Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) family members in helminth infections.Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-?. IL-4, IFN-? and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trig ...201122110388
heterologous prime-boost oral immunization with gk-1 peptide from taenia crassiceps cysticerci induces protective immunity.oral immunization is a goal in vaccine development, particularly for pathogens that enter the host through the mucosal system. this study was designed to explore the immunogenic properties of the taenia crassiceps protective peptide gk1 orally administered. mice were orally immunized with the synthetic gk1 peptide in its linear form with or without the brucella lumazine synthase protein (bls) adjuvant or as a chimera recombinantly bound to bls (bls-gk1). each 15 days later, mice were boosted twi ...201121593234
Taenia crassiceps: Host treatment alters glycolisis and tricarboxilic acid cycle in cysticerci.Human cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps is rare although it is considered of zoonotic risk, especially to immunocompromised individuals. Albendazole and praziquantel are widely used and effective in its treatment. Their active forms inhibit the glucose uptake by the parasite and induce muscle contractions that alter its glycogen levels interfering in the energetic metabolism of the parasite and leading to its death. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in glycolysis, the tricarboxy ...201122127328
a helminth cestode parasite express an estrogen-binding protein resembling classic nuclear estrogen receptor.the role of an estrogen-binding protein similar to a known mammalian estrogen receptor (er) is described in the estradiol-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite taenia crassiceps. previous results have shown that 17-β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. this effect is inhibited when parasites are also incubated in the presence of an er binding-inhibitor (tamoxifen). rt-pcr assays using specific oligonucleotides of the most ...201121621550
the effect of glucocorticoids on sex steroid synthesis in cultured taenia crassiceps wake forest university (wfu) cysticerci.we have shown previously that cultured taenia crassiceps wake forest university (wfu) and taenia solium cysticerci, as well as the adult worms, synthesize sex steroid hormones from [3h]steroid precursors and that androgens and oestrogens influence the in vitro development of the parasites. glucocorticoids (gcs) are used to control the inflammation caused by t. solium cysticerci in the brain. these steroids stimulate oestrogen synthesis in several tissues. since there is no information on the eff ...201122152276
cestode antigens induce a tolerogenic-like phenotype and inhibit lps inflammatory responses in human dendritic cells.pathogens have developed strategies to modify dendritic cells (dcs) phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. dcs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode taenia crassiceps (tces) do not induce the maturation of human dcs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of cd83, hla-dr, cd80 and cd86 molecules but enhanced the production of il-10 a ...201122110390
Th2-associated alternative Kupffer cell activation promotes liver fibrosis without inducing local inflammation.Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model ...201122110380
evaluation of the protective potential of a taenia solium cysticercus mimotope on murine nc-1 mimotope from taenia solium cysticerci can help identify patients with neurocysticercosis through immunoassay. after chemical synthesis, an nc-1 peptide was coupled to bovine serum albumin (nc-1/bsa) for used as an immunogen in murine taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, which is an experimental model of cysticercosis caused by t. solium. nc-1/bsa immunisation decreased parasitaemia by inducing 74% protection compared to the 77% protection obtained with t. crassiceps crude antigen. the influ ...201122027483
immunoregulation by taenia crassiceps and its antigens.taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. we have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and lps-tolerogenic profile ...201223484125
the occurrence of taeniids of wolves in liguria (northern italy).canids are definitive hosts of taenia and echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. in this study, 179 scats of wolves (canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the italian region of liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infecti ...201526042204
molecular cloning of a cdna encoding for taenia solium tata-box binding protein 1 (tstbp1) and study of its interactions with the tata-box of actin 5 and typical 2-cys peroxiredoxin genes.tata-box binding protein (tbp) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the tata-box and tata-box-less gene promoters. we report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cdna that encodes a taenia solium tata-box binding protein 1 (tstbp1). deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kda, and a theoretical pi of 10.6. the nh2-terminal domain shows no conservation when com ...201526529408
tamoxifen treatment in hamsters induces protection during taeniosis by taenia solium.human neurocysticercosis by taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the t. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on taenia crassiceps, a close relative of t. solium. thus, we evaluated the effect o ...201223509701
helminth excreted/secreted antigens repress expression of lps-induced let-7i but not mir-146a and mir-155 in human dendritic cells.micrornas have emerged as key regulators of immune responses. they influence immune cells' function and probably the outcome of several infections. currently, it is largely unknown if helminth parasites and their antigens modify host micrornas expression. the aim of this study was to explore if excreted/secreted antigens of taenia crassiceps regulate lps-induced mirnas expression in human dendritic cells. we found that these antigens repressed lps-let-7i induction but not mir-146a or mir-155 and ...201223509825
