cylicodontophorus, poteriostomum, cabellonema, craterostomum and triodontophorus; similarly high efficiency was obtained against the following species: habronema majus, ...19807241490
anthelmintic efficacy fenbendazole paste in equines.a single oral dose of fenbendazole (fbz) paste at 7,5 mg/kg body mass was given to 5 horses. it was highly effective against adults of the following genera: cyathostomum, cylicostephanus, cylicondontophorus, poteriostomum, cylicocyclus, triodontophorus, oesophagodontus (and other genera belonging to the subfamily cyathostominae). similarly, high efficacy was obtained against the adults of the following species: oxyuris equi, strongylus vulgaris, strongylus equinus and probstmayria vivipara. thes ...19817277372
haloxon: critical tests of antiparasitic activity in equids.critical tests were conducted in 14 naturally infected equids (13 horses and 1 pony) to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of haloxon. single doses were administered by stomach tube to 3 horses and 1 pony (60 mg/kg of body weight), by addition to the feed of 3 horses (60 mg/kg), and intraorally by powder gun to 7 horses (65 mg/kg). haloxon was efficacious (99% to 100%) against infections of parascaris equorum, oxyuris equi (mature and immature), and strongylus vulgaris at both dosage levels. pr ...19817283234
tioxidazole: evaluation of antiparasitic activity of a micronized formulation in horses by the critical test method.antiparasitic activity of a micronized formulation of the benzothiazole compound, tioxidazole, at the dose rate of 11 mg/kg, was evaluated by the critical test method. drug was given by stomach to 3 horses and on feed to 3 horses. excellent removal activity was found for strongylus vulgaris (100%) in 5 naturally infected horses, s edentatus (91% to 100%) in 5 horses, small strongyles (88% to 99%) in 6 horses, immature oxyuris equi (100%) in 5 horses, and parascaris equorum (100%) in 5 horses (a ...19817283235
prevalence of strongylus vulgaris and parascaris equorum in kentucky thoroughbreds at necropsy.at necropsy of 49 thoroughbreds from farms with generally good parasite control programs in central kentucky, examination was specifically made for presence of strongylus vulgaris in all of the horses and of parascaris equorum in 21 of them. none of the deaths of the horses was caused by infections of internal parasites. visceral arteries were examined for specimens of s vulgaris and lesions related to migrating stages of this parasite. contents of the small intestines were examined for p equoru ...19817341597
pathophysiological changes associated with parascaris equorum infection in the foal.the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiological disturbances associated with the presence of mature parascaris equorum in the small intestine were investigated with radioisotopic techniques. the results suggested that, compared with worm-free controls, infected foals had a reduction in gut motility, an increase in the body solids ratio, a lowering of the body pool of albumin and a decreased ability to incorporate dietary methionine into plasma protein.19807363880
critical tests of new benzothiazole anthelmintic tioxidazole in the horse.the basic-dose confirmation tests of tioxidazole for removal of susceptible populations of gastrointestinal parasites of the horse were made in 10 naturally infected horses, using the critical test method (experiment a). a single dose of toxidazole, given at the rate of 11 mg/kg of body weight, was administered to 5 horses by stomach tube and to 5 horses by mixing the drug with the daily grain ration. in the 5 horses given the drug by stomach tube, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for ...19807447131
the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos) in equines.dichlorvos in a special slow release formulation at 31 mg/kg body mass in equines was highly effective against all adult strongyles and oxyuris equi, parascaris equorum, probstmayria vivipara and bots of gasterophilus spp. it has no effect on 4th stage larvae of trichonema ssp. nor the stomach worms draschia megastoma and habronema spp. doses of dichlorovos 10 and 20 times the therapeutic dose (310 and 620 mg/kg body mass) caused transient clinical signs but these disappeared 96 hours after dosi ...19807452653
a comparison between the effects of conventional and selective antiparasitic treatments on nematode parasites of horses from two management schemes.little information exists concerning the presence of nematode parasites of horses in south africa. limited studies are available which compare the parasites in horses originating from differing management schemes. the aim of the present study was to compare the nematode parasites of 2 groups of horses which had been managed differently. group 1, chiefly nooitgedacht adult ponies, consisted of cycling or early pregnancy mares. they were maintained chiefly on zero grazing, given supplemental feed ...19947595925
the prevalence and epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of horses in victoria, australia.a quantitative post mortem study of 150 horses from victoria was conducted to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites. a total of 42 species of metazoan parasite was found. the following species of non-cyathostome parasite were found (% prevalence): trichostrongylus axei (51%); habronema muscae (13%); h. majus (2%); draschia megastoma (5%); gastreophilus intestinalis (81%); g. nasalis (29%); parascaris equorum (5%); anoplocephala perfoliata (29%); fasciola hepatic ...19957657457
the prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in poland.the digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in poland were examined. thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. the most prevalent small strongyle species were cyathostomum catinatum, cylicocyclus nassatus, cylicostephanus goldi, cylicostephanus longibursatus, cyathostomum coronatum, cylicostephanus calicatus, cylicocyclus leptostomus and cylicostephanus minutus. thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventr ...19957676606