[dog and fox faecal contamination of farmland].the contamination with faeces from dogs and foxes was documented on 14 different grassland areas in the canton of zurich, switzerland, over one year. a total of 402 dog and 58 fox faecal samples were collected from the grasslands, further 236 faecal samples were retrieved from robidog® units (disposal units for dog waste bags) in the immediate vicinity. the degree of fecal contamination per 100 m2 and year was 0.07-0.75 for dog samples and 0-0.06 for fox samples. dog faeces from robidog® units a ...201526753365
igg antibody responses in mice coinfected with toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.the immune response expressed by igg antibodies in balb/c mice experimentally infected with toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of t. canis and other parasites (ascaris suum, taenia crassiceps, schistosoma mansoni, strongyloides venezuelensis and toxoplasma gondii). experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by t. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected ...201222634886
coadministration of protoxin cry1ac from bacillus thuringiensis with metacestode extract confers protective immunity to murine cysticercosis.the bacillus thuringiensis cry1ac protoxin (pcry1ac) is a promising mucosal immunogen and adjuvant that induces protective immunity against naegleria fowleri and malaria infection models. we determined whether pcry1ac acted as a protective adjuvant against infection with taenia crassiceps. balb/c mice were thrice i.p. immunized with (i) pcry1ac, (ii) metacestode extract, (iii) extract + pcry1ac or (iv) vehicle, challenged with metacestodes on day 26 and then sacrificed 35 days later. cysticerci ...201424484070
taenia crassiceps infection does not influence the development of experimental rheumatoid was previously reported by our group that infection with taenia crassiceps reduces incidence and severity of inflammatory and autoimmune experimental diseases like type 1 diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. in this research, we set out to study whether infection with t. crassiceps would affect the development of experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ra). we found that mice infected with the parasite and induced with experimental ra showed similar clinical scores as the noninf ...201223509709
survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in qinghai, china.the intestinal helminth fauna of tibetan sand foxes (vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in qinghai, china, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. in northeast and south qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the dna barcoding. in 27 red foxes and 9 tibetan sand foxes examined, mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), toxascaris leon ...201323749034
data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (canis aureus l., 1758) in hungary, twenty canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. two coccidia: cystoisospora canis (15%) and toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one trematoda: alaria alata (10%), six cestoda: mesocestoides lineatus (20%), echinococcus granulosus (10%), dipylidium caninums (5%), taenia hydatigena (15%), taenia pisiformis (20%), taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine nematoda: angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), crenosoma vulpis (30%), capillaria aerophila (5%), toxocara c ...201424334089
intestinal parasites of the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. the most frequently identified nematodes were uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), toxocara canis (38.3%) and molineus patens (30.6%). other nematodes found were pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), capillaria sp. (2.8%), crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), toxascaris leonina (2.5%), trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and physaloptera sp. (0.2%). mesocestoid ...201323974942
detection of taeniid (taenia spp., echinococcus spp.) eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in european markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates.due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (ae) in captive primates in europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-dna of taeniids. each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. the samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from september to november (autumn), originating from greenhouses or fields in the basel region in the north of switzerland, or ...201627556010
echinococcus multilocularis infections in dogs from urban and peri-urban areas in france.echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a severe zoonotic disease. it is maintained through a sylvatic life cycle based on predator-prey interactions mainly between foxes and rodents. dogs are also good definitive hosts; and due to their close proximity to humans, they may represent a major risk factor for the occurrence of human cases. in two medium-sized cities of eastern france (annemasse and pontarlier), located in highly endemic areas, 817 dog feces sa ...201424687286
quantitative screening for anticestode drugs based on changes in baseline enzyme secretion by taenia crassiceps.neurocysticercosis (ncc), an infection of the brain with the larval stage of the taenia solium tapeworm, is responsible for an estimated one-third of adult-onset epilepsy cases in regions of the world where it is endemic. currently, anthelmintic drugs used for treatment of ncc are only partially effective, and there is, therefore, a pressing need for new therapeutic agents. discovery of new anthelmintics with activity against t. solium has been limited by the lack of suitable sensitive assays th ...201323229489
generalized taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a chinchilla (chinchilla lanigera).taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite that uses carnivores as definitive hosts and rodents and rabbits as main intermediate hosts, but other animal species and humans may also get infected. one adult male chinchilla (chinchilla lanigera) from an animal shelter in switzerland presented widespread subcutaneous fluctuant swellings extended over the forehead, nose, face and thoracic regions with a progressive growth over 3 months. the thoracic swelling was surgically resected, and it consisted of ...201424126089
e-cadherin expression in macrophages dampens their inflammatory responsiveness in vitro, but does not modulate m2-regulated pathologies in alternatively activated macrophages (m(il-4/il-13), aams or m2) are known to express e-cadherin, enabling them to engage in heterotypic cellular interactions and il-4-driven macrophage fusion in vitro. here we show that e-cadherin overexpression in raw 264.7 macrophages inhibits their inflammatory response to lps stimulation, as demonstrated by a reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (il)-6, tumor necrosis factor (tnf) and nitric oxide (no). to study the ...201526226941
experimental neurocysticercosis: absence of il-4 induces lower encephalitis.balb/c (wt) and balb/c (il-4-ko) mice were inoculated intracranially with taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed.201728226078
in vitro and in vivo cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated flavanone from the bark of prunus serotina: a bio-guided study.currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. the present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from prunus serotina against taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (ec50=17.9-88.5μg/ml), being the methanolic the ...201728216368
transgenic papaya: a useful platform for oral vaccines.transgenic papaya callus lines expressing the components of the s3pvac vaccine constitute a stable platform to produce an oral vaccine against cysticercosis caused by taenia solium or t. crassiceps. the development of effective delivery systems to cope with the reduced immunogenicity of new subunit vaccines is a priority in vaccinology. herein, experimental evidence supporting a papaya-based platform to produce needle-free, recombinant, highly immunogenic vaccines is shown. papaya (carica papaya ...201728194565
helminth-induced ly6c(hi) monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. alternatively activated macrophages (aamϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. here, we define the origin of aamϕs during infection with taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on t ...201728094319
antigenic fractions from taenia crassiceps metacestodes obtained by hydrophobicity for the immunodiagnosis of active and inactive forms of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid samples.this study aimed to evaluate the total extract of taenia crassiceps metacestodes (tc) and its antigenic fractions obtained by triton x-114 fractionation techniques, such as detergent (dc) and aqueous (ac), in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (ncc). cerebrospinal fluid samples were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=40), which was further divided into active (n=20) and inactive (n=20) ncc, and group 2 (control group), which comprised 39 csf samples from patients who had another ne ...201728012796
a benzimidazole derivative (rcb20) in vitro induces an activation of energetic pathways on taenia crassiceps (orf strain) cysticerci.human cysticercosis caused by taenia crassiceps is unusual; however, it is an useful experimental model for cysticercosis studies. benzimidazole derivatives are important antihelminthic drugs widely used against helminths. a novel compound 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy) -2-(trifluoromethyl)-1h-benzimidazole (rcb20) is a benzimidazole derivative less polar and more lipophilic. the aim of this study was to detect the effect of the rcb20 on the in vitro energetic metabolism of t. crassiceps cysticerci. ...201727884580
a non-hepatotropic parasite infection increases mortality in the acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure murine model: possible roles for il-5 and il-6.we evaluated the effects of a non-hepatotropic parasite infection (taenia crassiceps) on the outcome of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in mice. uninfected and t. crassiceps infected mice orally received either 300 mg/kg acetaminophen or water as vehicle (n = 5 per group). survival analysis, hepatocyte necrosis, alanine aminotransferase (alt) levels, cyp2e1 protein, interleukin (il-) 5, and il-6 were assessed for all groups. all infected mice died within 16 h after exposure to acetamin ...201627812602
nitazoxanide induces in vitro metabolic acidosis in taenia crassiceps cysticerci.nitazoxanide (ntz) is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug used against a wide variety of protozoans and helminthes. albendazole, its active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (abzso), is one of the drugs of choice to treat both intestinal and tissue helminth and protozoan infections. however little is known regarding their impact on the metabolism of parasites. the aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effect of ntz and abzso in the glycolysis of taenia crassiceps cysticerci. the cysticer ...201627751770
evaluation of a synthetic peptide from the taenia saginata 18kda surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion protein for serological diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection widely spread throughout brazil, creating a burden on hygiene maintenance and the economy. diagnosis of cysticercosis usually relies on post mortem inspection of carcasses in slaughterhouses. this detection method provides only low sensitivity. recent advancements have improved the performance of serologic tests, such as elisa, providing greater sensitivity and specificity. the objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate a synthetic pe ...201627760308
abdominal cysticercosis in a red fox ( vulpes vulpes ).a large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of taenia crassiceps (=cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( vulpes vulpes ) in prince edward island, canada. cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in north america.201727749195
taenia crassiceps injection into the subarachnoid space of rats simulates radiological and morphological features of racemose neurocysticercosis.neurocysticercosis is a major public health concern. although its eradication appears feasible, the disease remains endemic in developing countries and has emerged again in europe and in the usa. basic studies on neurocysticercosis are needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms and, consequently, to improve treatment perspectives. much has been published on experimental parenchymal neurocysticercosis, but there are no experimental models of racemose neurocysticercosis.201727613638
experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis by taenia crassiceps in balb/c and c57bl/6 mice.human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. the subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. the aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by taenia crassiceps cyst ...201627410915
ifn-gamma role in granuloma formation in experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis.cysticercosis is an infection caused by the metacestode larval stage of taenia parasites in tissues and elicits a host-parasite reaction in which the immune response may be decisive in the disease development. the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ifnγ (ifn-gamma) in the experimental model of subcutaneous infection with taenia crassiceps (t. crassiceps) cysticerci using ifnγ knockout mice. male c57bl/6 and c57bl/6 ko ifnγ mice 8-12 weeks of age were inoculated with t. crassiceps cyst ...201627334396
elucidating the influence of praziquantel nanosuspensions on the in vivo metabolism of taenia crassiceps cysticerci.the aim of this work was to develop nanosuspensions of praziquantel (pzq) and to evaluate their influence on the energetic metabolism of cysticerci inoculated in balb/c mice. we analyzed metabolic alterations of glycolytic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the parasite. the nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation and polyvinyl alcohol (pva), poloxamer 188 (p188) and poloxamer 407 (p407) were used as stabilizers. nanosuspension prepared with pva had a particle size of 100nm, whi ...201627269203
apoptosis of mouse hippocampal cells induced by taenia crassiceps metacestode factor.seizures, headache, depression and neurological deficits are the signs and symptoms most frequently reported in human neurocysticercosis. however, the cause of the associated learning and memory deficits is unknown. here, we used taenia crassiceps infection in mice as a model of human cysticercosis. the effects of t. crassiceps metacestode infection or t. crassiceps metacestode factor (mf) treatment on mouse hippocampal cells were studied; control mice were included. at 45 days after infection o ...201727018714
[subcutaneous taenia crassiceps-cysticercosis in a dog with cushing's syndrome].a male, 12-year-old cairn terrier suffering from cushing's syndrome with two therapy-resistant inflammatory subcutaneous lesions was examined pathomorphologically and parasitologically. within the subcutaneous tissue, there was a suppurative to necrotizing and histiocytic inflammation present with the formation of caverns. intralesional whitish-grey cysts with a diameter of 1-4 mm were detected. molecular investigations of the cysts confirmed the preliminary morphological identification as cysti ...201626763526
when things go wrong: cysticercus longicollis in an adult wild red fox (vulpes vulpes).first case of cysticercus longicollis, larval stage of taenia crassiceps, was diagnosed in a wild adult male red fox (vulpes vulpes). the fox was killed by dogs at nature park medvednica and presented to the university of zagreb faculty of veterinary medicine with history of being unable to run away and having skin lesions on legs that resembled to those of mange. necropsy revealed whitish fluctuant mass full of cysticercus-like structures, surrounded by fibrous capsule and placed between the le ...201626746845
development of an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus. pilot develop an experimental model of neurocysticercosis-induced hydrocephalus201526735053
alternative energy production pathways in taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to a benzimidazole derivative (rcb20).biochemical studies of benzimidazole derivatives are important to determine their mode of action and activity against parasites. the lack of antihelminthic alternatives to treat parasitic infections and albendazole resistance cases make the search for new antiparasitary drugs of utmost importance. the 6-chloro-5-(1-naphthyloxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1h-benzimidazole (rcb20) is a benzimidazole derivative with promising effect. this study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of rcb20 in ...201626707797
cellular immune response in intraventricular experimental neurocysticercosis.neurocysticercosis (ncc) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. the aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (il-4, il-10, il-17 and ifn-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental ncc with taenia crassiceps. the in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune respon ...201626626017
helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with streptococcus pneumoniae. mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm taenia crassiceps or the roundworm heligmosomoides polygyrus. upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of s. pneumoniae (a66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imag ...201424952091
molecular identification of zoonotic tissue-invasive tapeworm larvae other than taenia solium in suspected human cysticercosis cases.rarely, zoonotic taenia species other than taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. the larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. we therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one taenia crassiceps and one taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.201626491175
transient transgenesis of the tapeworm taenia crassiceps.human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm taenia solium (cestoda). infestation of the human brain, also known as neurocysticercosis, is the most common parasite disease of the central nervous system worldwide. significant advances in the understanding of the disease have been achieved using the taenia crassiceps murine model. we describe here a successful transfection protocol of t. crassiceps cysticerci as the first step to approach a number of currently inac ...201526389021
abnormalities in the wfu strain of taenia crassiceps (cyclophyllidea: taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.asexually proliferating taenia crassiceps (zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using mus musculus linnaeus, 1758 mice. however, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - orf and kbs. the main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the ...201626264231
parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. the host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. however ...201526175665