[incidence of parascaris equorum in foals and their mares after strategic use of wide-spectrum anthelmintics for several years].in this epidemiological survey 30 foals and their mares from seven breeding farms were investigated. six farms used wide spectrum anthelmintics strategically at least for three years, on one farm no anthelmintic prophylaxis was practiced. excretion of p.-equorum-eggs occurred in all breeding farms and in 80% of the foals, but in only one mare. in foals infection with roundworms was detected at the earliest 85 days post partum. before first shedding of p.-equorum-eggs wide spectrum anthelmintics ...19957792776
pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from the equine nematode, parascaris equorum, and the canine cestode, dipylidium caninum, helminths exhibiting anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism.the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pdc) has been purified to apparent homogeneity from 2 parasitic helminths exhibiting anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism, the equine nematode, parascaris equorum, and the canine cestode, dipylidium caninum. the p. equorum pdc yielded 7 major bands when separated by sds-page. the bands of 72, 55-53.5, 41 and 36 kda corresponded to e2, e3, e1 alpha and e1 beta, respectively. the complex also contained additional unidentified proteins of 43 and 45 kda. incubation ...19947870133
transmission of some species of internal parasites in horses born in 1990, 1991, and 1992 in the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky.studies were conducted on transmission of natural infections of several species of internal parasites in horses born and kept on the same pasture on a farm in central kentucky. data for the first year (1989) of a 4 year study on this farm have been published recently. the present research represents the second (1990), third (1991), and fourth (1992) years of the investigation. the number of animals (n = 28) examined varied from eight born in 1990 to ten each born in 1991 and 1992. for each year, ...19948073609
cyanide dissociation from the hemoglobin of parascaris equorum.the reduction of cyanomethemoglobin by dithionite leads to the appearance of an intermediate, the complex of cyanide with ferrous hemoglobin, whose dissociation is easily followed in a stopped flow apparatus. this reaction was studied in the hemoglobin from the parasitic nematode parascaris equorum, whose extremely high oxygen affinity is due to a very low dissociation rate. the rate of cyanide dissociation from ferrous parascaris hemoglobin is not so dramatically different from that of other he ...19948155705
[parasitological fecal studies of equids, dogs, cats and hedgehogs during the years 1984-1991].the results of the coproscopical examinations in horses, dogs, cats and hedgehogs between 1984 and 1991 are presented. in 9192 samples from horses 55.5% stages of strongylids, 4.0% of parascaris equorum, 2.2% of anoplocephalids, 1.6% strongyloides westeri, 0.7% of oxyuris equi, 0.6% of eimeria leuckarti, 0.2% of fasciola hepatica and 0.04% of dictyocaulus arnfieldi were found. in 48.0% of the 46 samples from donkeys eggs from strongylids were detected, in 17.4% larvae from dictyocaulus arnfieldi ...19938261912
r4, a non-ltr retrotransposon specific to the large subunit rrna genes of nematodes.a 4.7 kb sequence-specific insertion in the 26s ribosomal rna gene of ascaris lumbricoides, named r4, is shown to be a non-long terminal repeat (non-ltr) retrotransposable element. the r4 element inserts at a site in the large subunit rrna gene which is midway between two other sequence-specific non-ltr retrotransposable elements, r1 and r2, found in most insect species. based on the structure of its open reading frame and the sequence of its reverse transcriptase domain, r4 elements do not appe ...19958524653
comparative sds-page protein patterns of four ascaridid nematodes.in order to investigate the degree of homogeneity and heterogeneity of the ascaridid nematodes. toxascaris leonina, parascaris equorum, toxocara canis and t. vitulorum, protein extracts from adult worms of the four nematodes were resolved into a number of bands. comparative analysis of dominant bands showed that 13 bands were common among the four species, but certain unique bands were also found in each species including 4 in t. vitulorum, one in t. leonina, two in t. canis, while p. equorum sh ...19958586870
the distribution of parascaris equorum eggs in the soil profile of bare paddocks in some norwegian studs.fifteen bare paddocks, which consisted of soil only and were located on 12 different studs, were examined for their content of parascaris equorum eggs in the upper 15 cm of the soil profile. the paddocks were classified into three different groups according to the type of soil: clayey soil (a), morainic soil (b) and gravel or gravel-like sand (c). soil profiles were collected down to a depth of 15 cm and were divided into three layers: 0-5 cm (d1), 5-10 cm (d2) and 10-15 (d3). the eggs in each l ...19958619288
dose titration of moxidectin oral gel against migrating strongylus vulgaris and parascaris equorum larvae in pony foals.moxidectin was tested for efficacy in ponies against experimental infections of 56 day strongylus vulgaris larvae and 11 day parascaris equorum larvae. three dosages of moxidectin were tested: 300 micrograms per kg live body weight, 400 micrograms per kg, and 500 micrograms per kg, and the vehicle served as control. ponies were first infected with 600 s. vulgaris third-stage larvae (l3) on experiment day 0 and then with 3000 embryonated p. equorum eggs on day 45. moxidectin treatments were admin ...19958644446
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