extraintestinal helminth infection limits pathology and proinflammatory cytokine expression during dss-induced ulcerative colitis: a role for alternatively activated macrophages and prostaglandins.chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease. helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. therefore, we investigated whether taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (dss-) induced ulcerative colitis in balb/c and c57bl/6 mice. preinfection significantly reduced t ...201526090422
androgens exert a cysticidal effect upon taenia crassiceps by disrupting flame cell morphology and function.the effects of testosterone (t4) and dihydrotestosterone (dht) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. in vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. ...201526076446
cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from teloxys graveolens: in vitro and in vivo the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of teloxys graveolens was evaluated. the in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. the ultrastructural effects ...201526072200
auranofin-induced oxidative stress causes redistribution of the glutathione pool in taenia crassiceps cysticerci.previously, we have studied the effect of the gold-compound auranofin (af) on both thioredoxin-glutathione reductasa (tgr) activity and viability of taenia crassiceps cysticerci. it was demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of af were high enough to fully inhibit tgr and kill the parasites. in this work, the dynamics of changes in the glutathione pool of t. crassiceps cysticerci following the addition of af, was analyzed. a dose-dependent decrease in the internal glutathione concentration, ...201526024834
a taenia crassiceps factor induces apoptosis of spleen cd4+t cells and tfg-β and foxp3 gene expression in mice.this study was undertaken to determine whether a parasite substance produces structural pathology in the mouse spleen. a low-molecular-weight taenia crassiceps metacestode factor (mf) isolated from the peritoneal fluid of female mice infected with t. crassiceps metacestodes induced pathological and immunological changes in mouse spleen cells in vivo. electron microscopy and confocal microscopy revealed severe changes in the spleen histoarchitecture of t. crassiceps-infected and mf-treated mice. ...201625850927
the macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (mgl1) recognizes taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.c-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (dcs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (mgl1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing lewis x structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature dcs and macrophages. helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infec ...201525664320
purification and characterization of taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (tgr) substrate recognition.thioredoxin (trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (tgr). the enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. a molecular mass of 11.7kda and a pi of 4.84 were measured. n ...201525523293
murine cysticercosis model: influence of the infection time and the time of treatment on the cysticidal efficacy of albendazole and the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, taenia crassiceps orf strain cysticerci have been used instead of t. solium for in vitro studies. up to date, the main criteria for the use of the murine cysticercosis model for drug efficacy evaluation have not been assessed. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of two of the main variables related to the in vivo efficacy: the length of drug treatment and the starting time of treatment after experimental i ...201525500213
gender-associated differential expression of cytokines in specific areas of the brain during helminth infection.intraperitoneal infection with taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (cns) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. this study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and t. crassiceps-infected mice i ...201525495255
diethylstilbestrol exposure in neonatal mice induces changes in the adulthood in the immune response to taenia crassiceps without modifications of parasite loads.industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (edc's), which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. we wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (des), an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to t. crassiceps cysticercosis. in all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads tha ...201425243144
extraintestinal helminth infection reduces the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis.colitis-associated colorectal cancer (cac) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. we have analyzed the role of taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of cac. we show that extraintestinal t. crassiceps infection in cac mice inhibited coloni ...201425210492
crosstalk among taenia crassiceps (orf strain) cysts regulates their rates of budding by ways of soluble and contact signals exchanged between them.herein we report that in vitro experiments with different initial parasite densities (1, 5, and 10 cysts per ml of culture medium) show that cysts at densities of 10 and 5 grow faster than those at 1, and that they release into the culture medium factors which increase the budding rates of the slower lower-density ones. close contact among the incubated cysts also favors budding, thus suggesting the participation of surface sensors of parasite crowding. thus, contact signals, together with the r ...201424982903
management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen taenia crassiceps.a chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm taenia crassiceps. curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals.201424914004
oestradiol and progesterone differentially alter cytoskeletal protein expression and flame cell morphology in taenia crassiceps.we examined the effects of oestradiol (e2) and progesterone (p4) on cytoskeletal protein expression in the helminth taenia crassiceps - specifically actin, tubulin and myosin. these proteins assemble into flame cells, which constitute the parasite excretory system. total protein extracts were obtained from e2- and p4-treated t. crassiceps cysticerci and untreated controls, and analysed by one- and two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and videomicroscopy. ex ...201424879953
taenia crassiceps infection and its excreted/secreted products inhibit stat1 activation in response to ifn-γ.it is well understood that helminth infections modulate the immune responses of their hosts but the mechanisms involved in this modulation are not fully known. macrophages and dendritic cells appear to be consistently affected during this type of infection and are common target cells for helminth-derived molecules. in this report, we show that macrophages obtained from chronically taenia crassiceps-infected mice displayed an impaired response to recombinant murine ifn-γ, but not to recombinant m ...201424837622
it isn't always caviar.a 47-year-old hiv-positive woman presented with fever and a painful swollen right forearm. clinical presentation and mri were suggestive for a necrotising fasciitis. surgical exploration revealed small transparent cystic bodies resembling white caviar, which were identified by their typical morphological features as larval stages (cysticerci) of taenia crassiceps. molecular methods, using sequence analysis of the small subunit rrna gene, definitively confirmed t crassiceps. t crassiceps (cestode ...201424692370
analysis of the expression of cytoskeletal proteins of taenia crassiceps orf strain cysticerci (cestoda).the taenia crassiceps orf strain is used to generate a murine model of cysticercosis, which is used for diagnosis, evaluation of drugs, and vaccination. this particular strain only exists as cysticerci, is easily maintained under in vivo and in vitro conditions, and offers an excellent model for studying the cytoskeletons of cestodes. in this study, several experimental approaches were used to determine the tissue expression of its cytoskeletal proteins. the techniques used were microscopy (vide ...201424652446
helminth infection alters mood and short-term memory as well as levels of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the mouse hippocampus.helminthic infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries, where children bear the greatest health burden. the ability of parasites to cause behavioral changes in the host has been observed in a variety of host-parasite systems, including the taenia crassiceps-mouse model. in murine cysticercosis, mice exhibit a disruption in the sexual, aggressive and avoidance predator behaviors.201424504147
partial reverse of the tca cycle is enhanced in taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.neurocysticercosis (ncc) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. it is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. there is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. therefore, the aim of this study was to invest ...201424481905
a mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to taenia crassiceps infection.the experimental system of taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in balb/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. in our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of ifnγ, il-2, il-4, il-6, il-10 and nitric oxide. the injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of ifnγ and nitric oxide production re ...201424378477
gk-1 improves the immune response induced by bone marrow dendritic cells loaded with mage-ax in mice with melanoma.the aim of dendritic cell (dc) vaccination in cancer is to induce tumor-specific effector t cells that may reduce and control tumor mass. immunostimulants that could drive a desired immune response are necessary to be found in order to generate a long lasting tumor immune response. gk-1 peptide, derived from taenia crassiceps, induces not only increase in tnfα, ifnγ, and mcp-1 production in cocultures of dcs and t lymphocytes but also immunological protection against influenza virus. moreover, t ...201425759825
cerebellar cysticercosis caused by larval taenia crassiceps tapeworm in immunocompetent woman, germany.human cysticercosis caused by taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. we report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. we developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rdna pcr and sequencing.201324274258
taenia crassiceps infection--an unusual presentation of a tapeworm diagnosed by fna cytology and pcr. 201424102803
arginase activity is associated with fibrosis in experimental infection with taenia crassiceps, but does not play a major role in resistance to infection.murine infection with taenia crassiceps cysticerci is used as an experimental model for human and animal cysticercosis. in this infection parasites can be found associated with an inflammatory infiltrate enriched with macrophages. experimental evidence exists supporting a role for either no-producing classically activated (camφ) or arginase- and cd301-expressing alternatively activated macrophages (aamφ) in t. crassiceps resistance. in both cell types, arginine is utilized as an important mediat ...201324090570
in vivo albendazole treatment of taenia crassiceps cysticerci strain wfu: proliferation, damage, and recovery.taenia crassiceps has been widely experimented as a model for in vitro and in vivo studies on drug responses. the purpose of this study was to treat balb/c mice infected with t. crassiceps strain wfu with commercially available albendazole and to analyze the reduction in parasite infrapopulations. here, we describe the reduction and apparent damage of t. crassicceps wfu cysticerci in infected mice after antihelminthic drug treatment and subsequent inoculation of those treated parasites into a na ...201324005476
a taenia crassiceps metacestode factor enhances ovarian follicle atresia and oocyte degeneration in female mice.the histopathological effects of taenia crassiceps infection or t. crassiceps metacestode factor inoculation on the mouse ovary were determined using six female mice in three groups: infected mice, mice inoculated with the metacestode factor and control mice. the control group was subcutaneously inoculated with healthy peritoneal fluid. the infected group was intraperitoneally inoculated with 40 t. crassiceps metacestodes, and the metacestode factor group was subcutaneously inoculated with t. cr ...201523962763
helminth-excreted/secreted products are recognized by multiple receptors on dcs to block the tlr response and bias th2 polarization in a craf dependent pathway.dendritic cells (dcs) recognize pathogens and initiate the t-cell response. the dc-helminth interaction induces an immature phenotype in dcs; as a result, these dcs display impaired responses to tlr stimulation and prime th2-type responses. however, the dc receptors and intracellular pathways targeted by helminth molecules and their importance in the initiation of the th2 response are poorly understood. in this report, we found that products excreted/secreted by taenia crassiceps (tces) triggere ...201323907435
other cestodes: sparganosis, coenurosis and taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.many cestodes are capable of invading the central nervous system (cns), and several are highly prevalent in the developing world. neurocysticercosis due to taenia solium and echinococcosis due to echinoccocus granulosus are two of the most common parasitic infections affecting humans, but other less well-known parasites can also infect the nervous system. coenurosis, caused by taenia spp. such as t. multiceps, t. serialis, or t. brauni; sparganosis, caused by spirometra spp., and neurocysticerco ...201323829923
chronic helminth infections impair pneumococcal vaccine responses.pneumonia is the leading killer of children and disproportionately affects developing countries. vaccination campaigns against streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of pneumonia, have recently been launched with a new conjugate vaccine in africa. using a mouse model, we assessed the potential role that the high burden of helminth infections in the countries targeted for vaccine might have on vaccine effectiveness. mice vaccinated with either commercial conjugate or purified polysaccharide ...201425131738
novel treatment of melanoma: combined parasite-derived peptide gk-1 and anti-programmed death ligand 1 therapy.recent successes in the development of new therapies for metastatic melanoma, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors, anticytotoxic t lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, and programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (pd-l1) pathway-blocking antibodies, as well as combination strategies, all yielded promising results, changing the continually evolving landscape of therapeutic options for patients with melanoma. one promising new treatment modality is based o ...201728301259
transcriptome profiling of the cysticercus stage of the laboratory model taenia crassiceps, strain orf.neurocysticercosis (nc) is a serious public health problem mainly in developing countries. nc caused by the cysticercus stage from cestode taenia solium is considered by the who and itfde as a potentially eradicable disease. definitive diagnosis of nc is challenging because of the unspecific clinical manifestations such as the non-definitive evidence presented by neuroimaging (in most cases) and the lack of definitive serological test. taenia crassiceps (orf strain) is a cestode closely related ...201626571070
influenza vaccine: development of a novel intranasal and subcutaneous recombinant adjuvant.the synthetic peptide gk-1, derived from taenia crassiceps, enhances the protection induced by human influenza vaccine in both young and aged mice. herein, the adjuvant properties of gk-1 fused to the pviii protein of a heat-inactivated phagemid vector (fgk1) when co-administered with the influenza vaccine were assessed, to evaluate its feasibility as a low-cost adjuvant. in mice, fgk1 significantly increased the expected igg and iga anti-influenza antibody levels both in sera and in bronchoalve ...201323746458
seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, são paulo state, brazil.the goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of toxocara spp., toxoplasma gondii, and taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the dona carmen settlement, pontal of paranapanema, são paulo, brazil.201323683335
steroid synthesis by taenia crassiceps wfu cysticerci is regulated by enzyme inhibitors.cysticerci and tapeworms from taenia crassiceps wfu, orf and taenia solium synthesize sex-steroid hormones in vitro. corticosteroids increase the 17β-estradiol synthesis by t. crassiceps cysticerci. t. crassiceps wfu cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids, mainly 11-deoxycorticosterone (doc). the aim of this work was to investigate whether classical steroidogenic inhibitors modify the capacity of t. crassiceps wfu cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroid hormones. for this purpose ...201323608546
sex-associated expression of co-stimulatory molecules cd80, cd86, and accessory molecules, pdl-1, pdl-2 and mhc-ii, in f480+ macrophages during murine cysticercosis.macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between t. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules mhc-ii, cd80, cd86, pd-l1, and pd-l2 on peritoneal f4/80(hi) macrophages of balb/c mice infected with taenia crassiceps. peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to t. crassiceps total extract (tcex). balb/c females m ...201323533995
rcb20, an experimental benzimidazole derivative, affects tubulin expression and induces gross anatomical changes in taenia crassiceps cysticerci.helminth β-tubulins are the targets of benzimidazole (bzm) carbamate compounds. the specificity of the interactions between such compounds and their in vivo targets depends on the presence of specific amino acid residues in the target molecules. to discover new and effective anthelmintic drugs, we used a medicinal chemistry approach to synthesize a series of bzm derivatives that exploited the bzm moiety as a template. we have previously found that one compound, 2-(trifluoromethyl)-1h-benzimidazo ...201323504054
development of the s3pvac vaccine against porcine taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine taenia solium cysticercosis using taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. results strongly support that the different versions of s3pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine t. solium cysticercosis. immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. the data also support the validity of t. crassiceps murin ...201323445359
development of the s3pvac vaccine against murine taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: a historical review.our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine t. crassiceps cysticercosis (eimtcc). in recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of eimtcc has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antige ...201323409920
molecular characterization, functional expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a taenia solium fatty acid-binding protein.the fatty acid-binding proteins (fabps) comprise a family of proteins that are widely expressed in animal cells and perform a variety of vital functions. here, we report the identification, characterization, recombinant expression, tissue localization and protective potential of a taenia solium fabp (tsfabp1). the tsfabp1 primary structure showed all the conserved residues characteristic of the subfamily iv of the intracellular lipid-binding proteins (ilbps), including those involved in the bind ...201223085006
the cd20 homolog ms4a8a integrates pro- and anti-inflammatory signals in novel m2-like macrophages and is expressed in parasite infection.recently, we identified the cd20 homolog ms4a8a as a novel molecule expressed by tumor-associated macrophages that directly enhances tumor growth. here, we analyzed ms4a8a(+) macrophages in m2-associated infectious pathologies. in late-stage trypanosoma congolense and taenia crassiceps infections, ms4a8a expression was detected in hepatic and peritoneal macrophages respectively. innate immunity in these infections is modulated by toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling and tlr2/4/7 agonists strongly ...201222806454
studies on some metacestodes immunohistochemical response in mice as a model for human cysticercosis: ii-thi type immune response in experimental braintaenia crassiceps infected mice.neurocysticercosis is a serious zoonotic diseas, encountered worldwide, caused by the larval stage of taenia solium. due to the difficulties facing scientists to study the biological, histological and immunological effects of these larvae on the human brain, other cestodes with more or less similar larvae (taenia crassiceps) were used. in brain infected mice, th1 predominant cytokines were significantly detected.201222662607
fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.human cysticercosis caused by taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. the treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. the active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. the aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from t. c ...201222465501
experimental encephalitis caused by taenia crassiceps cysticerci in present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (ncc) caused by taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of balb/c and c57bl/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship.201222358311
changes in cyst's nuclear chromatin resulting after experimental manipulation of taenia crassiceps mice infections: biological implications.during some estimations of the nuclear dna content, based on determinations propidium iodide (pi) binding through fluorocytometry for taenia crassiceps cysticerci, significant variation in the results were found. this initial observation led to a series of experiments designed to explain the variation. these changes could be induced by the diameter of the needles in the syringes used for the mouse to mouse transfer of the cysts. nuclei from cysts transferred through 27-gauge needles showed 30% l ...201222343043
taenia crassiceps wfu cysticerci synthesize corticosteroids in vitro: metyrapone regulates the production.taenia solium and taenia crassiceps wfu cysticerci and tapeworms have the ability to synthesize sex steroid hormones and have a functional 3β-hydroxisteroid dehydrogenase. corticosteroids (cs) like corticosterone and dexamethasone have been shown to stimulate in vitro estrogen production by taenia crassiceps wfu cysticerci. the aim of this work was to study the ability of t. crassiceps wfu cysticerci to synthesize corticosteroids, and the effect of the inhibitor metyrapone on the cs synthesis. f ...201222321721
kinetics of the inflammatory response in subcutaneous cysticercosis induced in mice by taenia crassiceps.the larval stage of taenia crassiceps has been used to study human cysticercosis as these larvae have antigenic similarity to the cysticerci of taenia solium. the aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological and immunological changes that followed the inoculation of t. crassiceps cysticerci into the subcutaneous tissue of c57bl/6 mice. microscopically, granulomas formed of neutrophils and macrophages developed at the sites of inoculation. the serum concentration of the cytokine interf ...201222304974
intraocular cysticercosis by taenia crassiceps.the authors present a case of intraocular cysticercosis caused by taenia crassiceps and provide further insight into this unusual infection.200825389621
fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by cysticercus longicollis in a captive ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta).here we describe fatal pulmonary cysticercosis caused by cysticercus longicollis, the larval stage of taenia crassiceps in a 15-year-old female ring-tailed lemur (lemur catta) from sarajevo zoo. after sudden death, the lemur was subjected to necropsy and large multicystic structure, subdivided with fibrous septa and filled with numerous translucent, oval to ellipsoid bladder-like cysts (cysticerci), almost completely replacing right lung lobe was observed. in addition, numerous free and encysted ...201728579023
cestode parasites release extracellular vesicles with micrornas and immunodiagnostic protein cargo.intercellular communication is crucial in multiple aspects of cell biology. this interaction can be mediated by several mechanisms including extracellular vesicle (ev) transfer. ev secretion by parasites has been reported in protozoans, trematodes and nematodes. here we report that this mechanism is present in three different species of cestodes, taenia crassiceps, mesocestoides corti and echinococcus multilocularis. to confirm this we determined, in vitro, the presence of evs in culture superna ...201728668323
helminth products potently modulate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by downregulating neuroinflammation and promoting a suppressive microenvironment.a negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. however, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae), an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (ms). the immunomodulatory activ ...201728744067
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